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Sample records for scandium 43

  1. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  2. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  3. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  4. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  5. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  6. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  7. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  8. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  10. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  11. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  12. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  13. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  14. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  15. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  16. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  17. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  18. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  19. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  20. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  1. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  2. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  3. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  5. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  6. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  7. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  8. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  9. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  10. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  11. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  12. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  13. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  14. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  15. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  16. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  17. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  18. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  19. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  20. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  1. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  2. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  3. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  4. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  5. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  7. 43 CFR 423.43 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 423.43 Section 423.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....43 Alcoholic beverages. You must not possess or consume alcoholic beverages in violation of Federal...

  8. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action from...

  9. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  10. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  11. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  12. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  13. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  14. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 43 CFR 12.43 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payments. Accrued income means the sum of: (1) Earnings during a given period from services performed by... to State and Local Governments General § 12.43 Definitions. As used in this part: Accrued... payments made to contractors and subgrantees. For reports prepared on an accrued expenditure basis, outlays...

  16. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. SC Secretariat

  17. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  18. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  20. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  1. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  2. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  3. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  4. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  5. Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and age-hardening behaviour of Al–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, N.Q., E-mail: quoctuan1884@gmail.com [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Pinto, A.M.P.; Puga, H. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, L.A. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Ciências de Bauru, SP 17033-360 (Brazil); Barbosa, J. [CT2M – Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2014-04-01

    In order to reduce the cost of Al–Sc alloys and maintain their mechanical properties, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–0.24 wt% Sc–0.07 wt% Yb in comparison with Al–0.28 wt% Sc alloys were studied. The aging behaviour, precipitate morphologies, precipitate coarsening and precipitation hardening of both alloys were investigated. The average diameter and the size distribution of nanoscale Al{sub 3}Sc and Al{sub 3}(Sc,Yb) precipitates at various aging conditions were measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM were used to deeply understand the precipitate evolution. A maximum hardness around 73 (HV{sub 30}) was obtained with a precipitate diameter from 4.3 to 5.6 nm for both alloys.

  6. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  7. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  8. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  9. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  10. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  11. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  12. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  14. 26 CFR 1.43-3 - Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification 1.43-3 Section 1.43-3 Internal... § 1.43-3 Certification (a) Petroleum engineer's certification of a project—(1) In general. A petroleum... requirements of section 43(c)(2)(A). A petroleum engineer's certification must be submitted for each project...

  15. 26 CFR 43.0-1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 43.0-1 Section 43.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON TRANSPORTATION BY WATER § 43.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 43 are designated...

  16. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  17. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Correia

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43(A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  19. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  20. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling shall be provided to sentenced inmates in contract community treatment...

  1. 40 CFR 75.43 - Accessibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility criteria. 75.43 Section 75.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.43 Accessibility criteria. To demonstrate...

  2. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis during...

  3. 46 CFR 167.43-10 - Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use. 167.43-10 Section 167.43-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Work Vests § 167.43-10 Use. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be...

  4. 10 CFR 436.43 - Procurement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement planning. 436.43 Section 436.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.43 Procurement planning. (a) Agencies should consider the...

  5. 19 CFR 201.43 - Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program. 201.43 Section 201.43 Customs Duties... Information § 201.43 Program. The Director of Administration is designated as the official of the Commission who is responsible for implementation and oversight of information security programs and procedures...

  6. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  7. 14 CFR 47.43 - Invalid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalid registration. 47.43 Section 47.43... REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.43 Invalid registration. (a) The registration of an...) compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44101-44104. (b) If the registration of an aircraft is invalid under paragraph (a...

  8. 16 CFR 4.3 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time. 4.3 Section 4.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.3 Time. (a) Computation. Computation of any period of time prescribed or allowed by the rules in this chapter, by order of...

  9. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction of...

  10. 7 CFR 956.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 956.43 Section 956.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.43 Accounting. (a) All...

  11. 7 CFR 955.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 955.43 Section 955.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Expenses and Assessments § 955.43 Accounting. (a) All funds received by the committee pursuant to the...

  12. 7 CFR 959.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 959.43 Section 959.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.43 Accounting. (a) Assessments collected in excess of...

  13. 7 CFR 945.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 945.43 Section 945.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessments § 945.43 Accounting. (a) All funds received by the committee pursuant to the provisions of this...

  14. 7 CFR 966.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 966.43 Section 966.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.43 Accounting. (a) All funds received by the committee...

  15. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an...

  16. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements. ...

  17. 19 CFR 146.43 - Domestic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic status. 146.43 Section 146.43 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Status of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.43 Domestic status. (a) General. Domestic status may be granted to merchandise: (1) The growth, product, or manufacture of the U.S. on which...

  18. 21 CFR 20.43 - Multitrack processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multitrack processing. 20.43 Section 20.43 Food... INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.43 Multitrack processing. (a) Each Food and Drug Administration component... maintained by that component. A multitrack system provides two or more tracks for processing requests, based...

  19. 12 CFR 303.43 - Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing. 303.43 Section 303.43 Banks and... Establishment and Relocation of Domestic Branches and Offices § 303.43 Processing. (a) Expedited processing for... processing, unless the applicant is notified in writing to the contrary and provided with the basis for that...

  20. 25 CFR 43.3 - Student rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Student rights. 43.3 Section 43.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.3 Student rights. The regulations in this part do not prevent educational institutions from...

  1. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. 43 CFR 43.105 - Does this part apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does this part apply to me? 43.105 Section 43.105 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 43.105 Does this part apply to me? (a...

  3. Connexin 43 impacts on mitochondrial potassium uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eBoengler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (Cx43 forms gap junctions and unopposed hemichannels at the plasma membrane, but the protein is also present at the inner membrane of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Both inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce ADP-stimulated complex 1 respiration. Since mitochondrial potassium influx impacts on oxygen consumption, we investigated whether or not inhibition or ablation of mitochondrial Cx43 alters mitochondrial potassium uptake.Subsarcolemmal mitochondria were isolated from rat left ventricular (LV myocardium and loaded with the potassium-sensitive dye PBFI. Intramitochondrial potassium was replaced by TEA (tetraethylammonium. Mitochondria were incubated under control conditions or treated with 250 µM Gap19, a peptide that specifically inhibits Cx43-dependent hemichannels at plasma membranes. Subsequently, 140 mM KCl was added and the slope of the increase in PBFI fluorescence over time was calculated. The slope of the PBFI fluorescence of the control mitochondria was set to 100%. In the presence of Gap19, the mitochondrial potassium influx was reduced from 100±11.6 % in control mitochondria to 65.5±10.7 % (n=6, p<0.05. In addition to the pharmacological inhibition of Cx43, potassium influx was studied in mitochondria isolated from conditional Cx43 knockout mice. Here, the ablation of Cx43 was achieved by the injection of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT. The mitochondria of the Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT mice contained 3±1% Cx43 (n=6 of that in control mitochondria (100±11%, n=8, p<0.05. The ablation of Cx43 (n=5 reduced the velocity of the potassium influx from 100±11.2 % in control mitochondria (n=9 to 66.6±5.5 % (p<0.05.Taken together, our data indicate that both pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce mitochondrial potassium influx.

  4. 26 CFR 43.4472-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 43.4472-1 Section 43.4472-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON TRANSPORTATION BY WATER § 43.4472-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For definitions of the terms “covered voyage” and “passenger vessel,...

  5. Divergent Phenotypes in Mutant TDP-43 Transgenic Mice Highlight Potential Confounds in TDP-43 Transgenic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alton, Simon; Altshuler, Marcelle; Cannon, Ashley; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lewis, Jada

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are pathologically defined by the cleavage, cytoplasmic redistribution and aggregation of TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). To examine the contribution of these potentially toxic mechanisms in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing human TDP-43 containing the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked M337V mutation and identified two lines that developed neurological phenotypes of differing severity and progression. The first developed a rapid cortical neurodegenerative phenotype in the early postnatal period, characterized by fragmentation of TDP-43 and loss of endogenous murine Tdp-43, but entirely lacking aggregates of ubiquitin or TDP-43. A second, low expressing line was aged to 25 months without a severe neurodegenerative phenotype, despite a 30% loss of mouse Tdp-43 and accumulation of lower molecular weight TDP-43 species. Furthermore, TDP-43 fragments generated during neurodegeneration were not C-terminal, but rather were derived from a central portion of human TDP-43. Thus we find that aggregation is not required for cell loss, loss of murine Tdp-43 is not necessarily sufficient in order to develop a severe neurodegenerative phenotype and lower molecular weight TDP-43 positive species in mouse models should not be inherently assumed to be representative of human disease. Our findings are significant for the interpretation of other transgenic studies of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24466128

  6. Divergent phenotypes in mutant TDP-43 transgenic mice highlight potential confounds in TDP-43 transgenic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D'Alton

    Full Text Available The majority of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are pathologically defined by the cleavage, cytoplasmic redistribution and aggregation of TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43. To examine the contribution of these potentially toxic mechanisms in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing human TDP-43 containing the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked M337V mutation and identified two lines that developed neurological phenotypes of differing severity and progression. The first developed a rapid cortical neurodegenerative phenotype in the early postnatal period, characterized by fragmentation of TDP-43 and loss of endogenous murine Tdp-43, but entirely lacking aggregates of ubiquitin or TDP-43. A second, low expressing line was aged to 25 months without a severe neurodegenerative phenotype, despite a 30% loss of mouse Tdp-43 and accumulation of lower molecular weight TDP-43 species. Furthermore, TDP-43 fragments generated during neurodegeneration were not C-terminal, but rather were derived from a central portion of human TDP-43. Thus we find that aggregation is not required for cell loss, loss of murine Tdp-43 is not necessarily sufficient in order to develop a severe neurodegenerative phenotype and lower molecular weight TDP-43 positive species in mouse models should not be inherently assumed to be representative of human disease. Our findings are significant for the interpretation of other transgenic studies of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

  7. 44 CFR 208.43 - Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation. 208.43... Agreements § 208.43 Rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs incurred to return System equipment and... Activation. (3) Personnel costs associated with equipment cache rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs...

  8. 18 CFR 420.43 - Exempt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt use. 420.43... MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.43 Exempt use. The following uses shall be exempt from charge: (a) Non-consumptive uses of less than 1,000 gallons during any day, and...

  9. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 43.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  10. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  11. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  12. 50 CFR 622.43 - Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 622.43 Section 622.43 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, tiger grouper, yellowfin grouper, graysby, and coney. (6...

  13. 38 CFR 43.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 43.32 Section... Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 43.32 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon...

  14. 7 CFR 958.43 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 958.43 Section 958.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Accounting. (a) All funds received by the committee pursuant to the provisions of this part shall be used...

  15. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM.... In order to ensure objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage...

  16. 38 CFR 4.43 - Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Osteomyelitis. 4.43... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.43 Osteomyelitis. Chronic, or recurring, suppurative osteomyelitis, once clinically identified, including chronic inflammation of bone marrow, cortex...

  17. 27 CFR 555.43 - Permit fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit fees. 555.43 Section 555.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND.... (a) Each applicant must pay a fee for obtaining a permit as follows: (1) User—$100 for a three-year...

  18. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  19. 38 CFR 43.41 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 43... Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 43.41 Financial reporting. (a... may from time to time be authorized by OMB, for: (i) Submitting financial reports to Federal agencies...

  20. 7 CFR 983.43 - Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure. 983.43 Section 983.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... through the use of a conference telephone or similar communication equipment, as long as all members...

  1. 29 CFR 1956.43 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.43 Section 1956.43 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  2. 25 CFR 43.20 - Directory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.20 Directory information. (a) Any educational institution making public directory... recognized activities and sports, weight and height of members of athletic teams, dates of attendance...

  3. Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS.

  4. Internal translation of the connexin 43 transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat-Canela, Clàudia; Sesé, Marta; Peula, Cristina; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Aasen, Trond

    2014-05-08

    Connexin 43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed gap junction protein, is associated with a number of physiological and pathological conditions. Many functions of Cx43 have been shown to be independent of gap junction formation and only require the expression of Cx43 C-terminal fragments. Recent evidence demonstrated that naturally occurring C-terminal isoforms can be generated via internal translation. Here, we confirm that C-terminal domains of Cx43, particularly the major 20-kDa isoform, can be independently generated and regulated by internal translation of the same single GJA1 gene transcript that encodes full-length Cx43. Through direct RNA transfection experiments, we provide evidence that internal translation is not due to a bona fide cap-independent IRES-mediated mechanism, as upstream ribosomal scanning or translation is required. In addition to the mTOR pathway, we show for the first time, using both inhibitors and cells from knockout mice, that the Mnk1/2 pathway regulates the translation of the main 20-kDa isoform. Internal translation of the Cx43 transcript occurs but is not cap-independent and requires translation upstream of the internal start codon. In addition to the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, the major 20-kDa isoform is regulated by the Mnk1/2 pathway. Our results have major implications for past and future studies describing gap junction-independent functions of Cx43 in cancer and other pathological conditions. This study provides further clues to the signalling pathways that regulate internal mRNA translation, an emerging mechanism that allows for increased protein diversity and functional complexity from a single mRNA transcript.

  5. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  6. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29....29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to be... management of the diversion and outlet works (Derby Dam and Lahontan Dam/Reservoir) or any or all of the...

  7. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund. (3...

  8. Water SA - Vol 43, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calibration and testing of AquaCrop for selected sorghum genotypes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Sandile T. Hadebe, Albert T. Modi, Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, 209-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v43i2.05 ...

  9. 43 CFR 426.22 - Public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 426.22 Section 426... THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.22 Public participation. (a) Notification... participation. (1) Reclamation can provide, as appropriate: meetings, workshops, or hearings to provide local...

  10. 38 CFR 43.30 - Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awarding agency. (b) Relation to cost principles. The applicable cost principles (see § 43.22) contain... the awarding agency. (4) Under nonconstruction projects, contracting out, subgranting (if authorized by law) or otherwise obtaining the services of a third party to perform activities which are central...

  11. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cash or negotiable bonds of the U.S. Government. The cash deposit or the market value of such... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator...

  12. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within the...

  13. 43 CFR 12.932 - Real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 12.932 Section 12.932... Requirements § 12.932 Real property. Each Federal awarding agency shall prescribe requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired in whole or in part under awards. Unless...

  14. 43 CFR 12.71 - Real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 12.71 Section 12.71 Public... to State and Local Governments Changes, Property, and Subawards § 12.71 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under...

  15. 43 CFR 12.936 - Intangible property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intangible property. 12.936 Section 12.936... Requirements § 12.936 Intangible property. (a) The recipient may copyright any work that is subject to... intangible property and debt instruments acquired under an award or subaward vests upon acquisition in the...

  16. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity of...

  17. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States, without...

  18. 43 CFR 4.1105 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties. 4.1105 Section 4.1105 Public... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals General Provisions § 4.1105 Parties. (a) All persons indicated in the act as parties to administrative review proceedings under the act...

  19. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter activities. 423.37 Section 423.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  1. 43 CFR 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Content. 10010.18 Section 10010.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  2. 43 CFR § 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Content. § 10010.18 Section § 10010.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  3. 43 CFR 1862.1 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 1862.1 Section 1862.1 GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Patent Preparation and Issuance § 1862.1 Contents. (a) Patents for lands entered or located under general laws can be issued only in the name of the...

  4. 34 CFR 200.43 - Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.43 Restructuring. (a... supplemental educational services in accordance with § 200.45. (3) Prepare a plan to carry out one of the... plan; and (B) Participate in the development of any restructuring plan. (5) Continue to comply with...

  5. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons, electric...

  6. 43 CFR 17.232 - Postsecondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postsecondary education. 17.232 Section 17... Postsecondary education. This section applies to postsecondary education and activities, including postsecondary vocational education programs or activities, that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients that...

  7. 43 CFR 423.35 - Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animals. 423.35 Section 423.35 Public... Animals. (a) You must not bring pets or other animals into public buildings, public transportation vehicles, or sanitary facilities. This provision does not apply to properly trained animals assisting...

  8. 43 CFR 4.336 - Docketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Docketing. 4.336 Section 4.336 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules... Relating to Probate Proceedings § 4.336 Docketing. An appeal shall be assigned a docket number by the Board...

  9. 43 CFR 4.1606 - Department representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department representation. 4.1606 Section 4.1606 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND...-76 § 4.1606 Department representation. (a) Upon receipt of the docketing notice, the Solicitor shall...

  10. 27 CFR 30.43 - Packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaged spirits. 30.43... Packaged spirits. When the quantity of spirits (including denatured spirits when gauged by weight) in... by weighing each package on an accurate weighing beam or platform scale having a beam or dial showing...

  11. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1110 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intervention. 4.1110 Section 4.1110 Public... Intervention. (a) Any person, including a State, or OSM may petition for leave to intervene at any stage of a... or may be adversely affected. (c) The administrative law judge or the Board shall grant intervention...

  13. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a patent...

  14. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  15. 43 CFR 418.12 - Project efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project efficiency. 418.12 Section 418.12... Delivery § 418.12 Project efficiency. (a) The principal feature of this part is to obtain a reasonable level of efficiency in supplying water to the headgate by the District. The efficiency targets...

  16. 43 CFR 7.19 - Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report. 7.19 Section 7.19 Public Lands... § 7.19 Report. (a) Each Federal land manager, when requested by the Secretary of the Interior, will... comprehensively report on activities carried out under provisions of the Act. (b) The Secretary of the Interior...

  17. 43 CFR 15.5 - Wrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrecks. 15.5 Section 15.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.5 Wrecks. No person shall willfully destroy molest, remove, deface, displace, or tamper with any wrecks, parts of wrecks or...

  18. 43 CFR 2.53 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government contracts. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.53 Government contracts. (a) Required contract provisions. When a contract...

  19. 43 CFR 4.451 - Government contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government contests. 4.451 Section 4.451 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... Fact § 4.451 Government contests. ...

  20. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained steam...

  1. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean...

  2. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  3. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.65 Section 12.65 Public... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  4. 43 CFR 12.924 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.924 Section 12.924... Requirements § 12.924 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in...

  5. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands... Tribal Lands § 10.6 Custody. (a) Priority of custody. This section carries out section 3 (a) of the Act, subject to the limitations of § 10.15, regarding the custody of human remains, funerary objects, sacred...

  6. 43 CFR 36.3 - Preapplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preapplication. 36.3 Section 36.3 Public..., AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.3 Preapplication. (a) Anyone interested in... necessary to obtain information for filing the SF 299, that the activities would not cause significant or...

  7. 43 CFR 36.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 36.2 Section 36.2 Public..., AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the... Federal Lands” (SF 299). (n) Right-of-way permit means a right-of-way permit, lease, license, certificate...

  8. 43 CFR 36.5 - Application review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application review. 36.5 Section 36.5... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.5 Application review. (a) When there is... the purpose of coordinating appropriate Federal agency actions in the review and processing of the SF...

  9. 43 CFR 4.310 - Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents. 4.310 Section 4.310 Public... the Interior Board of Indian Appeals § 4.310 Documents. (a) Filing. The effective date for filing a notice of appeal or other document with the Board during the course of an appeal is: (1) For most...

  10. 43 CFR 4.22 - Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents. 4.22 Section 4.22 Public Lands... Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.22 Documents. (a) Filing of documents. A document is filed in the Office where the filing is required only when the document is received in that office during the office...

  11. 43 CFR 4.422 - Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents. 4.422 Section 4.422 Public... Special Rules Applicable to Public Land Hearings and Appeals Hearings Procedures § 4.422 Documents. (a) Grace period for filing. Whenever a document is required under this subpart to be filed within a certain...

  12. 43 CFR 4.401 - Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents. 4.401 Section 4.401 Public... Special Rules Applicable to Public Land Hearings and Appeals Appeals Procedures § 4.401 Documents. (a) Grace period for filing. Whenever a document is required under this subpart to be filed within a certain...

  13. 43 CFR 4.1373 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 4.1373 Section 4.1373 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Review of Osm Decisions Proposing to...

  14. 43 CFR 4.1383 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 4.1383 Section 4.1383 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Review of Office of Surface Mining...

  15. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c) of...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1283 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 4.1283 Section 4.1283 Public... of the Office of Surface Mining § 4.1283 Service. (a) The appellant shall serve personally or by.... Proof of service shall be filed with the Board within 15 days after service. (b) Failure to serve may...

  17. 43 CFR 3.10 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 3.10 Section 3.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.10 Reports. At the close of each season's field work the permitee shall report in duplicate to the Smithsonian...

  18. 43 CFR 12.705 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 12.705 Section 12.705 Public...-Supplies § 12.705 Definitions. Components, as used in this subpart, means those articles, materials, and... business located in the United States and which makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy...

  19. 43 CFR 12.934 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 12.934 Section 12.934 Public....934 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds shall vest in the recipient, subject to conditions of this section. (b) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with...

  20. 43 CFR 12.72 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 12.72 Section 12.72 Public... to State and Local Governments Changes, Property, and Subawards § 12.72 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a...

  1. 43 CFR 41.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.310 Section 41.310 Public... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  2. 43 CFR 41.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.510 Section 41.510 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  3. 43 CFR 4.432 - Postponements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponements. 4.432 Section 4.432 Public... Fact § 4.432 Postponements. (a) Postponements of hearings will not be allowed upon the request of any... postponement must be served upon all parties to the proceeding and filed in the office of the administrative...

  4. 43 CFR 4.452-3 - Postponements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponements. 4.452-3 Section 4.452-3... Fact § 4.452-3 Postponements. (a) Postponements of hearings will not be allowed upon the request of any... postponement must be served upon all parties to the proceeding and filed in the office of the administrative...

  5. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Swimming. 423.36 Section 423.36 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters...

  6. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section 20.201... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The...

  7. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  8. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands, and...

  9. 38 CFR 43.4 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 43.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... following programs of The National School Lunch Act: (i) School Lunch (section 4 of the Act), (ii) Commodity... 3 of the Act), and (ii) School Breakfast (section 4 of the Act). (6) Entitlement grants for State...

  10. 43 CFR 4.1102 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 4.1102 Section 4.1102 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... Construction. These rules shall be construed to achieve the just, timely, and inexpensive determination of all...

  11. 43 CFR 423.42 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling. 423.42 Section 423.42 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Gambling. Commercial gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is prohibited on...

  12. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing recreation...

  13. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 32.1 Section 32.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUNG ADULT CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is...

  14. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 26.1 Section 26.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer...

  15. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior...

  16. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  17. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  18. 43 CFR 402.4 - Citizenship requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship requirement. 402.4 Section 402.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.4 Citizenship...

  19. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 41.500 Section 41.500 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  20. 43 CFR 17.540 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 17.540 Section 17.540 Public... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.540 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  1. 43 CFR 12.952 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 12.952 Section 12.952... Requirements § 12.952 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269 or SF-269A...

  2. 43 CFR 12.81 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 12.81 Section 12.81... Agreements to State and Local Governments Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 12.81 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of this section, grantees will...

  3. Preliminary X-43 flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Charles R.; Rausch, Vincent L.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Sitz, Joel R.

