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  1. A bi-dimensional genome scan for prolificacy traits in pigs shows the existence of multiple epistatic QTL

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    Bidanel Jean P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolificacy is the most important trait influencing the reproductive efficiency of pig production systems. The low heritability and sex-limited expression of prolificacy have hindered to some extent the improvement of this trait through artificial selection. Moreover, the relative contributions of additive, dominant and epistatic QTL to the genetic variance of pig prolificacy remain to be defined. In this work, we have undertaken this issue by performing one-dimensional and bi-dimensional genome scans for number of piglets born alive (NBA and total number of piglets born (TNB in a three generation Iberian by Meishan F2 intercross. Results The one-dimensional genome scan for NBA and TNB revealed the existence of two genome-wide highly significant QTL located on SSC13 (P SSC17 (P P P P P Conclusions The complex inheritance of prolificacy traits in pigs has been evidenced by identifying multiple additive (SSC13 and SSC17, dominant and epistatic QTL in an Iberian × Meishan F2 intercross. Our results demonstrate that a significant fraction of the phenotypic variance of swine prolificacy traits can be attributed to first-order gene-by-gene interactions emphasizing that the phenotypic effects of alleles might be strongly modulated by the genetic background where they segregate.

  2. Positive findings on bone scan in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of multiple myeloma in which the CT only shows osteolytic lesions and MRI only shows compressive fractrue, but the scan shows some interesting imaging that make us to think of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  3. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  4. On multiple crack identification by ultrasonic scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigante, M.; Sumbatyan, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present work develops an approach which reduces operator equations arising in the engineering problems to the problem of minimizing the discrepancy functional. For this minimization, an algorithm of random global search is proposed, which is allied to some genetic algorithms. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the solving problem of simultaneous identification of several linear cracks forming an array in an elastic medium by using the circular Ultrasonic scanning.

  5. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  6. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  7. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  8. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Kuraya, Kazue; Sumiyoshi, Minoru; Seki, Shuichiro; Murakami, Naoki

    1982-01-01

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Differences in MRI findings in cases showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Kaichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyasaka, Yoshio; Yada, Kenzoh; Kan, Shinichi; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a brain abscess and a tumor, for both show ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The present authors have studied the benefit of MRI for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. The subjects of this study were 6 cases of brain abscess and 10 cases of brain tumor, all of them showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The MRI findings were compared with those of the CT scan taken at almost the same time, especially focussing on the difference in the ring-enhancement. In 5 out of the 6 cases of brain abscess, T 2 -weighted MRI demonstrated a comparatively thin and homogeneous low-intensity, round rim. In the cases of brain tumor, however, none of the cases demonstrated this typical low-intensity, round rim; rather, in them the rim was thick and irregular. The authors can conclude that those MRI findings can serve as important differential diagnostic findings between brain abscess and tumor; also, MRI may be used as a landmark for terminating the administration of antibiotics in cases of brain abscess. (author)

  10. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  11. Laser sintering of metal powders on top of sintered layers under multiple-line laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Zhang Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for multiple-line sintering of loose powders on top of multiple sintered layers under the irradiation of a moving Gaussian laser beam is carried out. The overlaps between vertically deposited layers and adjacent lines which strengthen bonding are taken into account. The energy equation is formulated using the temperature transforming model and solved by the finite volume method. The effects of the number of the existing sintered layers, porosity and initial temperature coupled with the optimal combination laser intensity and scanning velocity are presented. The results show that the liquid pool moves slightly towards the negative scanning direction and the shape of the liquid pool becomes shallower with higher scanning velocity. A higher laser intensity is needed to achieve the required overlaps when the number of the existing sintered layers increases. Increasing porosity or initial temperature enhances the sintering process and thus less intensity is needed for the overlap requirement

  12. Multiple Bony Injuries on Bone Scan in a Case of Unsuspected Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Chuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case is described of an eleven-month-old infant with lower limbs swelling and the left elbow skeletal malformation following a fall. The radionuclide bone scan was performed to exclude bone infection or congenital skeletal anomaly. The images unexpectedly showed multiple increased radioactive foci throughout the whole body. It was a strong probability of child abuse. All lesions are readily apparent on the following plain film radiographs and MRI.

  13. Multiple Hotspot Mutations Scanning by Single Droplet Digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraene, Charles; Silveira, Amanda B; Bidard, François-Clément; Vallée, Audrey; Michel, Marc; Melaabi, Samia; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Saliou, Adrien; Houy, Alexandre; Milder, Maud; Lantz, Olivier; Ychou, Marc; Denis, Marc G; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Stern, Marc-Henri; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Progress in the liquid biopsy field, combined with the development of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), has enabled noninvasive monitoring of mutations with high detection accuracy. However, current assays detect a restricted number of mutations per reaction. ddPCR is a recognized method for detecting alterations previously characterized in tumor tissues, but its use as a discovery tool when the mutation is unknown a priori remains limited. We established 2 ddPCR assays detecting all genomic alterations within KRAS exon 2 and EGFR exon 19 mutation hotspots, which are of clinical importance in colorectal and lung cancer, with use of a unique pair of TaqMan ® oligoprobes. The KRAS assay scanned for the 7 most common mutations in codons 12/13 but also all other mutations found in that region. The EGFR assay screened for all in-frame deletions of exon 19, which are frequent EGFR-activating events. The KRAS and EGFR assays were highly specific and both reached a limit of detection of <0.1% in mutant allele frequency. We further validated their performance on multiple plasma and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples harboring a panel of different KRAS or EGFR mutations. This method presents the advantage of detecting a higher number of mutations with single-reaction ddPCRs while consuming a minimum of patient sample. This is particularly useful in the context of liquid biopsy because the amount of circulating tumor DNA is often low. This method should be useful as a discovery tool when the tumor tissue is unavailable or to monitor disease during therapy. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  14. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

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    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  15. What Can Computed Tomography Scans of the Thorax Show after Breast Surgery?

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    Afsaneh Alikhassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative breast abnormalities after breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy are frequently overlooked and inaccurately assessed or reported using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. These inaccurate results may have legal ramifications for the clinicians, cause patients avoidable anxiety, and lead to additional unnecessary diagnostic follow-up testing and costs.Methods: The patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy up to 6 months prior to undergoing a thoracic MDCT scan consented and enrolled in this study. These patients underwent a thoracic MDCT scan either because of respiratory or cardiac clinical symptoms or as part of breast cancer staging.Results: Forty women were included in this study. Different postoperative breast changes observed on thoracic MDCT scans including fibrous scar tissue, fat necrosis, seroma, abscess, hematoma, and recurrent and residual tumor were described.Conclusions: MDCT scans offer sufficient evidence in many postoperative cases to allow a confident diagnosis. General radiologists who review thoracic MDCT scans should know how to characterize breast lesions incidentally found on MDCT scans after breast surgeries. This information would enhance the value of the radiologist’s report for appropriate case management.

  16. CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study

  17. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  18. Investigations with FDG-PET Scanning in Prostate Cancer Show Limited Value for Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Eeva [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy; Hogg, Annette; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Vic (Australia). Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging; Frydenberg, Mark [Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate FDG-PET (fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Twenty-two patients were studied during different disease phases of prostate cancer, for staging or restaging to clarify specific clinical questions. FDG-PET was performed encompassing the thorax, abdomen and pelvis using the Penn PET 300H scanner. Scanning was begun 60 min after {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose marker. Patients were catheterized and administered diuretics to minimize urinary activity. Information obtained with FDG-PET was concordant with findings from other investigations in 7/22 (32%) patients, discordant in 15/22 (68%) patients and equivalent in one patient (4%). PET indicated progressive disease in five patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <4 ng/L. The impact on management of the patients was high in 46% of cases, low in 41% and for 14% there was no impact on management. The accuracy of FDG-PET was 72% (95% CI 50-89) as confirmed by invasive diagnostics/follow-up. FDG-PET can provide useful information and improve the clinician's decision on further management procedures in selected patients with low PSA and bone or lymph node changes. A negative PET scan in prostate cancer should be interpreted with caution.

  19. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on x-ray computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples which revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the lengths of the samples. The electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent used in electric-log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone: a stationary front formed in one sample at 1-psi oil/brine capillary pressure, a moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressure ≤4 psi in samples tested in fresh mixed-wettability and cleaned water-wet states, and the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated in the samples

  20. CT-scan-monitored electrical resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Coles, M.E.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray CT scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the length of the sample. In this paper the electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent, which is used in electric log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone. A stationary front formed in one sample at 1 psi oil/brine capillary pressure. A moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressures of 4 psi or less in both samples tested, in both a fresh mixed-wettability state and in a cleaned water-wet state. In these samples, the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated

  1. A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.

  2. Theoretical analysis of moiré fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Xie, Huimin; Chen, Pengwan; Zhang, Qingming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental verification of fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are presented. Fringe multiplication can be realized by enhancing the magnification or the number of scanning lines under the SEM. A universal expression of the pitch of moiré fringes is deduced. To apply this method to deformation measurement, the calculation formulas of strain and displacement are derived. Compared to natural moiré, the displacement sensitivity is increased by fringe multiplication while the strain sensitivity may be retained or enhanced depending on the number of scanning lines used. The moiré patterns are formed by the interference of a 2000 lines mm −1 grating with the scanning lines of SEM, and the measured parameters of moiré fringes from experimental results agree well with theoretical analysis

  3. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  4. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  5. Multiple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope with nanoscale positional recognition function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Laurent, Olivier; Komatsubara, Takashi; Machida, Shinichi; Aono, Masakazu; Obori, Kenichi; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, multiple-scanning-probe microscope systems with independently controlled probes have been developed for nanoscale electrical measurements. We developed a quadruple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope (QSPTM) that can determine and control the probe position through scanning-probe imaging. The difficulty of operating multiple probes with submicrometer precision drastically increases with the number of probes. To solve problems such as determining the relative positions of the probes and avoiding of contact between the probes, we adopted sample-scanning methods to obtain four images simultaneously and developed an original control system for QSPTM operation with a function of automatic positional recognition. These improvements make the QSPTM a more practical and useful instrument since four images can now be reliably produced, and consequently the positioning of the four probes becomes easier owing to the reduced chance of accidental contact between the probes.

  6. Challenges in 3D scanning: Focusing on Ears and Multiple View Stereopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    It is the goal of this thesis to address some of the challenges in 3D scanning. This has been done with focus on direct in-ear scanning and on Multiple View Stereopsis. Seven papers have been produced over the course of the Ph.D., out of which, six have been included. Two papers concern volumetric...... segmentation based on Markov Random Fields. These have been formulated to address problems relating to noise ltering in direct in-ear scanning and Intracranial Volume estimation. Another two papers have been produced on the topic of recovering surface data based on a strong statistical prior. This was done...

  7. The impact of multiple show-ups on eyewitness decision-making and innocence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M; Bertrand, Michelle; Lindsay, R C L; Kalmet, Natalie; Grossman, Deborah; Provenzano, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    If an eyewitness rejects a show-up, police may respond by finding a new suspect and conducting a second show-up with the same eyewitness. Police may continue finding suspects and conducting show-ups until the eyewitness makes an identification (Study 1). Relatively low criterion-setting eyewitnesses filter themselves out of the multiple show-ups procedure by choosing the first suspect with whom they are presented (Studies 2 and 3). Accordingly, response bias was more stringent on the second show-up when compared with the first, but became no more stringent with additional show-ups. Despite this stringent shift in response bias, innocence risk increased with additional show-ups, as false alarms cumulate (Studies 2 and 3). Although unbiased show-up instructions decreased innocent suspect identifications, the numbers were still discouraging (Study 4). Given the high number of innocent suspects who would be mistakenly identified through the use of multiple show-up procedures, using such identifications as evidence of guilt is questionable. Although evidence of guilt is limited to identifications from a single show-up, practical constraints might sometimes require police to use additional show-ups. Accordingly, we propose a stronger partition between evidentiary and investigative procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Case of multiple hepatic abscesses detected by CT scan in the patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Saburi, Yoshio; Shuto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Ryoko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Itoga, Takashi (Medical Coll. of Oita (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    A 34 year old man admitted to a hospital on 21 Feb. 1983 was diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A hematological complete remission was achieved by combination therapy of vincristine, prednisolone and L-asparaginase. However, he had been complaining of high fever and right hypochondralgia since early in Apr. 1983, and it was revealed that elevation of right diaphragm on chest X-ray. Therefore, he was also given several antibiotics (CPZ, TOB, LMOX, PIPC, LCM, AMK, MINO and GM) for complication of probable liver abscess. Remittent fever persisted in spite of as mentioned above various antibiotics. The multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan of the mid-abdomen as the low density lesions, but bacterial cultures detected no pathogens. His complaining of remittent fever and right hypochondralgia were improved by treatment with Miconazole during about one month, and decreasing in size and number of multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan. Though we could not determine clearly, but suspected that multiple hepatic abscesses were due to fungus infection, by reason of therapeutic result. Regarding the complication of hepatic abscesses with leukemia, 5 cases have been reported in Japan, and one case out of 5 cases were detected by CT scan. We thought that CT scans were useful procedures for early diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. Recently, the patient has continued complete remission hematologically.

  9. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefei; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  10. Non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertion: measurement with scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kokubun, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    The acoustic properties of rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertions were measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. After cutting parallel to the supraspinatus tendon fibers, specimens were fixed with 10% neutralized formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Both the sound speed and the attenuation constant were measured at the insertion site. The 2-dimensional distribution of the sound speed and that of the attenuation constant were displayed with color-coded scales. The acoustic properties reflected both the histologic architecture and the collagen type. In the tendon proper and the non-mineralized fibrocartilage, the sound speed and attenuation constant gradually decreased as the predominant collagen type changed from I to II. In the mineralized fibrocartilage, they increased markedly with the mineralization of the fibrocartilaginous tissue. These results indicate that the non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus among 4 zones at the insertion site, which could be interpreted as an adaptation to various types of biomechanical stress.

  11. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  12. Local multiplicity adjustment for the spatial scan statistic using the Gumbel distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnon, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    The spatial scan statistic is an important and widely used tool for cluster detection. It is based on the simultaneous evaluation of the statistical significance of the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic over a large collection of potential clusters. In most cluster detection problems, there is variation in the extent of local multiplicity across the study region. For example, using a fixed maximum geographic radius for clusters, urban areas typically have many overlapping potential clusters, whereas rural areas have relatively few. The spatial scan statistic does not account for local multiplicity variation. We describe a previously proposed local multiplicity adjustment based on a nested Bonferroni correction and propose a novel adjustment based on a Gumbel distribution approximation to the distribution of a local scan statistic. We compare the performance of all three statistics in terms of power and a novel unbiased cluster detection criterion. These methods are then applied to the well-known New York leukemia dataset and a Wisconsin breast cancer incidence dataset. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Laser Polarimetry Measurements in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelly, Amanda; Cheng, Han; Laron, Michal; Schiffman, Jade S.; Tang, Rosa A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without optic neuritis (ON). Methods OCT and GDx were performed on 68 MS patients. Qualifying eyes were divided into two groups: 51 eyes with an ON history ≥ 6 months prior (ON eyes), and 65 eyes with no history of ON (non-ON eyes). Several GDx and OCT parameters and criteria were used to define an eye as abnormal, for example, GDx nerve fiber indicator (NFI) above 20 or 30, OCT average RNFL thickness and GDx temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal average (TSNIT) below 5% or 1% of the instruments’ normative database. Agreement between OCT and GDx parameters was reported as percent of observed agreement, along with the AC1 statistic. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between OCT average RNFL thickness and GDx NFI and TSNIT. Results All OCT and GDx measurements showed significantly more RNFL damage in ON than in non-ON eyes. Agreement between OCT and GDx parameters ranged from 69–90% (AC1 0.37–0.81) in ON eyes, and 52–91% (AC1 = 0.21–0.90) in non-ON eyes. Best agreement was observed between OCT average RNFL thickness (P 30) in ON eyes (90%, AC1 = 0.81), and between OCT average RNFL thickness (P < 0.01) and GDx TSNIT average (P < 0.01) in non-ON eyes (91%, AC1 = 0.90). In ON eyes, the OCT average RNFL thickness showed good linear correlation with NFI (R2 = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and TSNIT (R2 = 0.55, P < 0.0001). Conclusions OCT and GDx show good agreement and can be useful in detecting RNFL loss in MS/ON eyes. PMID:20495500

  14. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Scuteri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial economic burden in developed countries and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The disease is the result not only of several environmental risk factors, but also of genetic predisposition. To take advantage of recent advances in gene-mapping technology, we executed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with obesity-related quantitative traits in the genetically isolated population of Sardinia. Initial analysis suggested that several SNPs in the FTO and PFKP genes were associated with increased BMI, hip circumference, and weight. Within the FTO gene, rs9930506 showed the strongest association with BMI (p = 8.6 x10(-7, hip circumference (p = 3.4 x 10(-8, and weight (p = 9.1 x 10(-7. In Sardinia, homozygotes for the rare "G" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.46 were 1.3 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "A" allele. Within the PFKP gene, rs6602024 showed very strong association with BMI (p = 4.9 x 10(-6. Homozygotes for the rare "A" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.12 were 1.8 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "G" allele. To replicate our findings, we genotyped these two SNPs in the GenNet study. In European Americans (N = 1,496 and in Hispanic Americans (N = 839, we replicated significant association between rs9930506 in the FTO gene and BMI (p-value for meta-analysis of European American and Hispanic American follow-up samples, p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.001, and hip circumference (p = 0.0005. We did not replicate association between rs6602024 and obesity-related traits in the GenNet sample, although we found that in European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans, homozygotes for the rare "A" allele were, on average, 1.0-3.0 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the more common "G" allele. In summary, we have completed a whole genome-association scan for

  15. Not all trees sleep the same - High temporal resolution terrestrial laser scanning shows differences in nocturnal plant movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, András; Barfod, Anders; Molnár, Bence

    2017-01-01

    Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid...... surveyed a series of 18 full scans over a 12-h night period to measure nocturnal changes in shape simultaneously for an experimental setup of 22 plants representing different species. Resulting point clouds were evaluated by comparing changes in height percentiles of laser scanning points belonging...... to the canopy. Changes in crown shape were observed for all studied trees, but clearly distinguishable sleep movements are apparently rare. Ambient light conditions were continuously dark between sunset (7:30 p.m.) and sunrise (6:00 a.m.), but most changes in movement direction occurred during this period, thus...

  16. CT scan findings in three cases of multiple sclerosis with homonymous hemianopsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikado, Takuji; Ariga, Hiroko; Kase, Manabu; Nagata, Renpei; Tashiro, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of clinically definite multiple sclerosis manifested homonymous hemianopsia. A 35-year-old female, in whom right optic neuritis developed as the initial symptom, manifested right homonymous hemianopsia 4 months later followed by cerebral symptoms another 4 months later. A 25-year-old male developed sudden brain stem and cerebellar symptoms associated with right abducens palsy and right homonymous hemianopsia. In a 26-year-old female developed right homonymous hemianopsia 13 years after the first attack of recurrent optic neuritis. CT-scan in these three cases revealed the presence of a ''plaque'' located in the white matter of the left occipital lobe in cases 1 and 2 and in the left peririgone white matter in case 3 as the causative lesion for the right homonymous hemianopsia. These findings indicate that the optic radiation may be involved in multiple sclerosis resulting in homonymous hemianopsia. CT scan is of value in determining the location of the affected intracranial lesion in multiple sclerosis. (author)

  17. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  18. Evaluation of the CT dose index for scans with an ECG using a 320-row multiple-detector CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between heart rate (HR) and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was evaluated using an electrocardiogram (ECG) gate scan for scan applications such as prospective triggering, Ca scoring, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA and retrospective gating, continuous CTA/CFA (cardiac functional analysis) and CTA/CFA modulation. Even in the case of a volume scan, doses for the multiple scan average dose were similar to those for CTDI. Moreover, it was found that the ECG gate scan yields significantly different doses. When selecting the optimum scan, the doses were dependent on many factors such as HR, scan rotation time, active time, pre-specified cardiac phase and modulation rate. Therefore, it is necessary to take these results into consideration when selecting the scanning parameters. (authors)

  19. Investigating and understanding the effects of multiple femtosecond laser scans on the surface topography of stainless steel 304 and titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Edwin Jee Yang, E-mail: edwin.ling@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Saïd, Julien, E-mail: julien.said@ecl2015.ec-lyon.fr [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Brodusch, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.brodusch@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Gauvin, Raynald, E-mail: raynald.gauvin@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Servio, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.servio@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Kietzig, Anne-Marie, E-mail: anne.kietzig@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec, H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Effect of multiple femtosecond laser scans on stainless steel. • Ellipsoidal cones, columnar and chaotic structures observed on irradiated surface. • Chemical, crystallographic, and topographical analyses of ellipsoidal cones. • Developed mechanism for formation and growth of ellipsoidal cones. - Abstract: The majority of studies performed on the formation of surface features by femtosecond laser radiation focuses on single scan procedures, i.e. manipulating the laser beam once over the target area to fabricate different surface topographies. In this work, the effect of scanning stainless steel 304 multiple times with femtosecond laser pulses is thoroughly investigated over a wide range of fluences. The resultant laser-induced surface topographies can be categorized into two different regimes. In the low fluence regime (F{sub Σline,max} < 130 J/cm{sup 2}), ellipsoidal cones (randomly distributed surface protrusions covered by several layers of nanoparticles) are formed. Based on chemical, crystallographic, and topographical analyses, we conclude that these ellipsoidal cones are composed of unablated steel whose conical geometry offers a significant degree of fluence reduction (35–52%). Therefore, the rest of the irradiated area is preferentially ablated at a higher rate than the ellipsoidal cones. The second, or high fluence regime (F{sub Σline,max} > 130 J/cm{sup 2}) consists of laser-induced surface patterns such as columnar and chaotic structures. Here, the surface topography showed little to no change even when the target was scanned repeatedly. This is in contrast to the ellipsoidal cones, which evolve and grow continuously as more laser passes are applied.

  20. Scanning multiple mice in a small-animal PET scanner: Influence on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepel, Francoise J.; Lier, Monique G.J.T.B. van; Chen Mu; Disselhorst, Jonathan A.; Meeuwis, Antoi P.W.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C.; Visser, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    To achieve high throughput in small-animal positron emission tomography (PET), it may be advantageous to scan more than one animal in the scanner's field of view (FOV) at the same time. However, due to the additional activity and increase of Poisson noise, additional attenuating mass, extra photon scattering, and radial or axial displacement of the animals, a deterioration of image quality can be expected. In this study, the NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality (NU4IQ) phantom and up to three FDG-filled cylindrical 'mouse phantoms' were positioned in the FOV of the Siemens Inveon small-animal PET scanner to simulate scans with multiple mice. Five geometrical configurations were examined. In one configuration, the NU4IQ phantom was scanned separately and placed in the center of the FOV (1C). In two configurations, a mouse phantom was added with both phantoms displaced radially (2R) or axially (2A). In two other configurations, the NU4IQ phantom was scanned along with three mouse phantoms with all phantoms displaced radially (4R), or in a combination of radial and axial displacement (2R2A). Images were reconstructed using ordered subset expectation maximization in 2 dimensions (OSEM2D) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction. Image quality parameters were obtained according to the NEMA NU 4-2008 guidelines. Optimum image quality was obtained for the 1C geometry. Image noise increased by the addition of phantoms and was the largest for the 4R configuration. Spatial resolution, reflected in the recovery coefficients for the FDG-filled rods, deteriorated by radial displacement of the NU4IQ phantom (2R, 2R2A, and 4R), most strongly for OSEM2D, and to a smaller extent for MAP reconstructions. Photon scatter, as indicated by the spill-over ratios in the non-radioactive water- and air-filled compartments, increased by the addition of phantoms, most strongly for the 4R configuration. Application of scatter correction substantially lowered the spill-over ratios, but caused an

  1. MO-FG-204-02: Reference Image Selection in the Presence of Multiple Scan Realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, D; Dou, T; Thomas, D; Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fusing information from multiple correlated realizations (e.g., 4DCT) can improve image quality. This process often involves ill-conditioned and asymmetric nonlinear registration and the proper selection of a reference image is important. This work proposes to examine post-registration variation indirectly for such selection, and develops further insights to reduce the number of cross-registrations needed. Methods: We consider each individual scan as a noisy point in the vicinity of an image manifold, related by motion. Nonrigid registration “transports” a scan along the manifold to the reference neighborhood, and the residual is a surrogate for local variation. To test this conjecture, 10 thoracic scans from the same session were reconstructed from a recently developed low-dose helical 4DCT protocol. Pairwise registration was repeated bi-directionally (81 times) and fusion was performed with each candidate reference. The fused image quality was assessed with SNR and CNR. Registration residuals in SSD, harmonic energy, and deformation Jacobian behavior were examined. The semi-symmetry is further utilized to reduce the number of registration needed. Results: The comparison of image quality between single image and fused ones identified reduction of local intensity variance as the major contributor of image quality, boosting SNR and CNR by 5 to 7 folds. This observation further suggests the criticality of good agreement across post-registration images. Triangle inequality on the SSD metric provides a proficient upper-bound and surrogate on such disagreement. Empirical observation also confirms that fused images with high residual SSD have lower SNR and CNR than the ones with low or intermediate SSDs. Registration SSD is structurally close enough to symmetry for reduced computation. Conclusion: Registration residual is shown to be a good predictor of post-fusion image quality and can be used to identify good reference centers. Semi-symmetry of the

  2. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...

  3. Rotational scanning and multiple-spot focusing through a multimode fiber based on digital optical phase conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Xiao, Fajun; Zhang, Jiwei; Liu, Kaihui; Bai, Xuedong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the rotational memory effect of a multimode fiber (MMF) based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) to achieve multiple-spot focusing. An implementation interferometer is used to address the challenging alignments in DOPC. By rotating the acquired phase conjugate pattern, rotational scanning through a MMF could be achieved by recording a single off-axis hologram. The generation of two focal spots through a MMF is also demonstrated by combining the rotational memory effect with the superposition principle. The results may be useful for ultrafast scanning imaging and optical manipulation of multiple objects through a MMF.

  4. Improving the clinical correlation of multiple sclerosis black hole volume change by paired-scan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B

    2012-01-01

    The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes.

  5. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  6. SUPPORTING UAVS IN LOW VISIBILITY CONDITIONS BY MULTIPLE-PULSE LASER SCANNING DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djuricic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are nowadays promising platforms for capturing spatial information, because they are low cost solutions, which are easy to bring to the surveying field and can operate automatically. Usually these devices are equipped with visual sensors to support the navigation of the platform or to transmit observations of the environment to the operator. By collecting the data and processing the captured images even an estimation of the observed environment in form of 3D information is available. Therefore Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM algorithms are well known for processing data which is captured in the visible domain. However, situations can occur where gathering visual information is difficult due to given limitations in form of low visibility. For example if soft obstacles in form of translucent materials are given in disaster scenarios with smoke and operating has still to be ensured, active optical sensors (e.g. laser scanners are gaining interest because they can penetrate the soft obstacle and allow to acquire information behind it. A new lightweight (210 g, simplified and minimized scanning unit is now available which allows to capture multiple reflections for each transmitted laser pulse, namely the Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW. With such a device, it is possible to overcome the above mentioned restrictions or limitations of low visibility by soft obstacles and even measure under critical circumstances. A multi-pulse system can provide accurate measurements on, within, and behind the soft obstacle. This research focuses on investigating the ability and performance of a laser scanner to penetrate the soft obstacle. Thus, investigations on a system that overcomes these limitations and provides a solution will be given. First promising experimental results considering soft obstacle are described.

  7. A case of multiple hepatic abscesses detected by CT scan in the patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saburi, Yoshio; Shuto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Ryoko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Itoga, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    A 34 years old man admitted to a hospital on 21 Feb. 1983 and was diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A hematological complete remission was achieved by combination therapy of vincristine, prednisolone and L-asparaginase. However, he had complaining of high fever and right hypochondralgia since early in Apr. 1983, and it was revealed that elevation of right diaphragm on chest X-ray. Therefore, he was also given several antibiotics (CPZ, TOB, LMOX, PIPC, LCM, AMK, MINO and GM) for complication of probable liver abscess. Remittent fever was persisted in spite of as mentioned above various antibiotics. The multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan of the mid-abdomen as the low density lesions, but bacterial cultures detected no any pathogens. His complaining of remittent fever and right hypochondralgia were improved by treated with Miconazole during about one month, and decreasing in size and number of multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan. Though we could not determined clearly, but suspected that, multiple hepatic abscesses were due to fungus infection, by reason of therapeutic result. Regarding the complication of hepatic abscesses with leukemia, 5 cases have been reported in Japan, and one case out of 5 cases were detected by CT scan. We thought that CT scan were useful procedure for a early diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. In recently, the patient has continued of complete remission hematologically. (author)

  8. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium

  9. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  10. To Show or Not to Show: The Effects of Item Stems and Answer Options on Performance on a Multiple-Choice Listening Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…

  11. Impact of multiple sub-melt laser scans on the activation and diffusion of shallow Boron junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Vandervorst, W.; Clarysse, T.

    2008-01-01

    , careful process optimization is required. While macroscopic variations can easily be addressed using the proper spatial power compensation it is more difficult to completely eliminate the micro scale non-uniformity which is intimately linked to the laser beam profile, the amount of overlaps and the scan...... pitch. In this work, we will present micro scale sheet resistance uniformity measurements for shallow 0.5 keV B junctions and zoom in on the underlying effect of multiple subsequent laser scans. A variety of characterization techniques are used to extract the relevant junction parameters and the role...... of different implantation and anneal parameters will be explored. It turns out that the observed sheet resistance decrease with increasing number of laser scans is caused on one hand by a temperature dependent increase of the activation level, and on the other hand, by a non-negligible temperature...

  12. Combined Use of Tc-99m MIBI Scan and MRI for Evaluation of Active Lesions in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Marinescu, G.; Iriciuc, M.; Rimbu, A.; Ghita, S.; Mazilu, C.; Murgoci, P.; Codorean, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Multiple Myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells, in which neoplastic bone involvement is one of the leading symptoms. Many researchers have been trying to develop new imaging modalities and new methods for detecting the bone involvement, mainly because apart from the fact that bone marrow infiltration is one of the diagnostic criteria, typical radiographic findings can be found only in 60 70% of pts with first diagnosis of MM, and 10% of pts can present only osteoporosis-like changes. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of 99mTc-MIBI whole-body scan in diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma, in correlation with other imaging modalities, and mainly with MRI. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective review of 29 cases of Multiple Myeloma Patients, all of them in active stage of the disease. All of them underwent 99mTc-MIBI whole body scan, MRI examination of the spine and a bone scan. Diagnosis and staging of the disease was made by using standard criteria. MRI was performed mainly for imaging spinal cord compression and for morphological characterization of lesions. We obtained saggital and transverse images which included T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and STIR sequences. We performed whole body MIBI scan in anterior and posterior views, 10 - 20 min after IV injection of 500-550 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI, using a dual head gamma-camera Philips- Axis. Results: We obtained pathologic changes in 25/29 pts that underwent whole-body MIBI scan(86.75%), and in 27/29(89.65%) for the MRI. Bone scan shown pathologic uptake of radiotracer in 18/29 pts(62.06%). In 4 pts that demonstrated pathologic increased uptake of MIBI we found photopenic lesions on the bone scan which were missed at the first interpretation of the bone scan; these lesions were reported only after comparative evaluation of bone scan and MIBI scan.We found three different patterns of pathologic MIBI uptake: focal increased uptake of MIBI in different sites (9 pts), diffuse increased

  13. Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Changes on Restaging Computed Tomography Scans in Two Thirds of Testicular Cancer Patients Show No Correlation With Fibrosis Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Martha W; Westerink, Nico-Derk L; Lubberts, Sjoukje; Bongaerts, Alfons H H; Wolf, Rienhart F E; Altena, Renska; Nuver, Janine; Oosting, Sjoukje F; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Walenkamp, Anna M E; Meijer, Coby; Gietema, Jourik A

    2016-08-01

    In metastatic testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy, bleomycin-induced pneumonitis is a well-known and potentially fatal side effect. We sought to determine the prevalence of lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes on restaging computed tomography (CT) scans after treatment and to ascertain whether fibrosis markers were predictive of these changes. This prospective nonrandomized cohort study included metastatic testicular cancer patients, 18-50 years of age, treated with BEP chemotherapy. Restaging CT scans were examined for lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes by two independent radiologists and graded as minor, moderate, or severe. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and after treatment and were quantified for transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In total, 66 patients were included: forty-five (68%) showed signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes on the restaging CT scan, 37 of which were classified as minor and 8 as moderate. No differences in TGF-β1, GDF-15, or hs-CRP plasma levels were found between these groups. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes are common on restaging CT scans after BEP chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer. Changes in TGF-β1, GDF-15, and hs-CRP plasma levels do not differ between patients with and without radiological lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes and are therefore not helpful as predictive biomarkers. Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP) is a well-known and potentially fatal side effect in metastatic testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy. Currently, the decision to discontinue bleomycin administration is made during treatment and is based on clinical signs. An upfront or early marker or biomarker that identifies patients likely to develop BIP would be

  14. Multiple bony lesions other than femoral heads on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scan in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Weon, Young Cheol; Shin, Myung Jin; Lee, Soo Ho; Lee, Hee Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hae Kyung [St. Francisco Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of the multiple increased uptake lesions other than in femoral heads as seen on whole body bone scan in patients with avascular necrosis of femoral heads. One hundred and seventy three patients with clinical diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the emoral head underwent a bone scan using Tc-99m MDP. Increased uptake lesions other than in femoral heads were evaluated, including frequency and common sites of in volvement, and correlated with clinical information and plain radiographic findings. Two hundred patients without AVN, who had undergone a bone scan, were included as a control group. Increased uptake lesions in extrafemoral head locations were found in 36 of 173 patients(20.8%); the location of 79 lesions was other than the femoral head. This result is statistically different from patients without avascular necrosis of femoral head(p<0.0001). The most common site of involvement was the knee joint area(62.5%). Other lesions were located in the mid-shafts of the long bones of the lower extremities, calcaneus, proximal humerus, etc., in order of decreasing frequency. Plain radiographs of 17 lesions were nonspecific, except for three lesions showing definite changes associated with avascular necrosis. The risk factors included alcoholism, the prolonged use of steroids, renal transplantation, herbal medication and working as a working as deep-sea diver. Most patients did not complain of pain, except for two with irreversible osteonecrotic changes as seen on plain radiograph. in patients with avascular necrosis of the femur, increased uptake lesions other than in the femoral head as seen on bone scan, may represent the early stage of osteonecrosis, which shows a characteristic appearance on bone scan. In order to aveid possible misdiagnoses of multiple extrafemoral lesions as bony metastasis or traumatic lesions, in patients with avascular necrosis of the femur these should be carefully evaluated.

  15. Multiple bony lesions other than femoral heads on 99mTc-MDP bone scan in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Weon, Young Cheol; Shin, Myung Jin; Lee, Soo Ho; Lee, Hee Kyung; Chun, Hae Kyung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of the multiple increased uptake lesions other than in femoral heads as seen on whole body bone scan in patients with avascular necrosis of femoral heads. One hundred and seventy three patients with clinical diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the emoral head underwent a bone scan using Tc-99m MDP. Increased uptake lesions other than in femoral heads were evaluated, including frequency and common sites of in volvement, and correlated with clinical information and plain radiographic findings. Two hundred patients without AVN, who had undergone a bone scan, were included as a control group. Increased uptake lesions in extrafemoral head locations were found in 36 of 173 patients(20.8%;the location of 79 lesions was other than the femoral head, This result is statistically different from patients without avascular necrosis of femoral head(p<0.0001). The most common site of involvement was the knee joint area(62.5%). Other lesions were located in the mid-shafts of the long bones of the lower extremities, calcaneus, proximal humerus, etc., in order of decreasing frequency. Plain radiographs of 17 lesions were nonspecific, except for three lesions showing definite changes associated with avascular necrosis. The risk factors included alcoholism, the prolonged use of steroids, renal transplantation, herbal medication and working as a working as deep-sea diver. Most patients did not complain of pain, except for two with irreversible osteonecrotic changes as seen on plain radiograph. in patients with avascular necrosis of the femur, increased uptake lesions other than in the femoral head as seen on bone scan, may represent the early stage of osteonecrosis, which shows a characteristic appearance on bone scan. In order to aveid possible misdiagnoses of multiple extrafemoral lesions as bony metastasis or traumatic lesions, in patients with avascular necrosis of the femur these should be carefully evaluated

  16. Whole Genome Scan to Detect Chromosomal Regions Affecting Multiple Traits in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, C.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosomal regions affecting multiple traits ( multiple trait quantitative trait regions or MQR) in dairy cattle were detected using a method based on results from single trait analyses to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The covariance between contrasts for different traits in single trait

  17. An ultra-high-vacuum multiple grating chamber and scan drive with improved grating change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Holly, D.J.; Middleton, F.H.; Wallace, D.J.; Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI; Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI

    1989-01-01

    We describe a new grating chamber and scan drive which has been designed, built, and tested by Physical Sciences Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin for the new high flux, high-resolution spectroscopy branch line of the TOK hybrid wiggler/undulator on the NSLS VUV ring. The chamber will contain spherical gratings to be used in the Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) configuration introduced by Chen and Sette. The grating chamber houses five 180 mm x 35 mm x 30 mm gratings capable of scanning a range of 12 degree (-14 degree to +8 degree with respect to the incoming beam direction) for VUV and soft X-ray diffraction. The gratings can be switched and precisely indexed while under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at any scan angle and are mechanically isolated from the vacuum chamber to prevent inaccuracies due to chamber distortions. The gratings can separately be adjusted for height, yaw, pitch, and roll, with the latter three performed while in vacuo. The scan drive provides a resolution of 0.03 arc sec with linearity over the 12 degree range of ∼1.5 arc sec and absolute reproducibility of 1 arc sec. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  19. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  20. Novel method of simultaneous multiple immunogold localization on resin sections in high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nebesářová, Jana; Wandrol, P.; Vancová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2016), s. 105-517 ISSN 1549-9634 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : multiple immunolabeling * gold nanoparticles * high resolution SEM * STEM imaging * BSE imaging Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.720, year: 2016

  1. MR brain scanning in patients with vasculitis: Differentiation from multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Ormerod, I.E.C.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.; Gibson, A.

    1987-01-01

    We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen in multiple sclerosis. However, additional changes were commonly seen which suggested the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Roadside Multiple Objects Extraction from Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud Based on DBN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an novel algorithm for exploring deep belief network (DBN architectures to extract and recognize roadside facilities (trees,cars and traffic poles from mobile laser scanning (MLS point cloud.The proposed methods firstly partitioned the raw MLS point cloud into blocks and then removed the ground and building points.In order to partition the off-ground objects into individual objects,off-ground points were organized into an Octree structure and clustered into candidate objects based on connected component.To improve segmentation performance on clusters containing overlapped objects,a refining processing using a voxel-based normalized cut was then implemented.In addition,multi-view features descriptor was generated for each independent roadside facilities based on binary images.Finally,a deep belief network (DBN was trained to extract trees,cars and traffic pole objects.Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the validities of the proposed method with two datasets acquired by Lynx Mobile Mapper System.The precision of trees,cars and traffic poles objects extraction results respectively was 97.31%,97.79% and 92.78%.The recall was 98.30%,98.75% and 96.77% respectively.The quality is 95.70%,93.81% and 90.00%.And the F1 measure was 97.80%,96.81% and 94.73%.

  3. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  4. Noise analysis of a white-light supercontinuum light source for multiple wavelength confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Gail [Centre for Biophotonics, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, G4 0NR (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Intensity correlations of a Ti : sapphire, Kr/Ar and a white-light supercontinuum were performed to quantify the typical signal amplitude fluctuations and hence ascertain the comparative output stability of the white-light supercontinuum source for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Intensity correlations across a two-pixel sample (n = 1000) of up to 98%, 95% and 94% were measured for the Ti : sapphire, Kr/Ar and white-light supercontinuum source, respectively. The white-light supercontinuum noise level is therefore acceptable for CLSM, with the added advantage of wider wavelength flexibility over traditional CLSM excitation sources. The relatively low-noise white-light supercontinuum was then used to perform multiple wavelength sequential CLSM of guinea pig detrusor to confirm the reliability of the system and to demonstrate system flexibility.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of full-body linear X-ray scanning in multiple trauma patients in comparison to computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeres, A.P.W.; Heverhagen, J.T.; Bonel, H. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). Univ. Inst. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Exadaktylos, A. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. of Emergency Medicine; Klink, T. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). Univ. Inst. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of full-body linear X-ray scanning (LS) in multiple trauma patients in comparison to 128-multislice computed tomography (MSCT). 106 multiple trauma patients (female: 33; male: 73) were retrospectively included in this study. All patients underwent LS of the whole body, including extremities, and MSCT covering the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The diagnostic accuracy of LS for the detection of fractures of the truncal skeleton and pneumothoraces was evaluated in comparison to MSCT by two observers in consensus. Extremity fractures detected by LS were documented. The overall sensitivity of LS was 49.2%, the specificity was 93.3%, the positive predictive value was 91%, and the negative predictive value was 57.5%. The overall sensitivity for vertebral fractures was 16.7%, and the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity was 48.7% and the specificity 98.2% for all other fractures. Pneumothoraces were detected in 12 patients by CT, but not by LS.40 extremity fractures were detected by LS, of which 4 fractures were dislocated, and 2 were fully covered by MSCT. The diagnostic accuracy of LS is limited in the evaluation of acute trauma of the truncal skeleton. LS allows fast whole-body X-ray imaging, and may be valuable for detecting extremity fractures in trauma patients in addition to MSCT.

  6. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  7. SU-C-207A-06: On-Line Beam Range Verification with Multiple Scanning Particle Beams: Initial Feasibility Study with Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y; Sun, X; Lu, W; Jia, X; Wang, J; Shao, Y [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and requirement for intra-fraction on-line multiple scanning particle beam range verifications (BRVs) with in-situ PET imaging, which is beyond the current single-beam BRV with extra factors that will affect the BR measurement accuracy, such as beam diameter, separation between beams, and different image counts at different BRV positions. Methods: We simulated a 110-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a uniform PMMA phantom by GATE simulation, which generated nuclear interaction-induced positrons. In this preliminary study, we simply duplicated these positrons and placed them next to the initial protons to approximately mimic the two spatially separated positron distributions produced by two beams parallel to each other but with different beam ranges. These positrons were then imaged by a PET (∼2-mm resolution, 10% sensitivity, 320×320×128 mm^3 FOV) with different acquisition times. We calculated the positron activity ranges (ARs) from reconstructed PET images and compared them with the corresponding ARs of original positron distributions. Results: Without further image data processing and correction, the preliminary study show the errors between the measured and original ARs varied from 0.2 mm to 2.3 mm as center-to-center separations and range differences were in the range of 8–12 mm and 2–8 mm respectively, indicating the accuracy of AR measurement strongly depends on the beam separations and range differences. In addition, it is feasible to achieve ≤ 1.0-mm accuracy for both beams with 1-min PET acquisition and 12 mm beam separation. Conclusion: This study shows that the overlap between the positron distributions from multiple scanning beams can significantly impact the accuracy of BRVs of distributed particle beams and need to be further addressed beyond the established method of single-beam BRV, but it also indicates the feasibility to achieve accurate on-line multi-beam BRV with further improved

  8. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  9. Enhanced resolution imaging of ultrathin ZnO layers on Ag(111) by multiple hydrogen molecules in a scanning tunneling microscope junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyi; Shiotari, Akitoshi; Baugh, Delroy; Wolf, Martin; Kumagai, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular hydrogen in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junction has been found to enhance the lateral spatial resolution of the STM imaging, referred to as scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (STHM). Here we report atomic resolution imaging of 2- and 3-monolayer (ML) thick ZnO layers epitaxially grown on Ag(111) using STHM. The enhanced resolution can be obtained at a relatively large tip to surface distance and resolves a more defective structure exhibiting dislocation defects for 3-ML-thick ZnO than for 2 ML. In order to elucidate the enhanced imaging mechanism, the electric and mechanical properties of the hydrogen molecular junction (HMJ) are investigated by a combination of STM and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the HMJ shows multiple kinklike features in the tip to surface distance dependence of the conductance and frequency shift curves, which are absent in a hydrogen-free junction. Based on a simple modeling, we propose that the junction contains several hydrogen molecules and sequential squeezing of the molecules out of the junction results in the kinklike features in the conductance and frequency shift curves. The model also qualitatively reproduces the enhanced resolution image of the ZnO films.

  10. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B.R.

    1979-05-25

    Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

  11. Rationally engineered nanoparticles target multiple myeloma cells, overcome cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance, and show enhanced efficacy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiziltepe, T; Ashley, J D; Stefanick, J F; Qi, Y M; Alves, N J; Handlogten, M W; Suckow, M A; Navari, R M; Bilgicer, B

    2012-01-01

    In the continuing search for effective cancer treatments, we report the rational engineering of a multifunctional nanoparticle that combines traditional chemotherapy with cell targeting and anti-adhesion functionalities. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) mediated adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to bone marrow stroma confers MM cells with cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). In our design, we used micellar nanoparticles as dynamic self-assembling scaffolds to present VLA-4-antagonist peptides and doxorubicin (Dox) conjugates, simultaneously, to selectively target MM cells and to overcome CAM-DR. Dox was conjugated to the nanoparticles through an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond. VLA-4-antagonist peptides were conjugated via a multifaceted synthetic procedure for generating precisely controlled number of targeting functionalities. The nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by MM cells and induced cytotoxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that nanoparticles induced DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in MM cells. Importantly, multifunctional nanoparticles overcame CAM-DR, and were more efficacious than Dox when MM cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated plates. Finally, in a MM xenograft model, nanoparticles preferentially homed to MM tumors with ∼10 fold more drug accumulation and demonstrated dramatic tumor growth inhibition with a reduced overall systemic toxicity. Altogether, we demonstrate the disease driven engineering of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system, enabling the model of an integrative approach in the treatment of MM

  12. Arcuate hypothalamic AgRP and putative POMC neurons show opposite changes in spiking across multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Ramesh, Rohan N; Burgess, Christian R; Patella, Paola; Yang, Zongfang; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Agouti-related-peptide (AgRP) neurons—interoceptive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC)—are both necessary and sufficient for driving feeding behavior. To better understand the functional roles of AgRP neurons, we performed optetrode electrophysiological recordings from AgRP neurons in awake, behaving AgRP-IRES-Cre mice. In free-feeding mice, we observed a fivefold increase in AgRP neuron firing with mounting caloric deficit in afternoon vs morning recordings. In food-restricted mice, as food became available, AgRP neuron firing dropped, yet remained elevated as compared to firing in sated mice. The rapid drop in spiking activity of AgRP neurons at meal onset may reflect a termination of the drive to find food, while residual, persistent spiking may reflect a sustained drive to consume food. Moreover, nearby neurons inhibited by AgRP neuron photostimulation, likely including satiety-promoting pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, demonstrated opposite changes in spiking. Finally, firing of ARC neurons was also rapidly modulated within seconds of individual licks for liquid food. These findings suggest novel roles for antagonistic AgRP and POMC neurons in the regulation of feeding behaviors across multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07122.001 PMID:26159614

  13. Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

    2007-05-16

    A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

  14. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašínová, H.; Neděla, Vilém; Dordevic, B.; Havel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 4 (2017), s. 1487-1497 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * pinus uncinata subsp uliginosa * abnormalities * environmental scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  15. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2017-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  16. Development of an image intensifier-TV digital imaging system with a multiple-slit scanning x-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Y.; Doi, K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing a new digital x-ray imaging system employing a multiple-slit assembly (MSA) and an image intensifier (II)-TV digital system. The final image consisting of primary radiation is digitally reconstructed from multiple slit images obtained with the MSA. This system can significantly reduce the scattered radiation from an object and the veiling glare from II-TV system. The quality of the reconstructed image is related to many parameters, such as slit width, the number of image frames, and the image reconstruction algorithm. They present the effect of these various parameters on basic imaging properties and the practicability of the method in comparison with conventional wide beam imaging

  17. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  18. [A case of transverse colon cancer with multiple liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymph node involvement showing pathological complete response by XELOX plus bevacizumab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Toshiki; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Koga, Rintaro; Arita, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Ikeda, Atsushi; Nagasue, Yasutomo; Oikawa, Yoshinori; Yamakawa, Keiko; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Ueno, Masashi; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Shinozaki, Eiji; Yamamoto, Chiriko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2012-12-01

    A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography(CT)and colonoscopy revealed transverse colon cancer with multiple liver metastases, with involvement of the hepatic pedicle and superior mesenteric artery lymph nodes. The patient received eight courses of XELOX plus bevacizumab, and CT showed a decrease in the size of the liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymphadenopathy. Right hemicolectomy, partial hepatectomy, and hepatic pedicle lymph node resection were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tissue revealed no residual cancer cells, suggesting a pathological complete response. The patient remains well 7 months after operation, without any signs of recurrence. Surgical resection should be considered for patients with initially unresectable colon cancer with liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymph nodes involvement if systemic chemotherapy is effective.

  19. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging may show abnormalities in the normal-appearing cervical spinal cord from patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Miraldi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD.