    2005-07-01

    The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X/X-43 research vehicle has provided a major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward establishing the potential for air-breathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space-launch vehicles.

  4. 43 CFR 12.941 - Recipient responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient of the contractual responsibilities arising under its contract(s). The recipient is the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recipient responsibilities. 12.941 Section... Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award...

  5. The pathological phenotypes of human TDP-43 transgenic mouse models are independent of downregulation of mouse Tdp-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is the major component of pathological deposits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. It has been reported that TDP-43 transgenic mouse models expressing human TDP-43 wild-type or ALS-associated mutations recapitulate certain ALS and FTLD pathological phenotypes. Of note, expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43 reduces the levels of mouse Tdp-43 (mTdp-43. However, it remained unclear whether the mechanisms through which TDP-43 induces ALS or FTLD-like pathologies resulted from a reduction in mTdp-43, an increase in hTDP-43, or a combination of both. In elucidating the role of mTdp-43 and hTDP-43 in hTDP-43 transgenic mice, we observed that reduction of mTdp-43 in non-transgenic mice by intraventricular brain injection of AAV1-shTardbp leads to a dramatic increase in the levels of splicing variants of mouse sortilin 1 and translin. However, the levels of these two abnormal splicing variants are not increased in hTDP-43 transgenic mice despite significant downregulation of mTdp-43 in these mice. Moreover, further downregulation of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 hemizygous mice, which are asymptomatic, to the levels equivalent to that of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 homozygous mice does not induce the pathological phenotypes observed in the homozygous mice. Lastly, the number of dendritic spines and the RNA levels of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for synapse formation and function are significantly decreased in symptomatic homozygous mice. Together, our findings indicate that mTdp-43 downregulation does not lead to a loss of function mechanism or account for the pathological phenotypes observed in hTDP-43 homozygous mice because hTDP-43 compensates for the reduction, and associated functions of mTdp-43. Rather, expression of hTDP-43 beyond a certain threshold leads to abnormal metabolism of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for neuronal structure and function, which might

  6. The pathological phenotypes of human TDP-43 transgenic mouse models are independent of downregulation of mouse Tdp-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Fei; Prudencio, Mercedes; Hubbard, Jaime M; Tong, Jimei; Whitelaw, Ena C; Jansen-West, Karen; Stetler, Caroline; Cao, Xiangkun; Song, John; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the major component of pathological deposits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been reported that TDP-43 transgenic mouse models expressing human TDP-43 wild-type or ALS-associated mutations recapitulate certain ALS and FTLD pathological phenotypes. Of note, expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) reduces the levels of mouse Tdp-43 (mTdp-43). However, it remained unclear whether the mechanisms through which TDP-43 induces ALS or FTLD-like pathologies resulted from a reduction in mTdp-43, an increase in hTDP-43, or a combination of both. In elucidating the role of mTdp-43 and hTDP-43 in hTDP-43 transgenic mice, we observed that reduction of mTdp-43 in non-transgenic mice by intraventricular brain injection of AAV1-shTardbp leads to a dramatic increase in the levels of splicing variants of mouse sortilin 1 and translin. However, the levels of these two abnormal splicing variants are not increased in hTDP-43 transgenic mice despite significant downregulation of mTdp-43 in these mice. Moreover, further downregulation of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 hemizygous mice, which are asymptomatic, to the levels equivalent to that of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 homozygous mice does not induce the pathological phenotypes observed in the homozygous mice. Lastly, the number of dendritic spines and the RNA levels of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for synapse formation and function are significantly decreased in symptomatic homozygous mice. Together, our findings indicate that mTdp-43 downregulation does not lead to a loss of function mechanism or account for the pathological phenotypes observed in hTDP-43 homozygous mice because hTDP-43 compensates for the reduction, and associated functions of mTdp-43. Rather, expression of hTDP-43 beyond a certain threshold leads to abnormal metabolism of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for neuronal structure and function, which might be responsible

  7. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox......-forming potential of E. coli. Finally, we demonstrated that Ag43-mediated cell aggregation confers significant protection against hydrogen peroxide killing....

  8. 43 CFR 4.450-5 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 4.450-5 Section 4.450-5 Public... Fact § 4.450-5 Service. The complaint must be served upon every contestee in the manner provided in § 4.422(c)(1). Proof of service must be made in the manner provided in § 4.422(c)(2). In certain...

  9. 43 CFR 4.475 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 4.475 Section 4.475 Public Lands....475 Service. Service of notice or other documents required under this subpart shall be governed by §§ 4.413 and 4.422. Proof of such service shall be filed in the same office where the notice or...

  10. Phosphorylation of TAR DNA-binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) by Truncated Casein Kinase 1δ Triggers Mislocalization and Accumulation of TDP-43*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kametani, Fuyuki; Hirai, Shinobu; Okado, Haruo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Saitoe, Minoru; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Masai, Hisao; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular aggregates of phosphorylated TDP-43 are a major component of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS and are considered a pathological hallmark. Here, to gain insight into the mechanism of intracellular TDP-43 accumulation, we examined the relationship between phosphorylation and aggregation of TDP-43. We found that expression of a hyperactive form of casein kinase 1 δ (CK1δ1-317, a C-terminally truncated form) promotes mislocalization and cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated TDP-43 (ubiquitin- and p62-positive) in cultured neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Insoluble phosphorylated TDP-43 prepared from cells co-expressing TDP-43 and CK1δ1-317 functioned as seeds for TDP-43 aggregation in cultured cells, indicating that CK1δ1-317-induced aggregated TDP-43 has prion-like properties. A striking toxicity and alterations of TDP-43 were also observed in yeast expressing TDP-43 and CK1δ1-317. Therefore, abnormal activation of CK1δ causes phosphorylation of TDP-43, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates, which, in turn, may trigger neurodegeneration. PMID:26769969

  11. X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  12. X-43A Hypersonic vehicle technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2006-07-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the next generation launch technology (NGLT) program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President's redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new hypersonic technology program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  13. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  14. Connexin43 orthologues in vertebrates: phylogeny from fish to man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A. G.; van Eijk, Marleen; Wilders, Ronald; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Opthof, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is widely expressed in all vertebrate species; however, in ventricular myocardium, Cx43 expression is restricted to mammalian species only, where it provides the molecular correlate for both electrical conduction and synchronization of the repolarization

  15. 39 CFR 3010.43 - Data collection plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data collection plan. 3010.43 Section 3010.43... Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.43 Data collection plan. The Postal Service shall include with any notice of agreement a detailed plan for providing...

  16. 34 CFR 21.43 - Comments by other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comments by other parties. 21.43 Section 21.43... in Considering Applications? § 21.43 Comments by other parties. (a) Any party to a proceeding, other... (a)(2) of this section. (b) The commenting party may not participate further in proceedings on the...

  17. 46 CFR 502.43 - Substitution of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitution of parties. 502.43 Section 502.43 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Parties § 502.43 Substitution of parties. In appropriate circumstances, the Commission or presiding officer may...

  18. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and...

  19. 46 CFR 112.43-15 - Emergency lighting feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency lighting feeders. 112.43-15 Section 112.43-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-15 Emergency lighting feeders. For a vessel with...

  20. 7 CFR 43.101 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 43.101 Section 43.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... SAMPLING PLANS Definitions § 43.101 Meaning of words. Words used in this subpart in the singular form shall...

  1. 14 CFR 133.43 - Structures and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Structures and design. 133.43 Section 133.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...-LOAD OPERATIONS Airworthiness Requirements § 133.43 Structures and design. (a) External-load attaching...

  2. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  3. 21 CFR 1308.43 - Initiation of proceedings for rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initiation of proceedings for rulemaking. 1308.43 Section 1308.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.43 Initiation of proceedings for rulemaking. (a) Any interested person...

  4. 29 CFR 1918.43 - Handling hatch beams and covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handling hatch beams and covers. 1918.43 Section 1918.43... § 1918.43 Handling hatch beams and covers. Paragraphs (f)(2), (g), and (h) of this section apply only to... side of the hatch. (2) On seagoing vessels, hatch boards or similar covers removed from the hatch beams...

  5. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity in...

  6. 43 CFR 402.8 - Terms of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... May 16, 1930 (46 Stat. 367; 43 U.S.C. 424 through 424e) and March 31, 1950 (64 Stat. 39; 43 U.S.C. Sup... the Act of May 20, 1920 (41 Stat. 605; 43 U.S.C. 375) lands may be sold either for cash or upon...

  7. 30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held and...

  8. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.43 Participation of adults. Nothing in this part shall prohibit a State or local educational agency from making... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43...

  9. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on the...

  10. 42 CFR 4.3 - Purpose of the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of the Library. 4.3 Section 4.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.3 Purpose of the Library. The purpose of the Library is to assist the advancement of...

  11. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78.43 Section 78.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama, Alaska...

  12. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43 Section 21.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29...

  13. 46 CFR 113.43-5 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 113.43-5 Section 113.43-5 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-5 Power supply. Each steering failure alarm system must be supplied by a circuit that: (a) Is independent of other steering gear system and steering...

  14. 46 CFR 67.43 - Evidence of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of citizenship. 67.43 Section 67.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.43 Evidence of citizenship. When...

  15. 50 CFR 216.43 - Public display. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public display. 216.43 Section 216.43 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.43 Public display. ...

  16. Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 43 (SPG43) is caused by mutation in C19orf12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landouré, Guida; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Lourenço, Charles M; Johnson, Janel O; Toro, Camilo; Bricceno, Katherine V; Rinaldi, Carlo; Meilleur, Katherine G; Sangaré, Modibo; Diallo, Oumarou; Pierson, Tyler M; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji; Hein, Nichole; Fink, John K; Stoll, Marion; Nicholson, Garth; Gonzalez, Michael A; Speziani, Fiorella; Dürr, Alexandra; Stevanin, Giovanni; Biesecker, Leslie G; Accardi, John; Landis, Dennis M D; Gahl, William A; Traynor, Bryan J; Marques, Wilson; Züchner, Stephan; Blackstone, Craig; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Burnett, Barrington G

    2013-10-01

    We report here the genetic basis for a form of progressive hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG43) previously described in two Malian sisters. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense variant (c.187G>C; p.Ala63Pro) in C19orf12, a gene recently implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The same mutation was subsequently also found in a Brazilian family with features of NBIA, and we identified another NBIA patient with a three-nucleotide deletion (c.197_199del; p.Gly66del). Haplotype analysis revealed that the p.Ala63Pro mutations have a common origin, but MRI scans showed no brain iron deposition in the Malian SPG43 subjects. Heterologous expression of these SPG43 and NBIA variants resulted in similar alterations in the subcellular distribution of C19orf12. The SPG43 and NBIA variants reported here as well as the most common C19orf12 missense mutation reported in NBIA patients are found within a highly conserved, extended hydrophobic domain in C19orf12, underscoring the functional importance of this domain. Published 2013. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. **This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Acoustic nonlinearity in fluorinert FC-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mombourquette, Paul C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinert FC-43 nonlinearity was investigated using two approaches: (i) a finite amplitude method with harmonic production; and (ii) a nonlinear frequency mixing in the fluid with consequent beam profile measurement of the difference frequency. The finite amplitude method provides information on the coefficient of nonlinearity, {beta}, through the amplitudes of the fundamental and the second harmonic, at a certain transmitter-receiver distance. A calibrated hydrophone was used as a receiver, in order to obtain direct pressure measurements of the acoustic waves in the fluid. The role of transmitter-receiver distance in {beta} determination is investigated. In the second approach, a single transducer is used to provide two high-frequency beams. The collinear high-frequency beams mix nonlinearly in the fluid resulting in a difference frequency beam and higher order harmonics of the primaries. The difference frequency beam profite is investigated at lengths beyond the mixing distance. The experimental data are compured with the KZK theory.

  18. Clinical Significance of TDP-43 Neuropathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Peterson, Leif E; Appel, Joan W; Rivera, Andreana L; Takei, Hidehiro; Chang, Ellen; Appel, Stanley H

    2017-05-01

    To determine the significance of TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we examined the whole brains and spinal cords of 57 patients (35 men; 22 women; mean age 63.3 years; 15 patients with c9orf72-associated ALS [c9ALS]). TDP-43 pathologic burden was determined relative to symptom onset site, disease duration, progression rate, cognitive status, and c9ALS status. There was a trend for greater TDP-43 pathologic burden in cognitively impaired patients (p = 0.07), though no association with disease duration or progression rate was seen. Shorter disease duration (p = 0.0016), more severe striatal pathology (p = 0.0029), and a trend toward greater whole brain TDP-43 pathology (p = 0.059) were found in c9ALS. Cluster analysis identified "TDP43-limited," "TDP43-moderate," and "TDP43-severe" subgroups. The TDP43-limited group contained more cognitively intact (p = 0.005) and lower extremity onset site (p = 0.019) patients, while other subgroups contained more cognitively impaired patients. We conclude that TDP-43 pathologic burden in ALS is associated with cognitive impairment and c9ALS, but not duration of disease or rate of progression. Further, we demonstrate a subgroup of patients with low TDP-43 burden, lower extremity onset, and intact cognition, which requires further investigation. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  19. A 43-kDa TDP-43 species is present in aggregates associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Bosque

    Full Text Available The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43 is a major component of the abnormal intracellular inclusions that occur in two common neurodegenerative diseases of humans: (1 a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and (2 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetics, experiments in cultured cells and animals, and analogy with other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that the process of TDP-43 aggregation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases, but the process by which this aggregation occurs is not understood. Biochemical fractionation has revealed truncated, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated forms of TDP-43 in a detergent-insoluble fraction from diseased CNS tissue, while these forms are absent from controls. However, a large amount of the normally predominant 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is present in the detergent-insoluble fraction even from control brains, so it has not been possible to determine if this form of TDP-43 is part of pathological aggregates in frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We used semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel electrophoresis to isolate high molecular weight aggregates containing TDP-43 that are present in the cerebral cortex of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration but not that of controls. These aggregates include the same covalently modified forms of TDP-43 seen in detergent-insoluble extracts. In addition, aggregates include a 43-kDa TDP-43 species. This aggregated 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is absent or present only at low levels in controls. The presence of 43-kDa TDP-43 in aggregates raises the possibility that covalent modification is not a primary step in the pathogenic aggregation of TDP-43 associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  20. ALS-associated TDP-43 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, which drives cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and stress granule formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Walker

    Full Text Available In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43 accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, where it associates with stress granules (SGs and forms large inclusions. SGs form in response to cellular stress, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, which is induced in both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological induction of ER stress causes TDP-43 to accumulate in the cytoplasm, where TDP-43 also associates with SGs. Furthermore, treatment with salubrinal, an inhibitor of dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α, a key modulator of ER stress, potentiates ER stress-mediated SG formation. Inclusions of C-terminal fragment TDP-43, reminiscent of disease-pathology, form in close association with ER and Golgi compartments, further indicating the involvement of ER dysfunction in TDP-43-associated disease. Consistent with this notion, over-expression of ALS-linked mutant TDP-43, and to a lesser extent wildtype TDP-43, triggers several ER stress pathways in neuroblastoma cells. Similarly, we found an interaction between the ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase and TDP-43 in transfected cell lysates and in the spinal cords of mutant A315T TDP-43 transgenic mice. This study provides evidence for ER stress as a pathogenic pathway in TDP-43-mediated disease.

  1. Flumazenil and seizures: analysis of 43 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, W H

    1992-01-01

    Flumazenil is a new drug indicated for the reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines mediated at the benzodiazepine-receptor site. Worldwide sources to date have disclosed 43 cases of seizures related, at least temporally, to the intravenous administration of flumazenil. There was no apparent relationship between the dose of flumazenil and the development of seizures, which occurred at doses ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 mg. The seizures were not considered to be a toxic effect of flumazenil, but many of them probably were due to an unmasking of the anticonvulsant effect of the previously used benzodiazepine or to a severe benzodiazepine-withdrawal syndrome. Eighteen (42%) of the patients had ingested overdoses of cyclic antidepressants, which were considered responsible for the seizures. In addition to patients with concurrent cyclic antidepressant poisoning, high-risk populations include patients who have been treated with benzodiazepines for a seizure disorder or an acute convulsive episode, patients with concurrent major sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal, patients who have recently been treated with repeated doses of parenteral benzodiazepines, and overdose patients with myoclonic jerking or seizure activity before flumazenil administration. To minimize the likelihood of a seizure, it is recommended that flumazenil not be administered to patients who have used benzodiazepines for the treatment of seizure disorders or to patients who have ingested drugs (eg, cyclic antidepressants, cocaine, lithium, methylxanthines, isoniazid, propoxyphene, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, buproprion HCl, and cyclosporine) that place them at risk for the development of seizures.

  2. 26 CFR 43.4471-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 43.4471-1 Section 43.4471-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON TRANSPORTATION BY WATER § 43.4471-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section 4471 imposes a tax of $3 per passenger on a...

  3. A novel α-L-arabinofuranosidase of family 43 glycoside hydrolase (Ct43Araf from Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Ahmed

    Full Text Available The study describes a comparative analysis of biochemical, structural and functional properties of two recombinant derivatives from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 belonging to family 43 glycoside hydrolase. The family 43 glycoside hydrolase encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Ct43Araf displayed an N-terminal catalytic module CtGH43 (903 bp followed by two carbohydrate binding modules CtCBM6A (405 bp and CtCBM6B (402 bp towards the C-terminal. Ct43Araf and its truncated derivative CtGH43 were cloned in pET-vectors, expressed in Escherichia coli and functionally characterized. The recombinant proteins displayed molecular sizes of 63 kDa (Ct43Araf and 34 kDa (CtGH43 on SDS-PAGE analysis. Ct43Araf and CtGH43 showed optimal enzyme activities at pH 5.7 and 5.4 and the optimal temperature for both was 50°C. Ct43Araf and CtGH43 showed maximum activity with rye arabinoxylan 4.7 Umg(-1 and 5.0 Umg(-1, respectively, which increased by more than 2-fold in presence of Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ salts. This indicated that the presence of CBMs (CtCBM6A and CtCBM6B did not have any effect on the enzyme activity. The thin layer chromatography and high pressure anion exchange chromatography analysis of Ct43Araf hydrolysed arabinoxylans (rye and wheat and oat spelt xylan confirmed the release of L-arabinose. This is the first report of α-L-arabinofuranosidase from C. thermocellum having the capacity to degrade both p-nitrophenol-α-L-arabinofuranoside and p-nitrophenol-α-L-arabinopyranoside. The protein melting curves of Ct43Araf and CtGH43 demonstrated that CtGH43 and CBMs melt independently. The presence of Ca(2+ ions imparted thermal stability to both the enzymes. The circular dichroism analysis of CtGH43 showed 48% β-sheets, 49% random coils but only 3% α-helices.

  4. 20 CFR 901.43 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 901.43 Section 901... Termination of Enrollment § 901.43 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An administrative law judge... Administrative Law Judge. Among other powers, the Administrative Law Judge shall have authority, in connection...

  5. 45 CFR 84.43 - Treatment of students; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of students; general. 84.43 Section 84... Education § 84.43 Treatment of students; general. (a) No qualified handicapped student shall, on the basis..., or other postsecondary education aids, benefits, or services to which this subpart applies. (b) A...

  6. 19 CFR 181.43 - Eligible goods subject to drawback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible goods subject to drawback. 181.43 Section 181.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... exported to Canada or Mexico (see 19 U.S.C. 1313(j)(1)); (b) Used as a material in the production of...

  7. 41 CFR 109-43.4701 - Performance reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recipient's status Original cost of property Digit federal supply classification group ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance reports. 109-43.4701 Section 109-43.4701 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  8. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section 27.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears, gigs...

  9. 40 CFR 279.43 - Used oil transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil transportation. 279.43... Facilities § 279.43 Used oil transportation. (a) Deliveries. A used oil transporter must deliver all used oil... comply with all applicable requirements under the U.S. Department of Transportation regulations in 49 CFR...

  10. 24 CFR 203.43 - Eligibility of miscellaneous type mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgages. 203.43 Section 203.43 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible...

  11. 15 CFR 4.3 - Records under the FOIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records under the FOIA. 4.3 Section 4.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT... Government records, regardless of format, medium or physical characteristics, and include electronic records...

  12. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply to...

  13. 27 CFR 6.43 - Sale of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of equipment. 6.43 Section 6.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT.... Further, the negotiation by an industry member of a special price to a retailer for equipment from an...

  14. 14 CFR 63.43 - Flight engineer courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer courses. 63.43 Section 63...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.43 Flight engineer courses. An applicant for approval of a flight engineer course must submit a letter to the Administrator...

  15. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  16. 21 CFR 1312.43 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1312.43 Section 1312.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... unduly prejudiced and the ends of justice will thereby be served. Such notice of modification or waiver...

  17. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be passed...

  18. 36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Output, display, and control functions. 1193.43 Section 1193.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility...

  19. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement benefits...

  20. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section 560.43 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND... reserve capital in the future (call-able capital), must not, as a result of such investment, exceed the...

  1. 36 CFR 7.43 - Natchez Trace Parkway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natchez Trace Parkway. 7.43... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.43 Natchez Trace Parkway. (a)-(b) (c) Vehicles—(1) Trucks... capacity, are permitted to travel on the Natchez Trace Parkway when used solely for transportation of...

  2. 20 CFR 219.43 - Evidence of child's dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of child's dependency. 219.43... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.43 Evidence of child's dependency. (a) When the dependency requirement must be met. Usually the dependency requirement must be met at one of the...

  3. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  4. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  5. 47 CFR 43.61 - Reports of international telecommunications traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of international telecommunications traffic. 43.61 Section 43.61 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Reports of international telecommunications traffic. (a) Each common carrier engaged in providing...

  6. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  7. 7 CFR 43.106 - Choosing AQL's and sampling plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Choosing AQL's and sampling plans. 43.106 Section 43.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  8. Transposable elements in TDP-43-mediated neurodegenerative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanhe Li

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of specific transposable elements (TEs has been observed in several neurodegenerative disorders. TEs also can be active during normal neurogenesis. By mining a series of deep sequencing datasets of protein-RNA interactions and of gene expression profiles, we uncovered extensive binding of TE transcripts to TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein central to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Second, we find that association between TDP-43 and many of its TE targets is reduced in FTLD patients. Third, we discovered that a large fraction of the TEs to which TDP-43 binds become de-repressed in mouse TDP-43 disease models. We propose the hypothesis that TE mis-regulation contributes to TDP-43 related neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Immunoelectron microscopic observation of connexin43 in rat odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Takashi; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Furusawa, Masahiro; Shimono, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Gap junctions play an important role in differentiation of odontoblasts. Gap junction protein, connexin 43 is expressed in odontoblast. However, the detailed localization in odontoblasts has yet to be fully investigated. We investigated the localization of connexin43 in rat odontoblasts immuno-electron microscopically. The rats were transcardially fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer, and mandibles were decalcified with 10% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Pre-embedding method was carried out for immuno-electron microscopic analysis. Microscopically, gap junctions were localized between bodies of odontoblasts, and between bodies and processes of odontoblasts. The gap junctions were labeled with gold particles that indicated connexin43. These results suggest that gap junctions between odontoblasts are definitely composed of connexin43 in rats, and our methods used in this study is useful to investigate localization of connexin43 immuno-electron microscopically. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Inhibition of PbGP43 expression may suggest that gp43 is a virulence factor in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Torres

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein gp43 is an immunodominant diagnostic antigen for paracoccidioidomycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is abundantly secreted in isolates such as Pb339. It is structurally related to beta-1,3-exoglucanases, however inactive. Its function in fungal biology is unknown, but it elicits humoral, innate and protective cellular immune responses; it binds to extracellular matrix-associated proteins. In this study we applied an antisense RNA (aRNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to generate mitotically stable PbGP43 mutants (PbGP43 aRNA derived from wild type Pb339 to study its role in P. brasiliensis biology and during infection. Control PbEV was transformed with empty vector. Growth curve, cell vitality and morphology of PbGP43 aRNA mutants were indistinguishable from those of controls. PbGP43 expression was reduced 80-85% in mutants 1 and 2, as determined by real time PCR, correlating with a massive decrease in gp43 expression. This was shown by immunoblotting of culture supernatants revealed with anti-gp43 mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies, and also by affinity-ligand assays of extracellular molecules with laminin and fibronectin. In vitro, there was significantly increased TNF-α production and reduced yeast recovery when PbGP43 aRNA1 was exposed to IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages, suggesting reduced binding/uptake and/or increased killing. In vivo, fungal burden in lungs of BALB/c mice infected with silenced mutant was negligible and associated with decreased lung ΙΛ-10 and IL-6. Therefore, our results correlated low gp43 expression with lower pathogenicity in mice, but that will be definitely proven when PbGP43 knockouts become available. This is the first study of gp43 using genetically modified P. brasiliensis.

  11. Intracellular trafficking pathways of Cx43 gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifantseva, Irina; Shaw, Robin M

    2017-05-30

    Gap Junction (GJ) channels, including the most common Connexin 43 (Cx43), have fundamental roles in excitable tissues by facilitating rapid transmission of action potentials between adjacent cells. For instance, synchronization during each heartbeat is regulated by these ion channels at the cardiomyocyte cell-cell border. Cx43 protein has a short half-life, and rapid synthesis and timely delivery of those proteins to particular subdomains are crucial for the cellular organization of gap junctions and maintenance of intracellular coupling. Impairment in gap junction trafficking contributes to dangerous complications in diseased hearts such as the arrhythmias of sudden cardiac death. Of recent interest are the protein-protein interactions with the Cx43 carboxy-terminus. These interactions have significant impact on the full length Cx43 lifecycle and also contribute to trafficking of Cx43 as well as possibly other functions. We are learning that many of the known non-canonical roles of Cx43 can be attributed to the recently identified six endogenous Cx43 truncated isoforms which are produced by internal translation. In general, alternative translation is a new leading edge for proteome expansion and therapeutic drug development. This review highlights recent mechanisms identified in the trafficking of gap junction channels, involvement of other proteins contributing to the delivery of channels to the cell-cell border, and understanding of possible roles of the newly discovered alternatively translated isoforms in Cx43 biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Gap Junction Proteins edited by Jean Claude Herve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Pharmacophores of Connexin43 Based on the “RXP” Series of Cx43-binding Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vandana; Larsen, Bjarne Due; Coombs, Wanda; Lin, Xianming; Spagnol, Gaelle; Sorgen, Paul L; Taffet, Steven M; Delmar, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Gap junction pharmacology is a nascent field. Previous studies have identified molecules that enhance intercellular communication, and may offer potential for innovative antiarrhythmic therapy. However, their specific molecular target(s) and mechanism(s) of action remain unknown. Previously, we identified a 34-amino acid peptide (RXP-E) that binds the carboxyl terminal domain of Cx43 (Cx43CT) and prevents cardiac gap junction closure and action potential propagation block. These results supported the feasibility of a peptide-based pharmacology to Cx43, but the structure of the core active element in RXP-E, an essential step for pharmacological development, remained undefined. Here, we used a combination of molecular modeling, surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and patch clamp strategies to define, for the first time, a unique ensemble of pharmacophores that bind Cx43CT and prevent closure of Cx43 channels. Two particular molecules are best representatives of this family: a cyclized heptapeptide (called CyRP-71), and a linear octapeptide of sequence RRNYRRNY. These two small compounds offer the first structural platform for the design of Cx43-interacting gap junction openers. Moreover, the structure of these compounds offers an imprint of a region of Cx43CT that is fundamental to gap junction channel function. PMID:19556520

  13. Phosphorylation of connexin43 on serine 306 regulates electrical coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Procida, Kristina; Jørgensen, Lone; Schmitt, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation is a key regulatory event in controlling the function of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Three new phosphorylation sites (S296, S297, S306) have been identified on Cx43; two of these sites (S297 and S306) are dephosphorylated during ischemia....... The functional significance of these new sites is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of S296, S297, and S306 in the regulation of electrical intercellular communication. METHODS: To mimic constitutive dephosphorylation, serine was mutated to alanine at the three sites...... and expressed in HeLa cells. Electrical coupling and single channel measurements were performed by double patch clamp. Protein expression levels were assayed by western blotting, localization of Cx43, and phosphorylation of S306 by immunolabeling. Free hemichannels were assessed by biotinylation. RESULTS...

  14. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.43... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value of...

  15. The 43-kDa neuronal growth-associated protein (GAP-43) is present in plasma membranes of rat astrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Vitković, L; Steisslinger, H W; Aloyo, V.J.; Mersel, M

    1988-01-01

    One of the neuronal growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 (molecular mass, approximately 43 kDa; pI 4.3), is abundant in growth-cone membranes and corresponds to a major protein kinase C substrate, the 46-kDa phosphoprotein (pp46), of a growth-cone-enriched subcellular fraction. This protein has the following additional designations (depending on context): B-50 (phospholipid metabolism), F1 (synaptic plasticity), and p57 (calmodulin binding). We show that a protein with the same molecular mass a...

  16. general paralysis in a tropical country. study of 43 observations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PARALYSIE GÉNÉRALE EN MILIEU TROPICAL. ÉTUDE DE 43 OBSERVATIONS RESUME Description :Les auteurs rapportent une étude de 43 cas de paralysie générale, révélés par un syndrome démentiel et des formes atypiques notamment les troubles confusionnels répétitifs et des crises épileptiformes.

  17. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage.

  18. Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth by Connexin 43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamani eJoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Connexin 43 (Cx43, the principal gap junction protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, regulates movement of ions and other signaling molecules through gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC and plays important roles in maintaining normal vessel function; however, many of the signaling mechanisms controlling Cx43 in VSMCs are not clearly described. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms of Cx43 regulation with respect to VSMC proliferation. Treatment of rat primary VSMCs with the cAMP analog 8Br-cAMP, the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 (BAY, or the Cx inducer diallyl disulfide (DADS significantly reduced proliferation after 72 h compared to vehicle controls. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake revealed reduction (p<.001 in DNA synthesis after 6 h and flow cytometry showed reduced (40% S phase cell numbers after 16 h in DADS-treated cells compared to controls. Cx43 expression significantly increased after 270 min treatment with 8Br-cAMP, 8Br-cGMP, BAY or DADS. Inhibition of PKA, PKG or PKC reversed 8Br-cAMP-stimulated increases in Cx43 expression, whereas only PKG or PKC inhibition reversed 8Br-cGMP- and BAY-stimulated increases in total Cx43. Interestingly, stimulation of Cx43 expression by DADS was not dependent on PKA, PKG or PKC. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, only 8Br-cAMP or DADS increased GJIC with 8Br-cAMP mediated by PKC and DADS mediated by PKG. Further, DADS significantly increased phosphorylation at the MAPK-sensitive serine (Ser255 and Ser279, the cell cycle regulatory kinase-sensitive Ser262 and the PKC-sensitive Ser368 after 30 min while 8Br-cAMP significantly increased phosphorylation only at Ser279 compared to controls. This study demonstrates that 8Br-cAMP- and DADS-enhanced GJIC rather than Cx43 expression and/or phosphorylation plays an important role in regulation of VSMC proliferation and provides new insights into the growth-regulatory capacities of Cx43 in VSMCs.

  19. Oryza sativa Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle 43 (OscpSRP43) Is Required for Chloroplast Development and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiang-guang; Shi, Yong-feng; Xu, Xia; Wei, Yan-lin; Wang, Hui-mei; Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wu, Jian-li

    2015-01-01

    A rice chlorophyll-deficient mutant w67 was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced IR64 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) mutant bank. The mutant exhibited a distinct yellow-green leaf phenotype in the whole plant growth duration with significantly reduced levels of chlorophyll and carotenoid, impaired chloroplast development and lowered capacity of photosynthesis compared with the wild-type IR64. Expression of a number of genes associated with chlorophyll metabolism, chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis was significantly altered in the mutant. Genetic analysis indicated that the yellow-green phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene located on the short arm of chromosome 3. Using map-based strategy, the mutation was isolated and predicted to encode a chloroplast signal recognition particle 43 KD protein (cpSRP43) with 388 amino acid residuals. A single base substitution from A to T at position 160 resulted in a premature stop codon. OscpSRP43 was constitutively expressed in various organs with the highest level in the leaf. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype and subcellular localization showed that the cpSRP43:GFP fusion protein was targeted to the chloroplast. The data suggested that Oryza sativa cpSRP43 (OscpSRP43) was required for the normal development of chloroplasts and photosynthesis in rice.

  20. Cyclotron production of {sup 43}Sc for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, Rafał [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewski, Seweryn [Synektik S.A., Research and Development Center, Warsaw (Poland); Szkliniarz, Katarzyna [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sitarz, Mateusz [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Abbas, Kamel [Nuclear Security Unit, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Jerzy [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Simonelli, Federica [Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site Management Directorate, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Zipper, Wiktor [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-04

    Recently, significant interest in {sup 44}Sc as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been observed. Unfortunately, the co-emission by {sup 44}Sc of high-energy γ rays (E{sub γ} = 1157, 1499 keV) causes a dangerous increase of the radiation dose to the patients and clinical staff. However, it is possible to produce another radionuclide of scandium—{sup 43}Sc—having properties similar to {sup 44}Sc but is characterized by much lower energy of the concurrent gamma emissions. This work presents the production route of {sup 43}Sc by α irradiation of natural calcium, its separation and purification processes, and the labeling of [DOTA,Tyr3] octreotate (DOTATATE) bioconjugate. Natural CaCO{sub 3} and enriched [{sup 40}Ca]CaCO{sub 3} were irradiated with alpha particles for 1 h in an energy range of 14.8–30 MeV at a beam current of 0.5 or 0.25 μA. In order to find the optimum method for the separation of {sup 43}Sc from irradiated calcium targets, three processes previously developed for {sup 44}Sc were tested. Radiolabeling experiments were performed with DOTATATE radiobioconjugate, and the stability of the obtained {sup 43}Sc-DOTATATE was tested in human serum. Studies of {sup nat}CaCO{sub 3} target irradiation by alpha particles show that the optimum alpha particle energies are in the range of 24–27 MeV, giving 102 MBq/μA/h of {sup 43}Sc radioactivity which creates the opportunity to produce several GBq of {sup 43}Sc. The separation experiments performed indicate that, as with {sup 44}Sc, due to the simplicity of the operations and because of the chemical purity of the {sup 43}Sc obtained, the best separation process is when UTEVA resin is used. The DOTATATE conjugate was labeled by the obtained {sup 43}Sc with a yield >98 % at elevated temperature. Tens of GBq activities of {sup 43}Sc of high radionuclidic purity can be obtainable for clinical applications by irradiation of natural calcium with an alpha beam.

  1. Gap junction protein connexin43 exacerbates lung vascular permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins. Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hypothesized that connexins may also regulate pulmonary endothelial permeability. The relationships between connexins and the permeability response to inflammatory stimuli were studied in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Prolonged treatment with thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, or pathological cyclic stretch increased levels of mRNA and protein for the major connexin, connexin43 (Cx43. Thrombin and lipopolysaccharide both increased intercellular communication assayed by transfer of microinjected Lucifer yellow. Although thrombin decreased transendothelial resistance in these cells, the response was attenuated by pretreatment with the connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone. Additionally, the decreases of transendothelial resistance produced by either thrombin or lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by reducing Cx43 expression by siRNA knockdown. Both carbenoxolone and Cx43 knockdown also abrogated thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Taken together, these data suggest that increased lung vascular permeability induced by inflammatory conditions may be amplified via increased expression of Cx43 and intercellular communication among pulmonary endothelial cells.

  2. The SCFA receptor GPR43 and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo eKimura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free fatty acids (FFAs are essential nutrients and act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes via binding with FFA receptors. Of these receptors, GPR43 is activated by short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate. During feeding, SCFAs are produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, and these SCFAs become important energy sources for the host. The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Recently, GPR43 has been reported to regulate host energy homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissues. Hence, GPR43 is also thought to be a potential drug target for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the identification, structure, and activities of GPR43, with a focus on host energy regulation, and present an essential overview of our current understanding of its physiological roles in host energy regulation that is mediated by gut microbiota. We also discuss the potential for GPR43 as a therapeutic target.

  3. [Impacts of early metoprolol intervention on connexin 43 and phosphorylated connexin 43 expression in rabbits with experimental myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Lu, Q; Jiang, J Q; Chen, Z N; Gong, Z G; Li, Z G; Fu, W W; Ding, S F

    2017-04-24

    Objective: To investigate the early intervention effects of metoprolol on connexin 43(Cx43) and phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) expression in rabbits with post myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 24 adult male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into sham group ( n =6), early treatment group( n =6), routine treatment group( n =6), and myocardial infarction group( n =6) with a randomized block design blocked by weight. Myocardial infarction was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation. Rabbits in sham group received similar surgical procedure without LAD ligation. Metoprolol (12.5 mg/kg dissolved in 2 ml distilled water) was applied to rabbits in early treatment group and routine treatment group per gavage immediately after recovery from anesthesia and at 24 hours after myocardial infarction, respectively, then treated daily for 40 days. Rabbits in sham group and myocardial infarction group received 2 ml distilled water per gavage daily for 40 days. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) level were detected by automatic biochemistry analyzer after 6 hours in all rabbits. Ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was measured in vivo by bipolar pacing electrodes at 40 days. Cx43 and p-Cx43 distribution in ventricular tissue was detected by immunofluorescence analyses. Cx43 and p-Cx43 protein level in ventricular tissue was determined by Western blot. Results: (1) Plasma LDH ((851.7±85.9)U/L vs. (332.3±39.6)U/L, P myocardial infarction group than in sham group (both P myocardial infarction group than that in sham group ((470.0±91.0) beats per minute vs. (683.3±60.9) beats per minute, P treatment group ((633.3±43.2) beats per minute) and routine treatment group ((645.0±30.8) beats per minute) than in the myocardial infarction group (both P treatment group and routine treatment group, which was significantly different as the case in the myocardial infarction group. The expression of p-Cx43 in myocardial

  4. Wild-type human TDP-43 expression causes TDP-43 phosphorylation, mitochondrial aggregation, motor deficits and early mortality in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Fei; Gendron, Tania F.; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Lin, Wen-Lang; D’Alton, Simon; Sheng, Hong; Casey, Monica Castanedes; Tong, Jimei; Knight, Joshua; Yu, Xin; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin; Hutton, Mike; McGowan, Eileen; Dickson, Dennis W.; Lewis, Jada; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, are associated with sporadic and familial ALS, yet multiple neurodegenerative diseases exhibit TDP-43 pathology without known TARDBP mutations. While TDP-43 has been ascribed a number of roles in normal biology, including mRNA splicing and transcription regulation, elucidating disease mechanisms associated with this protein is hindered by the lack of models to dissect such functions. We have generated transgenic (TDP-43PrP) mice expressing full-length human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) driven by the mouse prion promoter to provide a tool to analyze the role of wild-type hTDP-43 in the brain and spinal cord. Expression of hTDP-43 caused a dose dependant down regulation of mouse TDP-43 RNA and protein. Moderate overexpression of hTDP-43 resulted in TDP-43 truncation, increased cytoplasmic and nuclear ubiquitin levels, as well as intranuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates that were immunopositive for phosphorylated TDP-43. Of note, abnormal juxtanuclear aggregates of mitochondria were observed, accompanied by enhanced levels of Fis1 and phosphorylated DLP1, key components of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Conversely, a marked reduction in mitofusin 1 expression, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial fusion, was observed in TDP-43PrP mice. Finally, TDP-43PrP mice showed reactive gliosis, axonal and myelin degeneration, gait abnormalities and early lethality. This TDP-43 transgenic line provides a valuable tool for identifying potential roles of wild-type TDP-43 within the central nervous system and for studying TDP-43-associated neurotoxicity. PMID:20702714

  5. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  6. Connexin 43, E-cadherin, beta-catenin and ZO-1 expression, and aberrant methylation of the connexin 43 gene in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinn, Yasuto; Inase, Naohiko

    2010-06-01

    The relationships between connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and clinicopathological factors, epithelial markers, and CpG island methylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Cx43 expression related with clinicopathological factors, epithelial markers and methylation status of the Cx43 gene. Correlations between the degree of immunohistochemical staining for Cx43 and epithelial markers (E-cadherin, beta-catenin, ZO-1), clinicopathological factors, and CpG island methylation status of the Cx43 gene, as assessed by pyrosequencing, were studied in 33 specimens of surgically treated NSCLC. Weak Cx43 staining was correlated significantly with heavy smoking and weak E-cadherin or ZO-1 expression. The CpG island hypermethylation level was significantly associated with heavy smoking, poorly-differentiated tumour, and low expression of Cx43. Both aberrant localization and epigenetic changes are associated with aberrant expression of connexin 43 in human NSCLC.

  7. Inverse-kinematics proton scattering from 43P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, L. M.; Gregory, S. D.; Haldeman, E. B.; Klybor, B. R.; Riley, L. A.; Cottle, P. D.; Kemper, K. W.; Bazin, D.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Lipschutz, S.; Longfellow, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Mijatovic, T.; Pereira, J.; Titus, R.; Weisshaar, D.; Zamora, J. C.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2017-09-01

    Following an experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University (NSCL) in October 2016, we study the excited states of the neutron-rich N = 28 isotope 43P via inverse-kinematic proton scattering with the GRETINA gamma-ray tracking array and the NSCL/Ursinus College liquid hydrogen target. We discuss preliminary analysis and results, including measured cross sections for populating excited states of 43P. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-1617250, PHY-1303480 and PHY-1102511 and by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. TDP-43 protein variants as biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephanie M; Khan, Galam; Harris, Brent T; Ravits, John; Sierks, Michael R

    2017-01-25

    TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in individuals affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases, representing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Using an atomic force microscopy based biopanning protocol developed in our lab, we previously isolated 23 TDP-43 reactive antibody fragments with preference for human ALS brain tissue relative to frontotemporal dementia, a related neurodegeneration, and healthy samples from phage-displayed single chain antibody fragment (scFv) libraries. Here we further characterize the binding specificity of these different scFvs and identify which ones have promise for detecting ALS biomarkers in human brain tissue and plasma samples. We developed a sensitive capture ELISA for detection of different disease related TDP-43 variants using the scFvs identified from the ALS biopanning. We show that a wide variety of disease selective TDP-43 variants are present in ALS as the scFvs show different reactivity profiles amongst the ALS cases. When assaying individual human brain tissue cases, three scFvs (ALS-TDP6, ALS-TDP10 and ALS-TDP14) reacted with all the ALS cases and 12 others reacted with the majority of the ALS cases, and none of the scFvs reacted with any control samples. When assaying individual human plasma samples, 9 different scFvs reacted with all the sporadic ALS samples and again none of them reacted with any control samples. These 9 different scFvs had different patterns of reactivity with plasma samples obtained from chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (c9orf72) cases indicating that these familial ALS genetic variants may display different TDP-43 pathology than sporadic ALS cases. These results indicated that a range of disease specific TDP-43 variants are generated in ALS patients with different variants being generated in sporadic and familial cases. We show that a small panel of scFvs recognizing different TDP-43 variants can generate a neuropathological and plasma biomarker

  9. Partitions of AG(4,3) into Maximal Caps

    OpenAIRE

    Follett, Michael; Kalail, Kyle; McMahon, Elizabeth; Pelland, Catherine; Won, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In a geometry, a maximal cap is a collection of points of largest size containing no lines. In AG(4,3), maximal caps contain 20 points. The 81 points of AG(4,3) can be partitioned into 4 mutually disjoint maximal caps together with a single point P, where every pair of points that makes a line with P lies entirely inside one of those caps. The caps in a partition can be paired up so that both pairs are either in exactly one partition or they are both in two different partitions. This differen...

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E43A-2DIEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E43A-2DIEA 1E43 2DIE A A VNGTLMQYFEWYTPNDGQHWKRLQNDAEHLSDIGITAVW...ESTVQTWFKPLAYAFILTRESGYPQVFYGDMYGTKGDSQREIPALKHKIEPILKARKQYAYGAQHDYFDHHDIVGWTREGDSSVANSGLAALITDGPGGAKRMYVGRQ...GAYDLYDLGEFNQKGTVRTKYGTRSQLQGAVTSLKNNGIQVYGDVVMNHKGGADGTEMVNAVEVNRSNRNQEISGEYTIEA...WTKFDFPGRGNTHSNFKWRWYHFDGTDWDQSRQLQNKIYKFRGTGKAWDWEVDIENGNYDYLMYADIDMDHPEVINELRNWGVWYTNTLNLDGFRIDAVKHIKYSYTR...DWLTHVRNTTGKPMFAVAEFWKNDLAAIENYLNKTSWNHSVFDVPLHYNLYNASNSGGYFDMRNILNGSVVQKHPIHAVTFVDNHDSQPGEALESFVQSWFKPLAYAL

  11. Activities of the summer operations of the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 in 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nishio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The activities in the 2001-2002 austral summer of the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 are reported. JARE-43 consisted of 60 personnel including 20 summer and 40 wintering personnel. In addition, 7 observers joined the voyage of R/V Shirase. She left Harumi on Nov. 14 in 2001, and the 56 personel and 7 observers went on boad in Freemantle of Western Australia for Syowa Station, other 4 personel for another ship as mentioned below. R/V Shirase left the ground on Dec. 3 and arrived at the ice edge on Dec. 14, after carrying out marine observations on the cruise. She anchored at Syowa Station on Dec. 23, after the first flight on Dec. 18. All the cargo and fuel necessary for the wintering program of JARE-43 were unloaded and the missions for the summer party were forced to finish by the last flight on Feb. 12 in 2002. The helicopter, chartered by JARE-43, moved to Syowa Station from R/V Shirase on Dec. 23 and supported the observation programs until Feb. 3, including the inland areas of ice sheets. The observation on the Mizuho Ice Plateau for the seismic exploration programs was especially supported by air during the traverse. Constructions with engineering works and facilities update were conducted in the several areas in Syowa Station, and most of them were accomplished, some, however, left for the wintering party. In addition, 4 summer members carried out other marine observations using R/V Tangaroa chartered by JARE-43.