  20. Estimation of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk from multiple head CT scans in ventriculoperitoneal shunted children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw-Zoretic, J.; Seth, D.; Katzman, G.; Sammet, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to determine the averaged effective dose and lifetime attributable risk factor from multiple head computed tomography (CT) dose data on children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS). Method and materials: A total of 422 paediatric head CT exams were found between October 2008 and January 2011 and retrospectively reviewed. The CT dose data was weighted with the latest IRCP 103 conversion factor to obtain the effective dose per study and the averaged effective dose was calculated. Estimates of the lifetime attributable risk were also calculated from the averaged effective dose using a conversion factor from the latest BEIR VII report. Results: Our study found the highest effective doses in neonates and the lowest effective doses were observed in the 10–18 years age group. We estimated a 0.007% potential increase risk in neonates and 0.001% potential increased risk in teenagers over the base risk. Conclusion: Multiple head CTs in children equates to a slight potential increase risk in lifetime attributable risk over the baseline risk for cancer, slightly higher in neonates relative to teenagers. The potential risks versus clinical benefit must be assessed

  1. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  2. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lihua; Wang Yunhua; Jiang Zhongbiao; Zhang Lejun; Sun Wanli; Zhang Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group)and 30 healthy people (control group)underwent pulmonary function test (PFT). Chest 64-MSCT low-dose (50 mAs) scanning at full inspiration and expiration, routine scanning (100 mAs) at inspiration were performed. The effective dose (ED) was calculated. The lung was divided into three regions (upper, middle, lower). PI of lung were divided into five groups: -960--1024, -910--960, -800--910, -700--800, -400--700. The PI -910 (sum of the PI under -910 HU) of low-dose scanning at each region were measured and calculated using pulmo software. All PI included PIin -910 , PIiex -910 , PIin -910 -PIiex -910 , PIiex -910 /PIin -910 and (PIin -910 -PIiex -910 )/PIin -910 . All patients underwent PFT within 3 days after 64-MSCT canning, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC were selected for comparison. Results: The PIin in three regions (-960 - -1024, -910 - -960, -800 - -910) were statistically significant between normal and COPD groups (U=0.00, 57.00, 20.50, P<0.01). The PIex in all regions were statistically significant (U=0.00, 0.00, 71.52, 191.00, 6.00, P<0.01). PI -910--1024 at expiration and inspiration were correlated with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, P<0.01). PIin -910 , PIex -910 ,PIiex -910 /PIin -910 , (PIin -910 -PIex -910 )/PIin -910 had a good correlation with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, -0.674, -0.642, 0.674, 0.642, P<0.01). Conclusion: Pixel indexes of 64-MSCT low-dose two-phase scanning can be used to evaluate pulmonary function in COPD patients. (authors)

  3. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  4. SU-E-T-266: Development of Evaluation System of Optimal Synchrotron Controlling Parameter for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Multiple Gate Irradiations in One Operation Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Fujii, Y; Miyamoto, N; Matsuura, T; Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y; Koyano, H; Shirato, H; Nihongi, H; Umezawa, M; Matsuda, K; Umegaki, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have developed a gated spot scanning proton beam therapy system with real-time tumor-tracking. This system has the ability of multiple-gated irradiation in a single synchrotron operation cycle controlling the wait-time for consecutive gate signals during a flat-top phase so that the decrease in irradiation efficiency induced by irregular variation of gate signal is reduced. Our previous studies have shown that a 200 ms wait-time is appropriate to increase the average irradiation efficiency, but the optimal wait-time can vary patient by patient and day by day. In this research, we have developed an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on the log data of the real-time-image gated proton beam therapy (RGPT) system. Methods: The developed system consists of logger for operation of RGPT system and software for evaluation of optimal wait-time. The logger records timing of gate on/off, timing and the dose of delivered beam spots, beam energy and timing of X-ray irradiation. The evaluation software calculates irradiation time in the case of different wait-time by simulating the multiple-gated irradiation operation using several timing information. Actual data preserved in the log data are used for gate on and off time, spot irradiation time, and time moving to the next spot. Design values are used for the acceleration and deceleration times. We applied this system to a patient treated with the RGPT system. Results: The evaluation system found the optimal wait-time of 390 ms that reduced the irradiation time by about 10 %. The irradiation time with actual wait-time used in treatment was reproduced with accuracy of 0.2 ms. Conclusion: For spot scanning proton therapy system with multiple-gated irradiation in one synchrotron operation cycle, an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on log data has been developed. Funding Support: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the FIRST

  5. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2013-09-01

    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry.

  6. Habit modification of nearly perfect single crystals of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by trivalent manganese ions studied using synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in Renninger scanning mode

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, X; Roberts, KJ; Avanci, LH; Cardoso, LP; Sasaki, JM

    2003-01-01

    The X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation is applied in the preliminary study of the habit modification of KDP samples as induced by incorporation of the trivalent transition metal cation Mn3+. High-resolution Renninger scans of pure and doped KDP were carried out using 400 as the primary reflection, echoing the fact that these impurity species were segregated in the {100} growth sector. The analysis of the Renninger scans of the doped KDP crystals is consistent wit...

  7. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  8. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  9. Multiple novel alternative splicing forms of FBXW7α have a translational modulatory function and show specific alteration in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyong Liu

    Full Text Available FBXW7 acts as a tumor suppressor through ubiquitination and degradation of multiple oncoproteins. Loss of FBXW7 expression, which could be partially attributed by the genomic deletion or mutation of FBXW7 locus, is frequently observed in various human cancers. However, the mechanisms regulating FBXW7 expression still remain poorly understood. Here we examined the 5' region of FBXW7 gene to investigate the regulation of FBXW7 expression. We identified seven alternative splicing (AS 5'-UTR forms of FBXW7α that are composed of multiple novel non-coding exons. A significant difference in translational efficiency among these 5'-UTRs variants was observed by in vivo Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA level of the AS form with high translational efficiency was specifically reduced in more than 80% of breast cancer cell lines and in more than 50% of human primary cancers from various tissues. In addition, we also identified mutations of FBXW7 in prostate cancers (5.6%, kidney cancers (16.7%, and bladder cancers (18.8%. Our results suggest that in addition to mutation, differential expression of FBXW7α AS forms with different translational properties may serve as a novel mechanism for inactivation of FBXW7 in human cancer.

  10. Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: Monica.Lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ullerakersvaegen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Oberg, Denise [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Sune [Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kyle, Carol E. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Orberg, Jan [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhind, Stewart M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8 months until they were 4-6 years of age and they were slaughtered at 110 d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, - 4%; p < 0.05), lower trabecular bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm; - 18%; p < 0.05), trabecular bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm{sup 3}, - 8.0%; p < 0.05) and trabecular CSA, mm{sup 2}, - 11.1%; p < 0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (- 6.7%, p < 0.05) and marrow cavity area (- 13.8%, p < 0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+ 3.0%, p < 0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.

  11. Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P. Monica; Oberg, Denise; Larsson, Sune; Kyle, Carol E.; Orberg, Jan; Rhind, Stewart M.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8 months until they were 4-6 years of age and they were slaughtered at 110 d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, - 4%; p 3 , - 8.0%; p 2 , - 11.1%; p < 0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (- 6.7%, p < 0.05) and marrow cavity area (- 13.8%, p < 0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+ 3.0%, p < 0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.

  12. In situ observation of the growth of biofouling layer in osmotic membrane bioreactors by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Xinhua; Tang, Chuyang; Li, Xiufen; Yu, Guanghui

    2015-05-15

    Since the concept of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) was introduced in 2008, it has attracted growing interests for its potential applications in wastewater treatment and reclamation; however, the fouling mechanisms of forward osmosis (FO) membrane especially the development of biofouling layer in the OMBR are not yet clear. Here, the fouled FO membranes were obtained from the OMBRs on days 3, 8 and 25 in sequence, and then the structure and growing rule of the biofouling layer formed on the FO membrane samples were in-situ characterized by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM images indicated that the variations in abundance and distribution of polysaccharides, proteins and microorganisms in the biofouling layer during the operation of OMBRs were significantly different. Before the 8th day, their biovolume dramatically increased. Subsequently, the biovolumes of β-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins continued increasing and leveled off after 8 days, respectively, while the biovolumes of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms decreased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) played a significant role in the formation and growth of biofouling layer, while the microorganisms were seldom detected on the upper fouling layer after 3 days. Based on the results obtained in this study, the growth of biofouling layer on the FO membrane surface in the OMBR could be divided into three stages. Initially, EPS was firstly deposited on the FO membrane surface, and then microorganisms associated with EPS located in the initial depositing layer to form clusters. After that, the dramatic increase of the clusters of EPS and microorganisms resulted in the quick growth of biofouling layer during the flux decline of the OMBR. However, when the water flux became stable in the OMBR, some microorganisms and EPS would be detached from the FO membrane surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A prospective study of patients with brain MRI showing incidental t2 hyperintensities addressed as multiple sclerosis: a lot of work to do before treating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mondot, Lydiane; Chanalet, Stephane

    2014-12-01

    With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and publications about radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), a lot of patients are referred to multiple sclerosis (MS) tertiary centers to confirm diagnosis of RIS or MS when brain T2 abnormalities are identified, whatever their characteristics. We evaluate prospectively the occurrence of RIS or MS and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of McDonald criteria in diagnosis for patients presenting with incidental brain MRI T2 lesions. The authors ran standardized procedures on 220 consecutive patients addressed by general practitioners or neurologists to confirm RIS or MS diagnosis on brain MRI and give a therapeutic advice. All patients underwent neurological tests, extensive blood screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, visual evoked potential (VEP) and follow-up MRI after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months to consider dissemination in time and space. Patient characteristics were: 165 women and 55 men, mean age: 42.7 years old (23-59). The major symptom motivating MRI was headaches (39%), sensitive atypical manifestations or pain (12%), mood disorders (10%), transient visual symptoms (9%), fatigue (8%), hormonal screening (6%), vertigo (6%), cranial trauma (5%), and dummy run for clinical study (5%). After a structured analysis of T2 lesions, the suspected diagnosis was: inflammatory disease 45%, vascular 33%, non-pathological 19%, genetic 2%, and metabolic 1%. Extensive screening confirmed the proposed diagnosis in 97% of cases. Among all the 220 proposed RIS patients, only 35.4% fulfilled the 2010 McDonald criteria, and 8% can be categorized as RIS. Dissemination in time criteria was present for 82.7% of MS patients and 36% of RIS patients but none of the vascular or non-pathological T2 abnormalities. Even if RIS was initially suspected on MRI, only a third of the patients had an inflammatory disease. Most of the patients had either non-specific T2 lesions or a non-inflammatory disease. Others

  14. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  15. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  16. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  17. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Boyapalle

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162 viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections.

  18. Multiple challenges of antibiotic use in a large hospital in Ethiopia - a ward-specific study showing high rates of hospital-acquired infections and ineffective prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutema, Girma; Håkonsen, Helle; Engidawork, Ephrem; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2018-05-03

    This project aims to study the use of antibiotics in three clinical wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia for a period of 1 year. The specific aims were to assess the prevalence of patients on antibiotics, quantify the antibiotic consumption and identify the main indications of use. The material was all the medical charts (n = 2231) retrieved from three clinical wards (internal medicine, gynecology/obstetrics and surgery) in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa between September 2013 and September 2014. Data collection was performed manually by four pharmacists. Each medical chart represented one patient. About 60% of the patients were admitted to internal medicine, 20% to each of the other two wards. The number of bed days (BD) was on average 16.5. Antibiotics for systemic use were prescribed to 73.7% of the patients (on average: 2.1 antibiotics/patient) of whom 86.6% got a third or fourth generation cephalosporin (mainly ceftriaxone). The average consumption of antibiotics was 81.6 DDD/100BD, varying from 91.8 in internal medicine and 71.6 in surgery to 47.6 in gynecology/obstetrics. The five most frequently occurring infections were pneumonia (26.6%), surgical site infections (21.5%), neutropenic fever (6.9%), sepsis (6.4%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%). About one fourth of the prescriptions were for prophylactic purposes. Hospital acquired infections occurred in 23.5% of the patients (353 cases of surgical site infection). The prescribing was based on empirical treatment and sensitivity testing was reported in only 3.8% of the cases. In the present study from three wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia, three out of four patients were prescribed antibiotics, primarily empirically. The mean antibiotic consumption was 81.6 DDD/100BD. Surgical site infections constituted a large burden of the infections treated in the hospital, despite extensive prescribing of prophylaxis. The findings show

  19. A study evaluating of the dependence of the clinical usefulness on the use of a half-time acquisition factor in a multiple-gated blood-pool (MUGA) scan using Tc-99 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Yeo, Hwa-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of reducing the scan time based on a comparative analysis of the left ventricular cardiac ejection fraction of a full-time image in a gated cardiac blood-pool scan by using the half-time image obtained by applying an image processing technique and using the results from a blind test conducted by radiologists. Fifty patients who underwent a multiple-gated blood-pool (MUGA) scan at the Nuclear Medicine Department of ASAN Medical Center from June 20 to August 14, 2011 were enrolled in this study. Images of the left anterior oblique (LAO) view were obtained continuously in full time (6,000 kcts) and half time (3,000 kcts) in the same posture. The obtained images were used to calculate the left ventricular cardiac ejection fraction 10 times in the full-time image, the half-time image obtained without applying an image processing technique, and the half-time image obtained by applying an image processing technique. To evaluate the cardiac ejection fraction under the same conditions, we set the regions of interest (ROIs) of the left ventricle and the background radioactivity to be the automated ROIs on the same X and Y axes. According to the results of quantitative analyses of the cardiac ejection fraction, the mean ± standard deviation value for the full-time image, the half-time image obtained without applying an image processing technique, and the half-time images obtained by applying an image processing technique were 69.1 ± 7.6%, 68.2 ± 8.4%, and 68.7 ± 8.0%, respectively. The cardiac ejection fraction did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05). For a qualitative analysis, a blinding test was conducted with two radiologists. According to the test results, when the examination was conducted for cardiac wall motion of the left ventricle, no difference was found between the full-time and half-time images obtained by applying an image processing technique.

  20. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  1. Highlights from 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network)-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyperspectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT). From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy's TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) I & II campaigns, and NASA's SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea & Ice Experiment) campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2 (High Spectral Resolution Lidar), and from in situ measurements.

  2. 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Connor; Dahlgren, R. P.; Dunagan, S.; Johnson, R.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyper spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT).From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy TCAP I II campaigns, and NASAs SEAC4RS and ARISE campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2, and from in situ measurements.

  3. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  4. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  5. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  6. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  7. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  8. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  9. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  10. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis

  11. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  12. Intra-event correlations and the statistical moments of the identified particle multiplicity distributions in the RHIC beam energy scan data collected by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llope, W. J.; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Specific products of the statistical moments of the multiplicity distributions of identified particles can be directly compared to susceptibility ratios obtained from lattice QCD calculations. They may also diverge for nuclear systems formed close to a possible QCD critical point due to the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Of particular interest are the moments products for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge, as these are considered proxies for conserved quantum numbers. The moments products have been measured by the STAR experiment for Au+Au collisions at seven beam energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV. In this presentation, the experimental results are compared to data-based calculations in which the intra-event correlations of the numbers of positive and negative particles are broken by construction. The importance of intra-event correlations to the moments products values for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge can thus be evaluated. Work supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy under grant DE-PS02-09ER09.

  13. Comparison of IGRT Registration Strategies for Optimal Coverage of Primary Lung Tumors and Involved Nodes Based on Multiple Four-Dimensional CT Scans Obtained Throughout the Radiotherapy Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Shah, Chirag; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Yan, Di; Ionascu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of primary tumor and involved lymph node (LN) geometry (centroid, shape, volume) on internal target volume (ITV) throughout treatment for locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer using weekly four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer were treated using image-guided radiotherapy with acquisition of weekly 10-Phase 4DCTs (n = 51). Initial ITV was based on planning 4DCT. Master-ITV incorporated target geometry across the entire treatment (all 4DCTs). Geographic miss was defined as the % Master-ITV positioned outside of the initial planning ITV after registration is complete. Registration strategies considered were bony (B), primary tumor soft tissue alone (T), and registration based on primary tumor and involved LNs (T L N). Results: The % geographic miss for the primary tumor, mediastinal, and hilar lymph nodes based on each registration strategy were (1) B: 30%, 30%, 30%; (2) T: 21%, 40%, 36%; and (3) T L N: 26%, 26%, 27%. Mean geographic expansions to encompass 100% of the primary tumor and involved LNs were 1.2 ± 0.7 cm and 0.8 ± 0.3 cm, respectively, for B and T L N. Primary and involved LN expansions were 0.7 ± 0.5 cm and 1.1 ± 0.5 cm for T. Conclusion: T is best for solitary targets. When treatments include primary tumor and LNs, B and T L N provide more comprehensive geographic coverage. We have identified high % geographic miss when considering multiple registration strategies. The dosimetric implications are the subject of future study.

  14. Comparison of IGRT Registration Strategies for Optimal Coverage of Primary Lung Tumors and Involved Nodes Based on Multiple Four-Dimensional CT Scans Obtained Throughout the Radiotherapy Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Shah, Chirag; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Yan, Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ionascu, Dan, E-mail: Dan.ionascu@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of primary tumor and involved lymph node (LN) geometry (centroid, shape, volume) on internal target volume (ITV) throughout treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer using weekly four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were treated using image-guided radiotherapy with acquisition of weekly 10-Phase 4DCTs (n = 51). Initial ITV was based on planning 4DCT. Master-ITV incorporated target geometry across the entire treatment (all 4DCTs). Geographic miss was defined as the % Master-ITV positioned outside of the initial planning ITV after registration is complete. Registration strategies considered were bony (B), primary tumor soft tissue alone (T), and registration based on primary tumor and involved LNs (T{sub L}N). Results: The % geographic miss for the primary tumor, mediastinal, and hilar lymph nodes based on each registration strategy were (1) B: 30%, 30%, 30%; (2) T: 21%, 40%, 36%; and (3) T{sub L}N: 26%, 26%, 27%. Mean geographic expansions to encompass 100% of the primary tumor and involved LNs were 1.2 {+-} 0.7 cm and 0.8 {+-} 0.3 cm, respectively, for B and T{sub L}N. Primary and involved LN expansions were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 cm and 1.1 {+-} 0.5 cm for T. Conclusion: T is best for solitary targets. When treatments include primary tumor and LNs, B and T{sub L}N provide more comprehensive geographic coverage. We have identified high % geographic miss when considering multiple registration strategies. The dosimetric implications are the subject of future study.

  15. A pH and solvent optimized reverse-phase ion-paring-LC–MS/MS method that leverages multiple scan-types for targeted absolute quantification of intracellular metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of intracellular biochemistry is needed to accurately understand, model, and manipulate metabolism for industrial and therapeutic applications. Quantitative metabolomics has been driven by advances in analytical instrumentation and can add valuable knowledge to the underst......Comprehensive knowledge of intracellular biochemistry is needed to accurately understand, model, and manipulate metabolism for industrial and therapeutic applications. Quantitative metabolomics has been driven by advances in analytical instrumentation and can add valuable knowledge...... existing reverse phase ion-paring liquid chromatography methods for separation and detection of polar and anionic compounds that comprise key nodes of intracellular metabolism by optimizing pH and solvent composition. In addition, the presented method utilizes multiple scan types provided by hybrid...

  16. Structural analysis and dimerization profile of the SCAN domain of the pluripotency factor Zfp206

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Yu; Huimei Hong, Felicia; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Jiang, Sizun; Jauch, Ralf; Stanton, Lawrence W.; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2012-01-01

    Zfp206 (also named as Zscan10) belongs to the subfamily of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors, which is characterized by the N-terminal SCAN domain. The SCAN domain mediates self-association and association between the members of SCAN family transcription factors, but the structural basis and selectivity determinants for complex formation is unknown. Zfp206 is important for maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells presumably by combinatorial assembly of itself or other SCAN family members on enhancer regions. To gain insights into the folding topology and selectivity determinants for SCAN dimerization, we solved the 1.85 crystal structure of the SCAN domain of Zfp206. In vitro binding studies using a panel of 20 SCAN proteins indicate that the SCAN domain Zfp206 can selectively associate with other members of SCAN family transcription factors. Deletion mutations showed that the N-terminal helix 1 is critical for heterodimerization. Double mutations and multiple mutations based on the Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN model suggested that domain swapped topology is a possible preference for Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN heterodimer. Together, we demonstrate that the Zfp206SCAN constitutes a protein module that enables C2H2 transcription factor dimerization in a highly selective manner using a domain-swapped interface architecture and identify novel partners for Zfp206 during embryonal development. 2012 The Author(s).

  17. Structural analysis and dimerization profile of the SCAN domain of the pluripotency factor Zfp206

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Yu

    2012-06-26

    Zfp206 (also named as Zscan10) belongs to the subfamily of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors, which is characterized by the N-terminal SCAN domain. The SCAN domain mediates self-association and association between the members of SCAN family transcription factors, but the structural basis and selectivity determinants for complex formation is unknown. Zfp206 is important for maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells presumably by combinatorial assembly of itself or other SCAN family members on enhancer regions. To gain insights into the folding topology and selectivity determinants for SCAN dimerization, we solved the 1.85 crystal structure of the SCAN domain of Zfp206. In vitro binding studies using a panel of 20 SCAN proteins indicate that the SCAN domain Zfp206 can selectively associate with other members of SCAN family transcription factors. Deletion mutations showed that the N-terminal helix 1 is critical for heterodimerization. Double mutations and multiple mutations based on the Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN model suggested that domain swapped topology is a possible preference for Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN heterodimer. Together, we demonstrate that the Zfp206SCAN constitutes a protein module that enables C2H2 transcription factor dimerization in a highly selective manner using a domain-swapped interface architecture and identify novel partners for Zfp206 during embryonal development. 2012 The Author(s).

  18. Implantation annealing by scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaussaud, C.; Biasse, B.; Cartier, A.M.; Bontemps, A.

    1983-11-01

    Samples of ion implanted silicon (BF 2 , 30keV, 10 15 ions x cm -2 ) have been annealed with a multiple scan electron beam, at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1200 0 C. The curves of sheet resistance versus time show a minimum. Nuclear reaction measurements of the amount of boron remaining after annealing show that the increase in sheet resistance is due to a loss of boron. The increase in junction depths, measured by spreading resistance on bevels is between a few hundred A and 1000 A [fr

  19. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  20. Comparison of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinyu [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: myginny2@sina.com; Yang Xue [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: yangxueqyfy@126.com; Hua Hui [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao (China)], E-mail: huahuisky@163.com; Chen Jingjing [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: chenjingjingsky@126.com

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome when comparing the images between fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan. Methods: Eighteen patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were examined by fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in turn. Fast SPGR single slice scans were conducted when the phases of apnea, inspiration and expiration appeared on the respiratory wave of the subjects. Fast SPGR continuous dynamic scans were conducted when the patients were awake and apneic. The scan planes were median sagittal plane and axial planes (the slice of middle part of palate, the slice of inferior part of palate, the slice of middle part of lingual root and the slice of 0.5 cm beneath the free margin of epiglottis). The obstructed sites and the cross-sectional areas of upper airway were compared between the two scan methods. Results: Seven cases showed complete obstruction at the narrowest sites of upper airway when apnea appeared; eleven cases showed marked decrease in cross-sectional areas at the narrowest sites compared with the areas when the patients were awake; two cases manifested multiple narrowness. The obstructed sites showed by the two scan methods were same. The difference of the cross-sectional areas of upper airway between the two scan methods was insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Fast SPGR single slice scan can accurately reflect the obstructed sites of upper airway when the breath breaks off and is the complementary method of continuous dynamic scan. Sometimes, single slice scan can replace continuous dynamic scan.

  1. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  2. Three phase bone scan in sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, M.S.; Chowhan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Sports injuries are common in individual who participate in sports and exercise related activities. In majority of sports related injuries such as stress fracture, periosteitits, acute stress reaction of bone, the radiological investigations are usually normal in early stages. These injuries can lead to serious complications if not detected early and managed properly. This study was jointly carried out in premier medical institutes. All patients were referred from premier sports institute of the country and also by orthopedic surgeons. All patients were subjected for relevant radiological investigations and 3 phase bone scan. Total number of cases included in this study was 70 (N=70) among which bone scan was positive for stress fracture in 45 patients and shin splint was detected in 15 patients and avulsion injury seen in 3 patients. However, only one patient showed features of avulsion injury in X ray and in 1 patient X-ray was inconclusive. Conclusion:-The study shows that 3 phase bone scan is the most sensitive and relatively an inexpensive study. Bone scan has the ability for early detection of sports injuries and provide physiological information and evaluate multiple sites in single examination.SPECT study will help in the diagnostic specificity. (author)

  3. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  4. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  5. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  6. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.A.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes recently developed research methods for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In Chapter X the use of the CT-scan in the detection of hemispheral or cerebellar lesions is discussed. In chapter XIII the results of the application of all methods to a group of 89 patients with definite, probable or possible multiple sclerosis and to a group of 25 purely optic neuritis patients are presented. With the aid of the CT-scan, hypo- or hyperdense areas in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were found in 52% of the 114 patients. Most reports ascribe these lesions to demyelinating cerebral plaques. The CT-scan showed no cerebellar or brainstem lesions. The CT-scan is independent of the duration of, and degree of incapacitation due to, the disease and can be helpful in giving a definite diagnosis in an early stage of the disease. The CT-scan will always play an important role for the differential diagnosis. (Auth.)