  12. 43 CFR 420.24 - Permits for organized events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for organized events. 420.24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.24 Permits for organized events. Regional Directors may issue permits for the operation of off-road vehicles in organized...

  13. 43 CFR 4.803 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of time. 4.803 Section 4.803... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 General § 4.803 Computation of... computation. ...

  14. 43 CFR 35.27 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of time. 35.27 Section 35.27... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.27 Computation of time. (a) In computing any period of time under this part or... government shall be excluded from the computation. (c) Where a document has been served or issued by placing...

  15. Journal of Mining and Geology - Vol 43, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite-charnockite association in the Pan-African Obudu plateau, southeastern Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. VU Ukaegbu, FT Beka, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jmg.v43i1.18859 ...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1133 - Sequence and timing of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sequence and timing of discovery. 4.1133... Sequence and timing of discovery. Unless the administrative law judge upon motion, for the convenience of... in any sequence and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise...

  17. 43 CFR 12.60 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in... financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees must meet the following standards: (1...

  18. 43 CFR 12.921 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 12.921 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding... information whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following...

  19. 43 CFR 20.511 - Carrying of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying of firearms. 20.511 Section 20... CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.511 Carrying of firearms. Employees, except those specifically designated to perform enforcement, police or other official duties requiring the use of firearms...

  20. 43 CFR 23.8 - Approval of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of mining plan. 23.8 Section 23.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.8 Approval of mining plan. (a) Before surface mining operations may commence under...

  1. Tydskrif vir letterkunde - Vol 43, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Die dissonansie van die dissidente diskoers”: Oor metodologie en vakbeoefening in die Geesteswetenskappe · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HP van Coller, DFM Strauss, 79-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tvl.v43i2.29747 ...

  2. 43 CFR 35.17 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties. 35.17 Section 35.17 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.17 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties...

  3. 43 CFR 4.809 - Determination of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of parties. 4.809 Section 4... § 4.809 Determination of parties. (a) The affected applicant or recipient to whom a notice of hearing... and § 4.815, and the Director, are the initial parties to the proceeding. (b) Other persons or...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1139 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written interrogatories to parties. 4.1139... Written interrogatories to parties. (a) Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered in writing by the party served, or if the party served is a public or private...

  5. 43 CFR 35.13 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties to the hearing. 35.13 Section 35.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.13 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing shall be the...

  6. 43 CFR 4.810 - Complainants not parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complainants not parties. 4.810 Section 4... § 4.810 Complainants not parties. A person submitting a complaint pursuant to § 17.6 of this title is not a party to the proceedings governed by part 17 of this title and these regulations, but may...

  7. 43 CFR 4.829 - Interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interrogatories to parties. 4.829 Section... Interrogatories to parties. (a) Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories after the notice of hearing has been filed. If the party served is a corporation, partnership, association, or...

  8. 43 CFR 2.19 - When will bureaus waive fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When will bureaus waive fees? 2.19 Section... OF INFORMATION ACT Requests for Records under the FOIA § 2.19 When will bureaus waive fees? (a) Fees... documents sought in the request will likely contribute significantly to public understanding of the...

  9. 43 CFR 2.15 - Will I be charged fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will I be charged fees? 2.15 Section 2.15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Requests for Records under the FOIA § 2.15 Will I be charged fees? Bureaus will charge fees...

  10. 43 CFR 423.62 - Reservations for public use limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official may establish a registration or reservation system. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservations for public use limits. 423.62 Section 423.62 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION...

  11. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  12. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 12.915 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 12.915...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.43 - Interstate planning and service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate planning and service area. 1321.43... planning and service area. (a) Before requesting permission of the Commissioner to designate an interstate planning and service area, the Governor of each State shall execute a written agreement that specifies the...

  14. Jalgpall võttis 43 elu / Märt Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Märt

    2001-01-01

    Lõuna-Aafrika Vabariigi meistrivõistluste mängule Kaizer Chiefs - Orlando Pirates müüdi liiga palju pileteid. Suur inimhulk põhjustas 43 inimese surma ja umbes 250 vigastusi. Lisa: 10 suuremat katastroofi jalgpalli ajaloos

  15. 15 CFR 265.43 - Pets and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets and other animals. 265.43 Section... animals. Except in connection with the conduct of official business on the site or with the approval of... person shall bring upon the site any cat, dog, or other animal, provided, however, that blind persons may...

  16. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The undersigned...

  17. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool...

  18. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  19. 43 CFR 12.942 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Codes of conduct. 12.942 Section 12.942... Requirements § 12.942 Codes of conduct. The recipient shall maintain written standards of conduct governing the... interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of conduct...

  20. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of invention. 6.2 Section 6.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.2 Report of invention. (a) Every invention made by an employee of the Department shall be reported...

  1. 43 CFR 6.5 - Rights in inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in inventions. 6.5 Section 6.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.5 Rights in inventions. (a) The rules prescribed in this section shall be applied in determining...

  2. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appropriations, legislation and lobbying... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.506 Appropriations, legislation and lobbying... manner a Member of Congress, to favor or oppose, by vote or otherwise, any legislation or appropriation...

  3. 43 CFR 418.37 - Disincentives for lower efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disincentives for lower efficiency. 418.37... Implementation § 418.37 Disincentives for lower efficiency. (a) If the District fails to meet the efficiencies... increasing the severity of drought and yet still allow for variations in efficiency over time due to weather...

  4. 43 CFR 418.26 - Charges for water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges for water use. 418.26 Section 418... and Management § 418.26 Charges for water use. The District must maintain a financing and accounting... provides reasonable financial incentives for the economical and efficient use of water. ...

  5. 43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as soon as possible...

  6. 43 CFR 418.33 - Purpose of the implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of the implementation strategy..., NEVADA Implementation § 418.33 Purpose of the implementation strategy. The intent of the implementation strategy for this part is to ensure that the District delivers water within entitlements at a reasonable...

  7. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13 Section 7.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources...

  8. 43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of Water Delivery § 418.8 Types of eligible land. (a) Eligible land actually irrigated. During each...

  9. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  10. 43 CFR 36.10 - Access to inholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to inholdings. 36.10 Section 36.10... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.10 Access to inholdings. (a) This... be filed with the appropriate Federal agency on a SF 299. Mining claimants who have acquired their...

  11. 43 CFR 36.4 - Filing of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.4 Filing of application. (a) A SF 299... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of application. 36.4 Section 36.4...) Prior to filing the SF 299, the applicant shall determine whether additional information to that...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.43 Powered industrial trucks. (a... similar objects. (ii) Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of... for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket. (ii) Gears shall be enclosed and revolving...

  13. English in Africa - Vol 43, No 3 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-apartheid nostalgia and the sadomasochistic pleasures of archival art · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Zamansele Nsele, 95-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eia.v43i3.6 ...

  14. 43 CFR 4.314 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4.314 Section 4.314 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Applicable to Proceedings on Appeal Before the Interior Board of Indian Appeals § 4.314 Exhaustion of...

  15. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 17... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.339 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1150 - Who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file. 4.1150 Section 4.1150 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... Assessments of Civil Penalties § 4.1150 Who may file. Any person charged with a civil penalty may file a...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1361 - Who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file. 4.1361 Section 4.1361 Public... Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) § 4.1361 Who may file. The applicant, permittee, or any person having an interest which is or may be adversely affected by a decision of OSMRE set...

  18. 43 CFR 4.1290 - Who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file. 4.1290 Section 4.1290 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... Expenses Under Section 525(e) of the Act § 4.1290 Who may file. (a) Any person may file a petition for...

  19. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information disclosure...

  20. 47 CFR 3.43 - Applicable rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.43 Applicable rules and regulations. Accounting authority operations must be conducted in accordance with... following must be adhered to or taken into account in the case of ITU-T. (a) The latest basic treaty...

  1. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4... § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of this..., boxes, cans, dirt, rubbish, waste garbage, refuse or other debris or polluting substance. ...

  2. Lightcurve Analysis for Minor Planet 138925 2001 AU43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Maurizio; Noschese, Alfonso; Vecchione, Antonio; D'Avino, Luca

    2018-01-01

    From 2017 July 27-30, CCD images were collected with the aim to determine the rotation period of (138925) 2001AU43. The data analysis gives a complex lightcurve with a rotation period of 5.251 ± 0.001 h.

  3. 43 CFR 20.202 - Ethics program responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics program responsibilities. 20.202... AND CONDUCT Department Ethics Program § 20.202 Ethics program responsibilities. (a) The Designated Agency Ethics Official (or the alternate agency ethics official in his or her absence) shall coordinate...

  4. 43 CFR 7.17 - Other penalties and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other penalties and rewards. 7.17 Section... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.17 Other penalties and rewards. (a) Section 6 of the Act contains criminal... the Act provides for rewards to be made to persons who furnish information which leads to conviction...

  5. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI) Home...

  6. 43 CFR 41.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 41.455... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.455 Textbooks and curricular... abridging in any way the use of particular textbooks or curricular materials. ...

  7. 43 CFR 41.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 41.520 Section 41.520 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for males or for females; (b...

  8. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power generation must be incidental to releases charged against Project diversions, precautionary drawdown...

  9. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention coming...

  10. 43 CFR 4.808 - Participation by a party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation by a party. 4.808 Section 4... § 4.808 Participation by a party. Subject to the provisions contained in part 1 of this subtitle, a party may appear in person, by representative, or by counsel, and participate fully in any proceeding...

  11. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics - Vol 43, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemia in children: Review of the literature · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JBE Elusiyan, EE Oyenusi, 70-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v43i2.2 ...

  12. 43 CFR 12.935 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... private companies charge for equivalent services, unless specifically authorized by Federal statute as... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies and other expendable property. 12.935 Section 12.935 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND...

  13. 43 CFR 18.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... professional legal services. Similarly, communications with the intent to influence made by an engineer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Professional and technical services. 18... LOBBYING Activities by Other Than Own Employees § 18.300 Professional and technical services. (a) The...

  14. 43 CFR 18.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... professional legal services. Similarly, communications with the intent to influence made by an engineer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Professional and technical services. 18... LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 18.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on...

  15. 43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.4 Attribution of land. (a) Prohibition on...

  16. 43 CFR 426.14 - Involuntary acquisition of land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Involuntary acquisition of land. 426.14 Section 426.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.14 Involuntary acquisition of land...

  17. 43 CFR 41.400 - Education programs or activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education programs or activities. 41.400... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.400 Education programs or...

  18. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients that...

  19. Misaligned disks in the binary protostar IRS 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent high angular resolution (∼ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2) ALMA observations of the 1.1 mm continuum and of HCO+ J = 3–2 and HCN J = 3–2 gas toward the binary protostar IRS 43 reveal multiple Keplerian disks that are significantly misaligned (\\gt 60^\\circ ), both in inclination...

  20. 43 CFR 41.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 41.140 Section 41.140 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing...

  1. 43 CFR 423.25 - Vandalism, tampering, and theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vandalism, tampering, and theft. 423.25 Section 423.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.25 Vandalism, tampering, and theft. (a) You must not tamper or attempt to tamper...

  2. 43 CFR 423.27 - Advertising and public solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising and public solicitation. 423.27 Section 423.27 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.27 Advertising and public solicitation. You must not engage in advertising or...

  3. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertising for a period of not less than thirty days. (e) The advertisement must appear in one or more local... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has...

  4. 24 CFR 902.43 - Management operations performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations performance... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.43 Management operations performance standards. (a) Management operations sub-indicators. The following sub...

  5. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of an environmental assessment... OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Assessments § 46.310 Contents of an environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of: (1...

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u549i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named root during process named growth ... root ... abnormal ... growth ... behavioral quality

  7. Antigen-43-mediated autoaggregation of Escherichia coli is blocked by fimbriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Chakraborty, Trinad; Klemm, Per

    1999-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43), the product of the flu gene, is a surface-displayed autotransporter protein of Escherichia coli. Ag43 is responsible for the autoaggregation and flocculation of static liquid cultures of many E. coli strains. The expression of Ag43 has been reported to be phase variable...

  8. 43 CFR 43.220 - By when must I publish my drug-free workplace statement and establish my drug-free awareness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... workplace statement and establish my drug-free awareness program? 43.220 Section 43.220 Public Lands... drug-free workplace statement and establish my drug-free awareness program? If you are a new recipient that does not already have a policy statement as described in § 43.205 and an ongoing awareness program...

  9. Accumulation of C-terminal fragments of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 leads to synaptic loss and cognitive deficits in human TDP-43 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, David X; Orr, Miranda E; Oddo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of the transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders, collectively known as TDP-43 proteinopathies. The most common TDP-43 proteinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, share overlapping neuropathological and clinical phenotypes. The development and detailed analysis of animal models of TDP-43 proteinopathies are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders. Transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human TDP-43 (herein referred to as hTDP-43) are characterized by neurodegeneration and reduced life span. However, little is known about the behavioral phenotype of these mice. Here we report the novel finding that hTDP-43 mice develop deficits in cognition, motor performance, and coordination. We show that these behavioral deficits are associated with the accumulation of nuclear and cytosolic TDP-43 C-terminal fragments, a decrease in endogenous TDP-43 levels, and synaptic loss. Our findings provide critical insights into disease pathology, and will help guide future preclinical studies aimed at testing the effects of potential therapeutic agents on the onset and progression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 43 CFR 4.450-7 - Action by manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action by manager. 4.450-7 Section 4.450-7... Fact § 4.450-7 Action by manager. (a) If an answer is not filed as required, the allegations of the complaint will be taken as admitted by the contestee and the manager will decide the case without a hearing...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1161 - Who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file. 4.1161 Section 4.1161 Public... Violation and Orders of Cessation § 4.1161 Who may file. A permittee issued a notice or order by the... having an interest which is or may be adversely affected by a notice or order subject to review under § 4...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1181 - Who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file. 4.1181 Section 4.1181 Public...) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1181 Who may file. (a) An application for review of an order of cessation may be filed under this section, whenever temporary relief has not been granted under section 525...

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, M Z

    2001-01-01

    Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: colors; or = 80% total color.

  14. Expression of mutant TDP-43 induces neuronal dysfunction in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dennis W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Certain mutant forms of TDP-43, such as M337V, are associated with increased low molecular weight (LMW fragments compared to wild-type (WT TDP-43 and cause neuronal apoptosis and developmental delay in chick embryos. Such findings support a direct link between altered TDP-43 function and neurodegeneration. Results To explore the pathogenic properties of the M337V mutation, we generated and characterized two mouse lines expressing human TDP-43 (hTDP-43M337V carrying this mutation. hTDP-43M337V was expressed primarily in the nuclei of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and intranuclear and cytoplasmic phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates were frequently detected. The levels of TDP-43 LMW products of ~25 kDa and ~35 kDa species were also increased in the transgenic mice. Moreover, overexpression of hTDP-43M337V dramatically down regulated the levels of mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43 protein and RNA, indicating TDP-43 levels are tightly controlled in mammalian systems. TDP-43M337V mice displayed reactive gliosis, widespread ubiquitination, chromatolysis, gait abnormalities, and early lethality. Abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondrial aggregates and abnormal phosphorylated tau were also detected in the mice. Conclusion Our novel TDP-43M337V mouse model indicates that overexpression of hTDP-43M337V alone is toxic in vivo. Because overexpression of hTDP-43 in wild-type TDP-43 and TDP-43M337V mouse models produces similar phenotypes, the mechanisms causing pathogenesis in the mutant

  15. Scandium doped Strontium Titanate Ceramics: Structure, Microstructure, and Dielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sc-doped strontium titanate (ST ceramics were synthesised by solid state reaction, according to the composition Sr1-1.5xScxTiO3 with x = 0-0.01. Structural properties and microstructure development was examined by XRD and SEM. The dielectric properties were evaluated as a function of the temperature and frequency in the radio frequency range. Lattice parameter, density and grain size, were found to decrease slightly with increasing Sc content. The dielectric permittivity and losses decrease also. Sc-doping has only a weak effect on the quantum paraelectric behaviour of ST and no dielectric anomaly was observed, what is probably related to the limited solubility of Sc on the Sr site of the perovskite lattice of ST.

    Se sintetizaron materiales cerámicos de titanato de estroncio dopado con escandio mediante reacción en estado sólido De acuerdo a la composición Sr1-1.5xScxTiO3 con x= 0-0.1. Las propiedades estructurales y el desarrollo microestructural se estudiaron mediante XRD y SEM. La propiedades dieléctricas se estudiaron como función de la temperatura y de la frecuencia en el rango de la frecuencias de radio. Se observó que los parámetros de red, la densidad y el tamaño del grano disminuyen ligeramente con el contenido en Sc. La permitividad dieléctrica y las perdidas también disminuyen. El dopado con Sc tiene un efecto muy ligero sobre el comportamiento paraeléctrico cuántico del titanato de estroncio y no se observó anomalías dioeléctricas , lo que está probablemente relacionado con la baja solubilidad del Sc en posiciones del Sr en la estructura tipo perovskita del titanato de estroncio.

  16. Phenoxyl radical complexes of gallium, scandium, iron and manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, B; Bill, E; Bothe, E; Goerdt, B; Haselhorst, G; Hildenbrand, K; Sokolowski, A; Steenken, S; Weyhermüller, T; Wieghardt, K

    1997-02-01

    The hexadentate macrocyclic ligands 1,4,7-tris(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L CH 3H3 ), 1,4,7-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L(Bu) H3 ) and 1,4,7-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L OCH 3-H3 ) form very stable octahedral neutral complexes LM(III) with trivalent (or tetravalent) metal ions (Ga(III) , Sc(III) , Fe(III) , Mn(III) , Mn(IV) ). The following complexes have been synthesized: [L(Bu) M], where M = Ga (1), Sc (2), Fe (3); [L(Bu) Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4'); [L OCH 3M], where M = Ga (1 a), Sc (2 a), Fe (3 a); [L OCH 3Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4 a'); [L CH 3M], where M = Sc (2 b), Fe (3 b), Mn(III) (4 b); [L CH 3Mn(IV) ]2 (ClO4 )3 (H3 O)(H2 O)3 (4 b'). An electrochemical study has shown that complexes 1, 2, 3, 1 a, 2 a and 3 a each display three reversible, ligand-centred, one-electron oxidation steps. The salts [L OCH 3Fe(III) ]ClO4 and [L OCH 3Ga(III) ]ClO4 , have been isolated as stable crystalline materials. Electronic and EPR spectra prove that these oxidations produce species containing one, two or three coordinated phenoxyl radicals. The Mössbauer spectra of 3 a and [3 a](+) show conclusively that both compounds contain high-spin iron(III) central ions. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that 3 a has an S = 5/2 and [3a](+) an S = 2 ground state. The latter is attained through intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between a high-spin iron(III) (S1 = 5/2) and a phenoxyl radical (S2 = 1/2) (H = - 2JS1 S2 ; J = - 80 cm(-1) ). The manganese complexes undergo metal- and ligand-centred redox processes, which were elucidated by spectroelectrochemistry; a phenoxyl radical Mn(IV) complex [Mn(IV) L OCH 3](2+) is accessible. Copyright © 1997 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of scandium-based oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyns, Laura; Lisoni, Judit G.; Bosch, Geert van den; Elshocht, Sven van; Houdt, Jan van [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} have been investigated as potential high-k intergate dielectric (IGD) in planar NAND flash technology, such as hybrid floating gate (HFG). We have examined the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} on Si using Sc(MeCp){sub 3}, Gd({sup i}PrCp){sub 3}, TMA, and H{sub 2}O as precursors. The composition of Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} ranged from 4% to 76% Gd and from 7% to 66% Al, respectively. All compositions show linear growth behavior. While pure Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} is crystalline as-deposited, the layer becomes amorphous once ∝20% of Al is added. The (222) reflection of the cubic phase is also seen for Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} with less than 9% Gd. The bandgap of as-deposited Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} decreases with increasing Gd content while the opposite trend is observed for Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}. A k-value of ∝21 can be obtained for Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} with approximately 26-52% Gd, irrespective of the Gd content. For Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} on the other hand, a maximum k-value of ∝19 is achieved with ∝48% Al. Although the k-value of Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} is lower than that of Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}, its large breakdown field makes this material more suitable for HFG flash applications. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum powders prealloyed with scandium additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, R.W.; Kraus, N.P.; Bishop, D.P., E-mail: Paul.Bishop@dal.ca

    2016-03-07

    The objective of this research was to commence work on the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of Al–Sc alloys in an effort to develop fundamental data in this area. In this precursory study, a series of binary systems containing 0.1 to 0.4 wt% Sc were processed in laboratory and industrial-scale equipment. Data revealed that all powders were responsive to SPS in both scenarios and that sintering temperature was a variable of critical importance. Hardness of as-sintered products scaled directly with Sc concentration but varied inversely with SPS temperature owing to in-situ aging of the raw powders. Hardness losses could be recovered through a post-SPS heat treatment into the T6 condition. Industrially processed slugs of Al-0.4Sc-T6 exhibited full densification and offered the highest hardness (786+/−8 MPa). This was accompanied by a nominal tensile yield strength of 197 MPa, UTS of 226 MPa and tensile ductility of 11%.

  19. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, J.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show

  20. The structural and magnetic properties of holmium/scandium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho/Sc superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal the novel existence of more than one a lattice parameter. Examining the magnetic properties, it is found that the Ho 4f...

  1. Pulsar Science with the Green Bank 43m Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Langston, G. I.; Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Ransom, S. M.; Crawford, F.

    2011-01-01

    The 43m telescope at the NRAO site in Green Bank, WV has recently been outfitted with a clone of the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI \\cite{Ransom:2009}) backend, making it very useful for a number of pulsar related studies in frequency ranges 800-1600 MHz and 220-440 MHz. Some of the recent science being done with it include: monitoring of the Crab pulsar, a blind search for transient sources, pulsar searches of targets of opportunity, and an all-sky mapping project. F...

  2. Dysregulated connexin 43 in HER2-positive drug resistant breast cancer cells enhances proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Elizabeth S; Williams, Christina J; Williams, Carly Bess; Bonilla, Ingrid V; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy; Phillips, Stephanie L

    2017-12-12

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein whose function in the development of breast cancer and in breast cancer progression remains unclear. Evidence suggests that Cx43 ( GJA1 ) mRNA and protein expression is altered in breast tumors. However, reports indicate both increased and decreased Cx43 levels in human breast cancer samples. Studies also suggest that loss of Cx43 regulated gap junction intercellular communication is a common feature of breast malignancies that potentially correlates with histological stage. Further evidence suggests that Cx43 ( GJA1 ) mRNA expression is negatively correlated with HER2 positivity but a relationship between Cx43 and HER2 in breast cancer is not well defined. Therefore, in this study, we sought to evaluate the relationship between Cx43 activity, HER2, and drug resistance. Using HER2+ breast cancer cell lines that are sensitive or resistant to HER2 inhibitor, we evaluated Cx43 gap junction function. We found that Cx43 gap junction activity is completely lost in drug resistant HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer cells, whereas Cx43 gap junction activity can be restored by Cx43 overexpression in drug sensitive HER2+ cells. Moreover, the dysregulation of Cx43 resulted in increased tumorigenic and migratory capacity of the HER2+ drug resistant breast cancer cells.