  7. Lung uptake in bone scan - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, N.; Kabir, F.; Islam, N.; Karim, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in female in our country. When a case of breast cancer is diagnosed a base line bone scan is asked for to exclude skeletal metastasis. This helps for treatment planning and future follow up. Scan pattern in bone metastasis is usually multiple, randomly distributed foci of intensely increased tracer accumulation. Uptake of radio pharmaceutical in breast tissue is frequently observed. Kidneys are another extra skeletal organs through which 99m Tc-MDP is excreted and that's why normal kidneys are faintly visualized in delayed views suggesting normal exertion of tracer. If there is any outflow obstruction in any kidney, it will show hold up of radiotracer on that side. Often radiopharmaceuticals are seen to accumulate in other organs like lungs. Here two cases of breast cancer are discussed where bone scan shows significant uptake of tracer in lungs

  8. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  9. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  10. From Cooperative Scans to Predictive Buffer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Switakowski; P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Zukowski (Marcin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn analytical applications, database systems often need to sustain workloads with multiple concurrent scans hitting the same table. The Cooperative Scans (CScans) framework, which introduces an Active Buer Manager (ABM) component into the database architecture, has been the most

  11. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  12. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  13. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  14. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  15. Role of Postmortem Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Close Blunt Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijo Sidipratomo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional autopsy in Indonesia is not well accepted as it is contrary to religion and culture. New radiological imaging method such as multislice computed tomography (MSCT scan has potential to be a diagnostic tool in forensic pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of MSCT scan in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury compared with autopsy. METHODS: This study used descriptive qualitative method. Postmortem cases in Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were selected based on inclusion criteria. Then MSCT scan and autopsy were conducted. MSCT scan and autopsy results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 491 postmortem cases of blunt head injury. However, only 10 cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Subarachnoid haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan and 80% with autopsy. Cerebral oedemas were identified 100% either with MSCT scan and autopsy. Subdural haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan, while 50% with autopsy. Multiple fractures were identified 80% with MSCT scan, while 40% with auto. CONCLUSIONS: MSCT scan showed a sensitive detection in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury. Therefore it could be as an alternative choice of examination in close blunt head injury cases. KEYWORDS: multislice computed tomography scan, postmortem, blunt head injury, autopsy.

  16. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  17. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  18. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  19. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  2. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  4. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  6. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  7. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of semicrystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C

    2009-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an effective analytical tool to characterize the physical properties of a polymer. DSC enables determination of melting, crystallization, and mesomorphic transition temperatures, and the corresponding enthalpy and entropy changes, and characterization of glass transition and other effects that show either changes in heat capacity or a latent heat. Calorimetry takes a special place among other methods. In addition to its simplicity and universality, the energy characteristics (heat capacity C(P) and its integral over temperature T--enthalpy H), measured via calorimetry, have a clear physical meaning even though sometimes interpretation may be difficult. With introduction of differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) in the early 1960s calorimetry became a standard tool in polymer science. The advantage of DSC compared with other calorimetric techniques lies in the broad dynamic range regarding heating and cooling rates, including isothermal and temperature-modulated operation. Today 12 orders of magnitude in scanning rate can be covered by combining different types of DSCs. Rates as low as 1 microK s(-1) are possible and at the other extreme heating and cooling at 1 MK s(-1) and higher is possible. The broad dynamic range is especially of interest for semicrystalline polymers because they are commonly far from equilibrium and phase transitions are strongly time (rate) dependent. Nevertheless, there are still several unsolved problems regarding calorimetry of polymers. I try to address a few of these, for example determination of baseline heat capacity, which is related to the problem of crystallinity determination by DSC, or the occurrence of multiple melting peaks. Possible solutions by using advanced calorimetric techniques, for example fast scanning and high frequency AC (temperature-modulated) calorimetry are discussed.

  8. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  9. Moving scanning emitter tracking by a single observer using time of interception: Observability analysis and algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The target motion analysis (TMA for a moving scanning emitter with known fixed scan rate by a single observer using the time of interception (TOI measurements only is investigated in this paper. By transforming the TOI of multiple scan cycles into the direction difference of arrival (DDOA model, the observability analysis for the TMA problem is performed. Some necessary conditions for uniquely identifying the scanning emitter trajectory are obtained. This paper also proposes a weighted instrumental variable (WIV estimator for the scanning emitter TMA, which does not require any initial solution guess and is closed-form and computationally attractive. More importantly, simulations show that the proposed algorithm can provide estimation mean square error close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB at moderate noise levels with significantly lower estimation bias than the conventional pseudo-linear least square (PLS estimator.

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  11. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  12. Tumor markers and bone scan in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Vaskova, O.; Kraleva, S.; Petrova, D.; Smickova, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of CA15-3 and CEA with the bone scan findings in patients with breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of 76 bone scans from 61 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 5 years was performed by two nuclear medicine specialists. All bone scans were performed after surgical treatment of the disease. Patients with loco-regional residual disease or distant metastases in the liver, lung or the brain were excluded from the study. According to the bone scan the patients were divided in 5 groups: normal bone scan (N), equivocal bone scan (E), single metastasis (1MS), three metastases (3MS) and multiple metastases (MMS). Tumor markers were determined within a month before or after the bone scan was performed. Cut-off value for CA 15-3 was 35 U/ml, and for CEA 3 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bone metastases were revealed in 38% of the patients referred for bone scintigraphy out of which 26% had MMS, 7.8% had single MS and 4% had 3MS. The results of 6.5% of the patients were determined as equivocal. The values of CA15-3 were higher in all patient groups compared with the group that had normal bone scan, but this difference reached statistical significance only in groups with 3MS and MMS (p < 0.01). The values of CEA were significantly higher only in patients with multiple metastases when compared with group N (p < 0.01). Values higher than cut-off value for CA 15-3 was found in 9 patients out of 42 in the group with normal bone scan. The highest value of CA 15-3 in this group was 47 U/ml. Only one patient in this group showed elevated levels for CEA. Three patients in the group with single metastasis had normal CA 15-3, while CEA was elevated only in one patient. All patients in the group with 3MS had elevated levels of CA 15-3 while CEA was in the normal range. All patients with MMS had elevated CA 15-3 values while CEA was elevated in

  13. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  14. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Bone scan and red blood cell scan in a patient with epidermal naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Wolf, F.; Stosiek, N.; Peters, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    A bone scan and red blood cell scan in the rare epidermal naevus syndrome, associated with multiple haemangiomes of the bone and hypophosphataemic osteomalacia in a 20-year-old man are reported. The typical pattern of osteomalacia on the bone scan was associated with lesions of increased bone metabolism in the peripheral bones. The haemangiomas did not pool labelled red blood cells. Thus, the bone scan seems to be suited for diagnosing the complete extent of haemangiomas in bone, but they could not be specifically proven by red blood cell pooling. (orig.)

  16. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  17. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  18. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin

    2005-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement

  19. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis. PMID:18203431

  20. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T; Noguchi, S; Nishitani, H [National Sanatorium of Utano, Kyoto (Japan); Kitano, H; Ikegami, Y

    1981-04-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs.

  1. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  2. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  3. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  5. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  6. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  7. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  8. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  9. Surpassing digital holography limits by lensless object scanning holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Vicente; Ferreira, Carlos; García, Javier

    2012-04-23

    We present lensless object scanning holography (LOSH) as a fully lensless method, capable of improving image quality in reflective digital Fourier holography, by means of an extremely simplified experimental setup. LOSH is based on the recording and digital post-processing of a set of digital lensless holograms and results in a synthetic image with improved resolution, field of view (FOV), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and depth of field (DOF). The superresolution (SR) effect arises from the generation of a synthetic aperture (SA) based on the linear movement of the inspected object. The same scanning principle enlarges the object FOV. SNR enhancement is achieved by speckle suppression and coherent artifacts averaging due to the coherent addition of the multiple partially overlapping bandpass images. And DOF extension is performed by digital refocusing to different object's sections. Experimental results showing an impressive image quality improvement are reported for a one-dimensional reflective resolution test target. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  13. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  14. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  16. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  18. Heart CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make to decrease the risk of heart disease. Risks Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  7. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless. However, during the thyroid scan, you may feel uncomfortable when lying completely still with your head ... When the radiotracer is given intravenously, you will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are undergoing. top of page ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  17. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  19. Automatic Stem Mapping by Merging Several Terrestrial Laser Scans at the Feature and Decision Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hyyppä

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed up-to-date ground reference data have become increasingly important in quantitative forest inventories. Field reference data are conventionally collected at the sample plot level by means of manual measurements, which are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In addition, the number of attributes collected from the tree stem is limited. More recently, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, using both single-scan and multi-scan techniques, has proven to be a promising solution for efficient stem mapping at the plot level. In the single-scan method, the laser scanner is placed at the center of the plot, creating only one scan, and all trees are mapped from the single-scan point cloud. Consequently, the occlusion of stems increases as the range of the scanner increases, depending on the forest’s attributes. In the conventional multi-scan method, several scans are made simultaneously inside and outside of the plot to collect point clouds representing all trees within the plot, and these scans are accurately co-registered by using artificial reference targets manually placed throughout the plot. The additional difficulty of applying the multi-scan method is due to the point-cloud registration of several scans not being fully automated yet. This paper proposes a multi-single-scan (MSS method to map the sample plot. The method does not require artificial reference targets placed on the plot or point-level registration. The MSS method is based on the fully automated processing of each scan independently and on the merging of the stem positions automatically detected from multiple scans to accurately map the sample plot. The proposed MSS method was tested on five dense forest plots. The results show that the MSS method significantly improves the stem-detection accuracy compared with the single-scan approach and achieves a mapping accuracy similar to that achieved with the multi-scan method, without the need for the point-level registration.

  20. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters in epidemiologic data. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set...

  1. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  2. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  3. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Sarah N; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process.

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  6. BENCHMARKING MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS USING A PERMANENT TEST FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaartinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to benchmark the geometric accuracy of mobile laser scanning (MLS systems using a permanent test field under good coverage of GNSS. Mobile laser scanning, also called mobile terrestrial laser scanning, is currently a rapidly developing area in laser scanning where laser scanners, GNSS and IMU are mounted onboard a moving vehicle. MLS can be considered to fill the gap between airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. Data provided by MLS systems can be characterized with the following technical parameters: a point density in the range of 100-1000 points per m2 at 10 m distance, b distance measurement accuracy of 2-5 cm, and c operational scanning range from 1 to 100 m. Several commercial, including e.g. Riegl, Optech and others, and some research mobile laser scanning systems surveyed the test field using predefined driving speed and directions. The acquired georeferenced point clouds were delivered for analyzing. The geometric accuracy of the point clouds was determined using the reference targets that could be identified and measured from the point cloud. Results show that in good GNSS conditions most systems can reach an accuracy of 2 cm both in plane and elevation. The accuracy of a low cost system, the price of which is less than tenth of the other systems, seems to be within a few centimetres at least in ground elevation determination. Inaccuracies in the relative orientation of the instruments lead to systematic errors and when several scanners are used, in multiple reproductions of the objects. Mobile laser scanning systems can collect high density point cloud data with high accuracy. A permanent test field suits well for verifying and comparing the performance of different mobile laser scanning systems. The accuracy of the relative orientation between the mapping instruments needs more attention. For example, if the object is seen double in the point cloud due to imperfect boresight calibration between two

  7. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  8. SU-G-JeP3-15: Is the Reproducibility with Respect to Bone of Tumor Position at Simulation for Breath Hold CT Scans Correlated to the Reproducibility for Multiple Breath Hold CBCTs at Treatment in SBRT Thoracic Patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J; Prajapati, S; Gao, S; Nitsch, P; Sadagopan, R; Wang, X; Balter, P [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate correlation between the reproducibility of tumor position under feedback guided voluntary deep inspiration breath hold gating at simulation and at treatment. Methods: All patients treated with breath hold (BH) have 3-6 BH CTs taken at simulation (sim). In addition, if the relationship between the tumor and nearby bony anatomy on treatment BH CT(or CBCT) is found to be greater than 5 mm different at treatment than it was at sim, a repeat BH CT is taken before treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the sim CTs for 19 patients who received BH SBRT lung treatments and had repeat BH CT on treatment. We evaluated the reproducibility of the tumor position during the simulation CTs and compared this to the reproducibility of the tumor position on the repeat treatment CT with our in-house CT alignment software (CT-Assisted Targeting for Radiotherapy). Results: Comparing the tumor position for multiple simulation BH CTs, we calculated: maximum difference (max) = 0.69cm; average difference (x) = 0.28cm; standard deviation (σ) = 0.18cm. Comparing the repeat BH CBCTs on treatment days we calculated: max = 0.44cm; x = 0.16cm; σ = 0.22cm. We also found that for 95% of our BH cases, the absolute variation in tumor position within the same imaging day was within 5mm of the range at the time of simulation and treatment. We found that 75% of the BH cases had less residual tumor motion on treatment days than at simulation. Conclusion: This suggests that a GTV contour based upon the residual tumor motion in multiple BH datasets plus 2 mm margin should be sufficient to cover the full range of residual tumor motion on treatment days.

  9. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  10. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  11. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  12. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  13. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  14. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  15. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  16. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  17. Bone scan and joint scan of hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Grilo, R.M.; Quenesson, E.; Bonnet, C.; Vergne, P.; Treves, R.; Bertin, P.; Boutros-Toni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of joint scan and bone scan of hands and feet, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, to localize the altered joints. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of joint scan were determined in comparison with clinical joint assessment. Fifteen patients (780 joints) were clinically examined (pain and synovitis); during the same day, a bone scan and a joint scan were realized by oxidronate 99m Tc intravenous injection. Patients were scanned 5 minutes (tissual time, T t ) and 3 hours 1/4 (bone time, T 0 ) after the administration. The uptake of the bi-phosphonate was evaluated with a qualitative method using a grey scale. The uptake of 99m Tc oxidronate was quantitated using an extra-articular region of interest. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the scan at Tt were 46%, 96%, 85% et 78%. The same parameters were 75%, 66%, 53% and 84% for the scan realized at T 0 . The joint scan has showed 22% of false positive. These false positives could be a consequence of an earlier detection of joint alterations by scan. The joint scan should forecast the evolution of joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  18. Comparison of clinical efficacy of second look operation and FDG-PET scan in patients with ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sang Young

    1999-12-01

    This study is to investigate whether FDG-PET scan can substitute for second look operation in patients with ovarian cancer showing complete response with chemotherapy. From Jan. 1999 to Oct. 1999, 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who showed clinical complete response with 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy were registered in KCCH. These patients showed no residual tumors in conventional radiologic imaging studies (CT or MRI), normal tumor marker, no evidence of disease by physical examination. PET scans and second look operation were performed in 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (3 patients with stage IIc, 2 patients with stage IIIb, 5 patients with IIIc), who showed complete response with cytoreductive surgery and 6 cycles of post-operative adjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Median age of patients was 45 years, and serous cystadenocarcinoma was most common histologic type. None showed active lesion in pelvis and abdomen with FDG-PET scan (SUV; > 3.5 kg/ml), and I patient showed active lesion in lung field. On second look operations, 5 patients (50%) showed positive result on multiple blind biopsy. The patient with active lesion on FDG-PET scan in lung field confirmed to have metastatic lesions by chest CT scan. In conclusion, FDG-PET scan is not useful for detection of small ovarian cancer lesions in pelvis and abdomen, and cannot substitute for second look operation to determine pathologic complete response

  19. Comparison of clinical efficacy of second look operation and FDG-PET scan in patients with ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang Young

    1999-12-01

    This study is to investigate whether FDG-PET scan can substitute for second look operation in patients with ovarian cancer showing complete response with chemotherapy. From Jan. 1999 to Oct. 1999, 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who showed clinical complete response with 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy were registered in KCCH. These patients showed no residual tumors in conventional radiologic imaging studies (CT or MRI), normal tumor marker, no evidence of disease by physical examination. PET scans and second look operation were performed in 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (3 patients with stage IIc, 2 patients with stage IIIb, 5 patients with IIIc), who showed complete response with cytoreductive surgery and 6 cycles of post-operative adjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Median age of patients was 45 years, and serous cystadenocarcinoma was most common histologic type. None showed active lesion in pelvis and abdomen with FDG-PET scan (SUV; > 3.5 kg/ml), and I patient showed active lesion in lung field. On second look operations, 5 patients (50%) showed positive result on multiple blind biopsy. The patient with active lesion on FDG-PET scan in lung field confirmed to have metastatic lesions by chest CT scan. In conclusion, FDG-PET scan is not useful for detection of small ovarian cancer lesions in pelvis and abdomen, and cannot substitute for second look operation to determine pathologic complete response.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  2. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  3. Scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1970-05-15

    The JSM-11 scanning electron microscope at CRNL has been used extensively for topographical studies of oxidized metals, fracture surfaces, entomological and biological specimens. A non-dispersive X-ray attachment permits the microanalysis of the surface features. Techniques for the production of electron channeling patterns have been developed. (author)

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  5. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  7. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  8. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  9. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  10. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two months. are taking medications or ingesting other substances that contain iodine , including kelp, seaweed, cough syrups, multivitamins or heart medications. have any ...

  14. Childhood CT scans linked to leukemia and brain cancer later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and young adults scanned multiple times by computed tomography (CT), a commonly used diagnostic tool, have a small increased risk of leukemia and brain tumors in the decade following their first scan.

  15. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  16. Scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainsbridge, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, 'because we are too big'. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs

  17. Scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainsbridge, B [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, `because we are too big`. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  18. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  19. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  20. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  1. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  2. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  3. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  4. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  5. Special raster scanning for reduction of charging effects in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2014-01-01

    A special raster scanning (SRS) method for reduction of charging effects is developed for the field of SEM. Both a conventional fast scan (horizontal direction) and an unusual scan (vertical direction) are adopted for acquiring raw data consisting of many sub-images. These data are converted to a proper SEM image using digital image processing techniques. About sharpness of the image and reduction of charging effects, the SRS is compared with the conventional fast scan (with frame-averaging) and the conventional slow scan. Experimental results show the effectiveness of SRS images. By a successful combination of the proposed scanning method and low accelerating voltage (LV)-SEMs, it is expected that higher-quality SEM images can be more easily acquired by the considerable reduction of charging effects, while maintaining the resolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  7. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  8. Multiple meningiomas CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    masses in the right parietal and parasagittal region (Figs 1a and b). Case 2: A ... scan showed hyperdense parasagittal and left cerebellopontine angle meningiomas (Figs ... Meningiomas are the most common primary non-glial brain tumours.

  9. Diagnostic value of the coronary CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1982-01-01

    Using high-resolution computed tomography, coronary scanning has been made to investigate the radiographical details of the middle and inner ear organs. Twenty patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, facial spasm, and suspected meningitis, were evaluated. In 26 of 40 ears in this series, the coronary scans sharply outlined almost all of the bony structures, and showed also the eardrum as a clearly defined soft tissue, but no abnormal radiographical findings were recognized. In the remaining ears with chronic otitis media, the scans were valuable in demonstration of mucosal thickening, granulation tissue, and destruction of the auditory ossicles. (author)

  10. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  11. Simultaneous and Sequential MS/MS Scan Combinations and Permutations in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T; Szalwinski, Lucas J; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Methods of performing precursor ion scans as well as neutral loss scans in a single linear quadrupole ion trap have recently been described. In this paper we report methodology for performing permutations of MS/MS scan modes, that is, ordered combinations of precursor, product, and neutral loss scans following a single ion injection event. Only particular permutations are allowed; the sequences demonstrated here are (1) multiple precursor ion scans, (2) precursor ion scans followed by a single neutral loss scan, (3) precursor ion scans followed by product ion scans, and (4) segmented neutral loss scans. (5) The common product ion scan can be performed earlier in these sequences, under certain conditions. Simultaneous scans can also be performed. These include multiple precursor ion scans, precursor ion scans with an accompanying neutral loss scan, and multiple neutral loss scans. We argue that the new capability to perform complex simultaneous and sequential MS n operations on single ion populations represents a significant step in increasing the selectivity of mass spectrometry.

  12. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, W; Xu, B

    2013-01-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel −1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s −1 , allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions. (paper)

  13. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  14. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Jae Tae; Baek, Jin Ho

    1998-01-01

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99m Tc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  15. Lung scan abnormalities in asthma and their correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, P.; Burton, G.H.; Seed, W.A.; Charing Cross Hospital, London

    1986-01-01

    We have used asthma as a model of airways disease to test how well an automated, quantitative method of analysis of lung scans correlates with physiological measurements of disturbed lung function and gas exchange. We studies 25 asthmatics (age 16-73) of widely differing severity (forced expiratory volume in 1-s FEV 1 22%-123% of predicted value), who had airways tests, arterial blood gas analysis, and krypton-technetium lung scans within a short time of each other. In all patients with airways obstruction and in some with normal function during remission, scans showed the typical appearances of multiple defects of ventilation and perfusion. The severity of ventilation defects was assessed from the posterior view of the krypton scan compared to an age- and sex-matched normal range to yield an underventilation score. This correlated closely with the severity of airways obstruction as measured by forced expiratory manouevres. Ventilation and perfusion defects were usually imperfectly matched; the severity of this was computed using a subtraction method applied to the counts on the posterior krypton and technetium scans. The degree of mismatch was inversely related to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (r=-0.86). The results suggest that computer scan analysis can provide usual functional information about the lung in airways disease. (orig.)

  16. Survey of bone pain in patients of infectious section of Labafinejad hospital using radioisotope scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimie, Farhad

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy is the first or second most frequently performed imaging procedure in most nuclear medicine departments. The uses of bone scan in orthopedic practice are multiple. Bone scans are often used to localize disease, to identify areas of focal increased physiological activity, and to evaluate pain. Bone scans are particularly useful in depicting and localizing small tumors. Bone scans may clarify the significance of radiographic abnormalities. When pain is poorly localized, a bone scan helps focus attention, particularly when it precisely corresponds to the questionable radiographic lesion. In order to do a survey about role of bone scan for the detection and localizing bone pain, a retrospective study was done about 37 patient who from 1373 to 1374 were admitted to the infectious department of Martyr Labafinejad having bone pain. The results of our studies showed that most common case of bone pain of this patients was due to brucellosis (brucella arthritis) with 19%, and other causes were cellulits with 13.15% osteomyelitis and D.J.D with 11%, septic arthritis, bone metastasis, bone abscesses, discopathy, infectious spondylitis, lymphoma, D.V.T. and reactive traumatic arthritis with 2.7%

  17. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  18. A case of the CT scanning of a suicidal hanging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Masaharu; Murooka, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Yasuhiko.

    1988-01-01

    A CT scanning of a case of hanging brain is reported. A 63-year-old man, who had been maintained with Aspirin (30 mg every morning) for cerebral infarction, attempted suicide by hanging, but failed. Several hours later, he was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and so was examined by means of CT scanning. Plain CT scanning showed symmetrical multiple intracerebral hemorrhages. Hemorrhages were found in the subcortical region of the bilateral temporal lobes and in the subependymal region near the foramen of Monro or in the choroidal plexus. We speculated that these hemorrhages may be caused by the congestion of the intracranial venous system caused by squeezing both internal jugular veins by hanging. Past angiograms (1981) for cerebral infarction revealed neither AVM nor angioma. (author)

  19. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [de

  20. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  1. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  2. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  4. Scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  5. A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukabori, Takashi; Takamatsu, Hajime; Nakanishi, Yasuhiro

    1986-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted for headache and progressive drowsiness. In spite of negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stains and cultures of tuberculosis and other bacteria, CSF findings and tuberculosis-positive sputum culture led to a tentative diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Symptoms and neurological test results both improved remarkably during antituberculous chemotherapy. Although the brain CT scan taken on admission showed no abnormal findings, one taken two months later revealed multiple high-density areas after enhancement with a contrast medium, suggesting multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis. The size of the multiple high-density areas gradually decreased during antituberculous chemotherapy. The CT scan can clearly locate lesions, detect complications, and evaluate the effects of treatment in patients with intracranial tuberculosis. (author)

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  7. Effects of Optimizing the Scan-Path on Scanning Keyboards with QWERTY-Layout for English Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2017-01-01

    Scanning keyboards can be essential tools for individuals with reduced motor function. However, most research addresses layout optimization. Learning new layouts is time-consuming. This study explores the familiar QWERTY layout with alternative scanning paths intended for English text. The results show that carefully designed scan-paths can help QWERTY nearly match optimized layouts in performance.

  8. Optimization of permanganic etching of polyethylenes for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, K.L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The permanganic etching technique has been studied as a function of time, temperature, and concentration for a series of polyethylenes. Kinetic studies show that a film of reaction products builds up on the surface, impeding further etching, an effect which is greatest for the lowest-crystallinity polymers. SEM studies combined with EDS show that the film contains sulfur, potassium and some manganese. An artifact is produced by the etching process which is impossible to remove by washing procedures if certain limits of time, temperature, and concentration are exceeded. For lower-crystallinity polyethylenes multiple etching and washing steps were required for optimal resolution. Plastic deformation during specimen preparation, whether from scratches or freeze fracturing, enhances artifact formation. When appropriate procedures are used, virtually artifact-free surfaces can be produced allowing a combination of permanganic etching and scanning electron microscopy to give a rapid method for detailed morphological characterization of bulk specimens

  9. Three phase bone scan , Ga-67 and Tc-99m nanocoll scan in detection of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banek, T.; Reljica-Kostic, Z.; Kurnik, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty three injured soldiers were surgically treated because of pierce wounds of extremities. Treatment was either osteosynthesis or external fixation. Two to four weeks post treatment clinical signs of osteomyelitis appeared. X-ray was negative in all patients. Three-phase bone scan was performed in order to establish diagnosis. Bone scan was positive in all patients. For 11 patients only bone scan was sufficient for decision of further treatment. In 22 patients Ga-67 or Tc-99m- nanocoll or both examinations were performed on surgeon's request. In 2 patients out of 5 with additional Ga-67 scan, Ga-67 scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 3 patients out of 5 with additional Tc-99m-nanocoll scan, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 12 patients with positive bone scan and negative or unclear Ga-67, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan was performed. In 5 out of 12 patients Tc-99m- nanocoll scan established diagnosis in others confirmed finding on bone and Ga-67 scan. Our results showed that in one third of our causes bone scan was sufficient for diagnosing of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries. In selected cases where bone scan was not sufficient for diagnosis and decision for treatment Tc-99m-nanocoll was more sensitive than Ga-67. In our experience three-phase bone scan is more sensitive than Ga-67. In our opinion three-phase bone scan is the method of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in war situation with a lot of casualties. (author)

  10. Estimation of MSAD values in computed tomography scans using radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using radiochromic films as an alternative dosimeter to estimate the multiple scan average dose on the basis on kerma profiles. Materials and Methods: The radiochromic films were distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard abdominal phantom utilized for computed tomography dosimetry. Results: Values for multiple scan average dose values corresponded to 13.6 {+-} 0.7, 13.5 {+-} 0.7 and 18.7 {+-} 1.0 mGy for pitch of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of results showing lower values than the reference level for radiodiagnosis (25 mGy) established by the Brazilian regulations for abdominal studies, it is suggested that there is room to optimize procedures and review the reference level for radiodiagnosis in Brazil. (author)

  11. NEW SCANNING DEVICE FOR SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAWATZKY, GA; Koops, Karl Richard

    A small, single piezo XYZ translator has been developed. The device has been used as a scanner for a scanning tunneling microscope and has been tested successfully in air and in UHV. Its simple design results in a rigid and compact scanning unit which permits high scanning rates.

  12. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  13. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

  14. Nanofabrication of magnetic scanned-probe microscope sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, B.K.

    2001-10-01

    This thesis presents the development of novel magnetic sensor combined with Atomic Force Microscope probe (AFM) using conventional semiconductor processing techniques and Electron Beam Lithography (EBL). The fabrication of these magnetic sensors was performed on a common micromachined silicon substrate using a generic batch fabrication technique. Sub-micron Hall bar for Scanning Hall probe Microscopy (SHPM) and electromagnetic force coil magnet for Scanning Electromagnetic Force Microscopy (eMFM) were designed and constructed at the apex of Silicon attractive mode cantilever probes. The process demonstrates good control over sensor parameters. Results indicated controllability of Hall bar junction sizes (spatial resolution) to below 100nm and Coil diameter sizes to below 500nm with minimum sizes down to 50nm and 270nm respectively. The process has shown its flexibility to accommodate different material systems. The same technology was used to fabricate multiple devices such as double Hall bars on a tip as well as a small electro-magnet coil probe co-defined with the Hall probe to form a magnetic imaging / modification probe. A conventional Non-Contact mode AFM employing heterodyne interferometry and in-house built electronics was modified for SHPM and eMFM. These probes had been scanned over a commercial computer hard disk. These microscopes showed the capability of resolving magnetic bits and topographic information independently and simultaneously. All scanning experiments were carried out under ambient conditions. The experiments required no extra preparation to be done to the specimen before imaging and measurements were carried out under ambient conditions. These probes offer the prospect of direct magnetic field measurement, non- invasiveness, very close proximity, possible local manipulation, better control over the tip- specimen interaction distance and topographic imaging. It is hoped that these magnetic microscope probes will be of great interest and

  15. Scanning device for a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The invention belongs to scanning devices and is intended for spectrum scanning in spectral devices. The purpose of the invention is broadening of spectral scanning range. The device construction ensures the spectrum scanning range determined from revolution fractions to several revolutions of the monochromator drum head, any number of the drum head revolutions determined by integral number with addition of the drum revolution fractions with high degree of accuracy being possible

  16. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  17. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  18. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  19. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  20. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E

    1986-04-01

    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  1. Scanning device for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, R.

    1975-01-01

    A device is described for the scintigraphic scanning according to a horizontal plane, comprising: (a) A support provided with two guides horizontally and longitudinally located, one of which is located in the upper part of the support, while the second guide is located in the lower part of the support; (b) A carriage, movable with respect to the support along the two guides, provided in its upper part, projecting above the support, with rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a support rod for the first detector, horizontally and transversely located, said carriage being further provided in its lower part with a recess with possible rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a second support rod for the second detector, said second rod being located parallel to the first rod and below it; (c) One or two support rods for the detectors, the first of said rods being supported above the support in a sliding way along its axis, by the rolling means located in the upper part of the carriage, and the second rod if present is supported slidingly along its axis by the possible rolling means contained in the suitable recess which is provided in the lower part of the carriage, and (d) A vertical shaft supported by said carriage on which is mounted a toothed wheel for each rod, each toothed wheel engaging a positive drive belt or the like, which is connected to each said rod so that rotation of the shaft determines the simultaneous displacement of the two rods along their axes; and single motor means for driving said shaft during a scanning operation. (U.S.)

  2. Scanning the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  3. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  4. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  5. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  6. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  7. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  8. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  9. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  10. A positive 111in-pentetreotide scan in a patient with a pancreatic polypeptide secreting tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, K.; Cehic, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A 55-year-old male presented to our department with a known polypeptide secreting pancreatic tumour. An 111 In-pentetreotide scan (OctreoScan) was performed to determine whether the tumour expressed somatostatin receptors (SR) and thereby aid in therapy planning. 120 MBq 111 In-pentetreotide was administered intravenously. Images were acquired at 4 and 30 hours. Whole body images were acquired with spot views and tomography of the liver at 30 hours. Images showed intense uptake of the tracer in the lobular midline pancreatic mass. There was also uptake in multiple liver metastases. 111 In-pentetreotide is a synthetic somatostatin analogue and its uptake demonstrates the presence of SR on tumour cells, especially those of a neuro-endocrine nature. A 123 I Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was also performed to determine whether the more widely available MIBG therapy would be appropriate for this patient. This scan was negative. The patient has received 3 cycles of chemotherapy with Streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil. He has had a good partial response to therapy as demonstrated on CT scan. The patient is currently clinically well, his symptoms have resolved and weight stabilised. Good biochemical response to chemotherapy is indicated by halved pancreatic peptide levels. To date chemotherapy has been the mainstay of therapy for neuroendocrine tumours. Radioimmunotherapy (targeted to SR positive tumours) is currently being investigated as a therapy alternative and may be a future treatment option. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Substernal thyroid carcinoma detected by 67Ga scan in a patient with normal 131I scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, e.E.; Maruyama, Y.; Deland, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with a superior mediastinal mass on an admission chest radiograph was initially evaluated by an 131 I thyroid scan which failed to demonstrate a substernal thyroid. However, the tomographic 67 Ga scan clearly showed an abnormal uptake in the area corresponding to the mass lesion on radiographic examination. Subsequent resection and biopsy of the substernal mass revealed a poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with foci of anaplastic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of the anterior mediastinal mass and the usefullness of the tomographic gallium scan are briefly discussed

  12. Internal scanning method as unique imaging method of optical vortex scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The internal scanning method is specific for the optical vortex microscope. It allows to move the vortex point inside the focused vortex beam with nanometer resolution while the whole beam stays in place. Thus the sample illuminated by the focused vortex beam can be scanned just by the vortex point. We show that this method enables high resolution imaging. The paper presents the preliminary experimental results obtained with the first basic image recovery procedure. A prospect of developing more powerful tools for topography recovery with the optical vortex scanning microscope is discussed shortly.

  13. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  15. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  16. Findings of the radioisotope color scan of the hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M. S.; Yoo, H. S.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, the space occupying lesions in the liver were well established and recognized by radioisotope color scan. In addition, the lesions were easily localized in the supine and the right lateral projections. The findings of hepatoma, abscess and cyst were seen as filling defects which were similar to the findings of the hepatic metastases. In this study, we analysis of 70 cases of the hepatic metastases, 80 cases of the hepatoma and 100 cases of the liver abscess which were obtained by radiogold color scan and confirmed by a needle biopsy or laparotomy. Summary of analysis as follows: 1. Primary site in 70 cases of hepatic metastases. Stomach 30 cases (42.8%) Biliary Tract 10 cases (12.3%) Colon 8 cases (11.4%) Lung 6 cases (8.5%) Ovary 6 cases (8.5%) Pancreas 3 case (4.3%) Thyroid 2 cases (3.5%) Breast 2 cases (3.5%) Kidney, Cervix, Esophagus 1 case. 2. Hepatomegaly were seen in 22 cases (32%) of the hepatic metastases and relatively small in percentage compare with the hepatoma and abscess. 3. Single space occupying lesion were demonstrated in 26 cases (35.7%) of the hepatic metastases, 55 cases (70.2%) of the hepatoma and 72 cases (72%) of the abscess. Two space occupying lesion were in the scan in 10 cases (12.3%) of the hepatic metastases, 8 cases (9.5%) of the hepatoma and 10 cases (10%) of the abscess. Multiple space occupying lesions were scan in 15 cases (21.4%) of the hepatic metastases, 14 cases (17.5%) of the hepatoma and 13 cases (13%) of the abscess. Compare with the hepatoma and abscess, the hepatic metastases tend to more than one space occupying lesions. 4. The appearance and location of the metastatic lesions showed somewhat significant. In 26 of 30 cases (81.6%) of the stomach carcinoma revealed the lesions mostly located in the porta hepatis and right lower lobe of the liver. Multiple and discrete metastatic lesions were usually from the colon carcinoma.

  17. Findings of the radioisotope color scan of the hepatic metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M S; Yoo, H S; Park, C Y; Choi, B S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Recently, the space occupying lesions in the liver were well established and recognized by radioisotope color scan. In addition, the lesions were easily localized in the supine and the right lateral projections. The findings of hepatoma, abscess and cyst were seen as filling defects which were similar to the findings of the hepatic metastases. In this study, we analysis of 70 cases of the hepatic metastases, 80 cases of the hepatoma and 100 cases of the liver abscess which were obtained by radiogold color scan and confirmed by a needle biopsy or laparotomy. Summary of analysis as follows: 1. Primary site in 70 cases of hepatic metastases. Stomach 30 cases (42.8%) Biliary Tract 10 cases (12.3%) Colon 8 cases (11.4%) Lung 6 cases (8.5%) Ovary 6 cases (8.5%) Pancreas 3 case (4.3%) Thyroid 2 cases (3.5%) Breast 2 cases (3.5%) Kidney, Cervix, Esophagus 1 case. 2. Hepatomegaly were seen in 22 cases (32%) of the hepatic metastases and relatively small in percentage compare with the hepatoma and abscess. 3. Single space occupying lesion were demonstrated in 26 cases (35.7%) of the hepatic metastases, 55 cases (70.2%) of the hepatoma and 72 cases (72%) of the abscess. Two space occupying lesion were in the scan in 10 cases (12.3%) of the hepatic metastases, 8 cases (9.5%) of the hepatoma and 10 cases (10%) of the abscess. Multiple space occupying lesions were scan in 15 cases (21.4%) of the hepatic metastases, 14 cases (17.5%) of the hepatoma and 13 cases (13%) of the abscess. Compare with the hepatoma and abscess, the hepatic metastases tend to more than one space occupying lesions. 4. The appearance and location of the metastatic lesions showed somewhat significant. In 26 of 30 cases (81.6%) of the stomach carcinoma revealed the lesions mostly located in the porta hepatis and right lower lobe of the liver. Multiple and discrete metastatic lesions were usually from the colon carcinoma.

  18. Surface properties and microporosity of polyhydroxybutyrate under scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raouf, A.A.; Samsudin, A.R.; Samian, R.; Akool, K.; Abdullah, N.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold (10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes. (Author)

  19. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swick, H.M.; Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether 67 Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on 67 Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis

  20. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swick, H.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether /sup 67/Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on /sup 67/Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis. (HLW)

  1. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF MULTIFOCAL STOCHASTIC SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIXIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM has greatly improved the utilization of excitation light and imaging speed due to parallel multiphoton excitation of the samples and simultaneous detection of the signals, which allows it to perform three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Stochastic scanning can provide continuous, uniform and high-speed excitation of the sample, which makes it a suitable scanning scheme for MMM. In this paper, the graphical programming language — LabVIEW is used to achieve stochastic scanning of the two-dimensional galvo scanners by using white noise signals to control the x and y mirrors independently. Moreover, the stochastic scanning process is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. Our results show that MMM can avoid oversampling or subsampling in the scanning area and meet the requirements of uniform sampling by stochastically scanning the individual units of the N × N foci array. Therefore, continuous and uniform scanning in the whole field of view is implemented.

  2. Large Scale Scanning Probe Microscope "Making Shear Force Scanning visible."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Veen, Jan T.; van der Veen, J.T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Wessel, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a demonstration of a scanning probe microscope with shear-force tuning fork feedback. The tuning fork is several centimeters long, and the rigid fiber is replaced by a toothpick. By scaling this demonstration to visible dimensions the accessibility of shear-force scanning and tuning fork

  3. Detection of Arthritis by Joint Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, W. S. [Dept, of Radiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Weiss, T. E.; Tutton, R. H.; Hidalgo, J. U. [Ochsner Clinic and Ochsner Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Detection and identification of early arthritis is frequently difficult with routine methods. Several tracers, {sup 131}I human serum albumin (25 {mu}Ci/10 lb), {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin (1-3 mCi), {sup 131}I iodipamide (40 {mu}Ci/10 lb), and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate (10 mCi), have been employed for joint scanning to detect synovitis produced by arthritis in joints of the extremities. When administered intravenously, the 25% increase in localization of these tracers in the synovial membrane, if there is active synovitis, can be demonstrated by scintillation scanning. This ability to detect synovitis at an early stage enables the joint scan to show areas of active synovitis not demonstrated on roentgenograms. The scan may objectively confirm or disprove questionable physical findings. From this standpoint the technique has been useful in determining whether joint pain is functional or due to arthritis as a negative localization tends to rule out active synovitis as the cause of the pain. The scan demonstration of a positive localization of the tracer in several joints when only one area is symptomatic is evidence that joint pain is due to systemic disease. The short half-life tracera permit serial studies to follow the course of an arthritis process. Use of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and an Anger camera have made joint scanning a practical technique for clinical use. A review of the accuracy of joint scanning in 130 cases as compared to roentgenograms is presented. (author)

  4. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  5. Technetium-99m Sestamibi in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Technetium-99m 2-methoxy - isobutyl - isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) has been reported to be useful in evaluating patients with multiple myeloma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy in the diagnosis. staging and follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma. Methods and Materials: twenty-five consecutive patients with multiple myeloma were studied using 99mTc- MIBI. Of the 25 patients included in this study, 6 were in stage I, II in stage II and 8 in stage III. Anterior and posterior whole-body imaging were obtained 20 min after I.V. injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI. Four different MIBI patterns could be described in our patients: physiological (P), diffuse (D), focal (F) and combined diffuse and focal (D+F). All patients in stages II and III as well as 3 patients in stage I were treated with chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and prednisone) then 99mTc-MlBI scans were repeated after 6 courses. Results: in comparison to conventional X-ray skeletal survey, 99mTc-MIBI scans showed a higher number of myeloma bone disease at diagnosis. All patients with stage II and III multiple myeloma were positive with 99mTc-MlBl scans at diagnosis. The pattern of positive MIBI accumulation was diffuse in 13 (52%) patients, focal in 4 (16%) and combined focal and diffuse in 6 (24%) patients. The intensity of 99mTc-MIBI correlated with disease activity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of plasma cells in bone marrow and serum electrophoresis. There was a direct correlation between 99mTc-MIBI scan result and clinical outcome of patients following 6 courses of chemotherapy. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in detecting myeloma bone lesions were 92% and 90% respectively. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy is a reliable method to evaluate bone marrow activity in patients with multiple myeloma and follow-up of myeloma bone lesions

  6. CT scanning in pediatric head trauma: correlation of clinical features with CT scan diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkoncel, Mary Ann P.; Posadas, Ma. Belen A.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective review was conducted on 205 cases of pediatric head trauma for which cranial computed tomography scans were done at the Makati Medical Center, to determine which clinical features might positively predict an abnormality on CT scan. The clinical findings of loss of consciousness, GCS < 12, vomiting headache, seizures, and focal abnormalities on Neurologic Examination were significantly associated with abnormal findings on CT scan. However, a significant discrepancy does exist as to how accurately clinical findings do in fact predict normal and abnormal CT scan findings. Such a discrepancy allows us to conclude that a more liberal use of CT Scanning in cases of pediatric head trauma must be stressed to insure proper diagnosis. This study shows that when a patient presents with the aforementioned positive signs and symptoms, or with a focal neurologic deficit, or in combination, a 60-100 % positive prediction of abnormal CT Scan can be made. However, prediction of normal CT Scan is only 0-40%. (Author)

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  9. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    scans (both treated), 2 had false positive bone scans (1 newly diagnosed and 1 treated), and 2 (both treated) had true negative bone scan with no increased radio-tracer uptake and no confirmed X ray imagings for metastasis.In the true positive group of patients, the radiologists were correct in their reports of consistency of bone metastasis in 3 patients and uncertain in their reports of differential causes of the increased uptake in 1 patient. In the false positive group of patients, the radiologist were correct in their reports of causes other than bone metastasis in 3 patients, incorrect in their reports of consistency of bone metastasis in 2 patients, and uncertain in their reports of differential causes of the increased uptake in 13 patients. Showing the positive bone scans are 7 patients having degenerative spine disease on Xray imagings and 3 dental diseases on clinical findings.The ages of the patients range from 18 to 88 years, with a mean age being 50.5. In the 41 patients, 35 patients had advanced stages ( Stages III and IV ) and 6 early stages ( Stages I and II). Among the patients of advanced stages, 3 having true positive and 13 false positives, whereas among the patients of early stages, 1 true positive and 1 false positive. Discussion: The results show that 44% of the patients had positive bone scans and this could be due to large number of patients (10/41)having degenerative spine diseases and dental diseases.These show that the bone scans have high sensitivity. However they do not have high specificity as only 9.8% of total or 2.2% (4/18) of the positive bone scans patients have true positives. The specificity in the treated group of patients appear to be higher being 25% (3/12 treated patients)The bone scans are therefore regarded as a screening test and if positive, they help guide and target the Xray imaging studies to confirm the bone metastasis one way or another. It is therefore useful in NPC management. The radiologists were most of the times

  10. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  11. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  12. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  13. False-positive I-131 scan by contaminated muffler in a patient with thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Kyung; Kim, Min Woo; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    A 39-year-old female patient who had undergone a total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent a whole body scan with I-131. The I-131 scan was performed 72 hours after administering 185 MBq (5 mGi) of an I-131 solution. The anterior image of head, neck, and upper chest showed multiple areas of increased uptake in the mediastinal area considering of functional metastasis. However, radioactivity was not evident in the image taken after removing her clothes and muffler. The image obtained after placing the muffler on the pallet showed that the radioactivity was still present. It is well known that artifacts on an I-131 scan can be produced by styling hair sputum, drooling during sleep, chewing gum, and paper or a cloth handkerchief that is contaminated with the radioactive iodine from either perspiration or saliva. This activity might be mistaken for a functional metastasis. Therefore, it is essential that an image be obtained after removing the patient's clothes. In this study, artifacts due to a contaminated muffler on the I-131 scan were found. These mimicked a functional metastasis of the mediastinal area in a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on HT-9 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emigh, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on the toughness of an Fe-12Cr-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.3V (HT-9) steel was studied. The resulting microstructures were characterized by their mechanical properties, precipitated carbide distribution, and fracture surface appearance. It was proposed that multiple transformations would refine the martensite structure and improve toughness. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the martensite packet structure was somewhat refined by a second austenite transformation. Transmission electron microscopy studies of carbon extraction replicas showed that this multiple step treatment had eliminated grain boundary carbide films seen in single treated specimens on prior austenite grain boundaries. The 0.2% yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation were relatively unchanged, but the toughness measured by fatigue pre-cracked Charpy impact tests increased for the multiple step specimens

  15. Bone scan in mastocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Bonventre, M.V.; Camera, A.

    1976-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with well-documented systemic mastocytosis showed generalized symmetric increased activity on bone imaging. These scan findings are grossly indistinguishable from those of patients with renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism. The images of the hands, however, failed to show the changes observed in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mechanism for this intense activity is thought to be due to aberrant new-bone formation

  16. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  17. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  18. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or breast ultrasound Evaluate for possible rupture of breast implants Find any cancer that remains after surgery or chemotherapy Show blood ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Breast cancer Cysts Leaking or ruptured breast implants Abnormal breast tissue that is not cancer Scar ...

  19. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10 −7 T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K

  20. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  1. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype.

  3. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype.

  4. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  5. A New Multichannel Spectral Imaging Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multichannel spectral imaging laser scanning confocal microscope for effective detection of multiple fluorescent labeling in the research of biological tissues. In this paper, the design and key technologies of the system are introduced. Representative results on confocal imaging, 3-dimensional sectioning imaging, and spectral imaging are demonstrated. The results indicated that the system is applicable to multiple fluorescent labeling in biological experiments.

  6. Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marcy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Advances in 3D shape capture technology have made powerful shape analyses, such as geometric morphometrics, more feasible. While the highly accurate micro-computed tomography (µCT scanners have been the “gold standard,” recent improvements in 3D surface scanners may make this technology a faster, portable, and cost-effective alternative. Several studies have already compared the two devices but all use relatively large specimens such as human crania. Here we perform shape analyses on Australia’s smallest rodent to test whether a 3D scanner produces similar results to a µCT scanner. Methods We captured 19 delicate mouse (Pseudomys delicatulus crania with a µCT scanner and a 3D scanner for geometric morphometrics. We ran multiple Procrustes ANOVAs to test how variation due to scan device compared to other sources such as biologically relevant variation and operator error. We quantified operator error as levels of variation and repeatability. Further, we tested if the two devices performed differently at classifying individuals based on sexual dimorphism. Finally, we inspected scatterplots of principal component analysis (PCA scores for non-random patterns. Results In all Procrustes ANOVAs, regardless of factors included, differences between individuals contributed the most to total variation. The PCA plots reflect this in how the individuals are dispersed. Including only the symmetric component of shape increased the biological signal relative to variation due to device and due to error. 3D scans showed a higher level of operator error as evidenced by a greater spread of their replicates on the PCA, a higher level of multivariate variation, and a lower repeatability score. However, the 3D scan and µCT scan datasets performed identically in classifying individuals based on intra-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism. Discussion Compared to µCT scans, we find that even low resolution 3D scans of very small specimens are

  7. Scanning by use of TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevermann, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of TV read out for scanning and measuring holographic pictures seems to give less problems than the use of optical projection as is usual for conventional bubble chamber photos. Whereas the measuring of conventional bubble chamber pictures seems to give no problems, it is not clear whether scanning by use of TV is possible. Therefore scanning pictures from experiment NA16 (taken in LEBC) with TV only was tried using the TV system of ERASME, where the CRT system is used as a camera. It should be mentioned that this system, being a flying spot device, cannot be adapted for holography. (author)

  8. Tomography system having axial scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus has been invented for the transaxial tomographic scanning of a patient to determine mass distribution internal to the patient. A scanning system is provided having a rotatably mounted X-ray radiation source/detector assembly which orbits and scans the patient in plane of orbit. The source provides a plurality of beams of radiation in the orbital plane. Beams pass through the patient to an array of detectors which are spaced in the plane of orbit and respectively aligned with one of the beams. Radiation intensity data is collected at predetermined orientations of each beam-detector pair as the assembly orbits about the patient

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  10. Spinal Exostosis in a Boy with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 13-year-old boy who presented with multiple hereditary exostosis and had development of back pain, associated with neurological deficits, and was found to have exostoses in the spinal canal. Spine radiograph showed a cauliflower-like abnormality of multiple exostoses of the posterior arch (pedicle of the thoracic vertebrae (T3–5. Reformatted CT scanning revealed the simultaneous development of intra- and extraspinal osteochondromatosis of T3–5. The spinal cord was compressed by the intraspinal exostosis. Our patient was surgically treated for intraspinal exostoses and showed cessation of neurological deficits. We report what might be a rare association of spinal cord compression in a patient with multiple hereditary exostoses.