  3. Targeting connexin 43 in diabetic wound healing: Future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unknown mechanisms of impaired tissue repair in diabetes mellitus are making this disease a serious clinical problem for the physicians worldwide. The lacuna in the knowledge of the etiology of diabetic wounds necessitates more focused research in order to develop new targeting tools with higher efficacy for their effective management. Gap-junction proteins, connexins, have shown some promising results in the process of diabetic wound healing. Till now the role of connexins has been implicated in peripheral neuropathy, deafness, skin disorders, cataract, germ cell development and treatment of cancer. Recent findings have revealed that gap junctions play a key role in normal as well as diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this review is to provide the information related to etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation of diabetic wounds and to analyze the role of connexin 43 (Cx43 in the diabetic wound healing process. The current control strategies and the future research challenges have also been discussed briefly in this review.

  4. TNO (278361) 2007 JJ43 observed with X-Shooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgeot, F.; Barucci, M. A.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Merlin, F.; Perna, D.; Lazzaro, D.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The trans-Neptunian region of the solar system is populated by a wide variety of icy bodies showing great diversity in orbital behavior, size, surface color, and composition. Aims: We present new ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements for the trans-Neptunian object (278361) 2007 JJ43, which is a dwarf planet candidate. Methods: The observations were performed with the instrument X-Shooter for the 8.2 m ESO Very Large Telescope mounted on the UT2 at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This spectrograph covers the entire 300-2480 nm spectral range at once with a high resolving power. We analyzed the surface composition by modeling the spectra in the complete wavelength range and tried to detect icy compounds. We searched for spectral heterogeneity by comparing spectra obtained at different regions. Results: The spectrum obtained is quite flat and 2007 JJ43 can be classified as a blue-red object. No absorption bands of icy elements were detected in the spectra. However, our models indicate that crystalline water ice is probably not present on the surface in more than a concentration of 6.5%. Observations covering about one-third of the entire surface do not present any differences, suggesting that the surface is apparently homogeneous.

  5. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    -recognition process. Based on its similarity to other related proteins, we predict the passenger, Ag43(alpha), domain primarily to consist of an extended beta-helix structure in which numerous repeats or rungs are stacked in parallel orientation in an extended cylindrical formation. Finally, we found that in spite......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein...... and consists of two moieties: a transporter, the beta-module, and a passenger domain, the alpha-module. Here we have employed various molecular approaches to probe structure/function aspects of Ag43. An entire family of Ag43 variants was identified. The gene encoding Ag43 (flu) was cloned from a diverse range...

  6. Heteronemin, a marine sponge terpenoid, targets TDP-43, a key factor in several neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Chiara; Esposito, Roberta; Tosco, Alessandra; Zampella, Angela; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Riccio, Raffaele; Casapullo, Agostino; Monti, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-14

    Trans-activation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a key factor in several neurodegenerative conditions, was discovered as a novel target of heteronemin by chemical proteomics. Combining bio-physical orthogonal approaches with biological analysis, heteronemin was found to influence the binding of TDP-43-cognate nucleic acids and to modulate the TDP-43 aggregation state and its cellular localization.

  7. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Accounts and Records § 201.43 Payment and accounting for livestock and live... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1) No...

  8. TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia

    OpenAIRE

    James, Bryan D.; Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Trojanowski, John Q; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 proteinopathy may lower the threshold for clinical expression of Alzheimer-type dementia. James et al. investigate the relationship between TDP-43 and Alzheimer’s dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Mixed Alzheimer/TDP-43 pathology is associated with increased likelihood of clinical Alzheimer-type dementia proximate to death, independent of other pathologies.

  9. 29 CFR 4281.43 - Notices of insolvency and annual updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notices of insolvency and annual updates. 4281.43 Section 4281.43 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY... MASS WITHDRAWAL Benefit Suspensions § 4281.43 Notices of insolvency and annual updates. (a) Requirement...

  10. Regulation of connexin43 gap junctional communication by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, Leonie; Ponsioen, Bas; Giepmans, Ben N G; Ariaens, Aafke; Postma, Friso R; Várnai, Péter; Balla, Tamas; Divecha, Nullin; Jalink, Kees; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2007-01-01

    Cell-cell communication through connexin43 (Cx43)-based gap junction channels is rapidly inhibited upon activation of various G protein coupled receptors; however, the mechanism is unknown. We show that Cx43-based cell-cell communication is inhibited by depletion of phosphatidylinositol

  11. Connexin-43 interactions with ZO-1 and alpha- and beta-tubulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, B N; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, W H

    2001-01-01

    Gap junctions are composed of connexins that form transmembrane channels between adjacent cells. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated in the regulation of Cx43 channel gating. Interestingly, channel-independent processes regulated

  12. 9 CFR 355.43 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.43 Scope and applicability of rules of practice. The rules of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and applicability of rules of practice. 355.43 Section 355.43 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. 105.43 Section 105.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a parachute...

  14. 28 CFR 527.43 - Notification of Bureau of Prisons inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of Bureau of Prisons inmates. 527.43 Section 527.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE....43 Notification of Bureau of Prisons inmates. (a) The Warden shall ensure that the institution's...

  15. 14 CFR 43.3 - Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations. 43.3 Section 43.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.3 Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and...

  16. Autophagy induction enhances TDP43 turnover and survival in neuronal ALS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmada, Sami J.; Serio, Andrea; Arjun, Arpana; Bilican, Bilada; Daub, Aaron; Ando, D. Michael; Tsvetkov, Andrey; Pleiss, Michael; Li, Xingli; Peisach, Daniel; Shaw, Christopher; Chandran, Siddharthan; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have distinct clinical features but a common pathology—cytoplasmic inclusions rich in TDP43. Rare TDP43 mutations cause ALS or FTD, but abnormal TDP43 levels and localization may cause disease even if TDP43 lacks a mutation. Here we showed that individual neurons vary in their ability to clear TDP43 and are exquisitely sensitive to TDP43 levels. To measure TDP43 clearance, we developed and validated a single-cell optical method that overcomes the confounding effects of aggregation and toxicity, and discovered that pathogenic mutations significantly shorten TDP43 half-life. Novel compounds that stimulate autophagy improved TDP43 clearance and localization, and enhanced survival in primary murine neurons and in human stem cell–derived neurons and astrocytes harboring mutant TDP43. These findings indicate that the levels and localization of TDP43 critically determine neurotoxicity and show that autophagy induction mitigates neurodegeneration by acting directly on TDP43 clearance. PMID:24974230

  17. 45 CFR 681.43 - How are civil penalties and assessments collected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are civil penalties and assessments collected? 681.43 Section 681.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.43 How are...

  18. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have met...

  19. 24 CFR 203.43e - Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas. 203.43e Section 203.43e Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Properties § 203.43e Eligibility of mortgages covering houses...

  20. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and magpies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., grackles, crows and magpies. 21.43 Section 21.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and... blackbirds, cowbirds, all grackles, crows, and magpies, when found committing or about to commit depredations...

  1. 38 CFR 17.43 - Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hospital or domiciliary care. 17.43 Section 17.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.43 Persons entitled to hospital or domiciliary care. Hospital or domiciliary care may be provided: (a) Not subject to the eligibility...

  2. Characterization of Ruminiclostridium josui arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, RjAxh43B, and RjAxh43B-containing xylanolytic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Taku; Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    A novel gene (axh43B) from Ruminiclostridium josui encoding a cellulosomal enzyme consisting of a catalytic module of subfamily GH43_10, a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module, and a dockerin module, was expressed using Escherichia coli. RjAxh43B released only arabinose from arabinoxylan and 23,33-di-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, but not 32-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylobiose or 23-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, strongly suggesting that RjAxh43B is an arabinoxylan α-l-1,3-arabinofuranohydrolase capable of cleaving α-1,3-linked arabinose residues of doubly arabinosylated xylan. When Axh43B was mixed with the recombinant scaffolding protein RjCipA of R. josui at a molar ratio of 6:1, the activity of the RjAxh43B-RjCipA complex (6:1) toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan was similar to that of RjAxh43B alone, suggesting that RjAxh43B does not show a proximity effect, which is defined as an activity enhancement effect caused by the presence of plural catalytic subunits adjoining each other. When RjAxh43A was mixed with xylanase RjXyn10C, they acted synergistically toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and rice straw powder in the absence of RjCipA. Furthermore, the RjAxh43B-RjXyn10C-RjCipA (3:3:3) complex had higher activity toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan than a mixture of RjAxh43B and RjXyn10C without RjCipA, suggesting that incorporation of a xylanase and an α-l-arabinofuranosidase into a cellulosome is beneficial for more efficiently degrading arabinoxylan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Solidification of the eutectic Sn–43 mol % Bi alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. D.; Frolova, S. A.; Zozulya, A. P.

    2017-07-01

    The processes of melting and solidification of the eutectic Sn-43 mol % Bi alloy are studied by cyclic thermal analysis. It is found that this alloy melts at a temperature T L = 412 K (which corresponds to the reference melting temperature of the eutectic) upon heating and solidifies isothermally at a temperature T S = 394 K upon cooling; that is, the temperature difference is Δ T LS - = 18 K. A comparison of temperatures T L and T S reveals a temperature hysteresis (TH). The activities and the activity coefficients of tin and bismuth in the eutectic are calculated at temperatures T L and T S . The enthalpies of melting at T L and solidification at TS are measured. The ways of changing the Gibbs energy during TH are determined.

  4. High-spin yrast structure of {sup 43}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, T [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Nakamura, M [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Sugimitsu, T [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kusakari, H [Faculty of Education, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Oshima, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Toh, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koizumi, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, A [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Goto, J [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatsukawa, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sugawara, M [Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0023 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    High-spin yrast states in {sup 43}Sc were investigated by using in-beam {gamma}-ray technique with the {sup 27}Al({sup 19}F,p2n) reaction at 50 MeV. The positive-parity rotational band built on the 152-keV J{sup {pi}} = 3/2{sup +} state has been extended up to the terminating J{sup {pi}} = (27/2{sup +}) state. Several fast transitions feeding to the oblate-deformed J{sup {pi}} = 19/2{sup -} isomer have been also identified. the character of the observed levels and transition rates were discussed in comparison with the shell-model calculations.

  5. A 43-level filterless CMLI with very low harmonics values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Bakry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 43-level asymmetric uniform step cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI that consists of four H-bridges per phase, with different dc sources of values E, 2E, 7E and 11E. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP optimization model is applied to determine the switching angles of the CMLI power switches that can minimize the values of any undesired harmonics. Single phase and three phase cases are considered. The results show very low values of all the undesired harmonics over wide voltage ranges, which agree with the IEEE standards 519-1992 for voltage distortion limits for both the values of %THDE and %VHmax so that no output filters are needed.

  6. Pulsar Science with the Green Bank 43 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Langston, G.; Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Ransom, S. M.; Crawford, F.

    2011-08-01

    The 43 m telescope at the NRAO site in Green Bank, WV has recently been outfitted with a clone of the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI [1]) backend, making it very useful for a number of pulsar related studies in frequency ranges 800-1600 MHz and 220-440 MHz. Some of the recent science being done with it include: monitoring of the Crab pulsar, a blind search for transient sources, pulsar searches of targets of opportunity, and an all-sky mapping project. For the Crab monitoring project, regular observations are searched for giant pulses (GPs), which are then correlated with γ-ray photons from the Fermi spacecraft. Data from the all-sky mapping project are first run through a pipeline that does a blind transient search, looking for single pulses over a DM range of 0-500 pc cm-3. These projects are made possible by MIT Lincoln Labs.

  7. Bleeding in a 43 Year Old Female: A Rare Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwabundo Nwankwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old gravida 2 para 2 Caucasian female with a past medical history of menorrhagia secondary to uterine fibroids and thyroid disease presented to the emergency department with complaints of bruising in her oral mucosa and vaginal bleeding. One week prior to this presentation, she was transfused with two units of packed red blood cells because of symptomatic anemia secondary to menorrhagia. Physical examination was normal, except for petechiae on the abdomen and the lower extremities as well as purpuric lesions on the buccal mucosa. Blood work revealed thrombocytopenia. Posttransfusion thrombocytopenia was suspected. The patient was transfused with washed and leukoreduced platelets and treated with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Laboratory studies demonstrated that she was homozygous for the HPA-Ib/1b platelet gene and positive antibodies against class 1 HLA and platelet glycoproteins. The patient responded well to treatment, with normalization of her platelet count.

  8. Mechanics of debris flows and rock avalanches: Chapter 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Fernando, Harindra Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are geophysical phenomena intermediate in character between rock avalanches and flash floods. They commonly originate as water-laden landslides on steep slopes and transform into liquefied masses of fragmented rock, muddy water, and entrained organic matter that disgorge from canyons onto valley floors. Typically including 50%–70% solid grains by volume, attaining speeds >10 m/s, and ranging in size up to ∼109 m3, debris flows can denude mountainsides, inundate floodplains, and devastate people and property (Figure 43.1). Notable recent debris-flow disasters resulted in more than 20,000 fatalities in Armero, Colombia, in 1985 and in Vargas state, Venezuela, in 1999.

  9. Protein kinase C-dependent regulation of connexin43 gap junctions and hemichannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Jette Skov; Stroemlund, Line Waring; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) generates intercellular gap junction channels involved in, among others, cardiac and brain function. Gap junctions are formed by the docking of two hemichannels from neighbouring cells. Undocked Cx43 hemichannels can upon different stimuli open towards the extracellular matrix...... and allow transport of molecules such as fluorescent dyes and ATP. A range of phosphorylated amino acids have been detected in the C-terminus of Cx43 and their physiological role has been intensively studied both in the gap junctional form of Cx43 and in its hemichannel configuration. We present the current...

  10. Prevalence of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy in cognitively normal older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, C; Di Lorenzo Alho, A T; Bazan Conceição Amaral, C; Leite, R E P; Nitrini, R; Jacob-Filho, W; Pasqualucci, C A; Hokkanen, S R K; Hunter, S; Keage, H; Kovacs, G G; Grinberg, L T; Suemoto, C K

    2017-08-09

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy in cognitively normal older adults. We systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults with normal cognition, evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Clinical Dementia Rating. We estimated the overall prevalence of TDP-43 using random-effect models, and stratified by age, sex, sample size, study quality, antibody used to assess TDP-43 aggregates, analysed brain regions, Braak stage, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease score, hippocampal sclerosis and geographic location. A total of 505 articles were identified in the systematic review, and 7 were included in the meta-analysis with 1196 cognitively normal older adults. We found an overall prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy of 24%. Prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy varied widely across geographic location (North America: 37%, Asia: 29%, Europe: 14%, and Latin America: 11%). Estimated prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy also varied according to study quality (quality score >7: 22% vs. quality score diseases are needed. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  11. U6 snRNA expression prevents toxicity in TDP-43-knockdown cells.

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    Masao Yahara

    Full Text Available Depletion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-associated transactivation response (TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 alters splicing efficiency of multiple transcripts and results in neuronal cell death. TDP-43 depletion can also disturb expression levels of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs as spliceosomal components. Despite this knowledge, the relationship between cell death and alteration of snRNA expression during TDP-43 depletion remains unclear. Here, we knocked down TDP-43 in murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells and found a time lag between efficient TDP-43 depletion and appearance of cell death, suggesting that several mechanisms mediate between these two events. The amount of U6 snRNA was significantly decreased during TDP-43 depletion prior to increase of cell death, whereas that of U1, U2, and U4 snRNAs was not. Downregulation of U6 snRNA led to cell death, whereas transient exogenous expression of U6 snRNA counteracted the effect of TDP-43 knockdown on cell death, and slightly decreased the mis-splicing rate of Dnajc5 and Sortilin 1 transcripts, which are assisted by TDP-43. These results suggest that regulation of the U6 snRNA expression level by TDP-43 is a key factor in the increase in cell death upon TDP-43 loss-of-function.

  12. TDP-43 localizes in mRNA transcription and processing sites in mammalian neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocío; Tapia, Olga; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2009-09-01

    TDP-43 is a RNA/DNA-binding protein structurally related to nuclear hnRNP proteins. Previous biochemical studies have shown that this nuclear protein plays a role in the regulation of gene transcription, alternative splicing and mRNA stability. Despite the ubiquitous distribution of TDP-43, the growing list of TDP-43 proteinopathies is primarily associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Particularly, TDP-43 redistributes to the cytoplasm and forms pathological inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and several forms of sporadic and familiar frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Here, we have studied the nuclear compartmentalization of TDP-43 in normal rat neurons by using light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry with molecular markers for nuclear compartments, a transcription assay with 5'-fluorouridine, and in situ hybridization for telomeric DNA. TDP-43 is concentrated in euchromatin domains, specifically in perichromatin fibrils, nuclear sites of transcription and cotranscriptional splicing. In these structures, TDP-43 colocalizes with 5'-fluorouridine incorporation sites into nascent pre-mRNA. TDP-43 is absent in transcriptionally silent centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin, as well as in the Cajal body, a transcription free nuclear compartment. Furthermore, a weak TDP-43 immunolabeling is found in nuclear speckles of splicing factors. The specific localization of TDP-43 in active sites of transcription and cotranscriptional splicing is consistent with biochemical data indicating a role of TDP-43 in the regulation of transcription and alternative splicing.

  13. Enhancement of native and phosphorylated TDP-43 immunoreactivity by proteinase K treatment following autoclave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2011-08-01

    TDP-43 is a major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP). To evaluate the effectiveness of proteinase K (PK) treatment in antigen retrieval for native and phosphorylated TDP-43 protein, we examined the temporal cortex and spinal cord from patients with sporadic ALS and FTLD-TDP and control subjects. PK treatment following heat retrieval enhanced the immunoreactivity for native TDP-43 in controls as well as for native and phosphorylated TDP-43 in ALS and FTLD-TDP. A significant number of TDP-43-positive neuropil threads were demonstrated in lesions, in which routine immunohistochemistry revealed that the predominant inclusions are cytoplasmic. This retrieval method is the best of immunohistochemical techniques for demonstrating TDP-43 pathology, especially in the neuropil. © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  14. Connexin43 modulates cell polarity and directional cell migration by regulating microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Francis

    Full Text Available Knockout mice deficient in the gap junction gene connexin43 exhibit developmental anomalies associated with abnormal neural crest, primordial germ cell, and proepicardial cell migration. These migration defects are due to a loss of directional cell movement, and are associated with abnormal actin stress fiber organization and a loss of polarized cell morphology. To elucidate the mechanism by which Cx43 regulates cell polarity, we used a wound closure assays with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs to examine polarized cell morphology and directional cell movement. Studies using embryonic fibroblasts from Cx43 knockout (Cx43KO mice showed Cx43 deficiency caused cell polarity defects as characterized by a failure of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule organizing center to reorient with the direction of wound closure. Actin stress fibers at the wound edge also failed to appropriately align, and stabilized microtubule (Glu-tubulin levels were markedly reduced. Forced expression of Cx43 with deletion of its tubulin-binding domain (Cx43dT in both wildtype MEFs and neural crest cell explants recapitulated the cell migration defects seen in Cx43KO cells. However, forced expression of Cx43 with point mutation causing gap junction channel closure had no effect on cell motility. TIRF imaging revealed increased microtubule instability in Cx43KO cells, and microtubule targeting of membrane localized Cx43 was reduced with expression of Cx43dT construct in wildtype cells. Together, these findings suggest the essential role of Cx43 gap junctions in development is mediated by regulation of the tubulin cytoskeleton and cell polarity by Cx43 via a nonchannel function.

  15. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, Rabih S., E-mail: rtalhouk@aub.edu.lb [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Sabban, Marwan E., E-mail: me00@aub.edu.lb [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-12-10

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  16. TDP-43 expression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorge Olaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Redistribution of nuclear TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43 to the cytoplasm and ubiquitinated inclusions of spinal motor neurons and glial cells is characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS pathology. Recent evidence suggests that TDP-43 pathology is common to sporadic ALS and familial ALS without SOD1 mutation, but not SOD1-related fALS cases. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether TDP-43 abnormalities occur in non-ALS forms of motor neuron disease. Here, we characterise TDP-43 localisation, expression levels and post-translational modifications in mouse models of ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. Results TDP-43 mislocalisation to ubiquitinated inclusions or cytoplasm was notably lacking in anterior horn cells from transgenic mutant SOD1G93A mice. In addition, abnormally phosphorylated or truncated TDP-43 species were not detected in fractionated ALS mouse spinal cord or brain. Despite partial colocalisation of TDP-43 with SMN, depletion of SMN- and coilin-positive Cajal bodies in motor neurons of affected SMA mice did not alter nuclear TDP-43 distribution, expression or biochemistry in spinal cords. Conclusion These results emphasise that TDP-43 pathology characteristic of human sporadic ALS is not a core component of the neurodegenerative mechanisms caused by SOD1 mutation or SMN deficiency in mouse models of ALS and SMA, respectively.

  17. Lycopene ameliorates neuropathic pain by upregulating spinal astrocytic connexin 43 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Morioka, Norimitsu; Kitamura, Tomoya; Fujii, Shiori; Miyauchi, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yoki; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-15

    Peripheral nerve injury upregulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression. In turn, connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in spinal astrocytes is downregulated by TNF. Therefore, restoration of spinal astrocyte Cx43 expression to normal level could lead to the reduction of nerve injury-induced pain. While the non-provitaminic carotenoid lycopene reverses thermal hyperalgesia in mice with painful diabetic neuropathy, the antinociceptive mechanism is not entirely clear. The current study evaluated whether the antinociceptive effect of lycopene is mediated through the modulation of Cx43 expression in spinal astrocytes. The effect of lycopene on Cx43 expression was examined in cultured rat spinal astrocytes. The effect of intrathecal lycopene on Cx43 expression and neuropathic pain were evaluated in mice with partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). Treatment of cultured rat spinal astrocytes with lycopene reversed TNF-induced downregulation of Cx43 protein expression through a transcription-independent mechanism. By contrast, treatment of cultured spinal astrocytes with either pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene or antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine had no effect on TNF-induced downregulation of Cx43 protein expression. In addition, repeated, but not single, intrathecal treatment with lycopene of mice with a partial sciatic nerve ligation significantly prevented not only the downregulation of Cx43 expression in spinal dorsal horn but mechanical hypersensitivity as well. The current findings suggest a significant spinal mechanism that mediates the analgesic effect of lycopene, through the restoration of normal spinal Cx43 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TLR2 mediates gap junctional intercellular communication through connexin-43 in intestinal epithelial barrier injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Birgit; Eyking, Annette; Gerken, Guido; Podolsky, Daniel K; Cario, Elke

    2009-08-14

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) coordinates cellular functions essential for sustaining tissue homeostasis; yet its regulation in the intestine is not well understood. Here, we identify a novel physiological link between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and GJIC through modulation of Connexin-43 (Cx43) during acute and chronic inflammatory injury of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) barrier. Data from in vitro studies reveal that TLR2 activation modulates Cx43 synthesis and increases GJIC via Cx43 during IEC injury. The ulcerative colitis-associated TLR2-R753Q mutant targets Cx43 for increased proteasomal degradation, impairing TLR2-mediated GJIC during intestinal epithelial wounding. In vivo studies using mucosal RNA interference show that TLR2-mediated mucosal healing depends functionally on intestinal epithelial Cx43 during acute inflammatory stress-induced damage. Mice deficient in TLR2 exhibit IEC-specific alterations in Cx43, whereas administration of a TLR2 agonist protects GJIC by blocking accumulation of Cx43 and its hyperphosphorylation at Ser368 to prevent spontaneous chronic colitis in MDR1alpha-deficient mice. Finally, adding the TLR2 agonist to three-dimensional intestinal mucosa-like cultures of human biopsies preserves intestinal epithelial Cx43 integrity and polarization ex vivo. In conclusion, Cx43 plays an important role in innate immune control of commensal-mediated intestinal epithelial wound repair.