  11. Scanning the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Preceding a study on the long-term prospects for the Dutch economy, this book contains the results of a study concerning long-term developments of the world economy. The ideas propounded in this study by the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) are described. Three perspectives are distinguished which provide a relatively complete picture of the driving forces behind economic development: the Equilibrium perspective (neoclassical and new-classical economic theory), the Coordination perspective (views of Keynes), and the Free-Market perspective (the neo-Austrian school of economic thought). The combination of the three perspectives leads to the prosperity circle. The strengths and weaknesses of various regions in the world economy are analysed. The regions discussed are the United States, Japan, Western Europe, dynamic Asian economies, less-developed countries, the Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), and Central Europe. A summary is presented of the most important long-term trends with regard to demography, non-renewable resources, the environment, world food supply, technology, internationalization and market structures, international cooperation, and social and political trends. The core of the study, four scenarios for the world economy are presented: Balanced Growth, which shows that an annual growth rate of the world economy of more than 3,5%, which is ecologically sustainable and embraces all the major regions of the world, is still a quite realistic possibility, although not easy; Global Crisis explores the risks and changes of an unintentional neglect of, and a late response to, regional and global changes; Global Shift and European Renaissance explore divergent developments with respect to Western Europe and North America. An attempt is made to show how the scenarios can contribute towards the ultimate goal of strategic policymaking

  12. Multiple primary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  13. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection

  14. Design of Test Wrapper Scan Chain Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Circuit has entered the era of design of the IP-based SoC (System on Chip, which makes the IP core reuse become a key issue. SoC test wrapper design for scan chain is a NP Hard problem, we propose an algorithm based on Differential Evolution (DE to design wrapper scan chain. Through group’s mutation, crossover and selection operations, the design of test wrapper scan chain is achieved. Experimental verification is carried out according to the international standard benchmark ITC’02. The results show that the algorithm can obtain shorter longest wrapper scan chains, compared with other algorithms.

  15. Demonstration of cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers with SPECT perfusion brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.S.; Tumeh, S.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Lee, V.W.; Holman, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports I-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) brain scans performed on cocaine users to investigate the effects of cocaine on the cerebral perfusion in a manner similar to previous CT, angiographic and positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies. Ten asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cocaine users, two users with major neurovascular complications, and five normal subjects were studied with IMP SPECT. Rotating-brain images of the cerebral IMP uptake were displayed by using a distance-weighted surface-projection technique and were visually analyzed for focal cortical perfusion deficits. Eleven cocaine users had multiple scattered cortical IMP defects. Frontal lobe defects were most prominent. One user had confluent defects resembling swiss cheese. Concurrent CT scans available in nine patients were negative in seven and showed infarcts in two. No similar focal findings were visible in normals

  16. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)

    1999-07-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  17. Rapid line scan MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, J.; Merboldt, K.D.; Hanicke, W.; Bruhn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct MR angiography may be performed using line scan imaging techniques combined with presaturation of stationary spins. Thus, a single line scan echo yields a projection of vessels due to the signal from reflowing unsaturated spins. Reconstruction of an angiographic image is performed line by line at slightly incremented positions. In particular, line scan angiography is direct and fast without a sensitivity to artifacts even for high flow rates. Image resolution and field of view may be chosen without restrictions, and zoom images using enhanced gradients may be recorded without aliasing artifacts. The method is robust with respect to eddy currents and pulsatile flow. Line scan MR angiograms of phantoms, animals, and human volunteers have been recorded using 90 0 radio frequency pulses and gradient-recalled echoes

  18. Security scanning at 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Coward, Peter R.; Kent, P. J.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Wasley, Matthew R. M.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for some time that millimeter waves can pas through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at Ka band can be an advantage. The penetration through clothing is increased and the cost of the equipment when compared to operation at W band. In this paper a Ka band mechanically scanned imager designed for security scanning is discussed. This imager is based on the folded conical scan technology previously reported. It is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene and printed circuit board. The trade off between image spatial resolution and the number of receivers will be described and solutions, which minimize this number discussed.

  19. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  20. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  1. Dynamic Flaps Electronic Scan Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic FLAPS(TM) electronic scan antenna was the focus of this research. The novelty S of this SBIR resides in the use of plasma as the main component of this dynamic X-Band phased S array antenna...

  2. Dysprosium disilicide nanostructures on silicon(001) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Gangfeng; Nogami, Jun; Crimp, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of self-assembled dysprosium silicide nanostructures on silicon(001) has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The studies focused on nanostructures that involve multiple atomic layers of the silicide. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy images and fast Fourier transform analysis showed that both hexagonal and orthorhombic/tetragonal silicide phases were present. Both the magnitude and the anisotropy of lattice mismatch between the silicide and the substrate play roles in the morphology and epitaxial growth of the nanostructures formed

  3. Scan analysis in myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Inst. fuer Strahlenmedizin

    1976-08-01

    Myocardial scans with sup(99m)Tc-labelled phosphates are reported to be useful in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. A retrospective survey of 205 patients referred for sup(99m)Tc-phophate bone scanning and with no evidence of recent heart disease revealed an occurrence of 10% of false positive images, that is to say, uptake of phosphate in non-infarcted mayocardium. These striking findings stress the need for critical assessment of the usefulness of this diagnostic technique.

  4. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  5. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Al Kaissi; Farid Ben Chehida; Rudolf Ganger; Franz Grill

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (con...

  6. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced from scanned impressions and scanned stone casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeihi, Haitham

    dimensional accuracy, which is defined as the absolute value of deviation in micrometers from the reference model. A two-way analysis of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate if the measurements for the six test groups were statistically significantly different from the original reference model as well as between test groups (p Results: The mean (± SD) RMS was 29.42 ± 5.80 microns for digital models produced from polyether impression scans, 27.58 ± 5.85 microns for digital models from PVS impressions scans, and 24.08 ± 4.89 microns for digital models produced from VPES impressions scans. 26.08 ± 6.58 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from PE, 31.67 ± 9.95 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from PVS and 22.58 ± 2.84 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from VPES. In the Two-Way ANOVA, the p-value for the material factor was 0.004, reflecting a statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the three impression materials, with VPES showing the highest accuracy (mean RMS = 23.33 ± 3.99 microns) followed by PE (mean RMS = 27.75 ± 6.3 microns) and PVS (mean RMS = 29.63 ± 8.25 microns). For the technique factor, the p-value was 0.870 reflecting no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the two techniques (impression scan and stone cast scan). The mean RMS values were 27.03 ± 5.82 microns and 26.78 ± 7.85 microns, respectively. In the post-hoc tests for the material factor, a significant difference was found between the accuracy of VPES and PVS (p-value = 0.004) with VPES having the higher accuracy (lower mean RMS). No significant difference was found between the accuracies of PE and PVS (p-value = 0.576), and between the accuracies of PE and VPES (p-value = 0.054). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that: 1. There is no statistically significant difference in dimensional accuracy

  7. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  8. Periodic and uniform nanogratings formed on cemented carbide by femtosecond laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Yunsong; Deng, Jianxin; Xing, Youqiang; Lei, Shuting; Yu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Periodic and uniform nanogratings are fabricated by femtosecond laser scanning on cemented carbide. Specifically, three experiments are designed to study the influence of single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing on the period and the uniformity of the formed nanogratings. The results show that the sample with single pulse energy of 2 μJ, scanning speed of 1000 μm/s, and scanning spacing of 5 μm shows the best quality of nanogratings among all the tested samples at different processing parameters. The uniformity of the nanogratings is largely determined by single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing. Single pulse energy and scanning speed significantly affect the period of the nanogratings, whereas the period of the nanogratings maintains a fixed value under different scanning spacings. The period of the nanogratings increases gradually with the decrease of the single pulse energy and the increase of the scanning speed, respectively.

  9. Soft control of scanning probe microscope with high flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Guo, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Xing

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial scanning probe microscopes have multiple embedded digital microprocessors and utilize complex software for system control, which is not easily obtained or modified by researchers wishing to perform novel and special applications. In this paper, we present a simple and flexible control solution that just depends on software running on a single-processor personal computer with real-time Linux operating system to carry out all the control tasks including negative feedback, tip moving, data processing and user interface. In this way, we fully exploit the potential of a personal computer in calculating and programming, enabling us to manipulate the scanning probe as required without any special digital control circuits and related technical know-how. This solution has been successfully applied to a homemade ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope and a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  11. Epileptic seizures due to multiple cerebral cavernomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cavernous angiomas are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are present in 0.4−0.9 % of people, and represent around 5% of all cerebrovascular malformations. They can be single or multiple, and sporadic or familial. The presence of multiple lesions is more frequent in familial cavernomatosis. Ten to 30 % are associated with familial clustering. Case report. We presented the case of a 43-year-old man, admitted to the Emergency Department due to unprovoked seizure during the wide awake and everyday activities. Neurological examination was with no focal signs. A 32-channel standard digital EEG was without any significant changes of normal baseline activity. After sleep deprivation EEG showed multifocal, bilateral and asymmetric polyspikes and sharpwaves activity. Hyperventilation induced generalized epileptiform discharges. MRI scan demonstrated multiple small cavernous angiomas. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated a delayed memory impairment. Neurosurgery treatment was not recommended, and the therapy with valproate 1 250 mg/day had an excellent efficacy with no singnificant adverse effects. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with multiple cavernomatosis highlights the importance of neuroradiological examination in adult patients with the first epileptic seizure but with no focal neurological signs. .

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  13. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  14. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  15. Synthetic CT: Simulating low dose single and dual energy protocols from a dual energy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The choice of CT protocol can greatly impact patient dose and image quality. Since acquiring multiple scans at different techniques on a given patient is undesirable, the ability to predict image quality changes starting from a high quality exam can be quite useful. While existing methods allow one to generate simulated images of lower exposure (mAs) from an acquired CT exam, the authors present and validate a new method called synthetic CT that can generate realistic images of a patient at arbitrary low dose protocols (kVp, mAs, and filtration) for both single and dual energy scans. Methods: The synthetic CT algorithm is derived by carefully ensuring that the expected signal and noise are accurate for the simulated protocol. The method relies on the observation that the material decomposition from a dual energy CT scan allows the transmission of an arbitrary spectrum to be predicted. It requires an initial dual energy scan of the patient to either synthesize raw projections of a single energy scan or synthesize the material decompositions of a dual energy scan. The initial dual energy scan contributes inherent noise to the synthesized projections that must be accounted for before adding more noise to simulate low dose protocols. Therefore, synthetic CT is subject to the constraint that the synthesized data have noise greater than the inherent noise. The authors experimentally validated the synthetic CT algorithm across a range of protocols using a dual energy scan of an acrylic phantom with solutions of different iodine concentrations. An initial 80/140 kVp dual energy scan of the phantom provided the material decomposition necessary to synthesize images at 100 kVp and at 120 kVp, across a range of mAs values. They compared these synthesized single energy scans of the phantom to actual scans at the same protocols. Furthermore, material decompositions of a 100/120 kVp dual energy scan are synthesized by adding correlated noise to the initial material

  16. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  17. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  18. Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed clinical factors related to uptake on a Tc-99 m HDP bone scan of the accessory navicular (AN). We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and underwent bone scan due to suspected symptomatic AN. A three-point grading system was used to evaluate uptake on bone scan. Relationships between grade, symptoms, age, gender, symptom duration, and bone size were analyzed. In total, 73 ANs (30 asymptomatic, 43 symptomatic) were enrolled. The majority of asymptomatic ANs had no uptake but some had grade 1 (n = 8) or 2 (n = 2) uptake. All asymptomatic ANs with uptake remained asymptomatic during follow-up. For the asymptomatic ANs, larger bones showed a higher grade. With a cut-off value of size ≤6.8 mm, there is no chance of uptake. All symptomatic ANs showed uptake on bone scan. For symptomatic ANs, larger size and shorter pain duration were related to a higher grade. Age, gender, and left-/right-sideness were not related to grade. Multiple regressions revealed that only uptake grade, not size or symptom duration, was the significant risk factor for a symptomatic AN. With a cut-off value of grade <1, a symptomatic AN could be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 100 %. Bone scanning is useful for symptomatic ANs with a high negative predictive value. Higher grade is related to larger size and shorter pain duration. For asymptomatic ANs, grade was related to size but did not predict symptom development

  19. Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Young [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We analyzed clinical factors related to uptake on a Tc-99 m HDP bone scan of the accessory navicular (AN). We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and underwent bone scan due to suspected symptomatic AN. A three-point grading system was used to evaluate uptake on bone scan. Relationships between grade, symptoms, age, gender, symptom duration, and bone size were analyzed. In total, 73 ANs (30 asymptomatic, 43 symptomatic) were enrolled. The majority of asymptomatic ANs had no uptake but some had grade 1 (n = 8) or 2 (n = 2) uptake. All asymptomatic ANs with uptake remained asymptomatic during follow-up. For the asymptomatic ANs, larger bones showed a higher grade. With a cut-off value of size ≤6.8 mm, there is no chance of uptake. All symptomatic ANs showed uptake on bone scan. For symptomatic ANs, larger size and shorter pain duration were related to a higher grade. Age, gender, and left-/right-sideness were not related to grade. Multiple regressions revealed that only uptake grade, not size or symptom duration, was the significant risk factor for a symptomatic AN. With a cut-off value of grade <1, a symptomatic AN could be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 100 %. Bone scanning is useful for symptomatic ANs with a high negative predictive value. Higher grade is related to larger size and shorter pain duration. For asymptomatic ANs, grade was related to size but did not predict symptom development.

  20. Study of CT Scan Flooding System at High Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    CT scan flooding experiment can scan micro-pore in different flooding stages by the use of CT scan technology, without changing the external morphology and internal structure of the core, and observe the distribution characterization in pore medium of different flooding fluid under different pressure.thus,it can rebuilt the distribution images of oil-water distribution in different flooding stages. However,under extreme high pressure and temperature conditions,the CT scan system can not meet the requirements. Container of low density materials or thin shell can not resist high pressure,while high density materials or thick shell will cause attenuation and scattering of X-ray. The experiment uses a simple Ct scanning systems.X ray from a point light source passing trough a micro beryllium shell on High pressure stainless steal container,continuously irradiates the core holder that can continuously 360° rotate along the core axis. A rare earth intensifying screen behind the core holder emitting light when irradiated with X ray can show the core X ray section image. An optical camera record the core X ray images through a transparency high pressure glazing that placed on the High pressure stainless steal container.Thus,multiple core X ray section images can reconstruct the 3D core reconstruction after a series of data processing.The experiment shows that both the micro beryllium shell and rare earth intensifying screen can work in high temperature and high pressure environment in the stainless steal container. This way that X-ray passes through a thin layer of micro beryllium shell , not high pressure stainless steal shell,avoid the attenuation and scattering of X-ray from the container shell,while improving the high-pressure experiment requirements.

  1. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  2. Usefulness of lung scanning in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powe, J.; McCarthy, K.; Palevsky, H.; Fishman, A.P.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ventilation-perfusion scans of 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and established final diagnoses were blindly classified as to the probability of showing pulmonary embolism. Eleven of 12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension had normal or low-probability scans; one had an intermediate-probability scan. All six patients with thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had high-probability scans. However, three of 12 patients with nonembolic secondary pulmonary hypetension also had high-probability scans. Although a normal or low-probability scan excludes the possibility of emboli as a cause, a high-probability scan may often be associated with nonembolic causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension

  3. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  4. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  5. Security scanning at 94GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  6. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  7. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  8. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  9. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  10. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  11. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case of with Transient splenic Hot Uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) Bone Scan Following Blunt Abodominal Trauma with Underlying Liver Cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Myung; Kim, Jung Han; Choo, Gil Yeon; Park, Seok Oh; Sung, Sang Kyu; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Chin Seung [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We report a case of 33-year-old man with a transient splenic uptake who had traumatic multiple rib fractures and hemoperitoneum combined with underlying liver cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis with liver bed laceration and splenomegaly without any other demonstrable splenic lesion due to traffic accident was found by abdominal ultrasound and surgery. Incidentally, {sup 99m}Tc-MDP Bone scan showed whole prominent splenic uptake, spleen was also visible on {sup 99m}Tc Tin colloid liver scan. We suggest the splenic uptake of the radionuclide temporary splenic infarct to the transient total splenic infarction or unknown traumatic effect.

  13. A Case of with Transient splenic Hot Uptake on 99mTc-Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) Bone Scan Following Blunt Abodominal Trauma with Underlying Liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Myung; Kim, Jung Han; Choo, Gil Yeon; Park, Seok Oh; Sung, Sang Kyu; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Chin Seung

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of 33-year-old man with a transient splenic uptake who had traumatic multiple rib fractures and hemoperitoneum combined with underlying liver cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis with liver bed laceration and splenomegaly without any other demonstrable splenic lesion due to traffic accident was found by abdominal ultrasound and surgery. Incidentally, 99m Tc-MDP Bone scan showed whole prominent splenic uptake, spleen was also visible on 99m Tc Tin colloid liver scan. We suggest the splenic uptake of the radionuclide temporary splenic infarct to the transient total splenic infarction or unknown traumatic effect.

  14. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  15. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  16. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  17. A Pictorial Review on Extraosseous Manifestations of Multiple Myelomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jung Min; Lee, Kyung Soo; Yi, Chin A; Kim, Seong Hyun; Park, Byung Kwan; Han, Boo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Extraosseous involvement of multiple myelomas can be seen clinically or radiologically in approximately 10-20% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis and may develop in an additional 15% of patients over the course of the disease. The condition can arise in any tissue of the body and its presence has been associated with more aggressive disease, a guarded prognosis, or high-dose chemotherapy. Imaging findings of extraosseous multiple myelomas are diverse. They usually show high enhancement on contrast-medium enhanced CT scans, exhibit iso-signal intensity on both T1- and T2- weighted images, and variable 18F-fluorine deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET. The disease may simulate an infectious condition since it may be concurrent with underlying multiple myelomas per se or it may occur during myeloma treatment including stem cell transplantation.

  18. Solving LR Conflicts Through Context Aware Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, C. Rodriguez; Forte, L. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm to compute the exact list of tokens expected by any LR syntax analyzer at any point of the scanning process. The lexer can, at any time, compute the exact list of valid tokens to return only tokens in this set. In the case than more than one matching token is in the valid set, the lexer can resort to a nested LR parser to disambiguate. Allowing nested LR parsing requires some slight modifications when building the LR parsing tables. We also show how LR parsers can parse conflictive and inherently ambiguous languages using a combination of nested parsing and context aware scanning. These expanded lexical analyzers can be generated from high level specifications.

  19. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  1. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mendrik (Adrienne); E.J.P.A. Vonken; B.T.J. van Ginneken (Berbke); J.R. Riordan (John ); H.W.A.M. de Jong (Hugo); T. van Seeters (Tom); E.J. Smit (Ewoud); M.A. Viergever (Max); M. Prokop (Mathias)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of

  2. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  3. The role of thyroid scanning in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Cooke, S.G.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide thyroid imaging was performed in 872 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 84% were found to have diffuse toxic hyperplasia (Graves' disease), while 12% had autonomously functioning nodules (Plummer's disease), 3% had Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland, and in the remaining 1%, either a clear diagnosis could not be established or the hyperthyroidism was due to thyroiditis or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. It was found that a thyroid scan seldom provides additional diagnostic information in patients with Graves' disease when a diffuse goitre is present. However, if patients are to be treated with radioiodine ( 131 I), thyroid imaging with tracer quantitation can replace a 24-h 131 I uptake measurement, this having the advantages that the patients are required to attend only once, and that the gland size can be measured. In addition, visual confirmation of tracer uptake by the thyroid is obtained and patients with thyroiditis will not receive inappropriate therapy. When single or multiple thyroid nodules are palpated, a thyroid scan is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as it is not otherwise possible to differentiate between Plummer's disease and Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland. Indeed, in 20 of our 63 patients (32%) with single autonomously functioning nodules, the initial clinical assessment had been incorrect. (orig.)

  4. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  5. Performance evaluation of a vibration desensitized scanning white light interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutman, J; Evans, C J; Ganguly, V; Schmitz, T L

    2014-01-01

    Surface metrology instruments normally require thermal, seismic and acoustic isolation. Shop-floor metrology solutions offer reduced cost and process time. If they operate on the same principles as laboratory devices, an inherent sensitivity to vibration remains. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating ‘environmental tolerance’ and applying it to characterize a recently introduced ‘environmentally tolerant’ scanning white light interferometer (SWLI). Previously published measurements of replicated nickel reference standards on the new instrument and on a stylus profilometer showed good correlation. Surface topography repeatabilities (per ISO 25178-604:2013) were insignificantly different when evaluated on the SWLI instrument in a metrology laboratory and in a manufacturing area. Measurements of reference standards under forced vibration of the entire instrument show maximum ripple error and data dropout in regions of structural resonance. Measurements were performed with large forced horizontal and vertical sample oscillation beneath the objective, exhibiting maximum ripple error near odd integer multiples of half the instrument detector frequency. Error due to data dropout was also investigated. (paper)

  6. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  7. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  8. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made of metal. Objects such as keys or wallets that would be in the area being scanned should be removed. You will ... and are often available in drugstores and on mobile health vans in the community. The pDEXA device is much smaller than ...

  9. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  11. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  12. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  16. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  17. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  18. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Rapid variations in the height of the recirculation zone are measured with a scanning wind lidar over a small escarpment on the Bolund Peninsula. The lidar is essentially a continuous-wave laser Doppler anemometer with the capability of rapidly changing the focus distance and the beam direction....... The instrument measures the line-ofsight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. The results will be used to test computational fluid dynamics models for flow over terrain, and has relevance for wind energy. The development of multiple lidar...

  19. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Zanetti, Glaucia; Missrie, Israel; Sato, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  20. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil); Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil); Missrie, Israel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Sato, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco

    2008-12-15

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  1. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis with multiple aneurysms and active bleeding: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Young; Kim Jae Woon; Jang, Jae Cheon

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman visited our institution with upper abdominal pain which had lasted for the past two days. Laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis, decreased serum hemoglobin, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. CT scans showed multiple ill-defined, hypodense lesions in the peripheral areas of both hepatic lobes and active bleeding with a subcapsular hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Angiography also showed active bleeding in the right hepatic lobe with multiple aneurysms, so a transarterial coil embolization was performed to stop the bleeding. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed several moving flat flukes in the common bile duct, which were pathologically confirmed as Fasciola hepatica.

  2. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis with multiple aneurysms and active bleeding: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Young; Kim Jae Woon; Jang, Jae Cheon [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A 52-year-old woman visited our institution with upper abdominal pain which had lasted for the past two days. Laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis, decreased serum hemoglobin, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. CT scans showed multiple ill-defined, hypodense lesions in the peripheral areas of both hepatic lobes and active bleeding with a subcapsular hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Angiography also showed active bleeding in the right hepatic lobe with multiple aneurysms, so a transarterial coil embolization was performed to stop the bleeding. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed several moving flat flukes in the common bile duct, which were pathologically confirmed as Fasciola hepatica.