  19. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  20. Connexin43 Controls the Myofibroblastic Differentiation of Bronchial Fibroblasts from Patients with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw, Milena; Borek, Izabela; Wnuk, Dawid; Ryszawy, Damian; Piwowarczyk, Katarzyna; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Wójcik-Pszczoła, Katarzyna A; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Madeja, Zbigniew; Sanak, Marek; Błyszczuk, Przemysław; Michalik, Marta; Czyż, Jarosław

    2017-07-01

    Pathologic accumulation of myofibroblasts in asthmatic bronchi is regulated by extrinsic stimuli and by the intrinsic susceptibility of bronchial fibroblasts to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The specific function of gap junctions and connexins in this process has remained unknown. Here, we investigated the role of connexin43 (Cx43) in TGF-β-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts derived from bronchoscopic biopsy specimens of patients with asthma and donors without asthma. Asthmatic fibroblasts expressed considerably higher levels of Cx43 and were more susceptible to TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation than were their nonasthmatic counterparts. TGF-β1 efficiently up-regulated Cx43 levels and activated the canonical Smad pathway in asthmatic cells. Ectopic Cx43 expression in nonasthmatic (Cx43low) fibroblasts increased their predilection to TGF-β1-induced Smad2 activation and fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Transient Cx43 silencing in asthmatic (Cx43high) fibroblasts by Cx43 small interfering RNA attenuated the TGF-β1-triggered Smad2 activation and myofibroblast formation. Direct interactions of Smad2 and Cx43 with β-tubulin were demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation assay, whereas the sensitivity of these interactions to TGF-β1 signaling was confirmed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer analyses. Furthermore, inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway attenuated TGF-β1-triggered Cx43 up-regulation and myofibroblast differentiation of asthmatic fibroblasts. Chemical inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication with 18 α-glycyrrhetinic acid did not affect the initiation of fibroblast-myofibroblast transition in asthmatic fibroblasts but interfered with the maintenance of their myofibroblastic phenotype. Collectively, our data identified Cx43 as a new player in the feedback mechanism regulating TGF-β1/Smad-dependent differentiation of bronchial fibroblasts. Thus, our observations point to Cx43 as a novel

  1. Factors influencing childhood conduct disorders: Study of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili B

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorders are a group of behavior disorders in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate social norms or rules are violated. To evaluate the factors influencing childhood conduct disorders, we reviewed records of 43 cases (84% boys, mean age 11 years referred to Shahid Esmaili psychiatric hospital, Tehran. All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of DSMIV. 15 variables were included; Age and sex and step of patient among sibling, parental educational level, social class of the family, medical and psychiatric history of entire family members and the kind of therapy. The most frequent complaints were aggressiveness, stealing and lying. The dominant age group was 10-14 years. The most frequent family members were 5. Most of the children were 2nd child of the family. The most often educational level of the parents were illiteracy followed by primary school educated. Most of the patients were of low to intermediate socioeconomic classes. The most effective therapy was behavior modification along with appropriate medications.

  2. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  3. Extending the ICRF to higher radio frequencies: 24 & 43 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Charlot, Patrick; Gordon, David; Lanyi, Gabor; Ma, Chopo; Naudet, Charles; Sovers, Ojars; Zhang, Liwei

    2005-01-01

    Astrometric observations of active galactic nuclei have been used to construct quasi-inertial global reference frames most notably the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) which now forms the basis for all astrometry including deep space navigation. The ICRF was defined using X- (8.4 GHz) and S-band (2.3 GHz) observations collected over 20+ years. There are several motivations for extending this work to higher frequencies namely to construct a more stable frame based on more compact sources to provide calibrators for phase referencing and to support spacecraft navigation at higher frequencies. Survey observations using the Very Long Baseline Array at K-band (24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz) have been undertaken to pursue these goals. Three observing sessions have covered the full 24 hours of right ascension and declination down to -30 deg. The resulting catalog of 80+ sources has K-band median formal position uncertainties of < 200 micro-arcseconds. The Q-band positional uncertainties are about 1.5 times larger. Group delay residuals were excellent at ~20 psec weighted RMS. Comparison of the K-band frame to the S/X-band ICRF shows systematic errors which we will discuss. The research performed at JPL-Caltech and GSFC was done under contract with NASA.

  4. Hb TAYBE: clinical and morphological findings IN 43 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ariel; Levin, Carina; Zalman, Luci; Palmor, Haya; Filon, Dvora; Chubar, Evgeny; Resnitzky, Peretz; Bennett, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary sequence variants in globin genes are usually silent and are rarer in α-globin chains than β-globin chains. Some may lead to an unstable protein with a hemolytic or thalassemic phenotype. Hb Taybe is an unstable α-chain hemoglobin variant caused by the deletion of a threonine residue at codon 38 or 39 of the α1 globin gene. This deletion results in a structural abnormality that affects the α1 β2 contact and the α1 β1 interface, producing a highly unstable Hb. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and morphological characteristics of 43 patients with Hb Taybe, sixteen of whom are heterozygous, eight are homozygous, and nineteen are double heterozygous for Hb Taybe and other α-gene mutations or deletions. The clinical presentation is very variable from a mild hemolytic anemia to the need for red cell transfusion. Morphological characteristics include erythroid hyperplasia, defective hemoglobin production, and dyserythropoietic features. On electron microscopy dyserythropoiesis and cytoplasmic precipitation of globin compatible optical dense material is seen. This is the largest report of Hb Taybe patients. Previous reported cohorts are not related to these cases. We conclude that patients carrying Hb Taybe have a unique hematological and clinical phenotype distinct from other hemoglobinopathies and from congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. SrMnII2MnIII(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Alhakmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, strontium trimanganese tris(orthophosphate, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Its structure is isotypic to that of the lead analogue PbMnII2MnIII(PO43. Two O atoms are in general positions, whereas all others atoms are in special positions. The Sr and one P atom exhibit mm2 symmetry, the MnII atom 2/m symmetry, the MnIII atom and the other P atom .2. symmetry and two O atoms are located on mirror planes. The three-dimensional network of the crystal structure is made up of two types of chains running parallel to [010]. One chain is linear and is composed of alternating MnIIIO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra sharing vertices; the other chain has a zigzag arrangement and is built up from two edge-sharing MnIIO6 octahedra connected to PO4 tetrahedra by edges and vertices. The two types of chains are linked through PO4 tetrahedra, leading to the formation of channels parallel to [100] and [010] in which the SrII ions are located. They are surrounded by eight O atoms in the form of a slightly distorted bicapped trigonal prism.

  6. The Splicing Factor Prp43p, a DEAH Box ATPase, Functions in Ribosome Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Nina B.; Small, Eliza C.; Hiley, Shawna L.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Staley, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenesis of the small and large ribosomal subunits requires modification, processing, and folding of pre-rRNA to yield mature rRNA. Here, we report that efficient biogenesis of both small- and large-subunit rRNAs requires the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p, a pre-mRNA splicing factor. By steady-state analysis, a cold-sensitive prp43 mutant accumulates 35S pre-rRNA and depletes 20S, 27S, and 7S pre-rRNAs, precursors to the small- and large-subunit rRNAs. By pulse-chase analysis, the prp43 mutant is defective in the formation of 20S and 27S pre-rRNAs and in the accumulation of 18S and 25S mature rRNAs. Wild-type Prp43p immunoprecipitates pre-rRNAs and mature rRNAs, indicating a direct role in ribosome biogenesis. The Prp43p-Q423N mutant immunoprecipitates 27SA2 pre-rRNA threefold more efficiently than the wild type, suggesting a critical role for Prp43p at the earliest stages of large-subunit biogenesis. Consistent with an early role for Prp43p in ribosome biogenesis, Prp43p immunoprecipitates the majority of snoRNAs; further, compared to the wild type, the prp43 mutant generally immunoprecipitates the snoRNAs more efficiently. In the prp43 mutant, the snoRNA snR64 fails to methylate residue C2337 in 27S pre-rRNA, suggesting a role in snoRNA function. We propose that Prp43p promotes recycling of snoRNAs and biogenesis factors during pre-rRNA processing, similar to its recycling role in pre-mRNA splicing. The dual function for Prp43p in the cell raises the possibility that ribosome biogenesis and pre-mRNA splicing may be coordinately regulated. PMID:16382143

  7. GPR43 - A Prototypic Metabolite Sensor Linking Metabolic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Craig I; Mackay, Charles R; Macia, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are released upon fermentation of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), a key receptor for SCFAs, is expressed on cell types important for immunity and metabolism. GPR43 modulates both inflammatory and metabolic processes, and is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of 'Western lifestyle' diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of Cx43 gap junctions: the gatekeeper and the password.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Z; Boynton, A L

    2000-10-17

    Gap junctions are regulatable pores that connect the cytoplasms of neighboring cells. Hossain and Boynton focus on connexin 43 gap junctions and their regulation by changing the phosphorylation status of the COOH-terminal domain of connexin 43 or by altering protein-protein interactions in this region. The COOH-terminal domain of connexin 43 appears to be a key player in regulating gap junctional communication (GJC) because many divergent signals in many different cell types modify this domain to inhibit GJC.

  9. [Segmental neurofibromatosis in children. Presentation of 43 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Velázquez-Fragua, R; Viaño, J; López-Gutiérrez, J C

    It is known as segmental neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) a type of NF1 characterized by the features circumscribed to one or more body cutaneous and/or subcutaneous segments. This entity is recognized from recently and it is related with somatic mosaicism. 43 patients (29 females and 14 males) with ages below 16 years were retrospectively studied. Image study of the affected region of the body was performed in all patients to discard a subjacent organic disease, and a neurofibroma was histologically demonstrated in some cases. Somatic or gonosomal mosaicism was not investigated in any of the patients. Only 8 patients showed cutaneous lesion--7 with café-au-lait spots (3 of freckles type, 4 of large spots, of which, 3 were bilateral and 1 unilateral ) and 1 presented neurofibromas-. The other cases (81%) had cutaneous lesion with subjacent lesion (neurofibromas and bone dysplasia in most cases). The subcutaneous lesions were seen in all parts of the body without a preferent location. In cases with only cutaneous lesion, the clinical features were seen on the trunk skin. Segmental NF1 is considered to be the result of a somatic or gonosomal mosaicism and still is underdiagnosed. Features of segmental NF1 can be found in as many regions of the body as NF1 without mosaicism. The types of segmental NF1 that were seen less frequently in this series were those with only cutaneous features (café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas). Types with subcutaneous features that involved subjacent organs were seen in 81% of patients. Familial patients, with NF1 or segmental NF1 was shown in 15 patients (35%) and bilateral lesion in 4 cases (9.3%).

  10. Biochemical and kinetic characterisation of a novel xylooligosaccharide-upregulated GH43 β-d-xylosidase/α-l-arabinofuranosidase (BXA43) from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Alexander Holm; Sørensen, Kim Ib; Gilad, Ofir

    2013-01-01

    The Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 gene BIF_00092, assigned to encode a β-d-xylosidase (BXA43) of glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43), was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli. BXA43 was purified to homogeneity from the cell lysate and found to be a dual...

  11. Interaction of connexin43 and protein kinase C-delta during FGF2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stains Joseph P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that modulation of the gap junction protein, connexin43, can affect the response of osteoblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 in a protein kinase C-delta-dependent manner. Others have shown that the C-terminal tail of connexin43 serves as a docking platform for signaling complexes. It is unknown whether protein kinase C-delta can physically interact with connexin43. Results In the present study, we investigate by immunofluorescent co-detection and biochemical examination the interaction between Cx43 and protein kinase C-delta. We establish that protein kinase C-delta physically interacts with connexin43 during fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling, and that protein kinase C delta preferentially co-precipitates phosphorylated connexin43. Further, we show by pull down assay that protein kinase C-delta associates with the C-terminal tail of connexin43. Conclusions Connexin43 can serve as a direct docking platform for the recruitment of protein kinase C-delta in order to affect fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in osteoblasts. These data expand the list of signal molecules that assemble on the connexin43 C-terminal tail and provide a critical context to understand how gap junctions modify signal transduction cascades in order to impact cell function.

  12. HPV16 E6 Controls the Gap Junction Protein Cx43 in Cervical Tumour Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes a range of cancers including cervical and head and neck cancers. HPV E6 oncoprotein binds the cell polarity regulator hDlg (human homologue of Drosophila Discs Large. Previously we showed in vitro, and now in vivo, that hDlg also binds Connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of gap junctions that mediate intercellular transfer of small molecules. In HPV16-positive non-tumour cervical epithelial cells (W12G Cx43 localised to the plasma membrane, while in W12T tumour cells derived from these, it relocated with hDlg into the cytoplasm. We now provide evidence that E6 regulates this cytoplasmic pool of Cx43. E6 siRNA depletion in W12T cells resulted in restoration of Cx43 and hDlg trafficking to the cell membrane. In C33a HPV-negative cervical tumour cells expressing HPV16 or 18 E6, Cx43 was located primarily in the cytoplasm, but mutation of the 18E6 C-terminal hDlg binding motif resulted in redistribution of Cx43 to the membrane. The data indicate for the first time that increased cytoplasmic E6 levels associated with malignant progression alter Cx43 trafficking and recycling to the membrane and the E6/hDlg interaction may be involved. This suggests a novel E6-associated mechanism for changes in Cx43 trafficking in cervical tumour cells.

  13. Technological and probiotic potential of BGRA43 a natural isolate of Lactobacillus helveticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eStrahinic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 is a human intestinal isolate showing antimicrobial activity, amongst others, against Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. BGRA43 produces PrtH proteinase with proteolytic activity on both casein and β-lactoglobulin (BLG. BGRA43 is able to reduce the allergenicity of BLG. Bioactive peptides released in BGRA43 fermented milk are potent modulators of innate immunity by modulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. BGRA43 is able to survive in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The growth of BGRA43 in milk results in a fast acidification lowering the milk pH to 4.53 generating mild, homogeneous and viscous yoghurt-like product. The strain BGRA43 grows suitably in pure cow or goat’s milk as well as in milk containing inulin or nutrim even when they are used as the sole carbon source. It is suggested that strain BGRA43 could be used as a single-strain culture for the preparation of yoghurt-like products from bovine or caprine milk. Overall, L. helveticus BGRA43 could be considered as a potential probiotic candidate with appropriate technological properties attractive for the dairy industry.

  14. Mutant TDP-43 within motor neurons drives disease onset but not progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsworth, Dara; Maldonado, Marcus; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Sun, Shuying; Seelman, Amanda; Drenner, Kevin; Arnold, Eveline; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Pizzo, Donald; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Da Cruz, Sandrine

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in TDP-43 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease characterized by degeneration and premature death of motor neurons. The contribution of mutant TDP-43-mediated damage within motor neurons was evaluated using mice expressing a conditional allele of an ALS-causing TDP-43 mutant (Q331K) whose broad expression throughout the central nervous system mimics endogenous TDP-43. TDP-43Q331K mice develop age- and mutant-dependent motor deficits from degeneration and death of motor neurons. Cre-recombinase-mediated excision of the TDP-43Q331K gene from motor neurons is shown to delay onset of motor symptoms and appearance of TDP-43-mediated aberrant nuclear morphology, and abrogate subsequent death of motor neurons. However, reduction of mutant TDP-43 selectively in motor neurons did not prevent age-dependent degeneration of axons and neuromuscular junction loss, nor did it attenuate astrogliosis or microgliosis. Thus, disease mechanism is non-cell autonomous with mutant TDP-43 expressed in motor neurons determining disease onset but progression defined by mutant acting within other cell types.

  15. Casein kinase II induced polymerization of soluble TDP-43 into filaments is inhibited by heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Yari; Zhang, Yongjie; Davis, Mary; Lin, Wen-Lang; Cook, Casey; Dunmore, Judy; Tay, William; Menkosky, Kyle; Cao, Xiangkun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Deture, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Trans-activation Response DNA-binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) lesions are observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and 25-50% of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cases. These abnormal protein inclusions are composed of either amorphous TDP-43 aggregates or highly ordered filaments. The filamentous TDP-43 accumulations typically contain clean 10-12 nm filaments though wider 18-20 nm coated filaments may be observed. The TDP-43 present within these lesions is phosphorylated, truncated and ubiquitinated, and these modifications appear to be abnormal as they are linked to both a cellular heat shock response and microglial activation. The mechanisms associated with this abnormal TDP-43 accumulation are believed to result in a loss of TDP-43 function, perhaps due to the post-translational modifications or resulting from physical sequestration of the TDP-43. The formation of TDP-43 inclusions involves cellular translocation and conversion of TDP-43 into fibrillogenic forms, but the ability of these accumulations to sequester normal TDP-43 and propagate this behavior between neurons pathologically is mostly inferred. The lack of methodology to produce soluble full length TDP-43 and recapitulate this polymerization into filaments as observed in disease has limited our understanding of these pathogenic cascades. The protocols described here generate soluble, full-length and untagged TDP-43 allowing for a direct assessment of the impact of various posttranslational modifications on TDP-43 function. We demonstrate that Casein Kinase II (CKII) promotes the polymerization of this soluble TDP-43 into 10 nm diameter filaments that resemble the most common TDP-43 structures observed in disease. Furthermore, these filaments are recognized as abnormal by Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) which can inhibit TDP-43 polymerization or directly promote TDP-43 filament depolymerization. These findings demonstrate CKII induces

  16. Tumores del estroma gastrointestinal: Estudio retrospectivo de 43 casos Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a retrospective study of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alberto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST son poco frecuentes, con una incidencia de 10 a 20 casos por millón de habitantes y año. Aparecen en todo el tubo digestivo, mesenterio o epiplón adyacente; siendo más frecuentes en el estómago (60-70%; también pueden aparecer en el intestino delgado (20-25%, colon y recto (5% y esófago (Background: gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare (10 to 20/million. They exist in the whole digestive system and its surroundings, and are most common in the stomach (70%, followed by the small intestine (20-25%, colon and rectum (5%, and esophagus (< 5%. Their clinical presentation varies from small, incidentally found nodules to large and aggressive tumors. Nowadays GISTs are classified according to Fletcher's classification. Objective: to review the features of our GIST population. Methods: a retrospective study of GIST patients identified by immunohistochemical criteria, from 1997 to December 2007, and classified according to Fletcher's criteria. Results: 43 patients were included (24 men, 19 women with a mean age of 62.7 years. Gastric GISTs (20 cases, 46.5%, small intestine GISTs (18 cases, 41.9%; in 5 cases metastases of occult tumors were found. Eighteen cases had no symptoms. Tumors were classified according to Fletcher's criteria as high-risk (n = 19, intermediate-risk (n = 7, low-risk (n = 12, and indeterminate-risk (n = 5. Death occurred in 10 patients, and 13 patients had metastatic disease. Conclusions: our results are in accordance with the world literature, in which a majority of cases are men with gastric tumors. The 5-year survival rate was 42%. Fletcher's criteria were easily applicable criteria and could predict tumor behavior.

  17. Sulforaphane counteracts aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer driven by dysregulated Cx43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyao; Isayev, Orkhan; Heilmann, Katharina; Schoensiegel, Frank; Liu, Li; Nessling, Michelle; Richter, Karsten; Labsch, Sabrina; Nwaeburu, Clifford C.; Mattern, Juergen; Gladkich, Jury; Giese, Nathalia; Werner, Jens; Schemmer, Peter; Gross, Wolfgang; Gebhard, Martha M.; Gerhauser, Clarissa; Schaefer, Michael; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The extreme aggressiveness of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has been associated with blocked gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). We examined whether disturbed GJIC is responsible for a CSC phenotype in established and primary cancer cells and patient tissue of PDA using interdisciplinary methods based in physiology, cell and molecular biology, histology and epigenetics. Flux of fluorescent dyes and gemcitabine through gap junctions (GJs) was intact in less aggressive cells but not in highly malignant cells with morphological dysfunctional GJs. Among several connexins, only Cx43 was expressed on the cell surface of less aggressive and GJIC-competent cells, whereas Cx43 surface expression was absent in highly malignant, E-cadherin-negative and GJIC-incompetent cells. The levels of total Cx43 protein and Cx43 phosphorylated at Ser368 and Ser279/282 were high in normal tissue but low to absent in malignant tissue. si-RNA-mediated inhibition of Cx43 expression in GJIC-competent cells prevented GJIC and induced colony formation and the expression of stem cell-related factors. The bioactive substance sulforaphane enhanced Cx43 and E-cadherin levels, inhibited the CSC markers c-Met and CD133, improved the functional morphology of GJs and enhanced GJIC. Sulforaphane altered the phosphorylation of several kinases and their substrates and inhibition of GSK3, JNK and PKC prevented sulforaphane-induced CX43 expression. The sulforaphane-mediated expression of Cx43 was not correlated with enhanced Cx43 RNA expression, acetylated histone binding and Cx43 promoter de-methylation, suggesting that posttranslational phosphorylation is the dominant regulatory mechanism. Together, the absence of Cx43 prevents GJIC and enhances aggressiveness, whereas sulforaphane counteracts this process, and our findings highlight dietary co-treatment as a viable treatment option for PDA. PMID:24742583

  18. Role of gap junction protein connexin43 in astrogliosis induced by brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Theodoric

    Full Text Available Astrogliosis is a process that involves morphological and biochemical changes associated with astrocyte activation in response to cell damage in the brain. The upregulation of intermediate filament proteins including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, nestin and vimentin are often used as indicators for astrogliosis. Although connexin43 (Cx43, a channel protein widely expressed in adult astrocytes, exhibits enhanced immunoreactivity in the peri-lesion region, its role in astrogliosis is still unclear. Here, we correlated the temporal and spatial expression of Cx43 to the activation of astrocytes and microglia in response to an acute needle stab wound in vivo. We found large numbers of microglia devoid of Cx43 in the needle wound at 3 days post injury (dpi while reactive astrocytes expressing Cx43 were present in the peripheral zone surrounding the injury site. A redistribution of Cx43 to the needle site, corresponding to the increased presence of GFAP-positive reactive astrocytes in the region, was only apparent from 6 dpi and sustained until at least 15 dpi. Interestingly, the extent of microglial activation and subsequent astrogliosis in the brain of Cx43 knockout mice was significantly larger than those of wild type, suggesting that Cx43 expression limits the degree of microgliosis. Although Cx43 is not essential for astrogliosis and microglial activation induced by a needle injury, our results demonstrate that Cx43 is a useful marker for injury induced astrogliosis due to its enhanced expression specifically within a small region of the lesion for an extended period. As a channel protein, Cx43 is a potential in vivo diagnostic tool of asymptomatic brain injury.

  19. Connexin 43 expression in human and mouse testes with impaired spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kotula-Balak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Connexin 43 (Cx43 belongs to a family of proteins that form gap junction channels. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of Cx43 in the testis of a patient with Klinefelter’s syndrome and of mice with the mosaic mutation and a partial deletion in the long arm of the Y chromosome. These genetic disorders are characterized by the presence of numerous degenerated seminiferous tubules and impaired spermatogenesis. In mouse testes, the expression and presence of Cx43 were detected by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. In testes of Klinefelter’s patient only immunoexpression of Cx43 was detected. Regardless of the species Cx43 protein was ubiquitously distributed in testes of reproductively normal males, whereas in those with testicular disorders either a weak intensity of staining or no staining within the seminiferous tubules was observed. Moderate to strong or very strong staining was confined to the interstitial tissue. In an immunoblot analysis of testicular homogenates Cx43 appeared as one major band of approximately 43 kDa. Our study adds three more examples of pathological gonads in which the absence or apparent decrease of Cx43 expression within the seminiferous tubules was found. A positive correlation between severe spermatogenic impairment and loss of Cx43 immunoreactivity observed in this study supports previous data that gap junctions play a crucial role in spermatogenesis. Strong Cx43 expression detected mostly in the interstitial tissue of the Klinefelter’s patient may presumably be of importance in sustaining Leydig cell metabolic activity. However, the role of gap junction communication in the control of Leydig cell function seems to be more complex than originally thought.

  20. Hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology in aging and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sukriti; Yu, Lei; Capuano, Ana W; Wilson, Robert S; Leurgans, Sue E; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the association of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) with TAR-DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) and other common age-related pathologies, dementia, probable Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive domains in community-dwelling older subjects. Diagnoses of dementia, probable AD, and MCI in 636 autopsied subjects from the Religious Order Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project were based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests. HS was defined as severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 and/or subiculum. The severity and distribution of TDP-43 were assessed, and other age-related pathologies were also documented. HS was more common in those aged >90 years (18.0%) compared to younger subjects (9.2%). HS cases commonly coexisted with TDP-43 pathology (86%), which was more severe (p pathology; only TDP-43 pathology increased the odds of HS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.07-3.34). In logistic regression models accounting for age, TDP-43, and other common age-related pathologies, HS cases had higher odds of dementia (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.93-7.16), MCI, and probable AD (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.01-7.02). In linear regression models, including an interaction term for HS and TDP-43 pathology, HS with coexisting TDP-43 was associated with lower function in multiple cognitive domains, whereas HS without TDP-43 did not have statistically significant associations. TDP-43 without HS was separately related to lower episodic memory. The combined roles of HS and TDP-43 pathology are significant factors underlying global cognitive impairment and probable AD in older subjects. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  1. Hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology in aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sukriti; Yu, Lei; Capuano, Ana W.; Wilson, Robert S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) with TAR-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) and other common age-related pathologies, dementia, probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitive domains in community-dwelling older subjects. Methods Diagnoses of dementia, probable AD and MCI in 636 autopsied subjects from the Religious Order Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project were based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests. HS was defined as severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1and/or subiculum. The severity and distribution of TDP-43 was assessed and other age-related pathologies were also documented. Results HS was more common in those aged > 90 years (18.0%) compared to younger subjects (9.2%). HS cases commonly coexisted with TDP-43 pathology (86%), which was more severe (p pathology; only TDP-43 pathology increased the odds of HS (OR=2.63; 95% CI 2.07-3.34). In logistic regression models accounting for age, TDP-43 and other common age-related pathologies; HS cases had higher odds of dementia (OR=3.71; 95% CI=1.93-7.16), MCI and probable AD (OR=3.75; 95% CI=2.01-7.02). In linear regression models, including an interaction term for HS and TDP-43 pathology; HS with coexisting TDP-43 was associated with lower function in multiple cognitive domains while HS without TDP-43 did not have statistically significant associations. TDP-43 without HS was separately related to lower episodic memory. Interpretation The combined role of hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology are significant factors underlying global cognitive impairment and probable AD in older subjects. PMID:25707479

  2. Norepinephrine inhibits intercellular coupling in rat cardiomyocytes by ubiquitination of connexin43 gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Hofgaard, Johannes P; Braunstein, Thomas H; Kjenseth, Ane; Leithe, Edward; Rivedal, Edgar; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2011-08-01

    Gαq-stimulation reduces intercellular coupling within 10 min via a decrease in the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), but the mechanism is unknown. Here we show that uncoupling in rat cardiomyocytes after stimulation of α-adrenergic Gαq-coupled receptors with norepinephrine is prevented by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, suggesting that internalization and possibly degradation of connexin43 (Cx43) is involved. Uncoupling was accompanied by increased Triton X-100 solubility of Cx43, which is considered a measure of the non-junctional pool of Cx43. However, inhibition of the proteasome and lysosome further increased solubility while preserving coupling, suggesting that communicating gap junctions can be part of the soluble fraction. Ubiquitination of Cx43 was also increased, and Cx43 co-immunoprecipitated with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Norepinephrine increases ubiquitination of Cx43 in cardiomyocytes, possibly via Nedd4. We suggest that Cx43 is subsequently internalized, which is preceded by acquired solubility in Triton X-100, which does not lead to uncoupling per se.

  3. Prp43p Is a DEAH-Box Spliceosome Disassembly Factor Essential for Ribosome Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, D. Joshua; Nagel, Roland J.; Ares, Manuel; Stevens, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    The known function of the DEXH/D-box protein Prp43p is the removal of the U2, U5, and U6 snRNPs from the postsplicing lariat-intron ribonucleoprotein complex. We demonstrate that affinity-purified Prp43p-associated material includes the expected spliceosomal components; however, we also identify several preribosomal complexes that are specifically purified with Prp43p. Conditional prp43 mutant alleles confer a 35S pre-rRNA processing defect, with subsequent depletion of 27S and 20S precursors. Upon a shift to a nonpermissive temperature, both large and small-ribosomal-subunit proteins accumulate in the nucleolus of prp43 mutants. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrates delayed kinetics of 35S, 27S, and 20S pre-rRNA processing with turnover of these intermediates. Microarray analysis of pre-mRNA splicing defects in prp43 mutants shows a very mild effect, similar to that of nonessential pre-mRNA splicing factors. Prp43p is the first DEXH/D-box protein shown to function in both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II transcript metabolism. Its essential function is in its newly characterized role in ribosome biogenesis of both ribosomal subunits, positioning Prp43p to regulate both pre-mRNA splicing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:16382144

  4. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chung-ke [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tzong-Huah [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chu-Ya [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-heng [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse, E-mail: jthuang@chem.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  5. 29 CFR 96.43 - Relation of organization-wide audits to other audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Relation of organization-wide audits to other audit requirements. 96.43 Section 96.43 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Access to Records, Audit Standards and Relation of Organization-wide Audits...

  6. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and speeds...

  7. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. 104.43 Section 104.43 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... the United States for the year 2000. In cases where the victim was a minor child, the Special Master...

  9. Membrane connexin 43 acts as an independent prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Jung, Klaus; Perske, Christina; Schliephake, Henning; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and localization of connexin (Cx) 26, -43 and -45 in a group of 35 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the objective of making a more accurate disease prognosis. We analysed the expression of connexins in tissue samples of primary OSCC, matching oral mucosa free of dysplasia, and its associated lymph node metastases (LNM) by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear connexin expression. The levels of expression were correlated with the overall survival time (OS). Cx43 was overexpressed in tumour cells compared to epithelia in dysplasia-free mucosa. High membrane expression of Cx43 on tumour cells was the only statistically significant and independent prognostic factor of short OS (P=0.0088). Membrane expression of Cx43 in matching dysplasia-free mucosa acted similarly, but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.059). No correlation was found between the Cx26, Cx45 expression and OS. We conclude that Cx43 expression in dysplasia-free mucosa may indicate a very early stage of tumour promotion. Although overexpression of Cx43 is found in invasive tumours we only found membrane Cx43 expression to correlate with OS. This observation suggests that cytoplasmic Cx43 serves as storage and only membrane translocation may promote the formation of gap junctions and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) with prognostic relevance.

  10. 50 CFR 23.43 - What are the requirements for a wildlife hybrid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for a wildlife hybrid? 23.43 Section 23.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Genetic and bibliographic information: SLC43A1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SLC43A1 solute carrier family 43, member 1 human Germ cell tumors; Neoplasms, Germ ...Cell and Embryonal (MeSH) Neoplasms (C04) > Neoplasms by Histologic Type (C04.557) > Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal (C04.557.465) 06A0011986 ...

  12. 41 CFR 109-43.307-4 - Conditional gifts to reduce the public debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional gifts to reduce the public debt. 109-43.307-4 Section 109-43.307-4 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-4 Conditional gifts to reduce the public debt. The Director, Office of Administrative Services and...

  13. Permeability of R6G across Cx43 hemichannels through a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have measured the permeability of rhodamine-6G across C×43 hemichannels reconstituted on a pipette tip. C×43 hemichannels were overexpressed in Sf9 cells, and affinity-purified. The hemichannels were reconstituted in a lipid bilayer on a pipette tip by the tip-dip method. R6G in the pipette permeated across the ...

  14. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P < 0.01; western blot [WB]: F(3,16) = 53.52, P < 0.01) across the subgroups. GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P < 0.01; WB: F(6,29) = 15.95, P < 0.01). No detectable changes in GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB.

  15. X-43A: The First Flight of a Scramjet Powered Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpening, Griff

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the X-43A Scramjet engine is shown. The topics include: 1) Scramjets; 2) Overview of X-43A; 3) What Happened the 1st Time; 4) Return to Flight; and 5) What Happened the 2nd Time.

  16. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-43 - Paint stowage or mixing spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint stowage or mixing spaces. 111.105-43 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-43 Paint stowage or mixing spaces. A space for the stowage or mixing of paint must not have any electric equipment, except: (a) Intrinsically...

  18. 7 CFR 58.43 - Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing the Inspection and Grading Services of Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products Fees and Charges § 58.43 Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling. Except as otherwise... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling. 58.43...

  19. 29 CFR 1602.43 - Commission's remedy for school systems' or districts' failure to file report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' failure to file report. Any school system or district failing or refusing to file report EEO-5 when... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission's remedy for school systems' or districts' failure to file report. 1602.43 Section 1602.43 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  20. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D who is a: (a) Duly ordained minister of religion; or (b) Regular...

  1. 28 CFR 540.43 - Frequency of visits and number of visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of visits and number of visitors. 540.43 Section 540.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... visitor must travel, frequency of the inmate's visits, or health problems of the inmate or visitor. ...

  2. 32 CFR 776.43 - Fairness to opposing party and counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fairness to opposing party and counsel. 776.43... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.43 Fairness to opposing party and counsel. (a) Fairness to opposing party and counsel. A covered attorney shall not: (1) Unlawfully obstruct another party...

  3. 14 CFR 43.12 - Maintenance records: Falsification, reproduction, or alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., reproduction, or alteration. 43.12 Section 43.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Maintenance records: Falsification, reproduction, or alteration. (a) No person may make or cause to be made..., kept, or used to show compliance with any requirement under this part; (2) Any reproduction, for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.43-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-2 Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. (a) Qualified enhanced oil... other matter for the purpose of pretreating or preflushing the reservoir to enhance the efficiency of...

  5. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound. 164.43 Section 164.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004, each...

  6. [The pathological TDP-43 protein expression in the central nervous system of motor neuron disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingwei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Luning; Gui, Qiuping

    2015-01-01

    To understand pathological TDP-43 features in the central nervous systems of patients with clinically and autopsy confirmed motor neuron disease (MND). The clinical and histopathological features of 4 cases with MND confirmed by autopsy were summarized; anti-ubiquitin (Ub) and anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemical staining were carried out on tissue of brains and spinal cords from 4 cases with MND and 3 control cases without history of neurological disorders. These 4 cases presented with typical clinical and histologic features of MND. Ub-positive inclusions were observed in brain and spinal cord from 3 cases with the Ub-positive inclusions of skein- round- and lewy body- like structures. Strong TDP-43 pathological staining in brain and spinal cord was identified in 2 cases with MND presented as neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions with various shapes. The TDP-43 positive inclusions were widely distributed in the motor cortex of brain and the anterior horn of spinal cord. TDP-43 weak staining in the spinal cord tissue was observed in 1 case with MND. No Ub- and TDP-43 positive inclusions were found in 3 control cases. There is widespread pathological TDP-43 expression in the central nervous system of MND. TDP-43 positive inclusions in MND have relatively high specificity. It is worth further study on their formation mechanism.

  7. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel supply. Each navigation light indicator panel must be supplied: (a) Directly from the emergency...

  8. 77 FR 33735 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 43 AGENCY: Federal... issued Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 43, Dedicated Collections: Amending SFFAS 27...

  9. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system implemented on the Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). ... UL43 gene of HSV-1 encodes a non- glycosylated transmembrane protein which is conserved only in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses [8]. The HSV-1 UL43 has been ... AG-3'), which mutates the initiation codon from.

  10. 7 CFR 43.104 - Master table of single and double sampling plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master table of single and double sampling plans. 43.104 Section 43.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  11. Spectroscopic properties of the CP43 core antenna protein of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, ML; Frese, RN; de Weerd, FL; Bromek, K.; Pettersson, A.; Peterman, EJG; van Stokkum, IHM; van Grondelle, R; Dekker, JP

    1999-01-01

    CP43 is a chlorophyll-protein complex that funnels excitation energy from the main light-harvesting system of photosystem II to the photochemical reaction center. We purified CP43 from spinach photosystem II membranes in the presence of the nonionic detergent n-dodecyl-β,d-maltoside and recorded its

  12. 45 CFR 400.43 - Requirements for documentation of refugee status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for documentation of refugee status. 400.43 Section 400.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE...

  13. KCNE3 is an inhibitory subunit of the Kv4.3 potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Kv4.3 potassium channel is a fast activating and inactivating K+ channel widely distributed in mammalian tissues. Kv4.3 is the major component of various physiologically important currents ranging from A-type currents in the CNS to the transient outward potassium conductance...

  14. TDP-43 proteinopathies: pathological identification of brain regions differentiating clinical phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rachel H; Kril, Jillian J; Fatima, Manaal; McGeachie, Andrew; McCann, Heather; Shepherd, Claire; Forrest, Shelley L; Affleck, Andrew; Kwok, John B J; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C; Halliday, Glenda M

    2015-10-01

    The pathological sequestration of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) into cytoplasmic pathological inclusions characterizes the distinct clinical syndromes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, while also co-occurring in a proportion of patients with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that the regional concentration of TDP-43 pathology has most relevance to specific clinical phenotypes. This has been reflected in the three different pathological staging schemes for TDP-43 pathology in these different clinical syndromes, with none of these staging schemes including a preclinical phase similar to that which has proven beneficial in other neurodegenerative diseases. To apply each of these three staging schemes for TDP-43 pathology, the clinical phenotype must be known undermining the potential predictive value of the pathological examination. The present study set out to test whether a more unified approach could accurately predict clinical phenotypes based solely on the regional presence and severity of TDP-43 pathology. The selection of brain regions of interest was based on key regions routinely sampled for neuropathological assessment under current consensus criteria that have also been used in the three TDP-43 staging schemes. The severity of TDP-43 pathology in these regions of interest was assessed in four clinicopathological phenotypes: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 27, 47-78 years, 15 males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15, 49-82 years, seven males), Alzheimer's disease (n = 26, 51-90 years, 11 males) and cognitively normal elderly individuals (n = 17, 80-103 years, nine males). Our results demonstrate that the presence of TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus discriminates patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with an accuracy of 98%. The severity of TDP-43 deposited in the anterior cingulate cortex identifies patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

  15. Antigen 43-mediated autotransporter display, a versatile bacterial cell surface presentation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Hasman, Henrik; Schembri, Mark

    2002-01-01

    to the outer membrane and secretion through the cell envelope is contained within the protein itself. Ag43 consists of two subunits (alpha and beta), where the beta-subunit forms an integral outer membrane translocator to which the alpha-subunit is noncovalently attached. The simplicity of the Ag43 system...... makes it ideally suited as a surface display scaffold. Here we demonstrate that the Ag43 alpha-module can accommodate and display correctly folded inserts and has the ability to display entire functional protein domains, exemplified by the FimH lectin domain. The presence of heterologous cysteine...... bridges does not interfere with surface display, and Ag43 chimeras are correctly processed into alpha- and beta-modules, offering optional and easy release of the chimeric alpha-subunits. Furthermore, Ag43 can be displayed in many gram-negative bacteria. This feature is exploited for display of our...

  16. A new GJA1 (connexin 43) mutation causing oculodentodigital dysplasia associated to uncommon features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra, David Rivera; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2007-12-01

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is an autosomal dominant disorder that includes a clinical spectrum of craniofacial, neurologic, limb, and ocular malformations. The disease is caused by heterozygous mutations in the 6q22-q23 located GJA1 gene, that encodes connexin 43 (Cx43). In this paper we describe a novel Cx43 mutation (G2V) found in a Mexican eight-year-old boy. This de novo mutation predicts a missense substitution at the second amino acid of Cx43, in the first intracellular domain, and is the most amino-terminal located mutation reported so far. Umbilical hernia and congenital optociliary veins, two uncommon ODDD-associated features, were recognized in our patient. The phenotype of three previously described patients with Cx43 first intracellular domain mutation is discussed and compared with that observed in our patient. This case expands the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of ODDD.

  17. Regulation of gap junction conductance by calcineurin through Cx43 phosphorylation: implications for action potential conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Rita I; Hatch, Fiona S; Salvage, Samantha C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Lampe, Paul D; Fry, Christopher H

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with raised intracellular [Ca 2+ ] and slowed action potential conduction caused by reduced gap junction (GJ) electrical conductance (Gj). Ventricular GJs are composed of connexin proteins (Cx43), with Gj determined by Cx43 phosphorylation status. Connexin phosphorylation is an interplay between protein kinases and phosphatases but the precise pathways are unknown. We aimed to identify key Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation sites on Cx43 that regulate cardiac gap junction conductance and action potential conduction velocity. We investigated the role of the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. Intracellular [Ca 2+ ] was raised in guinea-pig myocardium by a low-Na solution or increased stimulation. Conduction velocity and Gj were measured in multicellular strips. Phosphorylation of Cx43 serine residues (S365 and S368) and of the intermediary regulator I1 at threonine35 was measured by Western blot. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of inhibitors to calcineurin, I1 or protein phosphatase-1 and phosphatase-2.Raised [Ca 2 + ] i decreased Gj, reduced Cx43 phosphorylation at S365 and increased it at S368; these changes were reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine. Raised [Ca 2+ ] i also decreased I1 phosphorylation, also prevented by calcineurin inhibitors, to increase activity of the Ca 2+ -independent phosphatase, PPI. The PP1 inhibitor, tautomycin, prevented Cx43-365 dephosphorylation, Cx43-S368 phosphorylation and Gj reduction in raised [Ca 2+ ] i . PP2A had no role. Conduction velocity was reduced by raised [Ca 2+ ] i and reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Reduced action potential conduction and Gj in raised [Ca 2+ ] are regulated by calcineurin-dependent Cx43-S365 phosphorylation, leading to Cx43-S368 dephosphorylation. The calcineurin action is indirect, via I1 dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of PP1.

  18. Novel mutations in TARDBP (TDP-43 in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Rutherford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 has been identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U, defining a novel class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. The first pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP were recently reported in familial and sporadic ALS patients, supporting a direct role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. In this study, we report the identification and functional analyses of two novel and one known mutation in TARDBP that we identified as a result of extensive mutation analyses in a cohort of 296 patients with variable neurodegenerative diseases associated with TDP-43 histopathology. Three different heterozygous missense mutations in exon 6 of TARDBP (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V were identified in the analysis of 92 familial ALS patients (3.3%, while no mutations were detected in 24 patients with sporadic ALS or 180 patients with other TDP-43-positive neurodegenerative diseases. The presence of p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V was excluded in 825 controls and 652 additional sporadic ALS patients. All three mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues in the C-terminal part of TDP-43 known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient cell lines revealed a substantial increase in caspase cleaved fragments, including the approximately 25 kDa fragment, compared to control cell lines. Our findings support TARDBP mutations as a cause of ALS. Based on the specific C-terminal location of the mutations and the accumulation of a smaller C-terminal fragment, we speculate that TARDBP mutations may cause a toxic gain of function through novel protein interactions or intracellular accumulation of TDP-43 fragments leading to apoptosis.