  3. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  4. [Application of second generation dual-source computed tomography dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hua-dan; Liu, Wei; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Yu; Su, Bai-yan; Sun, Zhao-yong; Chen, Fang; Jin, Zheng-yu

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the clinical value of multiple sequences derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Totally 23 patients with clinically or pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. DSCT (Definition Flash) was used and dual-energy scan mode was used in their pancreatic parenchyma phase scan (100kVp/230mAs and Sn140kVp/178mAs) . Mono-energetic 60kev, mono-energetic 80kev, mono-energetic 100kev, mono-energetic 120kev, linear blend image, non-linear blend image, and iodine map were acquired. pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for the comparison of diagnostic values of the above eight different dual-energy derived sequences for pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were significantly different among eight sequences (P<0.05) . Mono-energetic 60kev image showed the largest parenchyma-tumor CT value [ (77.53 ± 23.42) HU] , and iodine map showed the lowest tumor/parenchyma enhancement ratio (0.39?0.12) and the largest contrast to noise ratio (4.08 ± 1.46) . Multiple sequences can be derived from dual-energy scan mode with DSCT via multiple post-processing methods. Integration of these sequences may further improve the sensitivity of the multislice spiral CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Radiation exposure distribution in patients undergoing CT brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanshan; Feng Dinghua; Chang Zichi; Li Shijun

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of surface exposures in patients undergoing single and multiple computerized tomographic brain scans with Hitachi CT-W500 was measured by LiF(Mg, Ti) thermoluminescent dosimetry. It was found that there was no significant difference in the sufrace exposures from different scanning slices. However, the exposure doses at different scanning angles around the head were different significantly. The reference point of the maximum surface exposure was at the temporal part of the head. the maximum surface exposure was at 1.65 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 while the average exposure was 1.55 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 . The ratio of the average dose resulting from nine scans to that from a single scan was 1.3, and the surface exposure contribution of scattered radiation was computed. At the same time the radiation doses to eyes, thyroid, chest and gonads of patiens at corresponding position were also measured and were compared with those from CT cranial scans in children and skull radiographic procedures respectively

  6. ComPoScan: Adaptive Scanning for Efficient Concurrent Communications and Positioning with 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Thomas; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2008-01-01

    and by validation in several real-world deployments. Results from the emulation show that the system can realize different trade-offs by changing parameters. Furthermore, the emulation shows that the system works independently of the environment, the network card, the signal strength measurement technology......Using 802.11 concurrently for communications and positioning is problematic, especially if location-based services (e.g., indoor navigation) are concurrently executed with real-time applications (e.g., VoIP, video conferencing). Periodical scanning for measuring the signal strength interrupts......, and number and placement of access points. We also show that ComPoScan does not harm the positioning accuracy of a positioning system. By validation in several real-world deployments, we provided evidence for that the real system works as predicted by the emulation. In addition, we provide results for Com...

  7. Application of simulated lidar scanning patterns to constrained Gaussian turbulence fields for load validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind velocity measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into threedimensional wind turbulence time series serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. Simulated lidar scanning patterns are implemented by imposing constraints on randomly gener...

  8. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F W; Gilday, D L; Ash, J M; Green, M D

    1980-01-01

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated.

  9. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Green, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated. (orig.) [de

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P

    2011-01-01

    .5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65–79 years, spouse status, and income......To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated...... with the use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living...

  11. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  12. Reappraisal of radionuclide liver scans for preoperative gastric cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yonahara, Yoshio; Yamashita, Shoji; Ando, Yutaka; Mohri, Makoto [National Second Hospital of Tokyo (Japan)

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclide liver scans were obtained in 89 preoperative patients with gastric cancer. Eight showed definite defects on liver scans. At laparotomy, 14 patients were found to have liver involvement secondary to gastric cancer. The sensitivity of liver scans to predict liver involvement is 57% (8/14), and the specificity is 100% (75/75). The patients with definite defects on liver scans had a lower rate of palliative resection of the primary tumors (2/8) than the patients with liver involvement and no scan abnormality (4/6). The patients with advanced lesions but without liver involvement had the highest probability of resecting the primary tumors (57/63 : 47 radical, and 10 palliative). Normal serum levels of liver chemistries did not preclude the presence of defects on liver scans. Additional three patients were found to have cirrhosis of the liver solely based on liver scans, which was confirmed at laparotomy. Radionuclide liver scans can predict liver involvement with very few false positives, and may discriminate patients unsuitable for laparotomy even with palliative intent.

  13. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  14. Tc-99m MIBI imaging for secondary skeletal involvement in breast and prostate cancers and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, F.; Haq, S.; Fatmi, S.; Safaqat, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:The Objective of the study was to evaluate the role of Tc-99m MIBI whole body imaging in assessing secondary osseous involvement in patients with malignancy of breast, prostate or multiple myeloma. In this study a total of 41 patients were included. Out of these 18 had breast carcinoma, 12 had prostate carcinoma and 11 were diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma. All patients had their whole body MIBI imaging done which was compared with MDP bone scan by employing some other diagnostic modality (plain radiographs, CT scan, MRI scan or histopathological evidence) to confirm the lesions detected by either of the scans. The results of all the studies were evaluated qualitatively by assessing the number of lesions visually by three experienced nuclear physicians. Quantitative analysis of the lesions was also done, by calculating the lesion to normal uptake ratio, to augment the findings of visual assessment and for statistical analysis. Results: Results obtained in this study by MIBI and MDP imaging varied significantly among different groups and subgroups of patients depending on the primary malignancy and stage of therapy. However results obtained by imaging of patients within a group and subgroup were consistent with each other. MIBI scan showed a sensitivity of 99% in cases of multiple myeloma, where MDP scan was only 16% sensitive. In case of pre-therapy patients of breast and prostate carcinoma, the sensitivity of MIBI scan came out to be 80% and 74% respectively. In patients who were on chemo/radiotherapy MIBI scan was 54% sensitive in patients with breast carcinoma and 38% sensitive in patients with prostate carcinoma. MDP scan showed a sensitivity of 100% in all the groups. The positive predictive value of MIBI scan came out to be 100% but that of MDP was 42-76% in different groups. It is therefore concluded that the most significant role of MIBI imaging is in detection of bone metastases secondary to breast and prostate carcinoma in pre

  15. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  16. Automation of BESSY scanning tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanton, J.; Kesteman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A micro processor M6800 is used for the automation of scanning and premeasuring BESSY tables. The tasks achieved by the micro processor are: 1. control of spooling of the four asynchronous film winding devices and switching on and off the 4 projections lamps, 2. pre-processing of the data coming from a bi-polar coordinates measuring device, 3. bi-directional interchange of informations between the operator, the BESSY table and the DEC PDP 11/34 mini computer controling the scanning operations, 4. control of the magnification on the table by swapping the projection lenses of appropriate focal lengths and the associated light boxes (under development). In connection with point 4, study is being made for the use of BESSY tables for accurate measurements (+/-5 microns), by encoding the displacements of the projections lenses. (orig.)

  17. Tumor scanning with /sup 57/Co-bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Hasegawa, Y; Matsuda, Minoru; Ho, T; Doi, O [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    The clinical application of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin as a tumor scanning radiopharmaceutical was firstly reported by Nouel and Maeda respectively. The authors conducted studies on the diagnostic significance of this tumor scanning agent and presented the results obtained in 40 patients with malignant and non malignant lesions. Six hours and 24 hours after the injection of 500 ..mu..Ci of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin, scintigrams were taken with a 3-inch scintiscanner. Positive scans were found in 20 out of 36 patients with various malignant tumors. Of 20 patients with lung cancer, positive scans were obtained in 17 cases (85%) and of 6 with breast cancer, 3 cases showed positive scans. False negative scans were obtained in another 10 cases of malignant tumors (3 cases of thyroid carcinoma, 4 cases of hepatoma, and 1 case each of gastric carcinoma, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and reticulum cell sarcoma). Of 4 patients with non malignant disease, one case of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a positive scan. In 8 cases of lung cancer and 6 of breast cancer, the relationship between the size of the excised tumor and the scintigram findings was studied. The smallest tumors detected by scintigram were 2 cm in lung cancer and 3.2 cm in breast cancer.

  18. Comparison of 99m-Tc-MDP and 99m-Tc-MIBI whole body scans for diagnosis of widespread skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.; Hoshiar, A.; Mortazavi, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis is one of the most important disabling complications of the malignant diseases. As in general, the survival of patients with osteometastatic lesions is relatively long, an early diagnosis can lead to improve the patient's life, both quantitatively and qualitatively and prevent exacerbation of the disease and disabling complications. In this study 22 patients with established diagnosis of malignant disease and clinical manifestations of skeletal metastasis were evaluated both with 99 m-Tc-MIBI and 99 m-Tc-MDP whole body scans, in two separate phases. Patient's diagnosis were as following: small round cell tumor, breast carcinoma. Nasopharynx carcinoma and multiple myeloma. In the first phase of the study a whole body bone scan was performed by IV injection of 740MBq 99 m-Tc-MDP. After a period of 1 week a whole body scan carried out by 99 m-Tc-MDP for all the patients. No treatment such as radiation therapy ar chemotherapy was done in this 1 week interval. The number and intensity of the scan findings were compared visually, according to the three- phase staging, subsequently. whole body survey with 99 m-Tc-MDP in 14 out 22 patient were positive demonstrating only 44.4% of body lesions established on whole body bone scan with 99 m-Tc-MDP. The mean value of intensity of radiotracer uptake was around 1.5+ (mild to moderate ). on the other hand in 7 patients with positive 99 m-Tc-MDP scan some hidden soft tissue lesions ( mostly lymph nodes) were detected with intensity of 2+. So this study shows that whole body bone scan is preferable for detection of widespread metastasis comparing with 99 m-Tc-MDP whole body scan. the significance of 99 m-Tc-MDP scan is mainly limited to some equivocal of soft tissue lesions

  19. A Study for Reappearance According to the Scan Type, the CT Scanning by a Moving Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyock; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Choi, Gye Suk; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hui Seok

    2007-01-01

    CT scan shows that significant tumor movement occurs in lesions located in the proximity of the heart, diaphragm, and lung hilus. There are differences concerning three kinds of type to get images following the Scan type called Axial, Helical, Cine (4D-CT) mode, when the scanning by CT. To know how each protocol describe accurately, this paper is going to give you reappearance using the moving phantom. To reconstruct the movement of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, the manufactured moving phantom and the motor following breathing were used. To distinguish movement from captured images by CT scanning, a localizer adhered to the marker on the motor. The moving phantom fixed the movement of superior-inferior upon 1.3 cm /1 min. The motor following breathing fixed the movement of anterior-posterior upon 0.2 cm /1 min. After fixing each movement, CT scanning was taken by following the CT protocols. The movement of A localizer and volume-reappearance analyzed by RTP machine. Total volume of a marker was 88.2 cm 3 considering movement of superior-inferior. Total volume was 184.3 cm 3 . Total volume according to each CT scan protocol were 135 cm 3 by axial mode, 164.9 cm 3 by helical mode, 181.7 cm 3 by cine (4D-CT) mode. The most closely describable protocol about moving reappearance was cine mode, the marker attached localizer as well. CT scan should reappear concerning a exact organ-description and target, when the moving organ is being scanned by three kinds of CT protocols. The cine (4D-CT) mode has the advantage of the most highly reconstructible ability of the three protocols in reappearance of the marker using a moving phantom. The marker on the phantom has always regular motion but breathing patients don't move like a phantom. Breathing education and devices setting patients were needed so that images reconstruct breathing as exactly as possible. Users should also consider that an amount of radiation to patients is being bombed.

  20. Fast-scan NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoka, Hideto; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Hirata, Takaaki

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Fast Recovery (FR) method for fast-scan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging. The FR method uses a sequence of four radio frequency pulses - alternating selective 90 deg nutation pulses and nonselective 180 deg pulses. One free induction decay (FID) signal and one echo signal are detected and averaged to compute a 2-D image. In the modified FR method, extra 180 deg pulses are applied between 90 deg pulses to cause refocusing and the resultant spin echo signals are averaged to improve the signal to noise ratio. For the FR and modified FR sequences, the macroscopic magnetization is restored to equilibrium quickly and exactly; scan time can consequently be less than that for conventional pulse sequences, such as used in the saturation recovery method, without any penalty in signal to noise ratio. This paper derives expressions for the signal to noise ratio, scan time ratio and contrast noise ratio, compares the FR and modified FR methods with the saturation recovery method and presents experimental results for human body images. In theory and practice, the signal to noise ratio for the FR method is larger than that for the modified FR method. For a given signal to noise ratio the scan time is between one half and one fourth that for the saturation recovery method. The optimum repetition period, T r , is 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s for the FR method, and 0.1 ∼ 0.5 s for the modified FR method. Contrast noise ratio is low for high speed imaging, T r = 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s, but, high contrast noise ratio image is obtained for T r > 0.5 s. (author)

  1. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  2. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki

    1986-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  3. A new ultrasensitive scanning calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, V V; Brandts, J M; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F

    1997-08-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter is described, having a number of novel features arising from integration between hardware and software. It is capable of high performance in either a scanning or isothermal mode of operation. Upscanning is carried out adiabatically while downscanning is nonadiabatic. By using software-controlled signals sent continuously to appropriate hardware devices, it is possible to improve adiabaticity and constancy of scan rate through use of empirical prerun information stored in memory rather than by using feedback systems which respond in real time and generate thermal noise. Also, instrument response time is software-selectable, maximizing performance for both slow- and fast-transient systems. While these and other sophisticated functionalities have been introduced into the instrument to improve performance and data analysis, they are virtually invisible and add no additional complexities into operation of the instrument. Noise and baseline repeatability are an order of magnitude better than published raw data from other instruments so that high-quality results can be obtained on protein solutions, for example, using as little as 50 microg of protein in the sample cell.

  4. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  5. Multiple single-element transducer photoacoustic computed tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalva, Sandeep Kumar; Hui, Zhe Zhi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Light absorption by the chromophores (hemoglobin, melanin, water etc.) present in any biological tissue results in local temperature rise. This rise in temperature results in generation of pressure waves due to the thermoelastic expansion of the tissue. In a circular scanning photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system, these pressure waves can be detected using a single-element ultrasound transducer (SUST) (while rotating in full 360° around the sample) or using a circular array transducer. SUST takes several minutes to acquire the PA data around the sample whereas the circular array transducer takes only a fraction of seconds. Hence, for real time imaging circular array transducers are preferred. However, these circular array transducers are custom made, expensive and not easily available in the market whereas SUSTs are cheap and readily available in the market. Using SUST for PACT systems is still cost effective. In order to reduce the scanning time to few seconds instead of using single SUST (rotating 360° ), multiple SUSTs can be used at the same time to acquire the PA data. This will reduce the scanning time by two-fold in case of two SUSTs (rotating 180° ) or by four-fold and eight-fold in case of four SUSTs (rotating 90° ) and eight SUSTs (rotating 45° ) respectively. Here we show that with multiple SUSTs, similar PA images (numerical and experimental phantom data) can be obtained as that of PA images obtained using single SUST.

  6. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  7. CT scanning in patients with amputated legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Ahlemann, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    CT scanning after above-knee amputation and below-knee amputation helps to determine the calcium salt content of the examined bones, and to differentiate changes in the surrounding soft parts. By comaring the sides, it is quite easy to detect osteoporotic changes shortly after amputation which would otherwise remain undetected by X-ray film examination. It is equally easy to verify muscular changes, whereas characteristic changes in density allow to determine the share of vacant fat in muscular atrophy. Initial examinations proved the usefulness of CT diagnosis for early detection of dystrophic osseous and muscular changes and also show the possibilities of early therapy control of dystrophy treatment. (orig.) [de

  8. Bone Marrow Scans with Colloidal {sup 198}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Whang, Kee Suk [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The bone marrow scans with colloidal {sup 198}Au were performed on 33 cases with hematologically normal patients and patients with various blood dyscrasia. Bone marrow aspirations were done at iliac crest in all cases but one. A correlation between the scan findings and an erythroid cellularity was evaluated. The following results were obtained. 1) Out of 33 cases, 23 (about 70%) showed a correlation between {sup 198}Au marrow uptakes on the scans and the erythroid cellularity. 2) The diseases in which no correlation existed between {sup 198}Au uptake and erythroid cellularity were aplastic anemia, acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  9. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  10. CT scanning of the breast in problem cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, V.; Ewen, K. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum; Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01

    This is a report of the experience with 200 patients who during 1981 to 1984 underwent breast scanning on a conventional body scanner. Pre- and post-contrast scans of the breast were obtained. A postcontrast enhancement of 50 HU and more turned out to be specific for malignant lesions. Radiation dose to the breast was in the same range as with high filtration xeromammography and high resolution film-screen mammography with additional grid. Breast scanning is recommended in cases in which mammography alone is of limited value, including dense fibrocystic breasts in women at high risk, follow-up in breast cancer patients after breast conserving therapy, in patients with silastic implants and in the follow-up of breasts with huge scars due to multiple biopsies. (orig.).

  11. No effects of MRI scan on male reproduction hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllerløkken, Ole J; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Magerøy, Nils; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Neto, Emanuel; Ersland, Lars; Bjørge, Line; Torjesen, Peter A; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing around the world and the possible adverse effects on reproductive health of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in MRI are not previously studied. A prospective randomized balanced cross-over study using a head scan in real MRI with whole-body transmitting coil and sham MRI among 24 healthy male volunteers was conducted. Serum-blood samples of inhibin B, testosterone, prolactine, thyreotropine, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex-hormone binding globuline and estradiol were taken before and after the different scans. Neither immediately after, nor after 11 days were there seen any differences in the hormone levels comparing real and sham MRI. The lack of effects of EMF on male reproductive hormones should be reassuring to the public and especially for men examined in MRI. Adverse effects on other endpoints than male reproduction or possible chronic effect of multiple MRI scans have not been investigated in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical indications for Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning can assess regional myocardial perfusion non-invasively. As it is both time-consuming and expensive its use should be restricted to specific diagnostic problems. The clinical indications in known or suspected coronary artery disease are reviewed. In suspected coronary artery disease thallium scanning is most useful in patients with chest pain when the exercise ECG is uninterpretable, in men with probable angina but a negative exercise ECG, or conversely a positive exercise ECG without typical angina, and in women with probable angina and either a positive or a negative exercise ECG. In known coronary artery disease, thallium scanning may help determine the functional significance of a coronary obstruction found at angiography and may determine the site of myocardial ischaemia when multiple obstructions are present

  13. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol-Δ7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol-Δ24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase and ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase......Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown...... to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map...

  14. Studies in radioaerosol lung scanning in urban health survey subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, V.B.; Gregat, I.K.; Kamat, S.R.; Papewar, V.N.; Raikar, U.R.; Sharma, S.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    As a part of health survey in relation to air pollution, 16 smokers(11 from 'high' and 5 from 'low' zone) were studied with extensive serial lung functions, chest radiography and radioaerosol lung scanning. The clinical diagnosis were chronic bronchitis(COPD) in 9 subjects; but others (4 'High' and 3 'Low') were considered normal. The values of FVC, FEV were normal in most of these three groups, but FEV 1 /FVC percent values were lower in subjects from 'high' zone.The functional declines were higher in normals of 'high' zone. Radioaerosol (ventilation) scans (with technetium 99 ) showed a normal picture in 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects; in 3 COPD and 1 normal subjects the abnormalities were definite. For perfusion scans, 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects showed a normal pattern while definite abnormalities were seen in 1 COPD and 1 normal subjects. Lung scans may pick up abnormalities in normal smokers at an early stage. (author)

  15. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  16. Contrast enhanced CT-scans are not comparable to non-enhanced scans in emphysema quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Kappes, J.; Hantusch, R.; Hartlieb, S.; Weinheimer, O.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Eberhardt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic, interventional and surgical treatments have gone new ways in treatment of emphysema. For longitudinal therapy monitoring and as end-points for clinical trials, quantification of the disease is necessary. Sensitive, easy to measure, as well as stable and reproducible parameters have to be characterized. One parameter that might affect emphysema quantification is IV contrast enhancement, which might also be indicated. Whether or not the contrast enhanced scan is also suited for emphysema quantification or an additional scan is necessary, a retrospective analysis of 12 adult patients undergoing clinically indicated both, a non-enhanced and enhanced thin section MSCT within a week (median 0 days, range 0-4 days) was done. The in-house YACTA software was used for automatic quantification of lung and emphysema volume, emphysema index, mean lung density, and 5th, 10th, 15th percentile. After IV contrast administration, the median CT derived lung volume decreased mild by 1.1%, while median emphysema volume decreased by relevant 11%. This results in a decrease of median emphysema index by 9%. The median lung density (15th percentile) increased after contrast application by 18 HU (9 HU). CT quantification delivers emphysema values that are clearly affected by IV contrast application. The detected changes after contrast application show the results of higher density in the lung parenchyma. Therefore the amount of quantified emphysema is reduced and the lung density increased after contrast enhancement. In longitudinal analyses, non-enhanced scans should be the reference, while enhanced scans cannot be used.

  17. Registration of prone and supine CT colonography scans using correlation optimized warping and canonical correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijun; Yao Jianhua; Liu Jiamin; Petrick, Nicholas; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomographic colonography (CTC), a patient will be scanned twice--Once supine and once prone--to improve the sensitivity for polyp detection. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, in this paper we propose an automated method for colon registration from supine and prone CTC scans. Methods: We propose a new colon centerline registration method for prone and supine CTC scans using correlation optimized warping (COW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based on the anatomical structure of the colon. Four anatomical salient points on the colon are first automatically distinguished. Then correlation optimized warping is applied to the segments defined by the anatomical landmarks to improve the global registration based on local correlation of segments. The COW method was modified by embedding canonical correlation analysis to allow multiple features along the colon centerline to be used in our implementation. Results: We tested the COW algorithm on a CTC data set of 39 patients with 39 polyps (19 training and 20 test cases) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed COW registration method. Experimental results on the test set show that the COW method significantly reduces the average estimation error in a polyp location between supine and prone scans by 67.6%, from 46.27±52.97 to 14.98 mm±11.41 mm, compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline algorithm (p<0.01). Conclusions: The proposed COW algorithm is more accurate for the colon centerline registration compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline method and the dynamic time warping method. Comparison results showed that the feature combination of z-coordinate and curvature achieved lowest registration error compared to the other feature combinations used by COW. The proposed method is tolerant to centerline errors because anatomical landmarks help prevent the propagation of errors across the entire colon centerline.

  18. Hierarchical extraction of urban objects from mobile laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bisheng; Dong, Zhen; Zhao, Gang; Dai, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Point clouds collected in urban scenes contain a huge number of points (e.g., billions), numerous objects with significant size variability, complex and incomplete structures, and variable point densities, raising great challenges for the automated extraction of urban objects in the field of photogrammetry, computer vision, and robotics. This paper addresses these challenges by proposing an automated method to extract urban objects robustly and efficiently. The proposed method generates multi-scale supervoxels from 3D point clouds using the point attributes (e.g., colors, intensities) and spatial distances between points, and then segments the supervoxels rather than individual points by combining graph based segmentation with multiple cues (e.g., principal direction, colors) of the supervoxels. The proposed method defines a set of rules for merging segments into meaningful units according to types of urban objects and forms the semantic knowledge of urban objects for the classification of objects. Finally, the proposed method extracts and classifies urban objects in a hierarchical order ranked by the saliency of the segments. Experiments show that the proposed method is efficient and robust for extracting buildings, streetlamps, trees, telegraph poles, traffic signs, cars, and enclosures from mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds, with an overall accuracy of 92.3%.

  19. Removing defocused objects from single focal plane scans of cytological slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Virtual microscopy and automated processing of cytological slides are more challenging compared to histological slides. Since cytological slides exhibit a three-dimensional surface and the required microscope objectives with high resolution have a low depth of field, these cannot capture all objects of a single field of view in focus. One solution would be to scan multiple focal planes; however, the increase in processing time and storage requirements are often prohibitive for clinical routine. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we show that it is a reasonable trade-off to scan a single focal plane and automatically reject defocused objects from the analysis. To this end, we have developed machine learning solutions for the automated identification of defocused objects. Our approach includes creating novel features, systematically optimizing their parameters, selecting adequate classifier algorithms, and identifying the correct decision boundary between focused and defocused objects. We validated our approach for computer-assisted DNA image cytometry. Results and Conclusions: We reach an overall sensitivity of 96.08% and a specificity of 99.63% for identifying defocused objects. Applied on ninety cytological slides, the developed classifiers automatically removed 2.50% of the objects acquired during scanning, which otherwise would have interfered the examination. Even if not all objects are acquired in focus, computer-assisted DNA image cytometry still identified more diagnostically or prognostically relevant objects compared to manual DNA image cytometry. At the same time, the workload for the expert is reduced dramatically.

  20. Evaluation of the Rib Lesions by Bone Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung Gun; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish criteria for distinguishing between occult fracture and metastases, we have reviewed 52 records of cancer patients and 24 of rib fracture patients referred for bone scanning. In 52 patients with biopsy-proven malignancy, multiple linear increased uptake of the ribs was found in 32 cases(61.5%), and was the most common finding. In 24 patients with rib fracture, all but 1 had fecal increased uptake of the ribs, and lesions almost always aligned in a row. By analyzing the appearance of rib lesions in total 76 patients, it was concluded that there is a high probability that rib lesions detected by bone scanning are bony metastases if 1) they are multiple linear as opposed to fecal, and 2) they are not aligned in the same location

  1. A computer program for scanning transmission ion microscopy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Sun, M.D.; Yang, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    With the installation of the Scanning Proton Microprobe system at Fudan University, we are in the process of developing a three-dimension reconstruction technique based on scanning transmission ion microscopy-computed tomography (STIM-CT). As the first step, a related computer program of STIM simulation has been established. This program is written in the Visual C++[reg], using the technique of OOP (Object Oriented Programming) and it is a standard multiple-document Windows[reg] program. It can be run with all MS Windows[reg] operating systems. The operating mode is the menu mode, using a multiple process technique. The stopping power theory is based on the Bethe-Bloch formula. In order to simplify the calculation, the improved cylindrical coordinate model was introduced in the program instead of a usual spherical or cylindrical coordinate model. The simulated results of a sample at several rotation angles are presented

  2. Manipulation of magnetic Skyrmions with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a single magnetic Skyrmion in an atomic spin system under the influence of Scanning Tunneling Microscope is investigated by computer simulations solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Two possible scenarios are described: manipulation with aid of a spin-polarized tunneling current and by an electric field created by the scanning tunneling microscope. The dynamics during the creation and annihilation process is studied and the possibility to move single Skyrmions is showed.