  19. Novel Mutations in TARDBP (TDP-43) in Patients with Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Nicola J.; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Baker, Matt; Gass, Jennifer M.; Finch, NiCole A.; Xu, Ya-Fei; Stewart, Heather; Kelley, Brendan J.; Kuntz, Karen; Crook, Richard J. P.; Sreedharan, Jemeen; Vance, Caroline; Sorenson, Eric; Lippa, Carol; Bigio, Eileen H.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Knopman, David S.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Petersen, Ronald C.; Cashman, Neil R.; Hutton, Mike; Shaw, Christopher E.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Boeve, Bradley; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Caselli, Richard J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Rademakers, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U), defining a novel class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. The first pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP) were recently reported in familial and sporadic ALS patients, supporting a direct role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. In this study, we report the identification and functional analyses of two novel and one known mutation in TARDBP that we identified as a result of extensive mutation analyses in a cohort of 296 patients with variable neurodegenerative diseases associated with TDP-43 histopathology. Three different heterozygous missense mutations in exon 6 of TARDBP (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V) were identified in the analysis of 92 familial ALS patients (3.3%), while no mutations were detected in 24 patients with sporadic ALS or 180 patients with other TDP-43–positive neurodegenerative diseases. The presence of p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V was excluded in 825 controls and 652 additional sporadic ALS patients. All three mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues in the C-terminal part of TDP-43 known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient cell lines revealed a substantial increase in caspase cleaved fragments, including the ∼25 kDa fragment, compared to control cell lines. Our findings support TARDBP mutations as a cause of ALS. Based on the specific C-terminal location of the mutations and the accumulation of a smaller C-terminal fragment, we speculate that TARDBP mutations may cause a toxic gain of function through novel protein interactions or intracellular accumulation of TDP-43 fragments leading to apoptosis. PMID:18802454

  20. Mitochondrial regulation of cell cycle progression through SLC25A43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, Marike; Reizer, Edwin [School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 70182 Örebro (Sweden); Stål, Olle [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, SE 58185 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Linköping University, SE 58185 Linköping (Sweden); Tina, Elisabet, E-mail: elisabet.tina@regionorebrolan.se [Department of Clinical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 70182 Örebro (Sweden)

    2016-01-22

    An increasing body of evidence is pointing towards mitochondrial regulation of the cell cycle. In a previous study of HER2-positive tumours we could demonstrate a common loss in the gene encoding for the mitochondrial transporter SLC25A43 and also a significant relation between SLC25A43 protein expression and S-phase fraction. Here, we investigated the consequence of suppressed SLC25A43 expression on cell cycle progression and proliferation in breast epithelial cells. In the present study, we suppressed SLC25A43 using siRNA in immortalised non-cancerous breast epithelial MCF10A cells and HER2-positive breast cancer cells BT-474. Viability, apoptosis, cell proliferation rate, cell cycle phase distribution, and nuclear Ki-67 and p21, were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle related gene expressions were analysed using real-time PCR. We found that SLC25A43 knockdown in MCF10A cells significantly inhibited cell cycle progression during G{sub 1}-to-S transition, thus significantly reducing the proliferation rate and fraction of Ki-67 positive MCF10A cells. In contrast, suppressed SLC25A43 expression in BT-474 cells resulted in a significantly increased proliferation rate together with an enhanced G{sub 1}-to-S transition. This was reflected by an increased fraction of Ki-67 positive cells and reduced level of nuclear p21. In line with our previous results, we show a role for SLC25A43 as a regulator of cell cycle progression and proliferation through a putative mitochondrial checkpoint. These novel data further strengthen the connection between mitochondrial function and the cell cycle, both in non-malignant and in cancer cells. - Highlights: • Proposed cell cycle regulation through the mitochondrial transporter SLC25A43. • SLC25A43 alters cell proliferation rate and cell cycle progression. • Suppressed SLC25A43 influences transcription of cell cycle regulatory genes.

  1. Progranulin is neurotrophic in vivo and protects against a mutant TDP-43 induced axonopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Laird

    Full Text Available Mislocalization, aberrant processing and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is found in the neurons affected by two related diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTLD. These TDP-43 abnormalities are seen when TDP-43 is mutated, such as in familial ALS, but also in FTLD, caused by null mutations in the progranulin gene. They are also found in many patients with sporadic ALS and FTLD, conditions in which only wild type TDP-43 is present. The common pathological hallmarks and symptomatic cross over between the two diseases suggest that TDP-43 and progranulin may be mechanistically linked. In this study we aimed to address this link by establishing whether overexpression of mutant TDP-43 or knock-down of progranulin in zebrafish embryos results in motor neuron phenotypes and whether human progranulin is neuroprotective against such phenotypes. Mutant TDP-43 (A315T mutation induced a motor axonopathy characterized by short axonal outgrowth and aberrant branching, similar, but more severe, than that induced by mutant SOD1. Knockdown of the two zebrafish progranulin genes, grna and grnb, produced a substantial decrease in axonal length, with knockdown of grna alone producing a greater decrease in axonal length than grnb. Progranulin overexpression rescued the axonopathy induced by progranulin knockdown. Interestingly, progranulin also rescued the mutant TDP-43 induced axonopathy, whilst it failed to affect the mutant SOD1-induced phenotype. TDP-43 was found to be nuclear in all conditions described. The findings described here demonstrate that progranulin is neuroprotective in vivo and may have therapeutic potential for at least some forms of motor neuron degeneration.

  2. Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moinfar

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43 and estrogen receptors (ERs. Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2 on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43.F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells.These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma.

  3. Review: Prion-like mechanisms of transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, Phillip; Sidle, Katie Claire Louise; Hardy, John

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal devastating neurodegenerative disorder which predominantly affects the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The death of the motor neurons in ALS causes subsequent muscle atrophy, paralysis and eventual death. Clinical and biological evidence now demonstrates that ALS has many similarities to prion disease in terms of disease onset, phenotype variability and progressive spread. The pathognomonic ubiquitinated inclusions deposited in the neurons and glial cells in brains and spinal cords of patients with ALS and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions contain aggregated transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), and evidence now suggests that TDP-43 has cellular prion-like properties. The cellular mechanisms of prion protein misfolding and aggregation are thought to be responsible for the characteristics of prion disease. Therefore, there is a strong mechanistic basis for a prion-like behaviour of the TDP-43 protein being responsible for some characteristics of ALS. In this review, we compare the prion-like mechanisms of TDP-43 to the clinical and biological nature of ALS in order to investigate how this protein could be responsible for some of the characteristic properties of the disease. © 2014 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  4. TDP-43, an ALS linked protein, regulates fat deposition and glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy R Stallings

    Full Text Available The identification of proteins which determine fat and lean body mass composition is critical to better understanding and treating human obesity. TDP-43 is a well-conserved RNA-binding protein known to regulate alternative splicing and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While TDP-43 knockout mice show early embryonic lethality, post-natal conditional knockout mice show weight loss, fat depletion, and rapid death, suggesting an important role for TDP-43 in regulating energy metabolism. Here we report, that over-expression of TDP-43 in transgenic mice can result in a phenotype characterized by increased fat deposition and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, TDP-43 over-expression in skeletal muscle results in increased steady state levels of Tbc1d1, a RAB-GTPase activating protein involved in Glucose 4 transporter (Glut4 translocation. Skeletal muscle fibers isolated from TDP-43 transgenic mice show altered Glut4 translocation in response to insulin and impaired insulin mediated glucose uptake. These results indicate that levels of TDP-43 regulate body fat composition and glucose homeostasis in vivo.

  5. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C.; Kowall, Neil W.; Perl, Daniel P.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Price, Bruce; Sullivan, Chris; Morin, Peter; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Wulff, Megan; Budson, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is increased in association with head injury. Repetitive head injury is also associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tauopathy characterized by neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain in the relative absence of β-amyloid deposits. We examined 12 cases of CTE and, in 10, found a widespread TAR DNA-binding protein of approximately 43 kd (TDP-43) proteinopathy affecting the frontal and temporal cortices, medial temporal lobe, basal ganglia, diencephalon, and brainstem. Three athletes with CTE also developed a progressive motor neuron disease with profound weakness, atrophy, spasticity, and fasciculations several years before death. In these 3 cases, there were abundant TDP-43–positive inclusions and neurites in the spinal cord in addition to tau neurofibrillary changes, motor neuron loss, and corticospinal tract degeneration. The TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with CTE is similar to that found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions, in that widespread regions of the brain are affected. Akin to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions, in some individuals with CTE, the TDP-43 proteinopathy extends to involve the spinal cord and is associated with motor neuron disease. This is the first pathological evidence that repetitive head trauma experienced in collision sports might be associated with the development of a motor neuron disease. PMID:20720505

  6. Use of Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 for Manufacturing Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Lukic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 isolated from human intestines shows antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and during fermentation in milk releases peptides with demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, it was found that strain BGRA43 exhibits antimicrobial activity against human pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strain BGRA43 was able to survive in simulated gastric juice containing milk and retained cell number stability during the incubation in simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, LC/MS/MS analysis showed the ability of BGRA43 to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin. Abundant growth of strain BGRA43 occurred in the presence of prebiotics inulin or concentrated oat bran β-glucan (Nutrim®, even when used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, strain BGRA43 grew satisfactorily in pure cow's or goat's milk as well as in the milk containing inulin or Nutrim®. Using the probiotic strain BGRA43 as a single starter strain, fermented milk products obtained from cow's or goat's milk with or without inulin or Nutrim® contained about 107 CFU/mL. The products were homogeneous and viscous and the best sensory scores were observed for fermented milk beverage made from reconstituted skimmed milk, whole cow's milk and whole goat's milk supplemented with 1 % inulin.

  7. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43 is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus identifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Glenda M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Kril, Jillian J; Mito, Remika; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hasegawa, Masato; McCann, Heather; Bartley, Lauren; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Kwok, John B J; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Tan, Rachel H

    2016-07-15

    The hypoglossal nucleus was recently identified as a key brain region in which the presence of TDP-43 pathology could accurately discriminate TDP-43 proteinopathy cases with clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of the present study was to assess the hypoglossal nucleus in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and determine whether TDP-43 in this region is associated with clinical ALS. Twenty-nine cases with neuropathological FTLD-TDP and clinical bvFTD that had not been previously assessed for hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology were included in this study. Of these 29 cases, 41% (n=12) had a dual diagnosis of bvFTD-ALS at presentation, all 100% (n=12) of which demonstrated hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Of the 59% (n=17) cohort that presented with pure bvFTD, 35% (n=6) were identified with hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Review of the case files of all pure bvFTD cases revealed evidence of possible or probable ALS in 5 of the 6 hypoglossal-positive cases (83%) towards the end of disease, and this was absent from all cases without such pathology. In conclusion, the present study validates grading the presence of TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus for the pathological identification of bvFTD cases with clinical ALS, and extends this to include the identification of cases with possible ALS at end-stage. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The C-terminal domain of connexin43 modulates cartilage structure via chondrocyte phenotypic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Bechberger, John F; Varela-Eirin, Marta; Varela-Vazquez, Adrian; Acea, Benigno; Fonseca, Eduardo; Naus, Christian C; Mayan, Maria D

    2016-11-08

    Chondrocytes in cartilage and bone cells population express connexin43 (Cx43) and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is essential to synchronize cells for coordinated electrical, mechanical, metabolic and chemical communication in both tissues. Reduced Cx43 connectivity decreases chondrocyte differentiation and defective Cx43 causes skeletal defects. The carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of Cx43 is located in the cytoplasmic side and is key for protein functions. Here we demonstrated that chondrocytes from the CTD-deficient mice, K258stop/Cx43KO and K258stop/K258stop, have reduced GJIC, increased rates of proliferation and reduced expression of collagen type II and proteoglycans. We observed that CTD-truncated mice were significantly smaller in size. Together these results demonstrated that the deletion of the CTD negatively impacts cartilage structure and normal chondrocyte phenotype. These findings suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of the CTD under pathological conditions, such as under the activation of metalloproteinases during tissue injury or inflammation, may account for the deleterious effects of Cx43 in cartilage and bone disorders such as osteoarthritis.

  10. GPR41 and GPR43¬ in obesity and inflammation – protective or causative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei eAng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available GPR41 and GPR43 are a pair of mammalian G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in human adipocytes, colon epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These receptors are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs such as acetate, propionate and butyrate– which are produced during dietary fiber fermentation by resident gut bacteria. This unique ligand specificity suggests that GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the interaction between the human host and the gut microbiome. Indeed, studies on knockout mice implicate GPR41 and GPR43 in chronic inflammatory disorders such as obesity, colitis, asthma and arthritis. However, whether GPR41 and GPR43 are protective or causative is inconsistent between studies. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the disease models used, the inbred mouse strains or non-specific knockout effects. Here, we review the latest findings on GPR41 and GPR43, highlighting contradictory observations. With GPR41 and GPR43 being considered as drug targets, it is pertinent that their role is fully elucidated. We propose that future studies on human tissues, ex vivo, may allow us to confirm the role of GPR41 and GPR43 in humans, be it protective or causative.

  11. Hindlimb unloading results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alters left ventricular connexin 43 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Julia A; Henry, Matthew K; Welliver, Kathryn C; Jepson, Amanda J; Garnett, Emily R

    2013-03-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a well-established animal model of cardiovascular deconditioning. Previous data indicate that HU results in cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. It is well established that cardiac sympathovagal imbalance increases the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is predominately expressed in the left ventricle (LV) and ensures efficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling. In the current study we wanted to test the hypothesis that HU would result in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alter the expression and/or phosphorylation of LV-Cx43. Electrocardiographic data using implantable telemetry were obtained over a 10- to 14-day HU or casted control (CC) condition and in response to a sympathetic stressor using isoproterenol administration and brief restraint. The arrhythmic burden was calculated using a modified scoring system to quantify spontaneous and provoked arrhythmias. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to measure LV-Cx43 expression in lysates probed with antibodies directed against the total and an unphosphorylated form of Cx43 in CC and HU rats. HU resulted in a significantly greater total arrhythmic burden during the sympathetic stressor with significantly more ventricular arrhythmias occurring. In addition, there was increased expression of total LV-Cx43 observed with no difference in the expression of unphosphorylated LV-Cx43. Specifically, the increased expression of LV-Cx43 was consistent with the phosphorylated form. These data taken together indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning produced through HU results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and increased expression of phosphorylated LV-Cx43.

  12. Mutant TDP-43 deregulates AMPK activation by PP2A in ALS models.

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    Nirma D Perera

    Full Text Available Bioenergetic abnormalities and metabolic dysfunctionoccur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients and genetic mouse models. However, whether metabolic dysfunction occurs earlyin ALS pathophysiology linked to different ALS genes remains unclear.Here, we investigatedAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which is a key enzyme induced by energy depletion and metabolic stress, inneuronal cells and mouse models expressing mutantsuperoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1or TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43 linked to ALS.AMPKphosphorylation was sharply increased in spinal cords of transgenic SOD1G93A mice at disease onset and accumulated incytoplasmic granules in motor neurons, but not in pre-symptomatic mice. AMPK phosphorylation also occurred in peripheraltissues, liver and kidney, in SOD1G93A mice at disease onset, demonstrating that AMPK activation occurs late and is not restricted to motor neurons. Conversely, AMPK activity was drastically diminished in spinal cords and brains of presymptomatic and symptomatictransgenic TDP-43A315T mice and motor neuronal cells expressing different TDP-43 mutants. We show that mutant TDP-43 induction of the AMPK phosphatase,protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is associated with AMPK inactivation in these ALS models. Furthermore, PP2A inhibition by okadaic acid reversed AMPK inactivation by mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells. Our results suggest that mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 exert contrasting effects on AMPK activation which may reflect key differences in energy metabolism and neurodegeneration in spinal cords of SOD1G93A and TDP-43A315T mice. While AMPK activation in motor neurons correlateswith progressionin mutant SOD1-mediated disease, AMPK inactivation mediated by PP2Ais associated withmutant TDP-43-linked ALS.

  13. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 43 Modulates Neutrophil Recruitment during Acute Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon E Kamp

    Full Text Available Fermentation of dietary fibre in the gut yields large amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs. SCFAs can impart biological responses in cells through their engagement of 'metabolite-sensing' G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. One of the main SCFA receptors, GPR43, is highly expressed by neutrophils, which suggests that the actions of GPR43 and dietary fibre intake may affect neutrophil recruitment during inflammatory responses in vivo. Using intravital imaging of the small intestine, we found greater intravascular neutrophil rolling and adhesion in Gpr43-/-mice in response to LPS at 1 h. After 4 h of LPS challenge, the intravascular rolling velocity of GPR43-deficient neutrophils was reduced significantly and increased numbers of neutrophils were found in the lamina propria of Gpr43-/-mice. Additionally, GPR43-deficient leukocytes demonstrated exacerbated migration into the peritoneal cavity following fMLP challenge. The fMLP-induced neutrophil migration was significantly suppressed in wildtype mice that were treated with acetate, but not in Gpr43-/-mice, strongly suggesting a role for SCFAs in modulating neutrophil migration via GPR43. Indeed, neutrophils of no fibre-fed wildtype mice exhibited elevated migratory behaviour compared to normal chow-fed wildtype mice. Interestingly, this elevated migration could also be reproduced through simple transfer of a no fibre microbiota into germ-free mice, suggesting that the composition and function of microbiota stemming from a no fibre diet mediated the changes in neutrophil migration. Therefore, GPR43 and a microbiota composition that allows for SCFA production function to modulate neutrophil recruitment during inflammatory responses.

  14. The TMEM106B locus and TDP-43 pathology in older persons without FTLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; De Jager, Philip L.; Yang, Jingyun; Trojanowski, John Q.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent association of the TMEM106B variants with transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology in older persons without frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and to explore functional pathways that link the risk variants to the pathology, including a GRN mRNA pathway. Methods: Data came from 544 autopsied participants without FTLD in 2 community-based studies of aging. Participants underwent uniform neuropathologic evaluations, including TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions. We examined the association of TMEM106B variants with a semiquantitative measure of TDP-43 pathology in a series of regression analysis. We explored potential pathways by leveraging genetic, brain DNA methylation, miRNA, and transcriptomic data collected from this same group of participants. Results: TDP-43 pathology was identified in 51.7% of the participants. The index single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1990622A, was associated with more advanced TDP-43 pathology. Top hits from fine mapping of the locus were in linkage disequilibrium of the index SNP. The association remained significant after adjustment for other neuropathologies including Alzheimer disease and hippocampal sclerosis (odds ratio = 1.351, 95% confidence interval = 1.068–1.709, p = 0.012). GRN expression was upregulated in rs1990622AA/AG carriers, and was associated with more advanced TDP-43 pathology. The TMEM106B variants were associated with lower level of DNA methylation in an active enhancer in GRN. Conclusions: Common variants in TMEM106B serve as a distinct risk factor for TDP-43 pathology in older persons without FTLD. The role of GRN expression and epigenetic mechanisms associating TMEM106B in the accumulation of TDP-43 in older persons require further study. PMID:25653292

  15. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  16. TDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Arai, Kimihito; Del Tredici, Kelly; Toledo, Jon B.; Robinson, John L.; Lee, Edward B.; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Irwin, David J.; Fang, Lubin; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Braak, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) inclusions as well as neuronal loss in full-length spinal cords and five selected regions of the central nervous system from 36 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 age-matched normal controls. The most severe neuronal loss and pTDP-43 lesions were seen in lamina IX motor nuclei columns 4, 6, and 8 of lower cervical segments and in columns 9–11 of lumbosacral segments. Severity of pTDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss correlated closely with gray and white matter oligodendroglial involvement and was linked to onset of disease, with severe involvement of columns 4, 6, and 8 of upper extremity onset cases and severe involvement of columns of 9, 10, and 11 in cases with lower extremity onset. Severe TDP-43 lesions and neuronal loss were observed in stage 4 cases and sometimes included Onuf’s nucleus. Notably, three cases displayed pTDP-43 aggregates in the midbrain oculomotor nucleus, which we had not seen previously even in cases with advanced (i.e., stage 4) pathology. pTDP-43 aggregates were observed in neurons of Clarke’s column in 30.6 % of cases but rarely in the intermediolateral nucleus (IML). Gray matter oligodendroglial pTDP-43 inclusions were present in areas devoid of neuronal pTDP-43 aggregates and neuronal loss. Taken together, our findings indicate that (1) the dorsolateral motor nuclei columns of the cervical and lumbosacral anterior horn may be the earliest foci of pTDP-43 pathology in the spinal cord, (2) gray matter oligodendroglial involvement is an early event in the ALS disease process that possibly heralds subsequent involvement of neurons by pTDP-43 pathology, and (3) in some very advanced cases, there is oculomotor nucleus involvement, which may constitute an additional neuropathological stage (designated here as stage 5) of pTDP-43 pathology in ALS. PMID:24916269

  17. Mutation analysis and evaluation of the cardiac localization of TMEM43 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Andersen, C B; Tybjærg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    Christensen AH, Andersen CB, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Haunso S, Svendsen JH. Mutation analysis and evaluation of the cardiac localization of TMEM43 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A single report has associated mutations in TMEM43 (LUMA) with a distinctive form of arrhythmogenic right...... ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We aimed at performing mutational analysis of the gene and characterizing the associated immunohistochemical features. Sixty-five unrelated patients (55 fulfilling Task Force criteria and 10 borderline cases) were screened for mutations in TMEM43. Immunohistochemistry...

  18. Raloxifene inhibits cloned Kv4.3 channels in an estrogen receptor-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Kim, Dae Hun; Lee, Hong Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-08-01

    Raloxifene is widely used for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We examined the effects of raloxifene on the Kv4.3 currents expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and on the long-term modulation of Kv4.3 messenger RNA (mRNA) by real-time PCR analysis. Raloxifene decreased the Kv4.3 currents with an IC50 of 2.0 μM and accelerated the inactivation and activation kinetics in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of raloxifene on Kv4.3 were time-dependent: the association and dissociation rate constants for raloxifene were 9.5 μM(-1) s(-1) and 23.0 s(-1), respectively. The inhibition by raloxifene was voltage-dependent (δ = 0.13). Raloxifene shifted the steady-state inactivation curves in a hyperpolarizing direction and accelerated the closed-state inactivation of Kv4.3. Raloxifene slowed the time course of recovery from inactivation, thus producing a use-dependent inhibition of Kv4.3. β-Estradiol and tamoxifen had little effect on Kv4.3. A preincubation of ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, for 1 h had no effect on the inhibitory effect of raloxifene on Kv4.3. The metabolites of raloxifene, raloxifene-4'-glucuronide and raloxifene-6'-glucuronide, had little or no effect on Kv4.3. Coexpression of KChIP2 subunits did not alter the drug potency and steady-state inactivation of Kv4.3 channels. Long-term exposure to raloxifene (24 h) significantly decreased the expression level of Kv4.3 mRNA. This effect was not abolished by the coincubation with ICI 182,780. Raloxifene inhibited Kv4.3 channels by interacting with their open state during depolarization and with the closed state at subthreshold potentials. This effect was not mediated via an estrogen receptor.

  19. Comparative molecular epidemiology of two closely related coronaviruses, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), reveals a different evolutionary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Nathalie; Miszczak, Fabien; Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valérie; Moutou, François; Vabret, Astrid; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg

    2016-06-01

    Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle. The current study includes 13 samples from BCoVs collected in Normandy during an 11-year period (from 2003 to 2014), 16 French HCoV-OC43s, and 113 BCoVs or BCoVs-like sequence data derived from partial or complete genome sequences available on GenBank. According to a genotyping method developed previously for HCoV-OC43, BCoVs and BCoVs-like are distributed on three main sub-clusters named C1, C2, and C3. Sub-cluster C1 includes BCoVs and BCoVs-like from America and Asia. Sub-cluster C2 includes BCoVs from Europe. Sub-cluster C3 includes prototype, vaccine, or attenuated BCoV strains. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the monophyletic status of the BCoVs from France reported here for the first time. Moreover, BCoV exhibits a relative genetic stability when compared to HCoV-OC43 we previously described from the same region. The numerous recombination detected between HCoV-OC43 were much less frequent for BCoV. The analysis points thus to the influence of different evolutive constraints in these two close groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Notes on the implementation of the TG-43 formalism in high-rate brachytherapy; Notas sobre la implementacion del formalismo TG-43 en braquiterapia de lata tasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Garcia Marcos, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The TG-43 formalism is based on dosimetric parameters depend on the specific font design extracted from dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo in water. Relatively easy to implement, yet provides a degree of uncertainty, making it necessary to verify the calculation algorithm in the planning system to assess its behavior.