  3. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  4. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Kyo, Chung Soo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary

  5. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Chung Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99m Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  6. Altered biodistribution of gallium-67 in a patient with multiple factors influencing iron-transport protein saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeon Young; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [College of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of a young female patient with fulminant hepatitis who showed an altered biodistribution of Ga-67, after being scanned twice at 10 month intervals. On initial scan, uptake of Ga-67 was increased in the liver, kidneys, and skeletons. Increased hepatic Ga-67 uptake may be explained by increased transferrin unbound Ga-67 that was taken up by the inflamed liver. The saturation of iron-binding proteins due to multiple transfusions may lead to increased renal and skeletal Ga-67 uptake. On follow-up scan hepatic Ga-67 uptake was markedly increased. Also increased Ga-67 uptake in the axial skeleton and normalized renal uptake were shown. The findings were consistent with iron deficiency anemia. This case demonstrates altered Ga-67 biodistribution associated with multiple transfusions, fulminant hepatitis, and iron deficiency anemia.

  7. 99mTc-MDP Three Phase Bone Scan - An Important Imaging Modality in the Diagnosis of Bone Infection in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, R.S.; Mittal, B.R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Singh, B.; Jindal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    In patients suspected to have osteomyelitis, three-phase bone scan is one of the earlier investigations to become positive. Early diagnosis helps in starting the appropriate therapy and thus reducing morbidity. A retrospective analysis of scintigraphic findings of 53 children (37 boys, 16 girls) with mean age of 7.4 years (25 days - 2 years), referred for three-phase bone scan to rule out osteomyelitis was done. The presenting signs and symptoms in all children in order of frequency were swelling of body part, guarding, fever of unknown origin. Limitation of movement of body part was the most frequent sign in infants below 6 months of age. In 32 (60.3%) of these 53 children, x-rays were normal. Eleven (20.7%) of the 53 children had normal three phase bone scan. Nine children (16.9%) had increased blood flow along with increased soft tissue tracer concentration in the involved area suggesting soft tissue inflammation / infection. Five (9.4%) children who presented with multiple abscesses over extremities with the suspicion of immunodeficiency also had positive three-phase bone scan. All these 5 children had pus culture positive for staphylococcus aureus. Four (7.5%) children had thalassemia major and were on regular blood transfusion. Three of these 4 children showed positive three-phase bone scan while in the fourth patient bone phase (3rd phase) was normal suggesting soft tissue inflammation only. One child who was a case of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and had recently finished chemotherapy also showed positive three-phase bone scan. One infant who had positive three-phase bone scan with nonspecific abnormality on chest x-ray was diagnosed to have Caffey's disease, while his other twin showed a normal bone scan. In twenty-four children (45.2%) three-phase bone scan was positive involving mostly one extremity. According to the frequency of site of involvement these were knee, elbow and ankle. Most frequent bones involved were femur followed by humerus. Staphylococcus

  8. Processing of Graphene combining Optical Detection and Scanning Probe Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Sören

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental setup tailored for robotic processing of graphene with in-situ vision based control. A robust graphene detection approach is presented applying multiple image processing operations of the visual feedback provided by a high-resolution light microscope. Detected graphene flakes can be modified using a scanning probe based lithographical process that is directly linked to the in-situ optical images. The results of this process are discussed with respect to further application scenarios.

  9. Scanning MOKE investigation of ion-beam-synthesized silicide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumarov, G.G., E-mail: ifoggg@gmail.com [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute of THE RAS, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, Kazan 420029, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan 420008, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Konovalov, D.A.; Alekseev, A.V. [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute of THE RAS, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, Kazan 420029, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Petukhov, V.Yu. [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute of THE RAS, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, Kazan 420029, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan 420008, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Zhikharev, V.A. [Kazan State Technology University, 68 Karl Marx St., Kazan 420015, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Nuzhdin, V.I.; Shustov, V.A. [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute of THE RAS, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, Kazan 420029, Tatarstan (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Fe ions with an energy of 40 keV were implanted into Si plates with the fluence varying in the range of (1.6-3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} in the external magnetic field. Scanning magnetooptical Kerr effect (MOKE) studies have shown that all samples possess uniaxial anisotropy. Both the coercive field and the anisotropy field increase with fluence. It was suggested that induced anisotropy is caused by inverse magnetostriction.

  10. Multiscale structural study using scanning X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Arima, Taka-hisa

    2016-01-01

    Correspondence between structures at the atomic- and meso-scales can be given by scanning X-ray microscopy integrated with polarized X-ray diffractometry. Symmetry is the common structural feature available across multiple hierarchies. This article introduces a symmetry evaluation technique based on polarized X-ray diffractometry and describes two embodiments: chirality domain observation and antiferromagnetic domain observation. Multiscale structural studies would play an important role in uncovering universality of hierarchical structure. (author)

  11. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  12. Detection of Myocardial Infarcts by In-Vivo Scanning using Mercurascan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrejn, B. [Research Institute for the Medical Use of Radioisotopes, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Malek, P.; Kolc, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Ratusky, J. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Kronrad, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Rez near Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic)

    1969-05-15

    A method is described in which mercurascan (a hydroxymercury derivative of fluorescein) is injected intravenously into dogs before scanning so as to detect myocardial infarction as a 'hot' area on the scan. Experiments with some 150 dogs show that myocardial ischaemia could be demonstrated by in-vivo scanning within a short period of time after administration of mercurascan. (author)

  13. Scan for sustainability in higher education 2010 [in the Netherlands]; Scan duurzaamheid ICT in hoger onderwijs 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Westrienen, G. [SURFfoundation, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    A scan among nine higher education institutions in 2010 shows that much can be gained by using sustainable ICT. The higher education can save at least 44 percent on energy use of ICT equipment at work stations and in data centers. [Dutch] Een scan in 2010 bij negen hogeronderwijsinstellingen toont dat met duurzame ICT nog veel winst is te behalen. Het hoger onderwijs kan zeker 44 procent besparen op het energieverbruik van ICT-apparatuur op werkplekken en in datacenters.

  14. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Use of Gamma Correction Pinhole Bone Scans in Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Youg Whee; Chung, Youg An; Park, Jung Mee

    2012-01-01

    99 mTc hydroxydiphosphonate (HDP) bone scanning is a classic metabolic nuclear imaging method and the most frequently performed examination. Clinically, it has long been cherished as an indispensable diagnostic screening tool and for monitoring of patients with bone, joint, and soft tissue diseases. The HDP bone scan, the pinhole scan in particular, is known for its ability to detect increased, decreased, or defective tracer uptake along with magnified anatomy. Unfortunately, however, the findings of such uptake changes are not specific in many traumatic bone disorders, especially when lesions are minute and complex. This study discusses the recently introduced gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS), emphasizing its usefulness in the diagnosis of traumatic bone diseases including occult fractures; and fish vertebra. Indeed, GCPBS can remarkably enhance the diagnostic feasibility of HDP pinhole bone scans by refining the topography, pathologic anatomy, and altered chemical profile of the traumatic diseases in question. The fine and precise depiction of anatomic and metabolic changes in these diseases has been shown to be unique to GCPBS, and they are not appreciated on conventional radiographs, multiple detector CT, or ultrasonographs. It is true that MR imaging can portray proton change, but understandably, it is a manifestation that is common to any bone disease

  17. Neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  18. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  19. Low Cost Multi-Sensor Robot Laser Scanning System and its Accuracy Investigations for Indoor Mapping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.; Li, J.; Wu, W.; Song, Y.; Dai, W.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  20. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtaran, A.; Virgolini, I.

    1994-01-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of 'cold spots' for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of 'cold spots' identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author)

  1. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  2. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtaran, A; Virgolini, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Angelberger, P [Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-10-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of `cold spots` for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of `cold spots` identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author).

  3. Time-resolved ultraviolet near-field scanning optical microscope for characterizing photoluminescence lifetime of light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Jeong, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2013-03-01

    We developed a instrument consisting of an ultraviolet (UV) near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) combined with time-correlated single photon counting, which allows efficient observation of temporal dynamics of near-field photoluminescence (PL) down to the sub-wavelength scale. The developed time-resolved UV NSOM system showed a spatial resolution of 110 nm and a temporal resolution of 130 ps in the optical signal. The proposed microscope system was successfully demonstrated by characterizing the near-field PL lifetime of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells.

  4. Assessment of breast tumor size in electrical impedance scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungwhan

    2012-01-01

    Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is a newly introduced imaging technique for early breast cancer detection. In EIS, we apply a sinusoidal voltage between a hand-held electrode and a scanning probe placed on the breast skin to make current travel through the breast. We measure induced currents (Neumann data) through the scanning probe. In this paper, we investigate the frequency-dependent behavior of the induced complex potential and show how the frequency differential of the current measurement on the scanning probe reflects the contrast in complex conductivity values between surrounding and cancerous tissues. Furthermore, we develop the formula for breast tumor size using the frequency differential of the current measurement and provide its feasibility. (paper)

  5. Gallium-67 scanning in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Maeda, Juichiro; Iwahashi, Noriaki; Tamura, Shinsuke; Hada, Toshikazu; Higashino, Kazuya

    1990-01-01

    The findings of gallium-67 scans in eleven patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were reviewed and compared to those of chest CT findings. All patients had an abnormal thoracic Ga-67 accumulation. Six out of 11 showed a diffuse accumulation over the entire involved hemithorax and a localized uptake was shown in 5. A marked diffuse thickening of pleura in the absence of adequate gallium accumulation was observed in one patient. Two out of 11 had a reduction of gallium uptake after having combination chemotherapy. These results suggest that a diffusely increased uptake over the entire involved hemithorax is the most characteristic finding of Ga-67 scan in malignant pleural mesothelioma, and that Ga-67 scans may be helpful as a valuable indicator of the proper therapy. However, the superiority of Ga-67 scan to thoracic CT as a means of determining the extent of disease process could not be verified. (author)

  6. A case of chronic subdural hematoma showing a double-loculated type on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Bin; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime; Takagi, Terumasa.

    1982-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman sustained a minor head trauma. One month later she came to the hospital complaining of right motor weakness. This slight right-sided hemiparesis almost completely improved, without surgical treatment, within several days. The same hemiparesis recurred 10 days later. A plain CT scan showed a double-loculated crescent lesion which was separated by a bandlike high-density line, over the left cerebral hemisphere. The outer crescent lesion was mixed in density, low density in the upper section and high-density in the lower portion. The inner crescent lesion was low density. Although a chronic subdural hematoma was found and evacuated at operation, fluid accumulated again 10 days later. The hematoma was thus evacuated again, and the thick neo-membranes were removed as extensively as possible. The outer most neo-membrane just under the dura mater and the intermediate neo-membrane coinciding with a high-density line on CT were in the same proliferation stage, consisting of loose connective tissue with hypertrophic fibroblasts, well-developed sinusoids, and numerous hemosiderine granules. They also showed partial calcium deposition, evidence that these neo-membranes were very old, pre-existing ones. Based on the above-mentioned facts, it was speculated that the outer hematoma was formed by a splitting of a pre-existing, old outer membrane of an inner hematoma due to multiple intra-membraneous bleedings. (J.P.N.)

  7. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  8. CT scan findings in cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaka, Fukashi; Okuda, Bungo; Okada, Masako; Okae, Shunji; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed on 5 patients with chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. CT showed solitary or multiple, amorphous, round, or oval calcifications, and ventricular enlargement in all 5 cases. A large low-density area is also found in 4 of the 5 cases. These CT findings are compatible with previously reported findings of simple X-ray films of the skull, pneumoencephalography, and pathological studies. (author)

  9. Dose profile in computed tomography chest scan; Perfil de dose em varredura de torax em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno B., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais; Mourao, Arnaldo P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Alonso, Thessa C.; Silva, Teogenes A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    For the optimization of the patient dose in computed tomography (CT), the Brazilian legislation only established the diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in terms of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD) in a typical adult as a parameter of quality control of CT scanners. Conformity to the DRL's can be verified by measuring the dose distribution in CT scans and MSAD determination. An analysis of the quality of CT scans of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte is necessary by conducting pertinent tests to the study that are presented in the ANVISA (National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance) Guide. The purpose of this study is to investigate, in a chest scan, the variation of dose in CT. To measure the dose profile are used lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 Rod) distributed in cylinders positioned in peripheral and central regions of a phantom of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The data obtained allow us to observe the variation of the dose profile inside the phantom. The peripheral region shows higher dose values than the central region. The longitudinal variation can be observed and the maximum dose was recorded at the edges of the phantom (41,58{+-}5,10) mGy at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The results will contribute to disseminate the proper procedure and optimize the dosimetry and the tests of quality control in CT, as well as make a critical analysis of the DRL's. (author)

  10. Scatter radiation breast exposure during head CT: impact of scanning conditions and anthropometric parameters on shielded and unshielded breast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasic, B. [Hospital for pulmonary diseases, Zagreb (Croatia); Knezevic, Z.; Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Brnic, Z.; Novacic, K. [Merkur Univ. Hospital, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Constantly increasing clinical requests for CT scanning of the head on our facility continue to raise concern regarding radiation exposure of patients, especially radiosensitive tissues positioned close to the scanning plane. The aim of our prospective study was to estimate scatter radiation doses to the breast from routine head CT scans, both with and without use of lead shielding, and to establish influence of various technical and anthropometric factors on doses using statistical data analysis. In 85 patient referred to head CT for objective medical reasons, one breast was covered with lead apron during CT scanning. Radiation doses were measured at skin of both breasts and over the apron simultaneously, by the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters. The doses showed a mean reduction by 37% due to lead shielding. After we statistically analyzed our data, we observed significant correlation between under-the-shield dose and values of technical parameters. We used multiple linear regression model to describe the relationships of doses to unshielded and shielded breast respectively, with anthropometric and technical factors. Our study proved lead shielding of the breast to be effective, easy to use and leading to a significant reduction in scatter dose. (author)

  11. Scatter radiation breast exposure during head CT: impact of scanning conditions and anthropometric parameters on shielded and unshielded breast dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasic, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Vekic, B.; Brnic, Z.; Novacic, K.

    2006-01-01

    Constantly increasing clinical requests for CT scanning of the head on our facility continue to raise concern regarding radiation exposure of patients, especially radiosensitive tissues positioned close to the scanning plane. The aim of our prospective study was to estimate scatter radiation doses to the breast from routine head CT scans, both with and without use of lead shielding, and to establish influence of various technical and anthropometric factors on doses using statistical data analysis. In 85 patient referred to head CT for objective medical reasons, one breast was covered with lead apron during CT scanning. Radiation doses were measured at skin of both breasts and over the apron simultaneously, by the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters. The doses showed a mean reduction by 37% due to lead shielding. After we statistically analyzed our data, we observed significant correlation between under-the-shield dose and values of technical parameters. We used multiple linear regression model to describe the relationships of doses to unshielded and shielded breast respectively, with anthropometric and technical factors. Our study proved lead shielding of the breast to be effective, easy to use and leading to a significant reduction in scatter dose. (author)

  12. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/

  13. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  14. Behind the curtain of tauopathy: a show of multiple players orchestrating tau toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    tau, a microtubule-associated protein, directly binds with microtubules to dynamically regulate the organization of cellular cytoskeletons, and is especially abundant in neurons of the central nervous system. Under disease conditions such as Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 and Alzheimer's disease, tau proteins can self-assemble to paired helical filaments progressing to neurofibrillary tangles. In these diseases, collectively referred to as "tauopathies", alterations of diverse tau modifications including phosphorylation, metal ion binding, glycosylation, as well as structural changes of tau proteins have all been observed, indicating the complexity and variability of factors in the regulation of tau toxicity. Here, we review our current knowledge and hypotheses from relevant studies on tau toxicity, emphasizing the roles of phosphorylations, metal ions, folding and clearance control underlining tau etiology and their regulations. A summary of clinical efforts and associated findings of drug candidates under development is also presented. It is hoped that a more comprehensive understanding of tau regulation will provide us with a better blueprint of tau networking in neuronal cells and offer hints for the design of more efficient strategies to tackle tau-related diseases in the future.

  15. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study on Pancreas Scanning with Selenium75-Selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Chan; Toh, Sang Hee; Ra, Woo Youn; Suh, Chul Sung

    1968-01-01

    Radiographic visualization of the pancreas is a difficult problem, but the direct visualization of the pancreas is possible by the injection of the amino-acid methionine tagged with selenium 75 (Se 75 ). In order to know the diagnostic value of pancreas scanning, scans were performed on 23 cases using selenium 75 -Selenomethionine. These cases were also given egg white, probanthine and morphine. 1) Good visualization of the pancreas scanning was observed on 19 cases, presumably with normal pancreas. 2) A case which showed diffusely decreased uptake on pancreas scanning was proven to have lesions in the bile duct and the gall bladder. 3) Of those two cases which showed localized cold area, one had pancreas cyst and the other one was not explored. 4) A case which showed no visualization of the pancreas was proven to have pancreatic carcinoma. 5) Two cases which showed widened duodenal loop by upper gastro-intestinal series revealed normal pancreas scanning, and no pancreatic disease was found in both cases.

  17. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-07-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed.

  19. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  20. SCANNING AND TRACKING MONITORING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a scanning monitoring apparatus for medical imaging, the scanning monitoring apparatus comprising a controller unit and a display, wherein the controller unit during a scanning session is configured to obtain tracking data (102) of a subject in a medical scanner, obtain scanner data ...

  1. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  2. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  3. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  4. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  5. CT scan of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, K.; Mukada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Mori, S.; Uozumi, T.

    1981-01-01

    CT scan is an extremely useful, almost harmless means of diagnosing pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas tend to have higher absorption coefficent in plain CT than the nonfunctioning and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas. The absorption coefficent on contrast-enhanced CT does not identify the specific type of adenoma. Ring-like enhancement was observed in five nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas with suprasellar extension, while cystic components were observed in four nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas. In three of ten cases of PRL-secreting microadenomas, the site corresponding to the adenoma was not enhanced, whereas the normal pituitary was. A correlation exists between the size of PRL-secreting adenoma and the serum PRL level, but not between the size of GH-secreting adenomas and the serum GH level. (orig.)

  6. Scan Order in Gibbs Sampling: Models in Which it Matters and Bounds on How Much.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bryan; De Sa, Christopher; Mitliagkas, Ioannis; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Gibbs sampling is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling technique that iteratively samples variables from their conditional distributions. There are two common scan orders for the variables: random scan and systematic scan. Due to the benefits of locality in hardware, systematic scan is commonly used, even though most statistical guarantees are only for random scan. While it has been conjectured that the mixing times of random scan and systematic scan do not differ by more than a logarithmic factor, we show by counterexample that this is not the case, and we prove that that the mixing times do not differ by more than a polynomial factor under mild conditions. To prove these relative bounds, we introduce a method of augmenting the state space to study systematic scan using conductance.

  7. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting proximity nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelier, C; Vinet, M; Lefloch, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the local density of states (LDOS) of a normal metal (N) in good electrical contact with a superconductor (S) as a function of the distance x to the NS interface. The sample consists of a pattern of alternate L = 1 mm wide strips of Au and Nb made by UV lithography. We used a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a lock-in detection technique to record simultaneously dI/dV(V,x) curves and the topographic profile z(x) at 1.5 K. We scanned along lines perpendicular to the strips. All the spectra show a dip near the Fermi energy, which spectral extension decreases from the superconducting gap Δ at the NS interface to zero at distances x >> ξ N where ξ N ≅ √hD N /2Δ ≅ 53nm is the coherence length in the normal metal. Our measurements are correctly described in the framework of the quasi-classical Green's function formalism. We numerically solved the 1D Usadel equation and extracted a decoherence time in gold of 4 ps. We also investigated the LDOS of small ridges of Au deposited on the top of the Nb lines. In this case, L ≤ ξ N and the spatial variations of the spectra depend on the exact shape of the Au ridge. However, our results are consistent with a predicted minigap related to the Thouless energy. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  8. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2014-08-05

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  9. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  10. Low-cost synthesis of pure ZnO nanowalls showing three-fold symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Mario; Strano, Vincenzina; Spinella, Corrado; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Mirabella, Salvo

    2018-04-01

    ZnO nanowalls (NWLs) represent a non-toxic, Earth abundant, high surface-to-volume ratio, semiconducting nanostructure which has already showed potential applications in biosensing, environmental monitoring and energy. Low-cost synthesis of these nanostructures is extremely appealing for large scale upgrading of laboratory results, and its implementation has to be tested at the nanoscale, at least in terms of chemical purity and crystallographic orientation. Here, we have produced pure and texturized ZnO NWLs by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) synthesis followed by a thermal treatment at 300 °C. We examined the NWL formation process and the new obtained structure at the nanoscale, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. We have shown that only after annealing at 300 °C in nitrogen does the as-grown material, composed of a mixture of Zn compounds NWLs, show its peculiar crystal arrangement. The resulting ZnO sheets are in fact made by ZnO wurtzite domains (4-5 nm) that show a particular kind of texturization; indeed, they are aligned with their own c-axis always perpendicular to the sheets forming the wall and rotated (around the c-axis) by multiples of 20° from each other. The presented data show that low-cost CBD, followed by an annealing process, gives pure ZnO with a peculiarly ordered nanostructure that shows three-fold symmetry. Such evidence at the nanoscale will have significant implications for realizing sensing or catalyst devices based on ZnO NWLs.

  11. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  12. The utility of bone scans in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.; Dorai-Raj, A.; Khoo, K.; Tymans, K.; Brook, A.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bone scans are the commonest diagnostic imaging services requested by Australian rheumatologists. Medicare figures suggest that an average rheumatologist orders about $50 000 (AUS) of bone scans annually. Aims: To ascertain the reasons why rheumatologists request bone scans and how it affects their patient management. Methods: A two-part prospective survey was administered before and after every bone scan ordered by four rheumatologists over a six-month period in 1996. Results: A total of 136 bone scans were requested (66.2% whole body; 33.8% regional; 6% SPECT). The primary indications for scanning were (1) to confirm a clinical diagnosis (38%); (2) to exclude a diagnosis (34%); (3) to localize site of pain (17%); and (4) to assist in management (6%). The common diseases that rheumatologists were attempting to confirm/exclude with bone scanning were inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. However, the commonest provisional and final diagnosis was soft tissue rheumatism (18%) followed by inflammatory arthritis (15%) and osteoarthritis (11%). In 24% of patients with a provisional diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism the diagnosis was changed by the bone scan. The scan was successful in excluding a diagnosis in 88 per cent where this was the primary indication for the test. It was successful in confirming a diagnosis in 79 per cent where this was the primary indication. In 32 per cent the bone scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 43 per cent it altered management. The bone scan result prevented further investigations in 60 per cent. Conclusions: The commonest pre-scan and post-scan diagnosis is soft tissue rheumatism. Rheumatologists predominantly request bone scanning to confirm or exclude their clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. Bone scans were successful in achieving these objectives in at least 79 per cent of cases

  13. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  14. Handbook of optical and laser scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Gerald F

    2011-01-01

    From its initial publication titled Laser Beam Scanning in 1985 to Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, now in its second edition, this reference has kept professionals and students at the forefront of optical scanning technology. Carefully and meticulously updated in each iteration, the book continues to be the most comprehensive scanning resource on the market. It examines the breadth and depth of subtopics in the field from a variety of perspectives. The Second Edition covers: Technologies such as piezoelectric devices Applications of laser scanning such as Ladar (laser radar) Underwater

  15. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Fumio; Andoh, Tadashi; Une, Koji; Takamatsu, Tsurukichi

    1981-01-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  16. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  17. Anaesthetic management of a patient with multiple system atrophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple small ischaemic foci ... Induction was done by propofol 130 mg and atracurium 25 mg. The airway was secured ... distinguished clinically by the predominant motor symptom: the.

  18. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J.; Gallegos, E.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial 'raccoon eyes'). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the 'scintigraphic raccoon eyes' sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the 'MIBG super scan'). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  19. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gallegos, E. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Fink-Bennett, D. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial `raccoon eyes`). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the `scintigraphic raccoon eyes` sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the `MIBG super scan`). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  20. Multiple purpose electrical profit; Emprendimiento electrico de prestacion multiple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assennato, H. [Electrica de Azul Ltda., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows the multiple purpose aspects of electrification projects in rural and isolated areas. The multiple aspects involved in the electrification process may include, over electric power supply: improvement of life quality, irrigation and rural mechanization. 4 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs.