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Sample records for scalp

  1. Scalp meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary extracranial meningiomas occur very rarely. We present a rare case of extracranial meningioma of the transitional variant which was excised satisfactorily. There was no suggestion of any connection to the intracranial compartment or cranial nerves. The underlying galea was uninvolved, suggesting the true extracranial nature of this tumour. This rare diagnosis should nonetheless be kept in the differential diagnosis of scalp tumors.

  2. Scalp Psoriasis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Scalp psoriasis Overview Scalp psoriasis: When psoriasis forms on the scalp, it can creep beyond the scalp. Scalp psoriasis: Overview Psoriasis (sore-EYE-ah-sis) can appear ...

  3. Scalp Psoriasis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Scalp psoriasis Overview Scalp psoriasis: When psoriasis forms on the scalp, it can creep beyond the scalp. Scalp psoriasis: Overview Psoriasis (sore-EYE-ah-sis) can appear ...

  4. Giant scalp arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Roxo, Marcelo Rosa; Camelo, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scalp are rare lesions. The clinical picture presents with complaints of increased scalp, scalp disfigurement, pain and neurological symptoms. Its origin can be congenital or traumatic. We present a case of giant scalp AVMs and its management, followed by a brief literature review on the subject. The diagnosis of scalp AVMs is based on physical examination and confirmed by internal and external carotid angiography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Surgical excision is especially effective in scalp AVMs, and is the most frequently used treatment modality.

  5. Treatment of Scalp Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John

    2017-02-01

    The scalp presents many challenges to the reconstructive surgeon given its visible nature and the various considerations that must be given for optimal reconstruction. In this article, we review the anatomy of the scalp, the various options for reconstruction, and important considerations for improving the chances of optimal reconstruction of scalp defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  7. Scales on the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old boy presented with a six-week history of scales, flaking and crusting of the scalp. He had mild pruritus but no pain. He did not have a history of atopy and there were no pets at home. Examination of the scalp showed thick, yellowish dry crusts on the vertex and parietal areas and the hair was adhered to the scalp in clumps. There was non-scarring alopecia and mild erythema (Figure 1 & 2. There was no cervical or occipital lymphadenopathy. The patient’s nails and skin in other parts of the body were normal.

  8. Scalp imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otberg, Nina; Shapiro, Jerry; Lui, Harvey; Wu, Wen-Yu; Alzolibani, Abdullateef; Kang, Hoon; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Scalp imaging techniques are necessary tools for the trichological practice and for visualization of permeation, penetration and absorption processes into and through the scalp and for the research on drug delivery and toxicology. The present letter reviews different scalp imaging techniques and discusses their utility. Moreover, two different studies on scalp imaging techniques are presented in this letter: (1) scalp imaging with phototrichograms in combination with laser scanning microscopy, and (2) follicular measurements with cyanoacrylate surface replicas and light microscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy. The experiments compare different methods for the determination of hair density on the scalp and different follicular measures. An average terminal hair density of 132 hairs cm-2 was found in 6 Caucasian volunteers and 135 hairs cm-2 in 6 Asian volunteers. The area of the follicular orifices accounts to 16.3% of the skin surface on average measured with laser scanning microscopy images. The potential volume of the follicular infundibulum was calculated based on the laser scanning measurements and is found to be 4.63 mm3 per cm2 skin on average. The experiments show that hair follicles are quantitatively relevant pathways and potential reservoirs for topically applied drugs and cosmetics.

  9. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Peerbooms, M.; van den Hurk, C.J.G.; van Os, B.; Levels, K.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Breed, W.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. Objectives: This

  10. Angiosarcoma of the Scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare and only represent about 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They arise from vascular or lymphatic endothelial cells and are most commonly located in the heart, liver, breast, and skin. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp is highly malignant and with dismal prognosis. Reported ...

  11. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    makes. This article examines how the National Museum of Denmark attempted to inform and discuss with the Danish public the museum’s decision to not exhibit scalps in their temporary exhibition on Native American culture, Powwow: We Dance, We’re Alive. Building on the new, contingent museum ethics...

  12. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Peerbooms, Mijke; van den Hurk, Corina J G; van Os, Bernadet; Levels, Koen; Teunissen, Lennart P J; Breed, Wim P M

    2015-08-01

    The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of body temperature on scalp skin temperature. We conducted experiments in which 13 healthy subjects consumed ice slurry to lower body temperature for 15 minutes after the start of scalp cooling and then performed two 12-minute cycle exercise sessions to increase body core temperature. Esophageal temperature (Tes ), rectal temperature (Tre ), mean skin temperature (eight locations, Tskin ), and mean scalp temperature (five locations, Tscalp ) were recorded. During the initial 10 minutes of scalp cooling, Tscalp decreased by >15 °C, whereas Tes decreased by 0.2 °C. After ice slurry ingestion, Tes , Tre , and Tskin were 35.8, 36.5, and 31.3 °C, respectively, and increased after exercise to 36.3, 37.3, and 33.0 °C, respectively. Tscalp was significantly correlated to Tes (r = 0.39, P scalp cooling contributes to the decrease in scalp temperature and may improve the prevention of hair loss. This may be useful if the desired decrease of scalp temperature cannot be obtained by scalp cooling systems. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  14. Neonatal scalp haematoma and necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönmeyr, Björn; Becker, Magnus; Svensson, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Birth trauma after prolonged deliveries and instrument-assisted extractions can result in skin lesions and reduced viability of the scalp. In these instances, scalp swellings and haematomas are often also seen. The classification and inter-relationship between these conditions might not, however, always be clear. This report describes three cases of neonates with scalp swellings and necrosis. Nomenclature, underlying causes, work up, treatment options, and outcomes are presented and discussed. The first case consisted of a newborn with a subgaleal haematoma and occipital pressure necrosis that healed by secondary intention. In the second case, an infected scalp haematoma led to scarring and alopecia that required secondary reconstruction with tissue expansion. The third neonate suffered from a subgaleal haematoma and a scalp lesion that required split skin grafting and secondary reconstruction with tissue expansion.

  15. 21 CFR 882.4150 - Scalp clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scalp clip. 882.4150 Section 882.4150 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4150 Scalp clip. (a) Identification. A scalp clip is a plastic or metal clip used to stop bleeding during surgery on the scalp. (b) Classification. Class II...

  16. Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Scalp Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Kim, Kwang Seog; Shin, Jun Ho; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2016-06-01

    In scalp allotransplantation, the scalp from a brain-dead donor, including hair, is transferred to a recipient with scalp defects. Opinions differ on the appropriateness of scalp allotransplantation. In order to maintain graft function and cosmetic outcomes, scalp transplantation recipients would need to receive lifelong immunosuppression treatments. The risks of this immunosuppression have to be balanced against the fact that receiving a scalp allotransplant does not extend lifespan or restore a physical function. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate risk acceptance and expectations regarding scalp allotransplantation in different populations. A questionnaire survey study was conducted. A total of 300 subjects participated; survey was conducted amongst the general public (n=100), kidney transplantation recipients (n=50), a group of patient who required scalp reconstruction due to tumor or trauma (n=50), and physicians (n=100). The survey was modified by using the Korean version of the Louisville instrument for transplantation questionnaire. Risk acceptance and expectations for scalp transplantation varied widely across the groups. Kidney transplantation recipients revealed the highest risk acceptance and expectations, whereas the physicians were most resistant to the risks of scalp transplantation. Our study demonstrates that, in specific groups, scalp allotransplantation and the need for immunosuppression carries an acceptable risk despite the lack of lifeextending benefits. Our results suggest that scalp allotransplantation can be an acceptable alternative to existing scalp reconstruction surgeries in patients with pre-existing need for immunosuppression.

  17. Actinic keratosis on the scalp (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunshine. Areas with high exposure such as the scalp (bald individuals), forearms, face, and back of the ... damaged and produces lesions like these on the scalp. The lesions, called actinic keratosis, may later become ...

  18. Scalp psoriasis, clinical presentations and therapeutic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, P. C.; de Hoop, D.; de Korte, J.; Kuipers, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    The scalp is a well-known predilection site for psoriasis. Many patients indicate that scalp psoriasis is both psychologically and socially distressing. The aim of the present investigation is to provide epidemiological data on the various manifestations of scalp psoriasis, as well as on its

  19. Granuloma faciale of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Inês; Moreira, Ana; Guedes, Rita; Furtado, Antónia; Ferreira, Eduarda Osório; Baptista, Armando

    2011-04-15

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon dermatosis with characteristic clinicopathological features. Extrafacial isolated GF is extremely rare. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is a treatment option for GF to minimize the risk of scarring. We report a case of a 78-year-old male with an extensive GF of the scalp successfully treated with pulsed dye laser (PDL).

  20. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Rončević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  1. The Itchy scalp - scratching for an explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    saif, Ghada A. Bin; Ericson, Marna E.; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Scalp pruritus is a common complaint that is considered a diagnostically and therapeutically challenging situation. Scalp skin has a unique neural structure that contains densely innervated hair follicles and dermal vasculature. In spite of the recent advances in our understanding of itch pathophysiology, scalp itching has not been studied as yet. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the neurobiology of scalp and hair follicles as well as itch mediators and provide a putative mechanism for scalp itch with special emphasis on neuroanatomy and pathophysiology. PMID:22092575

  2. Sonography in pathologies of scalp and hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Matsuoka, L; Saavedra, T; Mardones, F; Saavedra, D; Guerrero, R; Corredoira, Y

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of the scalp often result in severe cosmetic interference with quality of life, creating the need for optimal medical surveillance. We tested the latest generation of ultrasound machines in patients with scalp pathology and prepared a cross-sectional library encompassing a wide assortment of conditions. Normative data on the sonographic anatomy of scalp and human hair, and important methodological considerations, are also included. PMID:22253348

  3. Sequestrated meningocele of the scalp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A. E-mail: alorainy@ksu.edu.sa

    2001-11-01

    A case of occipital sequestrated (rudimentary) meningocele in a 2-year-old girl is presented. The swelling was noticed at birth and did not grow over time. The skull radiograph showed no bone defect and ultrasound and computed tomography examinations demonstrated cystic mass with no connection to dura. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of radiology literature readers to this entity and to elaborate on the role of imaging in the preoperative assessment of such cases. The relation of sequestrated meningocele to the other conditions with ectopic meningeal tissue in the scalp is addressed.

  4. Scalp Psoriasis vs. Seborrheic Dermatitis: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does a doctor tell the difference between scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from ... such as pitting. Compare signs and symptoms Scalp psoriasis Red skin covered with flakes and silvery scales ...

  5. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  6. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, M M C; Smorenburg, C H; Nortier, J W R; van der Ploeg, T; van den Hurk, C J G; van der Hoeven, J J M

    2016-12-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached by scalp cooling to prevent CIA are lacking. This study investigated the relation between scalp skin temperature and its efficacy to prevent CIA. In this explorative study, scalp skin temperature was measured during scalp cooling in 62 breast cancer patients undergoing up to six cycles of anthracycline containing chemotherapy. Scalp skin temperature was measured by using two thermocouples at both temporal sides of the head. The primary end-point was the need for a wig or other head covering. Maximal cooling was reached after 45 min and was continued for 90 min after chemotherapy infusion. The scalp skin temperature after 45 min cooling varied from 10 °C to 31 °C, resulting in a mean scalp skin temperature of 19 °C (SEM: 0,4). Intrapersonal scalp skin temperatures during cooling were consistent for each chemotherapy cycle (ANOVA: P = 0,855). Thirteen out of 62 patients (21%) did not require a wig or other head covering. They appeared to have a significantly lower mean scalp skin temperature (18 °C; SEM: 0,7) compared to patients with alopecia (20 °C; SEM: 0,5) (P = 0,01). The efficacy of scalp cooling during chemotherapy is temperature dependent. A precise cut-off point could not be detected, but the best results seem to be obtained when the scalp temperature decreases below 18 °C. TRIALREGISTER. 3082. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dandruff, Cradle Cap, and Other Scalp Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. Most of the time, using a dandruff shampoo can help control your dandruff. If that does ... your baby's hair every day with a mild shampoo and gently rubbing their scalp with your fingers ...

  8. IMPORTANCE OF THE TRICHOSCOPY IN SCALP DYSESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bibiana Leroux

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The trichoscopy has been incorporated as a first hand method in patients consulting for scalp problems. Magnifying glass or digital microscope that permit the direct visualization of the hair shaft and the perifolicullar skin are utilized to diagnose cicatricial and non-cicatricial alopecia. A female patient with an alopecia plaque associated with a scalp dysesthesia in which trichoscopy was very useful in its diagnosis is presented.

  9. Scalp dysesthesia related to cervical spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornsberry, Laura A; English, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Scalp dysesthesia is characterized by abnormal sensations of the scalp in the absence of any other unusual physical examination findings. The pathogenesis of this condition is unknown but has been reported in the setting of underlying psychiatric disorders. Other localized pruritic syndromes, including brachioradial pruritus and notalgia paresthetica, have been associated with pathologic conditions of the spine and have been successfully treated with gabapentin. Among 15 women identified in a retrospective review of medical records as having been seen with scalp dysesthesia, 14 patients had cervical spine disease confirmed by imaging. The most common finding on imaging was degenerative disk disease, with 10 of 14 patients having these changes at C5-C6. Other abnormal imaging findings included anterolisthesis, osteophytic spurring, lordosis, kyphosis, and nerve root impingement. A gabapentin regimen (topical or oral) had been recommended to 14 patients; of 7 patients who were followed up, 4 patients noted improvement in symptoms when taking gabapentin. Patients with scalp dysesthesia also had abnormal cervical spine images. Chronic muscle tension placed on the pericranial muscles and scalp aponeurosis secondary to the underlying cervical spine disease may lead to the symptoms of scalp dysesthesia.

  10. Benchmarking for On-Scalp MEG Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Minshu; Schneiderman, Justin F; Chukharkin, Maxim L; Kalabukhov, Alexei; Riaz, Bushra; Lundqvist, Daniel; Whitmarsh, Stephen; Hamalainen, Matti; Jousmaki, Veikko; Oostenveld, Robert; Winkler, Dag

    2017-06-01

    We present a benchmarking protocol for quantitatively comparing emerging on-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor technologies to their counterparts in state-of-the-art MEG systems. As a means of validation, we compare a high-critical-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (high Tc SQUID) with the low- Tc SQUIDs of an Elekta Neuromag TRIUX system in MEG recordings of auditory and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) on one human subject. We measure the expected signal gain for the auditory-evoked fields (deeper sources) and notice some unfamiliar features in the on-scalp sensor-based recordings of SEFs (shallower sources). The experimental results serve as a proof of principle for the benchmarking protocol. This approach is straightforward, general to various on-scalp MEG sensors, and convenient to use on human subjects. The unexpected features in the SEFs suggest on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal information about neuromagnetic sources that is otherwise difficult to extract from state-of-the-art MEG recordings. As the first systematically established on-scalp MEG benchmarking protocol, magnetic sensor developers can employ this method to prove the utility of their technology in MEG recordings. Further exploration of the SEFs with on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal unique information about their sources.

  11. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.M.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Nortier, J.W.; Ploeg, T. van der; Hurk, C.J. van den; Hoeven, J.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached

  12. The relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Francis-Paul E.M.; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Gerard M.J.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.

    2007-01-01

    Cooling the scalp during administration of chemotherapy can prevent hair loss. It reduces both skin blood flow and hair follicle temperature, thus affecting drug supply and drug effect in the hair follicle. The extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the hair preservative effect of scalp

  13. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.

  14. Total Scalp Replantation: Surgical Tricks and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Serdar; Karaaltin, Mehmet; Erdem, Adnan

    2015-06-01

    Two patients were successfully operated on for total scalp avulsions. Ages were between 11 and 35 years, and both patients were female. Bilateral temporal artery and veins were used as the recipient pedicles. Interpositional vein graft harvested from the left forearm was used in 1 patient. No nerve repair was performed. The scalp was successfully replanted in both cases. Venous congestion and arterial insufficiency were observed in 1 patient. Successful revision of the vascular anastomosis was performed. Total necrosis of the upper helical rim was observed in 1 patient. A mean size of 3 × 3 cm of tissue necrosis was observed in the occipital region of all patients. One patient was treated with split-thickness skin grafting, whereas the other one was left for secondary healing. The "replace like tissue with like tissue" represents the philosophy in replantation surgery. Although reconstructive surgeries imply advanced surgical methods, scalp replantation remains the only ideal surgical modality to create an embellishing natural-looking hair-bearing scalp. In this article, we present some tricks and pitfalls of total avulsed scalp replantation as well as our skills and literature review.

  15. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  16. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  17. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of Musa sp cv. Tanduk. SMA Elhory, MA Aziz, AA Rashid, AG Yunus. Abstract. A prolific plant regeneration system using scalps derived from shoot tips of Musa spp. cv. Tanduk was developed. Highly proliferating scalps, produced after four monthly subcultures ...

  18. Treatment of paediatric scalp psoriasis with calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: effectiveness, safety and influence on children's quality of life in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, A.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Donders, A.R.T.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Seyger, M.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on efficacy and safety of topical treatments for paediatric scalp psoriasis is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation for paediatric scalp psoriasis in daily clinical practice.

  19. Scalp melanoma after anti hair loss mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenbergerova, M; Arenberger, P; Gkalpakiotis, S; Dahmen, R A; Sticova, E; Fialova, A

    2017-11-14

    Scalp melanoma comprises 3-5% of all cutaneous melanomas. The median age of the patients is 53 years and males are more frequently affected. The scalp melanomas tend to have nodular histology with a higher mitotic rate (>3/mm) and poorer prognosis (1). The risk factors for development of this tumor are still not defined but UV light and baldness may play a significant role (2-4). Mesotherapy is a non-surgical procedure currently being used to combat hair loss and promote hair growth. Usually a mixture of vitamins, minerals, growth factors, DHT blockers and/or stem cells extracts is injected into the dermal layer of skin (5,6). Although it is a widely used method, the safety profile of this procedure hasn't been studied yet (7,8). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Scalp abscess--a cautionary tale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora F

    2010-08-01

    Transcranial extension of frontal sinus infection is a rare, but not eradicated entity. We present a 21-year-old male, in whom a persistent scalp abscess heralded the discovery of skull vault osteomyelitis and extradural abscesses secondary to frontal sinusitis. Patients with prolonged or unusual symptoms with a history of sinusitis or trauma warrant further investigation as they may have developed serious intracranial complications. Urgent management, both surgical and antimicrobial, is indicated in such scenarios.

  1. [Treatment of autism with scalp acupunctur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuo; Jin, Bing-Xu; Li, Jie-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Huan

    2011-08-01

    To verify the efficacy on autism treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice in children. Seventy cases of child autism were divided into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In observation group, the cases were treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice, in combination with music therapy and structure education method. Scalp acupuncture was applied to intelligent nine needles (frontal five needles, Sishencong (EX-HN 1)), affection area, heart and liver area, once a day, at the interval once every one week. Totally, 60 treatments made one session. In control group, music therapy and structure education method were applied simply. Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, Childhood Autism Behavior Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Gesell Developmental Scale (social adaptive behaviors and language development) were adopted to assess the scores before treatment and after 1 session of treatment. After treatment, the scores in Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, CARS and ABC were lower apparently in observation group as compared with those before treatment (all P Autism Behavior Scale and ABC were lower than those in control group (both P Autism Behavior Scale, ABC and social adaptive development scale did not present statistical significance in group comparison before and after treatment (all P > 0.05). Scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice can significantly improve the efficacy on autism, effectively relieve child autism symptoms and enhance the intelligence, language ability and social adaptive ability. Moreover, the efficacy cannot be impacted by child's age.

  2. The role of full thickness scalp resection for management of primary scalp melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannucci, Christopher J.; Collar, Ryan M.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bradford, Carol R.; Rees, Riley S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Scalp melanoma is aggressive and has a proclivity for regional metastasis. We hypothesize that subperiosteal scalp melanoma resection reduces in-transit/satellite recurrence, when compared to subgaleal resection. METHODS We identified patients with intermediate to deep, primary scalp melanoma referred to head/neck surgery over an eight-year period. Patients were compared based on scalp resection depth, including subperiosteal (resection to the level of calvarium) and subgaleal (resection including skin, subcutaneous tissue, and galea). The dependent variables were in-transit/satellite recurrence and time to in-transit/satellite recurrence. RESULTS Among 48 identified patients, the in-transit/satellite recurrence rate was 16.7%. Subgaleal resection patients had higher in-transit/satellite recurrence rates than subperiosteal resection patients (24.0% vs. 8.7%, p=0.155). Among node-negative patients, subgaleal resection had significantly higher in-transit/satellite metastasis rates when compared to subperiosteal resection (26.3% vs. 0%, p=0.047). CONCLUSION For node-negative, primary scalp melanoma, subperiosteal resection significantly decreases in-transit/satellite recurrence when compared to subgaleal resection. Given our small sample size, further studies are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:21734540

  3. Review of Clinical Applications of Scalp Acupuncture for Paralysis: An Excerpt From Chinese Scalp Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Linda Lingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Chinese scalp acupuncture is a contemporary acupuncture technique integrating traditional Chinese needling methods with Western medical knowledge of representative areas of the cerebral cortex. It has been proven to be a most effective technique for treating acute and chronic central nervous system disorders. Scalp acupuncture often produces remarkable results with just a few needles and usually brings about immediate improvement, sometimes taking only several seconds to a minute. Acupuncture, a therapeutic technique of Oriental Medicine, can be traced back more than 2500 years. Throughout its long history, acupuncture has evolved as its own unique traditional medicine. By embracing newly developed knowledge and technology, the profession continues to create additional methods of treatment. Techniques such as electrical and laser acupuncture and even new acupuncture points are currently being developed. We believe scalp acupuncture, which integrates Western medicine with Traditional Chinese Medicine, to be the most significant development that Chinese acupuncture has made in the past 60 years. PMID:24278807

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of fetal scalp lactate for intrapartum acidosis compared with scalp pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Mancho, Jara; Marti Gamboa, Sabina; Redrado Gimenez, Olga; Crespo Esteras, Raquel; Rodriguez Solanilla, Belen; Castan Mateo, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of fetal scalp lactate sampling (FSLS) and to establish an optimal cut-off value for intrapartum acidosis compared with fetal scalp pH. A 20-month retrospective cohort study was conducted of all neonates delivered in our institution for whom fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) was performed, matching their intrapartum gasometry to their cord gasometry at delivery (n=243). The time taken from the performance of scalp blood sampling to arterial umbilical cord gas acquisition was 45 min at most. Five arterial cord gasometry patterns were set for assessing the predictive ability of both techniques. Subsequent obstetric management for a pathological value was analysed considering the use of both techniques. The optimal cut-off value for FSLS was 4.8 mmol/L: this value has 100% sensitivity and 63% specificity for umbilical arterial cord gas pH≤7.0 and base deficit (BD)≥12 detection, and 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity for umbilical arterial cord gas pH≤7.10 and BD≥12 detection, with a false negative rate of scalp pH performance. FSLS showed the best area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 and 0.84 for both arterial cord gasometry patterns, respectively. Expedite birth following lactate criteria would have been the same as following pH criteria (92 obstetric interventions) with no cases of missed metabolic acidosis. In the cohort, 19.8% of cases were discordant, but no cases of metabolic acidosis were in this group. FSLS improves the detection of metabolic acidosis via fetal scalp pH with an optimal cut-off value of 4.8 mmol/L. FSLS can be used without increasing obstetrical interventions or missing metabolic acidosis.

  5. Scalp cooling: management option for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen

    Chemotherapy is increasingly being administered as a treatment for cancer and with it are a number of possible side effects. One, which has a negative impact on a patient's quality of life and their self-esteem, is that of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). A side effect of which, for some, could be prevented by the use of scalp cooling, dependent on the regimen being administered and patient choice. This article explores the issue of CIA from the patient's perspective and scalp cooling as a preventative measure, along with a review of the evidence around the risk associated with developing scalp metastases following scalp cooling. It also discusses why scalp cooling should be available for both male and female patients; along with the potential impact scalp cooling may have on clinical areas delivering chemotherapy.

  6. Scalp Metastases of Recurrent Meningiomas: Aggressive Behavior or Surgical Seeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecillas-Chasin, Josue M; Saceda-Gutierrez, Javier; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Garcia-Pumarino, Ruben; Issa, Subhi; López, Escarlata; Barcia, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Scalp metastases of meningiomas seldom have been reported. Here, we report a series of 4 cases of this rare event and discuss the relevant potential risk factors. We performed a retrospective review of patients treated for scalp metastases of meningiomas at our institution. A literature review was performed for the terms "scalp meningioma," "cutaneous meningioma," "skin meningioma," "extracranial meningioma," and "subcutaneous meningioma." Four patients showed scalp metastases of recurrent meningiomas with the following associated clinical features: multiple reoperations (n = 4), immunosuppression (n = 2), radiation therapy (n = 3), surgical wound complications with cerebrospinal fluid fistula (n = 2), and histologic grade progression (n = 2). The timescale for development of scalp metastasis was between 5 months and 13 years after intracranial meningioma surgery. In all cases, the metastases were located close to the surgical scalp incision for the craniotomy. Previously, 11 cases of meningioma with scalp metastasis, with similar features to those described here, were reported in the literature. Spreading of meningioma cells during surgery is a possible mechanism for scalp metastases of recurrent meningiomas. Factors associated with scalp metastases include reoperations, immunosuppression, radiation therapy, torpid course of the surgical wound with cerebrospinal fluid fistula, and histologic progression. Awareness of these features is advisable for neurosurgeons involved in the care of patients with similar profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dermoscopic Findings of Scalp Aplasia Cutis Congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Leandro; Aguiar, Fernanda Musa; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Miteva, Mariya I; Pinto, Giselle Martins

    2017-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare disease characterized by congenital absence of skin, affecting preferentially the scalp. Diagnosis is made clinically; however, recent studies have shown that dermoscopy can be a useful tool for the diagnosis and differentiation from sebaceous nevus. The clinical findings include a shiny atrophic alopecic patch associated with dermoscopic findings of absent follicular openings, thicker vessels and a distinct collar hypertrichosis. We report 2 cases of alopecia presenting from birth. At dermoscopy, the absence of follicular openings and the increase in the caliber of vessels led us to establish the diagnosis of ACC.

  8. Lung cancer revealed by multiple metastases of the scalp | Fetohi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin metastases of lung cancer are rare. They are symptoms of progressive disease and usually a sign of a poor prognosis. We report a case of 69-years-old man with no significant medical history, never smoker, which consulted a dermatologist for scalp nodules that appeared for more than 16 months in the scalp and ...

  9. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of Musa sp ... include the panama disease or Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense and the black sigatoka (Myco- ... This paper describes prolific shoot regeneration from scalps of Musa sp. cv. Tanduk.

  10. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp. A chronic recalcitrant dermatosis developed upon CO2 laser treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tavares-Bello, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis that mostly affects elderly patients, who develop erosions, pustulation, crusting and scarring on the scalp...

  11. Sparse asynchronous cortical generators can produce measurable scalp EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Dan, Jonathan; Frauscher, Birgit; Gotman, Jean

    2016-09-01

    We investigate to what degree the synchronous activation of a smooth patch of cortex is necessary for observing EEG scalp activity. We perform extensive simulations to compare the activity generated on the scalp by different models of cortical activation, based on intracranial EEG findings reported in the literature. The spatial activation is modeled as a cortical patch of constant activation or as random sets of small generators (0.1 to 3cm(2) each) concentrated in a cortical region. Temporal activation models for the generation of oscillatory activity are either equal phase or random phase across the cortical patches. The results show that smooth or random spatial activation profiles produce scalp electric potential distributions with the same shape. Also, in the generation of oscillatory activity, multiple cortical generators with random phase produce scalp activity attenuated on average only 2 to 4 times compared to generators with equal phase. Sparse asynchronous cortical generators can produce measurable scalp EEG. This is a possible explanation for seemingly paradoxical observations of simultaneous disorganized intracranial activity and scalp EEG signals. Thus, the standard interpretation of scalp EEG might constitute an oversimplification of the underlying brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of total scalp avulsion by an advanced microsurgical method involving the subcutaneous tissue suspension by the tight suture of scalp tissue around anastomotic stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Minfeng; Chen, Li; Xu, Lei; Rui, Yongjun; Gu, Yudong

    2015-03-01

    Total scalp avulsion is a rare but challenging surgical trauma to manage. This study reports 8 cases of total scalp avulsion between 2001 and 2008. In all these cases, the patients were subjected to vascular replantation of the scalp. Microvascular technique after the debridement was used for scalp replantation in all these patients. Study outcome was that between 2001 and 2004, only 1 case had shown major scalp revival and scalp survival whereas in 3 other cases, the scalp survival failed. This may be attributed to the poor microscopic anastomosis. However, between 2005 and 2008, scalp survival was reported in all the cases, which was chiefly due the advanced microsurgical method adopted. In this advanced microsurgical technique, the subcutaneous tissue was suspended by the tight suture of scalp tissue around the anastomotic stoma, which resulted in scalp survival in all the cases. Microsurgical scalp replantation is an effective treatment for scalp avulsion. The key to the successful scalp replantation is high-quality vascular anastomosis involving subcutaneous tissue suspension via the tight suture of scalp tissue around the anastomotic stoma careful debridement.

  13. Scalp hyperkeratosis and alopecia in children of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Marcelyn K; Bhanusali, Dhaval G; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Alexis, Andrew F; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2011-05-01

    Scalp hyperkeratosis and/or alopecia are common pediatric dermatologic findings. In Caucasian children, scalp hyperkeratosis of childhood is most often associated with atopic and seborrheic dermatides. Recent data is lacking on the clinical meaning of scalp hyperkeratosis and alopecia in children of color. To determine diagnosis associated with scalp hyperkeratosis and/or alopecia in a predominately Black and Hispanic pediatric patient population. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all children (0-17 years of age) seen at our institution who had a scalp fungal culture for the evaluation of scalp hyperkeratosis and/or alopecia from January 2007 to September 2009. Fungal culture was performed using cotton swab technique, plating onto Sabouraud's and Mycosel media. Demographic features, fungal culture results, clinical symptoms, physical findings and final diagnosis were reviewed. 164 children were identified who were eligible for inclusion in the study, 75 of whom were Black and 56 Hispanic/Latino. Scalp hyperkeratosis was noted in 106 patients and alopecia was noted in 71 subjects. Tinea capitis was the final diagnosis in 50 out of 80 children who had hyperkeratosis without alopecia (60%), 16 of 43 children with alopecia alone (37.2%) and 23 of 28 children with both hyperkeratosis and alopecia (82.1%, P=0.0007). The odds ratio of tinea capitis in the presence of hyperkeratosis with alopecia was 7.49 with a 95 percent confidence limit of 2.19-25.70. Scalp hyperkeratosis, especially when accompanied by alopecia, is usually associated with tinea capitis in Black and Hispanic children. Fungal culture and empirical anti-fungal therapy are warranted in children of color with scalp hyperkeratosis.

  14. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  15. Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff Therapy Using a Herbal and Zinc Pyrithione-based Therapy of Shampoo and Scalp Lotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Green, Lawrence J

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an herbal and zinc pyrithione shampoo and a scalp lotion (Kamedis Derma-Scalp Dandruff Therapy, Kamedis Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel) for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Design: This was an interventional, open-label, safety and efficacy study. Setting: This open-label study was conducted at Consumer Product Testing Company Inc. in Fairfield, New Jersey. At the baseline visit (Day 0), an examination of the scalp was conducted by a board-certified dermatologist. The entire scalp was evaluated for evidence of seborrheic dermatitis using the Adherent Scalp Flaking Score with a 10-point scale. Only subjects with evidence of moderate-to-greater seborrheic dermatitis or moderate-to-greater dandruff were deemed qualified for inclusion in the study. Participants: Fifty subjects were recruited and included in the study. Measurements: Study subjects were evaluated by the same dermatologist for erythema and flaking at Days 0, 14, 28, and 42 using a five-point scale for each parameter. At each time point, a total severity score was calculated based on the findings of the evaluations. Following the scalp evaluation, each subject had a standardized digital photograph taken of his or her scalp. Each subject was also asked to answer a satisfaction questionnaire regarding the product treatment enhancement and characteristics. Results: A reduction in both parameters evaluated was seen at all time points. Statistical significance was achieved at each time point when compared with the baseline visit. In addition, the subjects expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment. No adverse events were reported during this study. Conclusion: The study showed that the herbal zinc pyrithione shampoo and scalp lotion provided improvement in the main symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis.

  16. Lasting depression in corticomotor excitability associated with local scalp cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, François; Remaud, Anthony; Mekonnen, Abeye; Gholami-Boroujeny, Shiva; Racine, Karl-Édouard; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we investigated the effect of local scalp cooling on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS). Participants (healthy male adults, n=12) were first assessed with TMS to derive baseline measure of excitability from motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using the right first dorsal interosseous as the target muscle. Then, local cooling was induced on the right hemi-scalp (upper frontal region ∼ 15 cm(2)) by means of a cold wrap. The cooling was maintained for 10-15 min to get a decrease of at least 10°C from baseline temperature. In the post-cooling period, both scalp temperature and MEPs were reassessed at specific time intervals (i.e., T0, T10, T20 and T30 min). Scalp surface temperatures dropped on average by 12.5°C from baseline at T0 (pscalp temperature with lasting changes in corticomotor excitability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  18. Body to scalp: Evolving trends in body hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  19. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  20. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with a Familial Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShehri, Waleed; AlFadil, Sara; AlOthri, Alhanouf; Alabdulkarim, Abdulaziz O; Wani, Shabeer A; Rabah, Sari M

    2016-01-01

    Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC) is a condition characterized by congenital absence of skin, usually on the scalp. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or in the presence of other congenital anomalies. Here we describe a case of a 16-day-old baby girl with an isolated ACC of the scalp. Her elder two siblings have been diagnosed with ACC with concomitant cardiac or limb anomalies. The patient was managed conservatively until the defect has formed scar tissue 6 months later.

  1. Congenital skull defect and neurofibroma: without scalp and other abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Cong; Wei, Liu; Xu, Jia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gui, Lai

    2012-07-01

    Congenital skull defect is a rare malformation that is usually associated with congenital anomalies of the scalp and comparable lesions in the brain, spinal cord, limbs, and skeletal muscle. Most previously reported cases have described skull defects with aplasia cutis congenita and other congenital abnormalities. Very few patients with skull defects present with an intact scalp or neurofibroma. The authors report an adult patient with a rare congenital skull defect and local neurofibroma.

  2. Managing Scalp Psoriasis: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Shun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2017-02-01

    Scalp psoriasis is commonly the initial presentation of psoriasis, and almost 80 % of patients with psoriasis will eventually experience it. Although several systematic reviews and guidelines exist, an up-to-date evidence-based review including more recent progress on the use of biologics and new oral small molecules was timely. Of the 475 studies initially retrieved from PubMed and the 845 from Embase (up to May 2016), this review includes 27 clinical trials, four papers reporting pooled analyses of other clinical trials, ten open-label trials, one case series, and two case reports after excluding non-English literature. To our knowledge, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted specifically in scalp psoriasis. Topical corticosteroids provide good effects and are usually recommended as first-line treatment. Calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate is well tolerated and more effective than either of its individual components. Localized phototherapy is better than generalized phototherapy on hair-bearing areas. Methotrexate, cyclosporine, fumaric acid esters, and acitretin are well-recognized agents in the treatment of psoriasis, but we found no published RCTs evaluating these agents specifically in scalp psoriasis. Biologics and new small-molecule agents show excellent effects on scalp psoriasis, but the high cost of these treatments mean they may be limited to use in extensive scalp psoriasis. More controlled studies are needed for an evidence-based approach to scalp psoriasis.

  3. Scalp reconstruction: an algorithmic approach and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shaun C; Sand, Jordan P; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Branham, Gregory; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of the scalp after acquired defects remains a common challenge for the reconstructive surgeon, especially in a patient with a history of radiation to the area. To review the current literature and describe a novel algorithm to help guide the reconstructive surgeon in determining the optimal reconstruction from a cosmetic and functional standpoint. Pertinent surgical anatomy, considerations for patient and technique selection, reconstructive goals, as well as the reconstructive ladder, are also discussed. A PubMed and Medline search was performed of the entire English literature with respect to scalp reconstruction. Priority of review was given to those studies with higher-quality levels of evidence. Size, location, radiation history, and potential for hairline distortion are important factors in determining the ideal reconstruction. The tighter and looser areas of the scalp play a major role in the potential for primary or local flap closure. Patients with medium to large defects and a history of radiation will likely benefit from free tissue transfer. Ideal reconstruction of scalp defects relies on a comprehensive understanding of scalp anatomy, a full consideration of the armamentarium of surgical techniques, and a detailed appraisal of patient factors and expectations. The simplest reconstruction should be used whenever possible to provide the most functional and aesthetic scalp reconstruction, with the least amount of complexity. NA.

  4. Using Feily's method prevented scalp necrosis in three patients incline to the scalp recipient necrosis; what is new in prevention of scalp necrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feily, Amir; Feily, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Serious complications arising from surgical hair restoration are relatively uncommon following well-performed and well-planned surgery by skillful surgical techniques, good communication, and postoperative follow-up. Surgical complications often categorized as those which occur in the donor site and the recipient site. In this paper among recipient area complication we focused on recipient area necrosis that arises when an increased number of recipient grafts are utilized and de-vascularization of the scalp occurs as a result of the large wound area due to the dense packing splitting of recipient skin. Recently, Feily et al. explained an interesting method to prevent development of recipient area necrosis following a hair transplant procedure. Herein we reported three cases of dense hair transplantation using the Feilys method that after slitting they troubled by unusual long lasting dark areas on the scalp and they need more than 24 hr's patience for prevention of scalp necrosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of a Scalp Cooling Device on Alopecia in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: The SCALP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Julie; Wang, Tao; Osborne, Cynthia; Niravath, Polly; Otte, Kristen; Papish, Steven; Holmes, Frankie; Abraham, Jame; Lacouture, Mario; Courtright, Jay; Paxman, Richard; Rude, Mari; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Osborne, C Kent; Rimawi, Mothaffar

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were enrolled from December 9, 2013, to September 30, 2016. One interim analysis was planned to allow the study to stop early for efficacy. Data reported are from the interim analysis. This study was conducted at 7 sites in the United States, and 182 women with breast cancer requiring chemotherapy were enrolled and randomized. Participants were randomized to scalp cooling (n = 119) or control (n = 63). Scalp cooling was done using a scalp cooling device. The primary efficacy end points were successful hair preservation assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale (grade 0 [no hair loss] or grade 1 [scalp cooling and control groups. Only adverse events related to device use were collected; 54 adverse events were reported in the cooling group, all grades 1 and 2. There were no serious adverse device events. Among women with stage I to II breast cancer receiving chemotherapy with a taxane, anthracycline, or both, those who underwent scalp cooling were significantly more likely to have less than 50% hair loss after the fourth chemotherapy cycle compared with those who received no scalp cooling. Further research is needed to assess longer-term efficacy and adverse effects. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01986140.

  6. [Scalp penetration acupuncture for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhang-ling; Shi, Xian; Li, Shao-dan; Guan, Ling

    2010-02-01

    Insomnia has become a threat to public health, and acupuncture has shown an advantage in treatment of insomnia with good efficacy and few side effects. To observe the therapeutic effects of scalp penetration acupuncture for insomnia. A total of 70 insomnia cases meeting inclusion criteria from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army were randomly divided into routine acupuncture group and scalp penetration acupuncture group. There were 32 cases in the scalp penetration acupuncture group, and 34 cases in the routine acupuncture group, for four cases lost to follow-up. The insomnia patients were all treated for four weeks. The therapeutic effects, cumulative scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and contents of sleep architecture were compared before and after treatment in the two groups. The total response rate of 90.6% in the scalp penetration acupuncture group was higher than 73.5% in the routine acupuncture group (Pefficiency in the scalp penetration acupuncture group were superior to those in the routine acupuncture group (Pacupuncture group significantly increased as compared with those in the routine acupuncture group (Pacupuncture are better than those of routine acupuncture, especially for improving sleep quality, sleep time and sleep efficiency.

  7. Management of aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Georgina; Solanki, Nicholas S; Anderson, Peter J; Carney, Bernard; Snell, Broughton J

    2012-11-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare condition commonly affecting the scalp in which there is a focal deficiency of cutaneous tissues of varying severity ranging from an absence of skin through to full thickness defects involving deeper elements such as bone and dura. Lesions of the scalp can be associated with complications including infection, hemorrhage, thrombosis, and seizures. Opinions in the current literature regarding management of this condition are varied with both conservative and surgical management advocated. Conservative treatment consists of regular wound dressings and systemic antibiotics, while surgical management commonly involves skin grafting and local flaps. A retrospective case review was performed to audit the outcomes of patients with ACC of the scalp managed at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH) in Adelaide, Australia from 2002 to 2012. Cases were identified from admission coding diagnoses and data was retrieved from patient case notes. Seventeen cases of ACC were identified. The most common location involved was the scalp vertex. Thirteen patients were managed conservatively and 4 had primary surgical intervention. Of the cases that were managed with primary surgery, 2 had complications. None of the conservatively managed patients had complications in the acute setting. At the WCH, we advocate adopting a conservative approach to management of ACC of the scalp. Defects can be successfully managed with a combination of regular dressings and systemic antibiotics. Regular wound monitoring is essential to detect any complications early to instigate appropriate treatment and determine the need for emergency surgical management.

  8. Sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Luke; Relic, John

    2016-08-01

    In this article we describe a 39-year-old man who presented with non-scarring non-scalp alopecia of his limbs as the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. A literature review has found only one other example of sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia in an area other than the scalp in a patient who was otherwise asymptomatic. Several reported cases have described scarring alopecia of the scalp, which is the area of skin most commonly affected by sarcoidosis. There has been one documented case of sarcoidosis manifesting as total body non-scarring alopecia in a patient who had systemic symptoms of sarcoidosis. Other cases have presented rare cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis but in all these cases several other organ systems have been involved, and the patient has had systemic symptoms on presentation or the cutaneous presentation did not include non-scalp non-scarring alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Multifocal scalp abscess with subcutaneous fat necrosis and scarring alopecia as a complication of scalp mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadry, Razan; Hamadah, Issam; Al-Issa, Abdullah; Field, Lawrence; Alrabiah, Fahad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the treatment method termed mesotherapy. Marketed for nonsurgical fat melting, skin rejuvenation, and hair regrowth, this technique has become increasingly popular and, in the public's view, it is considered to be a relatively benign intervention method. Mesotherapy was introduced over 50 years ago by M. Pistor, a French physician who utilized this technique initially as a novel analgesic therapeutic method for a variety of rheumatologic disorders. Since its introduction, the basic principal of locally injecting subcutaneous doses of varying chemicals has been expanded and is now utilized for the aforementioned cosmetic concerns. With its increased popularity, there has been an increase in the number of reported side effects resulting from mesotherapeutic intervention. We report multifocal scalp abscesses with subcutaneous fat necrosis as a direct result of mesotherapy; therefore, requiring extensive surgical repair.

  10. Ultrasonography of Midline Scalp Masses : A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Kyeong Sook; Jung, Seung Mun; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We report our ultrasonographic experiences in the evaluation of small midline scalp masses. Ultrasonography was performed in four patients with midline scalp mass less than 3cm and its connecting tract into the cranialcavity. Ultrasonographic findings were correlated with pathologic results. There were three cephaloceles and one cystic lymph angioma. Two encephalomenin-goceles, located in occipital region, were mixed cystic and solid lesions and one atretic meningocele in parietal region was a solid lesion. Ultrasonogram of all three cases showed calvarial defect and connecting tract into the cranial cavity. On the contrary, a cystic lymph angioma in occipital region was a purely cystic mass without an associated calvarial defect. We suppose that ultrasonography could be a useful screening tool in the evaluation of midline scalp masses

  11. Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Scalp arterio-venous malformation (AVM and scalp venous malformation (SVM are rare conditions that usually need surgical treatment. Here, we have reported our experience of the surgical management of such lesions with a short review of the literature. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 11 patients with scalp AVM and SVM, who underwent surgical excision of lesion in our hospital from 2006 to 2012, were included. All suspected high-flow AVM were investigated with the selective internal and external carotid digital subtraction angiogram (DSA ± computed tomography (CT scan of brain with CT angiogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain with MR angiogram, and all suspected low-flow vascular malformation (VM was investigated with MRI of brain + MR angiogram. Eight were high-flow and three were low-flow VM. Results: All lesions were successfully excised. Scalp cosmetic aspects were acceptable in all cases. There was no major post-operative complication or recurrence till last follow-up. Conclusions: With preoperative appropriate surgical planning, scalp AVM and SVM can be excised without major complication.

  12. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with a Familial Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed AlShehri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC is a condition characterized by congenital absence of skin, usually on the scalp. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or in the presence of other congenital anomalies. Here we describe a case of a 16-day-old baby girl with an isolated ACC of the scalp. Her elder two siblings have been diagnosed with ACC with concomitant cardiac or limb anomalies. The patient was managed conservatively until the defect has formed scar tissue 6 months later.

  13. Reconstruction of face and scalp after dog bites in children

    OpenAIRE

    MACEDO,JEFFERSON LESSA SOARES; ROSA,SIMONE CORRÊA; QUEIROZ,MURILO NEVES DE; GOMES,TABATHA GONÇALVES ANDRADE CASTELO BRANCO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the immediate reconstruction of face and scalp after canine bites in children. Methods: we conducted a prospective series of cases treated at the Emergency Unit of the Asa Norte Regional Hospital, Brasília - DF, from January 1999 to December 2014. At the time of patient admission to the emergency, the primary wound closure of the face and scalp bite was performed, regardless of the time or day of the event. The primary treatment of the bites was by means of d...

  14. Multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehders Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of skin metastases are rare events in the course of a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC and usually indicate advanced tumor stages. The scalp is the most affected area of these metastases. Case presentation We present a case of a 76 year old Woman with multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular carcinoma. These metastases had been resected and wounds had been closed with mesh graft. The 14-months follow up is presented. Conclusion We demonstrate another case with multicentric form. Because of its location and size a primary wound closure was not possible. A healing could be reached using vacuum therapy and mesh graft transplantation.

  15. Two cases of giant pyogenic granuloma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Satish Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is a benign vascular tumor of unknown etiology, though multiple factors play a role in its onset, e.g., trauma, chronic irritation, drugs etc., It is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Giant pyogenic granuloma is its atypical variant. We are presenting two cases of giant pyogenic granuloma, one, in a 28-year-old adult, presenting as a giant fluffy swelling of scalp and the other in a 11-year-old child, presenting as a giant ulcerated globular swelling of the scalp.

  16. Long-term management of scalp psoriasis: perspectives from the International Psoriasis Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragballe, K.; Menter, A.; Lebwohl, M.; Tebbey, P.W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2013-01-01

    The scalp is a well-known predilection site for psoriasis. Epidemiological data on the various manifestations of scalp psoriasis as well as on its therapeutic management are sparse. The understanding of the natural course of scalp psoriasis is relevant for its therapeutic management. In over 25% of

  17. Significant one week efficacy of a calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemec, G.B.; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Enevold, A.; Ganslandt, C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A two-compound scalp formulation containing calcipotriol (50 mug/g) and betamethasone (0.5mg/g; as dipropionate) (Xamiol, Taclonex Scalp) has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of

  18. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Breed, W.P.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Nortier, J.

    2013-01-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease

  19. Reconstruction of scalp defects with the radial forearm free flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced and recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp and forehead require aggressive surgical excision often resulting in complex defects requiring reconstruction. This study evaluates various microvascular free flap reconstructions in this patient population, including the rarely utilized radial forearm free flap. Patients and methods A retrospective review of patients undergoing free flap surgeries (n = 47) of the scalp between 1997 and 2011 were included. Patients were divided primarily into two cohorts: a new primary lesion (n = 21) or recurrence (n = 26). Factors examined include patient demographics, indication for surgery, defect, type of flap used, complications (major and minor), and outcomes. Results The patients were primarily male (n = 34), with a mean age of 67 years (25–91). A total of 58 microvascular free flap reconstructions were performed (radial forearm free flap: n = 28, latissimus dorsi: n = 20, rectus abdominis: n = 9, scapula: n = 1). Following reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap, duration of hospitalization was shorter (P = 0.04) and complications rates were similar (P = 0.46). Donor site selection correlated with defect area (P scalp are aggressive and challenging to treat. The radial forearm free flap is an underutilized free flap in the reconstruction of complex scalp defects. PMID:22583845

  20. Blindness and scalp haematoma in a child following a snakebite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Snakebite is associated with lifelong morbidity. Ocular manifestations must be treated as emergency. This case highlights the effect of ignorance and poverty in a setting of a common medical emergency leading to blindness and reduced quality of life. Keywords: snakebite, blindness, scalp haematoma, child ...

  1. Reconstruction of face and scalp after dog bites in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEFFERSON LESSA SOARES MACEDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the immediate reconstruction of face and scalp after canine bites in children. Methods: we conducted a prospective series of cases treated at the Emergency Unit of the Asa Norte Regional Hospital, Brasília - DF, from January 1999 to December 2014. At the time of patient admission to the emergency, the primary wound closure of the face and scalp bite was performed, regardless of the time or day of the event. The primary treatment of the bites was by means of direct suture, flaps rotation or grafting, depending on the type of wound and surgeon's decision. Results: the study comprised 146 children, with the zygomatic region and scalp being the main sites of head bites. All patients received surgical treatment within the first 24 hours after admission. There were no infectious complications in the cases studied. Conclusion: the findings suggest that the immediate closure of canine bites on the face and scalp in children is safe, even when carried out several hours after injury.

  2. Reconstruction of face and scalp after dog bites in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Jefferson Lessa Soares; Rosa, Simone Corrêa; Queiroz, Murilo Neves DE; Gomes, Tabatha Gonçalves Andrade Castelo Branco

    2016-12-01

    to evaluate the immediate reconstruction of face and scalp after canine bites in children. we conducted a prospective series of cases treated at the Emergency Unit of the Asa Norte Regional Hospital, Brasília - DF, from January 1999 to December 2014. At the time of patient admission to the emergency, the primary wound closure of the face and scalp bite was performed, regardless of the time or day of the event. The primary treatment of the bites was by means of direct suture, flaps rotation or grafting, depending on the type of wound and surgeon's decision. the study comprised 146 children, with the zygomatic region and scalp being the main sites of head bites. All patients received surgical treatment within the first 24 hours after admission. There were no infectious complications in the cases studied. the findings suggest that the immediate closure of canine bites on the face and scalp in children is safe, even when carried out several hours after injury.

  3. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various surve...

  4. Atopic dermatitis of the face, scalp, and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Poulsen, L K; With, H

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that a lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale (P. ovale) produced a high frequency of positive skin prick tests and in vitro histamine-release (HR) tests in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) of the face, scalp, and neck. In the present study, our aim...

  5. Opioid consumption after levobupivacaine scalp nerve block for craniosynostosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardey Bracho, Gilda F; Pereira de Souza Neto, Edmundo; Grousson, Sébastien; Mottolese, Carmine; Dailler, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Craniosynostosis surgery is considered a very painful procedure due to extended scalp and periosteal detachment, and is associated with prolonged postoperative consumption of opioids and their side effects. In this observational descriptive case series study, we investigated perioperative opioid consumption in children undergoing craniosynostosis repair under general anesthesia when scalp nerve block with levobupivacaine was involved. After standard anesthesia induction, scalp nerve block with levobupivacaine 2 mg/kg plus epinephrine 1:800,000 was performed. Hemodynamic parameters and opioid consumption were noted. Patients were monitored in the recovery room. Requirements of additional analgesia, indicated by the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) pain score of >9, and incidence of side effects (sedation, nausea, and vomiting) were recorded during the first 24 hours. A total of 32 patients were recruited in this study; 88% of them needed morphine rescue in the recovery room because they had high CHEOPS scores. Trigonocephaly was the most frequent type of craniosynostosis (37.5%), requiring 50% more opioids in the postoperative period than other forms of craniosynostosis. Scalp nerve block can be proposed as a complement to the routine craniosynostosis anesthetic protocol, because it is easy to perform, seems to reduce the need for supplementary opioids during the perioperative period, and can reduce the risk of developing acute opioid tolerance and chronic pain. In the event of trigonocephaly or craniofacial reconstruction, a complementary infraorbital nerve block can be added. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 251. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair- ... on genes and/or prenatal hormone environments influenc- ing the neuronal circuitry on which sexual preference is ... This assessment was reinforced by the dearth of females and children on the beach. More importantly,.

  7. Quantifying variation in human scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Tina; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shaw, Colin N

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of quantitative methods of measuring variation in scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation and carry out exploratory data analysis on a limited sample of individuals from diverse populations in order to inform future avenues of research for the evolution of modern human hair variation. Cross-sectional area and shape and average curvature of scalp hair fibers were quantified using ImageJ. Pigmentation was analyzed using chemical methods estimating total melanin content through spectrophotometric methods, and eumelanin and pheomelanin content through HLPC analysis of melanin-specific degradation products. The initial results reinforced findings from earlier, traditional studies. African and African Diaspora scalp hair was significantly curled, (East) Asian hair was significantly thick, and European hair was significantly lighter in color. However, pigmentation analyses revealed a high level of variability in the melanin content of non-European populations and analysis of curvature found a large range of variation in the average curvature of East African individuals. Overall, these results suggest the usefulness of chemical methods for the elucidation of nonperceptible differences in scalp hair color and highlight the need for improvements in our assessment and understanding of hair fiber curvature. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:341-352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Blindness and scalp haematoma in a child following a snakebite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Snake envenomation is a major public health problem of the Savannah regions of West Africa. Ocular man- ... Methods: A report of scalp haematoma and blindness in a 10 year old child presenting 2 weeks after a snake bite (pre- sumably .... Pre-event: Health education to correct myths that snakebites ...

  9. Primary cutaneous melanoma of the scalp: Patterns of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David S; Read, Tavis; Lonne, Michael; Barbour, Andrew P; Wagels, Michael; Bayley, Gerard J; Smithers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    Patients with primary melanoma of the scalp have been reported to have worse disease-related outcomes compared with other anatomical regions. There are few studies in the literature specifically addressing recurrence patterns and treatment outcomes for primary scalp melanoma as a discrete anatomical sub-region. We sought to identify key features adversely influencing disease control and survival and to clarify the role of resection plane, margin, and method of reconstruction in the management of this disease process. A retrospective clinical study of medical records was performed evaluating all patients with primary melanoma of the scalp treated at two hospitals in southeast Queensland between 2004 and 2014. A total of 107 patients were eligible for analysis. There were 46 recurrences in 38 patients in the cohort accounting for a recurrence rate of 35.5%. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% with 12 in-transit metastases after diagnosis. Regional and distant recurrence rates were 12.1% and 15%, respectively. At a median follow up of 30.5 months, disease-free survival was 47% and overall survival was also 47%. On multi-variate analysis, the deeper resection plane (sub-galeal) had a lower disease-free survival rate compared with the supra-galeal resection plane (P = 0.032). Our results support the hypothesis that primary scalp melanoma represents a unique aggressive subcategory with high rates of in-transit disease and poor disease-related and survival outcomes. There is a need for robust prospective comparative studies to address the significance of resection plane in the management of patients with scalp melanoma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aplasia cutis congenita--plastic reconstruction of three scalp and skull defects with two opposed scalp rotation flaps and split thickness skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, S M; Horch, R E; Ganslandt, O; Schroth, M; Dragu, A; Bach, A D; Kneser, U

    2009-06-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital defect of skin and subcutaneous tissue, more rarely of periosteum, skull and dura. The lesions can involve any location, but most common are scalp defects. We report on the successful treatment of three large defects of the scalp with skull involvement in a newborn girl by early debridement and defect closure with two opposed scalp rotation flaps and an occipital split-thickness skin graft.

  11. Simple flaps for reconstruction of pediatric scalp defects after electrical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makboul Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the management of high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp in our hospital. Methods: This study involved 10 patients who suf-fered from high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp. Scalp reconstruction was done by different modalities ac-cording to the size and location of the defect. Results: Complete flap viability was achieved in all the cases. We had one case of gapped wound which was managed only by dressing. Widening of the scar was found in 2 cases. Conclusion: Rotation, advancement and transposi-tion scalp flaps are used for reconstructing scalp defects caused by electrical burn. The choice of ideal flaps for re-construction depends upon the size and site of scalp defect. Key words: Burns, electric; Scalp; Reconstructive surgical procedures; Surgical flaps; Skull

  12. Aplasia cutis congenita: Two cases of non-scalp lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulezz, Tarek A.; Shalkamy, Mahmoud A.

    2009-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare condition characterized by a localized absence of skin and in some cases, the subcutaneous tissues. The majority of cases occur in the scalp; however, the lesion may occur anywhere in the trunk and extremities. ACC is most often an isolated defect, but it can be associated with other anomalies. Most reported cases are sporadic with a few reports of familial occurrence. Neither the pathogenesis nor the aetiology is clarified. Healing is spontaneous in most cases, and apart from keeping the lesion clean, no specific treatment is required. In this report, two cases of non-scalp ACC occurring in the lower limbs are presented and a brief review of the literature is conducted. PMID:20368873

  13. Aplasia cutis congenita: Two cases of non-scalp lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulezz Tarek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC is a rare condition characterized by a localized absence of skin and in some cases, the subcutaneous tissues. The majority of cases occur in the scalp; however, the lesion may occur anywhere in the trunk and extremities. ACC is most often an isolated defect, but it can be associated with other anomalies. Most reported cases are sporadic with a few reports of familial occurrence. Neither the pathogenesis nor the aetiology is clarified. Healing is spontaneous in most cases, and apart from keeping the lesion clean, no specific treatment is required. In this report, two cases of non-scalp ACC occurring in the lower limbs are presented and a brief review of the literature is conducted.

  14. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  15. Radio-induced malignancies of the scalp (34 cases)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalej, M.; Ben Youssef, A.; Hajji, M.; Ben Attia, A.; Ben Abdallah, M. (Salah Azaiz Inst., Tunis (TN))

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-four radio-induced malignancies of the scalp following irradiation for tinea capitis are reported. Patient age at the time of the discovery of the malignancy varies from 20 to 83. Basocellular carcinomas (24 cases) and spinocellular carcinomas (5 cases) are the most common: two other cases of annexial tumors, two malignant non-hodgkin's lymphomas and one malignant melanoma are also present. The average age at irradiation is 11, and the cancerization interval is 35 years. In 60% of the cases, the scalp appeared normal and in 40 more or less severe radiodermitis is noted. Radiotherapy was used in the treatment of these cancers in 32 cases; only two patients had surgical exicision alone. Out of the evaluable patients, 6 developed local and/or nodal recurrence, 5 of which were recovered with surgery.

  16. Detecting Epileptic Seizure from Scalp EEG Using Lyapunov Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  17. Comparison of suture types in the closure of scalp wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonham, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Innovation in practice can benefit patients and healthcare providers but must be evidence based. This article describes a quantitative study of whether absorbable sutures are as beneficial as non-absorbable sutures in the management of simple scalp lacerations in adults. The results suggest that absorbable sutures can provide the same cosmetic and functional results as non-absorbable sutures. Their use can also reduce patient returns and save money and resources.

  18. Scalp psoriasis associated with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista N. Larson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalp psoriasis is a very common dermatological condition with a variety of presentations, but only rarely presents as severe alopecia. We present a case of a 50-year-old female with many years of recalcitrant hair loss that was thought to be secondary to central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia which was later diagnosed as psoriasis. This case highlights an interesting presentation and rare complication of a common disease.

  19. [Scalp acupuncture for epileptiform discharges of children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Liu, Zhenhuan; Zhao, Wenjian; Jin, Bingxu; Li, Nuo; Luo, Guanjun

    2017-03-12

    To explore the effect of scalp acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy whose video-electroencephalogram(VEEG) showed epileptiform discharges. A total of 184 children with cerebral palsy whose VEEG showed epileptiform discharges or those combined with epilepsy were randomly assigned into a combination group (99 cases) and a rehabilitation group (85 cases). All the cases were treated with the original antiepileptic drugs. The conventional physical training and massage were applied in the rehabilitation group for 3 courses with 20 d at the interval, once a day, 5 times a week and 15 times as one course. Based on the treatment as the rehabilitation group, scalp acupuncture was used in the combination group for 3 courses with 15 d at the interval, once the other day and 10 times as one course. Shenting (GV 24), Benshen (GB 13), Sishencong (EX-HN 1) were selected as the main acupoints, combined with motor zone, foot motor-sensory area, balance zone,and temple-three-needle etc. Clinical onset and VEEG results were observed before and after treatment. After treatment in the combination group, 27 cases improved; 47 cases had no effect; 25 cases aggravated. While in the rehabilitation group, 11 cases improved; 46 cases had no effect; 28 cases aggravated. There was no statistically significance between the two groups ( P >0.05). As for the cases with epilepsy onset in the combination group, 8 cases improved; 4 cases had no effect; 4 cases aggravated. In the rehabilitation group, 4 cases had no effect; 7 cases aggravated. The result in the combination group was better than that in the rehabilitation group ( P 0.05). Scalp acupuncture therapy does not increase the risk of onset or epileptiform discharges in the children with cerebral palsy combined with epilepsy or epileptiform discharges. Scalp acupuncture combined with rehabilitation is better than simple rehabilitation for thosewith cerebral palsy and epilepsy onset.

  20. Scalp simulation - A novel approach to site-specific biomechanical modeling of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittar, N; Winter, T; Falland-Cheung, L; Tong, D; Waddell, J N

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the hardness of the human scalp in vivo in order to identify an appropriate scalp simulant, from a range of commercially available silicone materials, for force impact assessment. Site-dependent variation in scalp hardness, and the applicability of contemporary skin simulants to the scalp were also considered. A Shore A-type durometer was used to collected hardness data from the scalps of 30 human participants (five males and five females in each of the three age categories: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50) and four commercially available silicones (light, medium, and heavy-bodied PVS, and duplication silicone). One-sample t-tests were used to compare the mean hardness of simulants to that of the scalp. Site-dependent variation in the hardness of the scalp was assessed using a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Mean human scalp hardness derived from participants was 20.6 Durometer Units (DU; SD = 3.4). Analysis revealed only the medium-bodied PVS to be an acceptable scalp simulant when compared to the mean hardness of the human scalp (p = 0.869). Scalp hardness varied significantly anteroposteriorly (with an observable linear trend, p < 0.001), but not mediolaterally (p = 0.271). Comparisons of simulants to site-specific variation in scalp hardness anteroposteriorly found the medium-bodied PVS to be only suitable in the central region of the scalp (p = 0.391). In contrast, the duplication silicone (p = 0.074) and light-bodied PVS (p = 0.147) were only comparable to the posterior region. Contemporary skin simulants fail to accurately represent the scalp in terms of hardness. There is strong support for the use of medium-bodied PVS as a scalp simulant. Human scalp hardness varies significantly anteroposteriorly, but not mediolaterally, corresponding to regional anatomical variation within the scalp. A number of materials were identified as potential simulants for different regions of the scalp when more site-specific simulant research is required

  1. Radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Treatment outcomes of total scalp irradiation with X-rays and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Masaharu; Koike, Izumi; Kasuya, Takeo; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Wada, Hidefumi [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Yokohama City University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi [Yokohama Minami Kyousai Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Odagiri, Kazumasa [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yokohama Municipal Citizen' s Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Wide surgical excision is the standard treatment for angiosarcoma of the scalp, but many patients are inoperable. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Seventeen patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp underwent radiation therapy with total scalp irradiation. Four patients had cervical lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases. A median initial dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered to the entire scalp. Subsequently, local radiation boost to the tumor sites achieved a median total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Fourteen of the 17 patients developed recurrences during the median follow-up period of 14 months after radiation therapy; 7 had recurrences in the scalp, including primary tumor progression in 2 patients and new disease in 5, and 12 patients developed distant metastases. The primary progression-free, scalp relapse-free, and distant metastasis-free rates were 86, 67, and 38 % at 1 year and 86, 38, and 16 % at 3 years, respectively. Thirteen patients died; the overall and cause-specific survival rates were both 73 % at 1 year and 23 and 44 % at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 16 months. There were no therapy-related toxicities ≥ grade 3. Total scalp irradiation is safe and effective for local tumor control, but a dose of ≤ 50 Gy in conventional fractions may be insufficient to eradicate microscopic tumors. For gross tumors, a total dose of 70 Gy, and > 70 Gy for tumors with deep invasion, is recommended. (orig.) [German] Umfangreiche chirurgische Exzision ist die Standardbehandlung fuer Angiosarkome der Kopfhaut, aber viele Patienten sind nicht operierbar. Daher haben wir die Ergebnisse einer Strahlenbehandlung fuer Angiosarkome der Kopfhaut untersucht. Insgesamt 17 Patienten mit Angiosarkom der Kopfhaut erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung der gesamten Kopfhaut. Vier Patienten hatten zervikale Lymphknotenmetastasen, aber keine Fernmetastasen. Die gesamte Kopfhaut

  2. [PLASTIC SURGERY OF SCALP AND FACIAL PLEXIFORM NEUROFIBROMAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Muxin; Qiang, Jinghong; Li, Yangqun; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Ning; Wang, Weixin; Xu, Lisi; Feng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the plastic surgical treatment and the way to reduce hemorrhage for scalp and facial plexiform neurofibromas. Between July 2004 and July 2013, 20 patients with scalp and facial plexiform neurofibromas (17 cases of neurofibromatosis type I and 3 cases of plexiform neurofibroma) were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 males and 11 females with an average age of 37 years (range, 18-56 years). The disease duration ranged from 8 to 56 years (mean, 19 years). The scalp was involved in 6 cases, the face in 7 cases, and both the scalp and face in 7 cases. The extent of involvement ranged from 4 cm x 3 cm to 15 cm x 13 cm. Obvious pigmentation was seen in 2 cases. Endovascular embolization was performed before surgical intervention in 4 cases. Preliminary sutures around the lesion were carried out in 18 cases having an involved range over 5 cmx5 cm. One-stage excision was performed in 17 cases, and two-stage excision in 3 cases. Wound repair and facial orthopedic treatment were performed after tumor excision. The intraoperative blood loss was 100-500 mL (mean, 300 mL) for patients undergoing single operation. For 3 patients undergoing two-stage excision, the blood loss of the first operation was 500, 600, and 800 mL respectively, and the blood loss of the second operation was all 50 mL. Autologous blood transfusion of 200, 400, and 400 mL was performed in 3 cases respectively. The preliminary sutures were removed at 3-7 days (mean, 5 days) after operation. All the incisions healed primarily without secondary hemorrhage and hematoma, and the flap and skin graft survived totally. Fifteen patients were followed up 1 year to 7 years (mean, 2.5 years). All patients showed significant improvement in appearance. No significant progression, expanding, and sagging were observed. Endovascular embolization and preliminary sutures around the lesion can be used to reduce hemorrhage in resection of plexiform neurofibroma in the scalp and

  3. The use of scalp cooling for chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Annie; Arif, Azra

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is a common and distressing side effect of cancer therapy and is one of the major unmet challenges in cancer management. Scalp cooling can prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss in some cancer patients with solid tumours receiving certain chemotherapy regimens. Recent evidence indicates that this technique does not increase the risk of scalp metastasis. A reduction in post-chemotherapy infusion duration of scalp cooling and the advancement in cool cap technology may assist clinicians in promoting scalp cooling to cancer patients. This article discusses recent research, scalp cooling guidelines, products available and implications for nurses and their organisations in providing scalp cooling. It also considers recent advancements in identifying genes associated with chemotherapy-induced hair loss and international research collaborations including a registry and a 'chemotherapy-induced hair loss action group'--all striving to improve the patient experience of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

  4. Significant one week efficacy of a calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G.B.E.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Enevold, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A two-compound scalp formulation containing calcipotriol (50 μg/g) and betamethasone (0.5 mg/g; as dipropionate) (Xamiol, Taclonex Scalp) has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy...... of the two-compound scalp formulation after 1 week of treatment. Methods Pooled data from two large pivotal phase III trials with 2920 patients receiving once-daily treatment for up to 8 weeks with either the two-compound scalp formulation (n = 1108), betamethasone dipropionate (n = 1118), calcipotriol (n...... = 558), or the vehicle (n = 136) were analysed. Results The percentage of patients who had 'absent' or 'very mild' disease according to Investigator's Global Assessment after 1 week of treatment was significantly higher with the two-compound scalp formulation (30.6%) compared to betamethasone (24.1%; P...

  5. [Application of Halo-vest head ring in replantation of total scalp avulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Lin; Lizhi, Wu; Yuhua, Guo; Tianhao, Zhang; Shilin, Gu; Cheng, Wang; Zhongyi, Chen; Haixiao, Chen

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Halo-vest head ring in the treatment of replantation of total scalp avulsion. We treated 11 cases of total scalp avulsion with the anastomosis of arteriovenous vessels and Halo-vest head ring from December 2006 to February 2015. One patient's replanted scalp got necrosis because of serious contusion which was healed without hair growth after free skin graft and dressing. All the scalp flaps in the other 10 patients survived. After 3-96 months follow-up, the wound completely healed, the scalp and hair grew well with satisfactory appearance. The use of Halo-vest head ring for replantation of total scalp avulsion can effectively improve the survival rate and survival area.

  6. Scalp Dose Evaluation According Radiation Therapy Technique of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joon Yung; Park, Soo Yun; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Opposing portal irradiation with helmet field shape that has been given to a patient with brain metastasis can cause excess dose in patient's scalp, resulting in hair loss. For this reason, this study is to quantitatively analyze scalp dose for effective prevention of hair loss by comparing opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy designed to protect patient's scalp with conventional radiation therapy. Scalp dose was measured by using three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO) after five thermo-luminescence dosimeters were positioned along center line of frontal lobe by using RANDO Phantom. Scalp dose and change in dose distribution were compared and analyzed with DVH after radiation therapy plan was made by using Radiation Treatment Planning System (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System, USA) and 6 MV X-ray (Clinac 6EX, VARIAN, USA). When surface dose of scalp by using thermo-luminescence dosimeters was measured, it was revealed that scalp dose decreased by average 87.44% at each point in MLC technique and that scalp dose decreased by average 88.03% at each point in TOMO compared with HELMET field therapy. In addition, when percentage of volume (V95%, V100%, V105% of prescribed dose) was calculated by using Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) in order to evaluate the existence or nonexistence of hotspot in scalp as to three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO), it was revealed that MLC technique and TOMO plan had good dose coverage and did not have hot spot. Reducing hair loss of a patient who receives whole brain radiotherapy treatment can make a contribution to improve life quality of the patient. It is expected that making good use of opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy to protect scalp of a patient based on this study will reduce hair loss of a patient.

  7. Scalping Surgery – Dermatologic Indications beyond Curative Primary Skin Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin tumours are among the most frequent tumour types of mankind. In the case of large tumours, field cancerization, or satellitosis scalping surgery is a possible option. The procedure can also be used in a palliative setting with tumour debulking. Less common indications are multiple benign tumours of the scalp and chronic inflammatory scalp dermatoses not responding to medical treatment. We present a case series and discuss surgical modalities beyond curative surgery of primary skin cancer.

  8. Ex-vivo measurement of scalp follicular infundibulum delivery of zinc pyrithione and climbazole from an anti-dandruff shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Ji, Chengdong; Miao, Miao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Yajun; Hoptroff, Michael; Collins, Luisa Z; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2017-09-05

    Efficient delivery of anti-dandruff (AD) actives into the scalp follicular infundibulum as well as onto the scalp surface is critical for the efficacy of AD shampoos. A method involving scalp cyanoacrylate (CA) biopsy sampling, a tailor made cutting device, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement and Raman imaging has been developed for the measurement of delivery of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) from an AD shampoo into the scalp follicular infundibulum. Scalp CA biopsy enables the sampling of ZPT and CBZ delivered into the scalp follicular infundibula as well as onto the scalp surface. Raman imaging of scalp CA biopsy samples allows the visualization of the spatial distribution of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp. A tailor made cutting device enables the separation of the scalp follicular infundibulum sample (20μm below the scalp surface) from the scalp surface samples (including top 20μm of infundibula). UHPLC-MS/MS was used as a sensitive and specific methodology enabling the quantification of ZPT and CBZ without interference. Using this method, both ZPT and CBZ were successfully quantified and spacially visualized within the scalp follicular infundibulum, after scalp was washed with an AD shampoo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of failure and predictors of outcome in cutaneous malignant melanoma of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakedis, Breanne E; Anker, Christopher J; Leachman, Sancy A; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Bowen, Glen M; Sause, William T; Grossmann, Kenneth F; Bowles, Tawnya L; Noyes, R Dirk; Hitchcock, Ying J; Boucher, Kenneth M; Shrieve, Dennis C

    2014-03-01

    Patients with melanoma of the scalp may have higher failure (recurrence) rates than melanoma of other body sites. We sought to characterize survival and patterns of failure for patients with scalp melanoma. Between 1998 and 2010, 250 nonmetastatic patients underwent wide local excision of a primary scalp melanoma. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate overall survival, scalp control, regional neck control, distant metastases-free survival, and disease-free survival. Five-year overall survival was 86%, 57%, and 45% for stages I, II, and III, respectively, and 5-year scalp control rates were 92%, 75%, and 63%, respectively. Five-year distant metastases-free survival for these stages were 92%, 65%, and 45%, respectively. Of the 74 patients who recurred, the site of first recurrence included distant disease in 47%, although 31% recurred in the scalp alone. This is a retrospective review. Distant metastases-free survival and overall survival for stage II and III patients with scalp melanoma are poor, and stage III patients experience relatively high rates of scalp failure suggesting that these patients may benefit from additional adjuvant systemic and local therapy. Further research is needed to characterize the environmental, microenvironmental, and genetic causes of the increased aggressiveness of scalp melanoma and to identify more effective treatment and surveillance methods. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust Detection of Dynamical Change in Scalp EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailey, P.C.; Hively, L.M.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1999-06-28

    We present a robust, model-independent technique for measuring changes in the dynamics underlying nonlinear time-serial data. We define indicators of dynamical change by comparing distribution functions on the attractor via L{sub 1}-distance and X{sup 2} statistics. We apply the measures to scalp EEG data with the objective of capturing the transition between non-seizure and epileptic brain activity in a timely, accurate, and non-invasive manner. We find a clear superiority of the new metrics in comparison to traditional nonlinear measures as discriminators of dynamical change.

  11. Blindness and scalp haematoma in a child following a snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katibi, Oludolapo Sherifat; Adepoju, Feyiyemi Grace; Olorunsola, Benedict Oluwasesan; Ernest, Samuel Kolade; Monsudi, Kehinde Fasasi

    2015-09-01

    Snake envenomation is a major public health problem of the Savannah regions of West Africa. Ocular manifestations of snakebites are rare with few reports documenting blindness as a complication. To highlight an unusual manifestation of snake bites and its attendant problems. A report of scalp haematoma and blindness in a 10 year old child presenting 2 weeks after a snake bite (presumably carpet viper) is a rare manifestation. Local swelling, epistaxis, bilateral proptosis, exposure keratopathy and use of traditional eye medications were associated findings. Anti-venom though administered late saved the child's life but blindness could not be reversed. Ocular ultrasonography revealed layered retrobulbar collection in the left eye, presumably due to hemorrhage. The skull x-ray showed a soft tissue swelling and aspirate from scalp swelling was bloody. Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) scan done late detected no abnormalities. Snakebite is associated with lifelong morbidity. Ocular manifestations must be treated as emergency. This case highlights the effect of ignorance and poverty in a setting of a common medical emergency leading to blindness and reduced quality of life.

  12. Bimatoprost for the treatment of eyelash, eyebrow and scalp alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Hernández, Yevher Lorena; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    Alopecia is a common condition observed among people of all ages. It is a disorder that can involve only the scalp as observed in androgenetic alopecia or scalp and body as in alopecia areata or patients under chemotherapy treatment. There are several treatment options with different safety and efficacy outcomes. Bimatoprost, a synthetic prostamide F2α analog originally approved for the treatment of ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma, is now FDA approved as a 0.03%, solution to be applied once daily to increase eyelashes growth. Areas covered: In this review, the authors evaluate the role of bimatoprost in idiopathic hypotrichosis of the eyelashes, in hypotrichosis of the eyelashes associated to chemotherapy, in alopecia areata of the eyelashes and eyebrows and in androgenetic alopecia. In addition, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of bimatoprost are discussed. Expert opinion: Bimatoprost will likely be the third FDA approved weapon in the fight against hair loss. Prostaglandin analogs are the only possible treatment for hypotrichosis and alopecia of the eyelashes regardless of its etiology. Eyebrow hypotrichosis due to alopecia areata or frontal fibrosis alopecia can also possibly benefit of these medications.

  13. Negligible Motion Artifacts in Scalp Electroencephalography (EEG) During Treadmill Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Kevin; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Recent mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) techniques based on active electrode scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allow the acquisition and real-time analysis of brain dynamics during active unrestrained motor behavior involving whole body movements such as treadmill walking, over-ground walking and other locomotive and non-locomotive tasks. Unfortunately, MoBI protocols are prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts, including motion artifacts that may contaminate the EEG recordings. A few attempts have been made to quantify these artifacts during locomotion tasks but with inconclusive results due in part to methodological pitfalls. In this paper, we investigate the potential contributions of motion artifacts in scalp EEG during treadmill walking at three different speeds (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 km/h) using a wireless 64 channel active EEG system and a wireless inertial sensor attached to the subject's head. The experimental setup was designed according to good measurement practices using state-of-the-art commercially available instruments, and the measurements were analyzed using Fourier analysis and wavelet coherence approaches. Contrary to prior claims, the subjects' motion did not significantly affect their EEG during treadmill walking although precaution should be taken when gait speeds approach 4.5 km/h. Overall, these findings suggest how MoBI methods may be safely deployed in neural, cognitive, and rehabilitation engineering applications.

  14. Negligible motion artifacts in scalp electroencephalography (EEG during treadmill walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eNathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI techniques based on active electrode scalp electroencephalogram (EEG allow the acquisition and real-time analysis of brain dynamics during active unrestrained motor behavior involving whole body movements such as treadmill walking, over-ground walking and other locomotive and non-locomotive tasks. Unfortunately, MoBI protocols are prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts, including motion artifacts that may contaminate the EEG recordings. A few attempts have been made to quantify these artifacts during locomotion tasks but with inconclusive results due in part to methodological pitfalls. In this paper, we investigate the potential contributions of motion artifacts in scalp EEG during treadmill walking at three different speeds (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 km/h using a wireless 64 channel active EEG system and a wireless inertial sensor attached to the subject’s head. The experimental setup was designed according to good measurement practices using state-of-the-art commercially-available instruments, and the measurements were analyzed using Fourier analysis and wavelet coherence approaches. Contrary to prior claims, the subjects’ motion did not significantly affect their EEG during treadmill walking although precaution should be taken when gait speeds approach 4.5 km/h. Overall, these findings suggest how MoBI methods may be safely deployed in neural, cognitive, and rehabilitation engineering applications.

  15. Scalp hair cortisol for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Reincke, Martin; Koper, Jan W; van den Akker, Erica L T; Manenschijn, Laura; Berr, Christina M; Fazel, Julia; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Feelders, Richard A; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2017-06-01

    Current first-line screening tests for Cushing's syndrome (CS) only measure time-point or short-term cortisol. Hair cortisol content (HCC) offers a non-invasive way to measure long-term cortisol exposure over several months of time. We aimed to evaluate HCC as a screening tool for CS. Case-control study in two academic referral centers for CS. Between 2009 and 2016, we collected scalp hair from patients suspected of CS and healthy controls. HCC was measured using ELISA. HCC was available in 43 confirmed CS patients, 35 patients in whom the diagnosis CS was rejected during diagnostic work-up and follow-up (patient controls), and 174 healthy controls. Additionally, we created HCC timelines in two patients with ectopic CS. CS patients had higher HCC than patient controls and healthy controls (geometric mean 106.9 vs 12.7 and 8.4 pg/mg respectively, P  cortisol ( r  = 0.691, P  cortisol was increased 3 and 6 months before CS became clinically apparent. Analysis of cortisol in a single scalp hair sample offers diagnostic accuracy for CS similar to currently used first-line tests, and can be used to investigate cortisol exposure in CS patients months to years back in time, enabling the estimation of disease onset. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruano

    Full Text Available Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.

  17. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Krueger, James G

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.

  18. Reliability, responsiveness and validity of scalpdex in children with scalp psoriasis: the dutch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, A.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Seyger, M.M.B.

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to validate the Scalpdex, a quality of life questionnaire for adults with scalp dermatitis, in children with scalp psoriasis. The reliability, responsiveness and validity of the 3 scales (symptoms, functioning and emotions) of this 22-item questionnaire were analysed in a

  19. Scalp blood lactate for intra-partum assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Gunnewiek, J.M.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study to what extent the fetal scalp blood lactate concentration during labor correlates with fetal scalp pH and base deficit, and metabolic acidosis at birth, and to suggest lactate cut-off values to serve as indicators for either reassurance or immediate intervention. Design. A

  20. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  1. Ivermectin treatment for massive orbital myiasis in an empty socket with concomitant scalp pediculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthran, Neelam; Hegde, Vidya; Anupama, B; Andrew, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of massive orbital myiasis following recent lid injury, occurring in the empty socket of an elderly lady, who had concurrent scalp pediculosis. The orbital myiasis was effectively treated with the broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, ivermectin, thus precluding the need for an exploratory surgery. Ivermectin was also effective in managing the concurrent scalp pediculosis.

  2. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming...

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of scalp cooling to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van den Akker-van Marle, E.M.; Breed, W.P.M.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Nortier, J.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alopecia is a frequently occurring side effect of chemotherapy that often can be prevented by cooling the scalp during the infusion. This study compared effects and costs of scalp cooling with usual general oncological care, i.e. purchasing a wig or head cover. Material and methods.

  4. Hair Whorl Patterns On The Posterior Apsect Of The Scalp Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and incidence of hair whorl patterns on the posterior aspect of the scalp amongst Nigerians was studied using a population sample with ages ranging between 15 and 40 years. The age range chosen was so because the scalp hair apparently deteriorates with aging as seen in senile alopecia. Five hundred ...

  5. Ivermectin treatment for massive orbital myiasis in an empty socket with concomitant scalp pediculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Puthran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of massive orbital myiasis following recent lid injury, occurring in the empty socket of an elderly lady, who had concurrent scalp pediculosis. The orbital myiasis was effectively treated with the broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, ivermectin, thus precluding the need for an exploratory surgery. Ivermectin was also effective in managing the concurrent scalp pediculosis.

  6. Clinical evaluation of Statstrip(R) Lactate for use in fetal scalp blood sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.F.; Dillen, J. van; Oosting, J.D.; Rhose, S.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care testing of fetal scalp blood lactate is used as an alternative to pH analysis in fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) during labor. Lactate measurements are not standardized and values vary with each device used. The aim of this study was to evaluate StatStrip(R) Lactate

  7. A Case Associating an Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Legs and Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jourdan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosive pustular dermatosis (EPD of the legs and the scalp have been described as two separate entities occurring in a different context. We report the original case of a patient with an EPD of both the scalp and legs.

  8. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Droussi

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  9. [Forum on tissue expansion. Expansion of the scalp. Surgical techniques and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Delay, E; Comparin, J P; Latarjet, J; Masson, C L

    1993-02-01

    Repair of all forms of alopecia is one of the principal applications of scalp expansion. The authors have inserted 400 expansion prostheses, including 20 in the scalp. The surgical technique, choice of material and various types of flaps are described and illustrated by clinical cases of extensive alopecia.

  10. Incidental Syringomas of the Scalp in a Patient with Scarring Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Deen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Syringomas are benign adnexal neoplasms of eccrine lineage, which occur most commonly in the periorbital region in middle-aged females. These cutaneous lesions rarely occur on the scalp, are typically asymptomatic and are predominantly of cosmetic significance. Involvement of the scalp may be indistinguishable from that of scarring alopecia. We present an unusual case of clinically inapparent syringomas occurring on the scalp of a 56-year-old female with alopecia who was subsequently diagnosed with lichen planopilaris after repeated scalp biopsy. In patients with unexplained hair loss, or in cases that are refractive to treatment, clinicians should perform scalp biopsy to exclude the diagnosis of rare neoplastic lesions like syringomas and to diagnose associated conditions.

  11. The reconstructive management of hardware-related scalp erosion in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Raúl; Hontanilla, Bernardo

    2014-09-01

    The presence of foreign material in deep brain stimulation is a risk factor for infection, and hardware-related pressure under the scalp may cause skin erosion. The aim of this article is to present our experience in the coverage of scalp in relation to underlying hardware. We analyzed 21 patients with Parkinson disease who had undergone deep brain stimulation surgery and developed scalp erosion with hardware exposition during follow-up. Nine patients were programmed for a scalp rotation flap, whereas free tisue transfer was performed in the rest of the patients. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. A hardware-related ulcer appeared in 5 of 9 rotation flap patients. No ulceration or major complications were observed in free flap patients. Free flaps are probably the best option for stable coverage in hardware-related scalp erosion with a high rate of success.

  12. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  13. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-07

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development.

  14. A lipohydroxyacid-containing shampoo improves scalp condition and quality of life in patients with seborrheic dermatitis and light-to-moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Paries, J; Reygagne, P; Hamidou, Z; Jouanique, C; Perez-Pala, G; Rougier, A

    2009-06-01

    Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the post-pubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It is one of the major reasons for patients to consult a dermatologist and it is the cause of significant psychological and social distress. The aim of this open study was to evaluate the benefit of a 4-week treatment with a shampoo containing 0.1% lipohydroxyacid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid on the scalp condition and on the quality of life of 275 volunteers with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) (n = 226) or light-to-moderate scalp psoriasis (SP) (n = 49). The clinical benefit of the treatment was assessed by scoring the following parameters, i.e., severity of the dermatosis, scaling, itching, excoriations, and superficial burning sensation. The impact on the quality of life was assessed using the Scalpdex, a questionnaire specially developed by Chen et al. for patients with scalp dermatitis, which includes 23 questions regarding the symptoms, functioning and emotions affected by scalp dermatosis. The shampoo used in this study was well tolerated. After a 4-week treatment, dermatologists noticed a significant clinical improvement of all the scalp parameters evaluated (i.e., the composite lesional score was improved in 91% and 77% of the patients with SD or SP respectively). The symptoms, functioning and emotions scores of quality of life were also significantly improved in relation to the improvement of scalp condition. This study not only allowed a better understanding of the SD and SP patient's profile but also demonstrated that the shampoo evaluated is a convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment of SD and light-to-moderate SP improving greatly the quality of life of the treated patients.

  15. Role of systematic scalp expansion before cranioplasty in patients with craniectomy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giorgio; Carlucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    Scalp management is challenging in all types of cranioplasties, particularly following decompression or in case of resorption of a repositioned bone flap. In these cases, reduction of brain volume is constantly associated with tightening of the skin cover. A retrospective analysis of 36 cranioplasties was performed. All patients showed cranial decompression or a large craniectomy. In all cases, cranioplasty was preceded by a preliminary scalp expansion. Two patients had expander exposure. One of them underwent re-intervention, to reposition the implant. Complications of the cranioplasty phase were one case of extradural hematoma, five cases of swelling due to liquorrea, four cases of temporary forehead edema, and one case of temporal bulging due to the implant. Cranial decompression and other craniectomy procedures often produce a tightening of the scalp, which makes the cranioplasty problematic. The preliminary systematic scalp expansion performed in all patients resulted in a convenient skin excess that allowed a tension-less closure, preventing the scalp suture from falling right on the edge of the cranioplasty implant. A systematic preliminary scalp expansion allows one to minimize cranioplasty complications in patients with craniectomies, to anticipate possible necrotic scalp complications in the expansion phase rather than in the cranioplasty phase, and thereby avoid implant loss. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of scalp location on survival in head and neck melanoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Charles; Pan, Yan; McLean, Catriona; Mar, Victoria; Wolfe, Rory; Kelly, John

    2017-03-01

    Scalp melanomas have more aggressive clinicopathological features than other melanomas and mortality rates more than twice that of melanoma located elsewhere. We sought to describe the survival of patients with scalp melanoma versus other cutaneous head and neck melanoma (CHNM), and explore a possible independent negative impact of scalp location on CHNM survival. A retrospective cohort study was performed of all invasive primary CHNM cases seen at a tertiary referral center over a 20-year period. Melanoma-specific survival (MSS) was compared between scalp melanoma and other invasive CHNM. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to determine associations with survival. On univariate analysis, patients with scalp melanoma had worse MSS than other CHNM (hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.59-3.11). Scalp location was not associated with MSS in CHNM on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.61) for all tumors together, but remained independently associated with MSS for the 0.76- to 1.50-mm thickness stratum (hazard ratio 5.51, 95% confidence interval 1.55-19.59). Disease recurrence was not assessed because of unavailable data. The poorer survival of scalp melanoma is largely explained by greater Breslow thickness and a higher proportion of male patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord arterial blood gas values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Thea; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Fetal scalp lactate has been shown to be as effective as scalp pH in predicting fetal outcomes. However, there is limited clinical evidence to demonstrate a strong correlation with fetal acidaemia at birth. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord arterial blood gas values sampling, as it is used in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 661 term (≥37 weeks) births where a fetal scalp lactate sample was taken during labour. Cases were excluded where either the lactate was taken greater than 1 h prior to delivery, incomplete cord gas analyses were available, or a sentinel hypoxic event occurred prior to delivery. The final data set included 229 microvolume scalp lactate measurements which were compared with neonatal paired cord blood gas values taken at delivery. A fetal scalp lactate measurement of ≥4.8 mmol/L had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 1% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in predicting umbilical artery pH ≤7.00, and a PPV of 5% and a NPV of 98% in predicting umbilical artery pH ≤7.10. The sensitivity and specificity for these values were 100%, 23% and 90%, 23%, respectively. Fetal scalp lactate microsampling has a strong negative predictive value for fetal acidaemia at birth. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Heditary hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp: a report of 2 additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hereditary Hypotrichosis Simplex of the Scalp (HHSS) is a relatively rare form of hereditary alopecia. Herein, we report 2 additional families affected with this disorder. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol. 3(3) 2005: 128-131 ...

  19. Zig-zag bicoronal scalp incision for cranio-facial cases in paediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Paul; Rutherford, S; Likhith, A; Leggate, J

    2004-07-01

    We present the use of a zig-zag bicoronal scalp incision for cranial-facial cases in paediatric neurosurgery. The authors believe that this technique leads to improved cosmesis, especially when the hair is wet.

  20. A Comprehensive Pathophysiology of Dandruff and Seborrheic Dermatitis - Towards a More Precise Definition of Scalp Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, James R; Messenger, Andrew G; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    literature from in vivo studies of D/SD populations to provide a more complete description of overall scalp health. New biomolecular capabilities establish a depth of pathophysiological understanding not previously achievable with traditional means of investigation. Biomarkers representing inflammation...

  1. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with a Familial Pattern: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShehri, Waleed; AlFadil, Sara; AlOthri, Alhanouf; Alabdulkarim, Abdulaziz O; Wani, Shabeer A; Rabah, Sari M

    2016-09-01

    Aplasia Cutis Conginita (ACC) is a condition characterized by congenital absence of skin, usually on the scalp. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or in the presence of other congenital anomalies. Here we describe a case of a 16 days old baby girl with an isolated ACC of the scalp. Her elder two siblings have been diagnosed with ACC with concomitant cardiac or limb anomalies. The patient was managed conservatively until the defect has scarred 6 months later.

  2. Limited association between scalp psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis severity and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vlam, Kurt; Mallbris, Lotus; Szumski, Annette; Jones, Heather

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether scalp psoriasis (PsO) is associated with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) severity and/or with treatment response to etanercept. Patients with moderate-to-severe PsO and active PsA received etanercept 50 mg once weekly for 24 weeks. Patients were stratified according to whether scalp PsO was present at baseline. Demographics and disease characteristics were compared at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with etanercept. Scalp PsO was present in 273/373 (73.2%) patients; they were significantly younger and a higher proportion were male versus those without scalp PsO. At baseline, the patient global assessment psoriasis score was significantly higher for patients with scalp PsO versus without (67.0 vs. 57.9, pscalp PsO (6.0 vs. 5.0, pscalp PsO achieved enthesitis ≤1 at Week 12 (91.5% vs. 81.7%, pscalp PsO showed significantly greater improvements in fatigue and joint pain at weeks 12 and 24, and a greater proportion achieved a score ≤0.5 in the health assessment questionnaire at week 12 (65.2% vs. 53.0%, pScalp PsO was not clearly associated with PsA severity, and it did not affect treatment response. Patients without scalp PsO exhibited greater improvements in objective joint outcomes, whereas patients with scalp PsO experienced better outcomes in patient-reported outcomes.

  3. Scalp necrosis overlying a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-10-16

    The use of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts has become ubiquitous in neurosurgery for the treatment of hydrocephalus. VP shunts work by creating a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to flow from the cerebral ventricles to the peritoneum and thus relieving pressure. Although typically safe, VP shunt complications are extremely common, occurring in up to 29% of adult cases and approximately half of pediatric cases. These complications may require patients to undergo several revisions throughout their lifetime Purpose: We describe a man who developed scalp necrosis overlying his VP shunt. We also summarize the potential complications of VP shunts. We discuss the presentation and pathogenesis of scalp necrosis in these patients. A PubMed search of the following terms was performed and relevant citations were assessed: ventriculoperitoneal shunt, VP shunt, shunt complications, scalp necrosis, skin necrosis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt induced scalp necrosis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt induced skin necrosis. A 73-year-old man developed VP shunt-induced scalp necrosis leading to loss of skin overlying the shunt valve. The patient was emergently referred to neurosurgery and admitted for revision of the shunt due to the significant risk for infection. The VP shunt was replaced with an external drain and a skin flap was used to repair the defect. VP shunts are devices that are frequently used for reducing intracranial pressure associated with hydrocephalus. The insertion of the shunt beneath the scalp sets the stage for potential pressure-induced scalp necrosis. The early recognition and diagnosis of VP shunt-induced scalp necrosis is essential to prevent infections and future complications.

  4. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidhir, Karzan G.; Woodward, David F.; Farjo, Nilofer P.; Farjo, Bessam K.; Tang, Elaine S.; Wang, Jenny W.; Picksley, Steven M.; Randall, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F2α-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F2α analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.—Khidhir, K. G., Woodward, D. F., Farjo, N. P., Farjo, B. K., Tang, E. S., Wang, J. W., Picksley, S. M., and Randall, V. A. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  5. Primary Cutaneous CD30 +Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Report of a single large scalp nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Parulkar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 93-year -old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of a single frontal scalp nodule. The lesion was non-tender however had grown rapidly and was eroded with intermittent bleeding. There were no other skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, or hepatosplenomegaly. Past medical history was significant for breast cancer and review of systems was unremarkable. Physical exam revealed a 10cm x12cm exophytic, fungating, and malodorous tumor of the right frontal scalp (Fig. 1.

  6. Quantitative associations of scalp and body subcutaneous neurofibromas with internal plexiform tumors in neurofibromatosis 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Kimberly; Nguyen, Rosa; Arman, Darian; Birch, Patricia; Chohan, Harleen; Farschtschi, Said; Fuensterer, Carsten; Kluwe, Lan; Friedman, Jan M; Mautner, Victor F

    2015-07-01

    Internal plexiform neurofibromas are a major cause of adverse outcomes in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). We investigated the relationship of the numbers of subcutaneous neurofibromas of the scalp or body to internal plexiform tumor volume in 120 NF1 patients who had undergone whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We identified internal plexiform neurofibromas in 55% of patients, subcutaneous neurofibromas of the body in 75%, and subcutaneous neurofibromas of the scalp in 45%. The number of subcutaneous neurofibromas of the body and scalp were associated with each other (Spearman's Rho = 0.36; P scalp. The total internal tumor volume was associated with the number of subcutaneous neurofibromas of the body (OR = 1.00086 per neurofibroma, 1.000089-1.0016, P = 0.029) and of the scalp (OR = 1.056 per neurofibroma, 1.029-1.083, P scalp and body are associated with internal plexiform tumor burden in NF1. Recognition of these associations may improve clinical management by helping to identify patients who will benefit most from whole body MRI and more intense clinical surveillance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor: an appraisal of the physiological basis and scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-06-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions. The self-regulated redistribution of oxygenated blood from peripheral to central organs causes peripheral ischemia, thus theoretically bringing into question the scalp capillary bed as representative of the central circulation. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Discrimination of emotional states from scalp- and intracranial EEG using multiscale Rényi entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoyan, Yelena; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Mandic, Danilo P; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    A data-adaptive, multiscale version of Rényi's quadratic entropy (RQE) is introduced for emotional state discrimination from EEG recordings. The algorithm is applied to scalp EEG recordings of 30 participants watching 4 emotionally-charged video clips taken from a validated public database. Krippendorff's inter-rater statistic reveals that multiscale RQE of the mid-frontal scalp electrodes best discriminates between five emotional states. Multiscale RQE is also applied to joint scalp EEG, amygdala- and occipital pole intracranial recordings of an implanted patient watching a neutral and an emotionally charged video clip. Unlike for the neutral video clip, the RQEs of the mid-frontal scalp electrodes and the amygdala-implanted electrodes are observed to coincide in the time range where the crux of the emotionally-charged video clip is revealed. In addition, also during this time range, phase synchrony between the amygdala and mid-frontal recordings is maximal, as well as our 30 participants' inter-rater agreement on the same video clip. A source reconstruction exercise using intracranial recordings supports our assertion that amygdala could contribute to mid-frontal scalp EEG. On the contrary, no such contribution was observed for the occipital pole's intracranial recordings. Our results suggest that emotional states discriminated from mid-frontal scalp EEG are likely to be mirrored by differences in amygdala activations in particular when recorded in response to emotionally-charged scenes.

  9. Lipoedematous scalp: is there an association with fatty infiltration of the parotid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sarah; Jayarajan, Rajshree

    2017-10-09

    Lipoedematous scalp (LS) is an extremely rare condition characterised by a soft and boggy consistency in the scalp due to an increased layer of subcutaneous tissue.In this report, we present a case of LS in a 64-year-old Indian woman. Clinical examination revealed only vague boggy lumpiness involving the whole of occipital scalp extending to parietal scalp. MRI scalp showed diffuse fatty infiltration of the scalp, particularly at the posterior parietal and occipital convexity extending to both lateral aspects of the cranium, with homogeneous signal in keeping with fat. Incidentally MRI also found diffuse fatty infiltration of the parotids.The aethiopathogenesis of LS is still unknown, however it is believed that the hormone leptin could be the key hormone in the dysregulation of fat deposition and distribution. This case report highlights the subtle features with which these cases can present and explores the literature on reported cases of LS. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Surgical Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Scalp Erosion without Hardware Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Michael D; Pourtaheri, Navid; Lakin, Gregory E; Soltanian, Hooman T; Miller, Jonathan P

    2017-12-13

    Scalp erosion in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware is an uncommon complication that lacks a clearly defined management strategy. Previous studies have described various therapies including conservative treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement with or without hardware removal. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of a hardware-sparing management strategy for the treatment of scalp erosion. Five patients with previous DBS implantation presented with scalp erosion and visible hardware exposure at the calvarial burr hole site, and underwent tension-free, vascularized, rotational scalp flap, with preservation of the leads under the pericranium. Two of the procedures were performed after an unsuccessful attempt at primary closure and 3 as a primary procedure. Each patient was followed clinically for at least 14 months postoperatively to evaluate for wound-healing and adverse effects. The median duration from initial DBS hardware implantation to erosion and revision surgery was 12 months (range 1.5-62 months). Three patients were documented to have positive intraoperative cultures in spite of the absence of purulence. At the last follow-up, all patients were noted to have complete wound-healing and no evidence of infection or erosion. DBS scalp erosion can be managed by rotational scalp flap without hardware removal, even in cases where infection is identified. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Discrimination of emotional states from scalp- and intracranial EEG using multiscale Rényi entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Tonoyan

    Full Text Available A data-adaptive, multiscale version of Rényi's quadratic entropy (RQE is introduced for emotional state discrimination from EEG recordings. The algorithm is applied to scalp EEG recordings of 30 participants watching 4 emotionally-charged video clips taken from a validated public database. Krippendorff's inter-rater statistic reveals that multiscale RQE of the mid-frontal scalp electrodes best discriminates between five emotional states. Multiscale RQE is also applied to joint scalp EEG, amygdala- and occipital pole intracranial recordings of an implanted patient watching a neutral and an emotionally charged video clip. Unlike for the neutral video clip, the RQEs of the mid-frontal scalp electrodes and the amygdala-implanted electrodes are observed to coincide in the time range where the crux of the emotionally-charged video clip is revealed. In addition, also during this time range, phase synchrony between the amygdala and mid-frontal recordings is maximal, as well as our 30 participants' inter-rater agreement on the same video clip. A source reconstruction exercise using intracranial recordings supports our assertion that amygdala could contribute to mid-frontal scalp EEG. On the contrary, no such contribution was observed for the occipital pole's intracranial recordings. Our results suggest that emotional states discriminated from mid-frontal scalp EEG are likely to be mirrored by differences in amygdala activations in particular when recorded in response to emotionally-charged scenes.

  12. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Probing interval timing with scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwun Kei; Penney, Trevor B

    2014-01-01

    Humans, and other animals, are able to easily learn the durations of events and the temporal relationships among them in spite of the absence of a dedicated sensory organ for time. This chapter summarizes the investigation of timing and time perception using scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG), a non-invasive technique that measures brain electrical potentials on a millisecond time scale. Over the past several decades, much has been learned about interval timing through the examination of the characteristic features of averaged EEG signals (i.e., event-related potentials, ERPs) elicited in timing paradigms. For example, the mismatch negativity (MMN) and omission potential (OP) have been used to study implicit and explicit timing, respectively, the P300 has been used to investigate temporal memory updating, and the contingent negative variation (CNV) has been used as an index of temporal decision making. In sum, EEG measures provide biomarkers of temporal processing that allow researchers to probe the cognitive and neural substrates underlying time perception.

  14. Compressive sensing scalp EEG signals: implementations and practical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Amir M; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2012-11-01

    Highly miniaturised, wearable computing and communication systems allow unobtrusive, convenient and long term monitoring of a range of physiological parameters. For long term operation from the physically smallest batteries, the average power consumption of a wearable device must be very low. It is well known that the overall power consumption of these devices can be reduced by the inclusion of low power consumption, real-time compression of the raw physiological data in the wearable device itself. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm for providing data compression: it has shown significant promise in fields such as MRI; and is potentially suitable for use in wearable computing systems as the compression process required in the wearable device has a low computational complexity. However, the practical performance very much depends on the characteristics of the signal being sensed. As such the utility of the technique cannot be extrapolated from one application to another. Long term electroencephalography (EEG) is a fundamental tool for the investigation of neurological disorders and is increasingly used in many non-medical applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. This article investigates in detail the practical performance of different implementations of the compressive sensing theory when applied to scalp EEG signals.

  15. Association Between Use of a Scalp Cooling Device and Alopecia After Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugo, Hope S; Klein, Paula; Melin, Susan Anitra; Hurvitz, Sara A; Melisko, Michelle E; Moore, Anne; Park, Glen; Mitchel, Jules; Bågeman, Erika; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Esserman, Laura; Cigler, Tessa

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing adverse effect. In previous studies of scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia, conclusions have been limited. To evaluate whether use of a scalp cooling system is associated with a lower amount of hair loss among women receiving specific chemotherapy regimens for early-stage breast cancer and to assess related changes in quality of life. A prospective cohort study conducted at 5 US medical centers of women with stage I or II breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens excluding sequential or combination anthracycline and taxane (106 patients in the scalp cooling group and 16 in the control group; 14 matched by both age and chemotherapy regimen). The study was conducted between August 2013 and October 2014 with ongoing annual follow-up for 5 years. Use of a scalp cooling system. Scalp cooling was initiated 30 minutes prior to each chemotherapy cycle, with scalp temperature maintained at 3°C (37°F) throughout chemotherapy and for 90 minutes to 120 minutes afterward. Self-estimated hair loss using the Dean scale was assessed 4 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy by unblinded patient review of 5 photographs. A Dean scale score of 0 to 2 (≤50% hair loss) was defined as treatment success. A positive association between scalp cooling and reduced risk of hair loss would be demonstrated if 50% or more of patients in the scalp cooling group achieved treatment success, with the lower bound of the 95% CI greater than 40% of the success proportion. Quality of life was assessed at baseline, at the start of the last chemotherapy cycle, and 1 month later. Median follow-up was 29.5 months. Among the 122 patients in the study, the mean age was 53 years (range, 28-77 years); 77.0% were white, 9.0% were black, and 10.7% were Asian; and the mean duration of chemotherapy was 2.3 months (median, 2.1 months). No participants in the scalp cooling group received anthracyclines. Hair

  16. [Alopecia reconstruction by expansion after a scalp burn injury caused by Taser(®): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, H; Aktouf, A; Delaunay, F; Lievain, L; Auquit-Auckbur, I

    2014-12-01

    Scarring alopecia resulting from burns may be difficult to treat and involves various plastic surgery techniques such as expanded scalp flaps. Herein, we report the case of a 19-year-old male patient who suffered burning of the scalp with scarring alopecia following an attack with a Taser(®) electrical gun. Given the extent and site of alopecia, we decided to create a prosthesis by means of scalp expansion. The cosmetic result was satisfactory. Several scalp reconstruction techniques have been described for scarring alopecia, with the most widely used being expansion, scalp flaps, repeated excision and hair implants. The present case suggests that scalp expansion offers an effective method for the reconstruction of scarring alopecia following burns with a Taser(®) device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Human scalp electroencephalography reveals that repetition suppression varies with expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eSummerfield

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitions of a sensory event elicit lower levels of brain activity than its initial presentation (‘repetition suppression’. According to one view, repetition suppression depends on the biophysics of neuronal discharge, and is thus an automatic consequence of stimulus processing (‘fatigue’ model. Another account suggests that repetition suppression depends on the statistical structure of the environment, and occurs when repeated stimuli are less surprising than novel stimuli (‘surprise reduction’ model. In support of the latter view, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that repetition suppression is modulated by the local probability of repetition. However, single-cell recordings from macaque inferotemporal area (IT have failed to replicate this finding. Here, we recorded scalp electroencephalography from human participants viewing pairs of faces that repeated (face1-face1 or alternated (face1-face2, in contexts in which repetitions were expected or unexpected. As previously described, event-related potentials in the range of 100-400 ms recorded at posterior electrode sites and at the vertex differed between repetitions and alternations. Critically, at central electrodes, we observed that the difference between repeated and alternating stimuli was attenuated when repetitions were unexpected, as predicted by the surprise reduction model. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of repetitions suppression by repetition probability is observable using direct neural recording methods in human participants, and that it occurs relatively late (>300 ms post-stimulus. Finally, we found that theta-band (4-8 Hz spectral power over central electrodes varied with the three-way interaction between of repetition, expectation, and the rate of change of the environment, consistent with recent reports that frontal theta may be a hallmark of learning processes originating in the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal

  18. Scalp psoriasis and biologic agents: a retrospective, comparative study from a tertiary psoriasis referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadou, C; Lazaridou, E; Sotiriou, E; Kyrgidis, A; Apalla, Z; Ioannides, D

    2016-12-01

    The scalp is a frequent and difficult-to-treat localization of psoriasis. Little evidence exists regarding the use of biologic agents in recalcitrant cases of scalp psoriasis that are resistant to other treatment options. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of currently available biologic agents (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab) in the treatment of scalp symptoms in patients suffering from moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This retrospective cohort study consisted of a review of the database of all psoriasis patients who suffered from scalp symptoms and received biologic treatment between January 2012 and December 2014. The patients were divided into four groups based on the drug administered. Scalp psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48. Psoriasis severity was evaluated with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) at the same time points. In total, 145 patients were enroled in the study (infliximab n = 35, etanercept n = 30, adalimumab n = 39, ustekinumab n = 41). At week 4, the infliximab group achieved a 74% mean decrease in the PSSI (ΔPSSI), followed by mean decreases of 61.7%, 53.1% and 53.7% in the ustekinumab, etanercept and adalimumab groups respectively. The differences in the ΔPSSI were lower at week 48: ustekinumab 94.9%, infliximab 94.3%, etanercept 83.1% and adalimumab 89.0%. The PASI score improved sufficiently in all treatment groups. Infliximab and ustekinumab exhibited greater efficacy at weeks 4 and 12. This difference was not as prominent as that revealed by the PSSI. At week 48, the differences in the ΔPASI were barely statistically significant (P = 0.048). All four biologic agents yielded significant improvement in both scalp and skin lesions. Ustekinumab and infliximab exhibited the greatest efficacy, which was clinically meaningful from the early stages of the study. Adalimumab and etanercept followed, yielding satisfactory improvement

  19. Direct Puncture Embolization of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Severe Hemophilia A: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha [Dept. of Radiology, Samsug Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We present a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a patient with severe hemophilia A. The 22-year-old man presented with a pulsatile right parietal scalp mass. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an AVM in the right parietal scalp, supplied by superficial temporal and occipital arteries that drained into multiple venous structures. We successfully performed direct puncture embolization followed by surgical resection of the scalp AVM in conjunction with supplemental infusion of coagulation factor VIII before, during and after the embolization and the operation.

  20. Should fetal scalp blood sampling be performed in the case of meconium-stained amniotic fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, J; Oliveira, J; De La Hosseraye, C; Benbara, A; Tigaizin, A; Bricou, A; Carbillon, L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of using fetal scalp blood sampling on the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Prospective data collection with regard to MSAF during labor for low-risk term cephalic singleton live birth from 2012 to 2014. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal data were compared according to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS group) or not (no RDS group). Of 515 newborns born through MSAF, 46 experienced RDS and from them 10 experienced meconium aspiration syndrome. No difference was observed according to maternal characteristic, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing pattern irrespective of its category and cesarean rate. Apgar at one minute was lower in the group RDS (7.6 versus 8.5, p scalp lactate sampling during the labor (71.1% versus 55.1%, p scalp blood assessment (p scalp blood assessment and MSAF diagnosed during the first stage of labor (after spontaneous rupture of membranes or at amniotomy) was found. In case of MSAF, fetal scalp blood sampling did not reduce the risk of RDS.

  1. Scalp spindles are associated with widespread intracranial activity with unexpectedly low synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the knowledge of intracranial correlates of spindles is mainly gathered from noninvasive neurophysiologic and functional imaging studies which provide an indirect estimate of neuronal intracranial activity. This potential limitation can be overcome by intracranial electroencephalography used in presurgical epilepsy evaluation. We investigated the intracranial correlates of scalp spindles using combined scalp and intracerebral depth electrodes covering the frontal, parietal and temporal neocortex, and the scalp and intracranial correlates of hippocampal and insula spindles in 35 pre-surgical epilepsy patients. Spindles in the scalp were accompanied by widespread cortical increases in sigma band energy (10–16 Hz): the highest percentages were observed in the frontoparietal lateral and mesial cortex, whereas in temporal lateral and mesial structures only a low or no simultaneous increase was present. This intracranial involvement during scalp spindles showed no consistent pattern, and exhibited unexpectedly low synchrony across brain regions. Hippocampal spindles were shorter and spatially restricted with a low synchrony even within the temporal lobe. Similar results were found for the insula. We suggest that the generation of spindles is under a high local cortical influence contributing to the concept of sleep as a local phenomenon and challenging the notion of spindles as widespread synchronous oscillations. PMID:25450108

  2. Breast and pleuropulmonary metastasis of multirecurrent scalp dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo Nde, N-A; Ouédraogo, N A; Bambara, H A; Tiemtoré-Kambou, B M A; Traoré, F; Zongo, N; Ouédraogo, M S; Tapsoba, G P; Thouraya Chtioui, Achach; Lamien/Sanou, A

    2017-04-08

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a rare tumor, representing about 0.1% of skin malignant tumors. It is characterized by local aggressiveness with significant potential for recurrence. Although metastasis is rare, it does occur. We report a case of a Burkinabe woman with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. A 27-year-old Burkinabe woman consulted our institution for a recurrent scalp nodule that had been evolving for 13 years. At clinical examination, she was in good condition with a dry cough. An atrophic scarring alopecic plaque of 15-cm diameter in the right parietal region of the scalp, topped by an erythematous firm nodule measuring 3 × 2 × 2 cm, was noted, as well as a mobile nodule located in the axillary tail of the right breast. Cerebral computed tomodensitometry had not objectified the reach of the vault or the brain. A thoracic scan revealed four intrathoracic tissue masses straight to pleural touch. There were no evolutionary lesions in the abdominopelvic region. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy of the scalp nodule showed a proliferation of fibrous background, with fusiform cells carrying a storiform appearance. These cells had dark, elongated nuclei and showed some mitosis without atypia. The cells expressed CD34 intensely and diffusely. The test results were negative for PS100 and smooth muscle actin. The breast nodule showed the same profile as the scalp nodule. We concluded on the diagnosis of scalp dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with breast metastasis and probable pleuropulmonary metastasis.

  3. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kuk Park

    Full Text Available The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp. was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp. was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

  4. On the Keyhole Hypothesis: High Mutual Information between Ear and Scalp EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B. Mikkelsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose and test the keyhole hypothesis—that measurements from low dimensional EEG, such as ear-EEG reflect a broadly distributed set of neural processes. We formulate the keyhole hypothesis in information theoretical terms. The experimental investigation is based on legacy data consisting of 10 subjects exposed to a battery of stimuli, including alpha-attenuation, auditory onset, and mismatch-negativity responses and a new medium-long EEG experiment involving data acquisition during 13 h. Linear models were estimated to lower bound the scalp-to-ear capacity, i.e., predicting ear-EEG data from simultaneously recorded scalp EEG. A cross-validation procedure was employed to ensure unbiased estimates. We present several pieces of evidence in support of the keyhole hypothesis: There is a high mutual information between data acquired at scalp electrodes and through the ear-EEG “keyhole,” furthermore we show that the view—represented as a linear mapping—is stable across both time and mental states. Specifically, we find that ear-EEG data can be predicted reliably from scalp EEG. We also address the reverse view, and demonstrate that large portions of the scalp EEG can be predicted from ear-EEG, with the highest predictability achieved in the temporal regions and when using ear-EEG electrodes with a common reference electrode.

  5. Scalp Cooling: A Literature Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability for Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mikel; Fischer-Cartlidge, Erica

    2017-04-01

    More than 75% of patients with cancer cite alopecia as the most feared side effect of treatment, with as many as 10% considering treatment refusal. Despite wide acceptance in other countries, scalp cooling to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has been uncommon in the United States because of longstanding concerns of scalp metastases and a lack of reliable efficacy data. 
. This article reviews 40 years of efficacy, safety, and tolerability literature on scalp cooling to prevent CIA. 
. A systematic review was performed in PubMed and CINAHL®. Forty articles were reviewed, with 12 articles demonstrating high levels of evidence and meeting inclusion criteria. Comparative trials, systematic reviews, and one large single-arm trial were included. 
. Scalp cooling efficacy is dependent on many factors but demonstrates better hair preservation than no cooling. No increase in scalp metastases or statistically significant difference in overall survival was seen in retrospective safety data when cooling was used. Few patients discontinue cooling early because of adverse experiences.

  6. The prognostic importance of scalp location in primary head and neck melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Nelson, Daniel W; Hiles, Jason; Stern, Stacey; Yoon, Jeong Lim; Sim, Myung Shin; Faries, Mark B

    2017-09-01

    For patients with cutaneous melanoma, primary tumors located in the head and neck is associated with poor outcomes. The reason for this difference and whether it is applicable to all locations within the head and neck remains unclear. We hypothesized that scalp melanoma is uniquely distinguished from other anatomic sites and is independently responsible for the poor prognosis of head and neck melanoma. Query and analysis of a prospectively maintained melanoma database of all patients treated for primary cutaneous melanoma from 1971 to 2010. Of 11 384 patients identified, 7% (n = 799) of lesions originated on the scalp. Scalp primaries were more often found in males and were associated with increased Breslow thickness and were more frequently ulcerated compared to all other anatomic sites (P = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, scalp location was an independent predictor of worse melanoma-specific (HR 1.75; CI 1.50-2.04; P melanoma, confirms that scalp location is independently responsible for the negative prognosis associated with head and neck melanoma. Although the pathophysiology of this difference remains to be determined, these data argue for more rigorous surveillance of this anatomic location. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Scalp expanded flap combined with IPL hair removal for large area scar on forehead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wang; Hongwei, You; Li, Chen; Hui, Gong; Xia, Yan; Hua, Lu; Li, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of scalp expanded flap combined with JPL hair removal for large area scar on forehead. From Jul. 2010 to Nov. 2012, 9 cases with large area scar on forehead received treatment of adjacent scalp expanded flap combined with JPL hair removal. One the first stage, the expander was implanted under the scalp near the forehead scar, followed hy expansion process. When the expansion was completed, the expanded flap was transferred to cover the wound after scar excision. 10 days after flap transposition, the forehead hair line was designed and extra hair on flap underwent JPL hair removal. After 3-5 treatments, the hair on flap was almost removed. All the scalp flaps survived completely. JPL hair removal had exact effect. The patients were followed up for 5-11 months. The hair density on the flap decreased hy more than 90%. The flap had a good match with surrounding facial skin in color, texture and thickness. The reconstructed forehead hair line was satisfactory. It is a good option to reconstruct large area scar on forehead with scalp expanded flap comhined with IPL hair removal.

  8. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    This thesis describes the design, microfabrication, and testing of an active scalp EEG (electroencephalograph) electrode that has several distinct advantages over existing technologies. These advantages are: (1) no electrolyte used, (2) no skin preparation, (3) significantly reduced sensor size, and (4) compatibility with EEG monitoring systems. The active electrode array is an integrated system made of an array of capacitive sensors with local integrated circuitry housed in a package with batteries to power the circuitry. This level of integration was required to achieve the functional performance obtained by the electrode. The electrode consists of a silicon sensor substrate fabricated at UCD and a custom circuit substrate fabricated at Orbit Semiconductors, using a 2 μm analog CMOS technology. The circuitry was designed for low 1/f noise. One side of the sensor substrate holds four capacitive sensors with rm Si_3N _4 as the dielectric material. The opposite side holds aluminum pads for bonding to the circuit substrate. A via hole technology was developed to make electrical contact to both sides of the sensor substrate. The via holes are 200 μm square openings etched through the silicon by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process using an rm SF_6/O_2 gas mixture, oxidized, and then filled with sputtered aluminum for contacts through the substrate. The via holes have an aspect ratio of 2:1 (length of opening to depth of hole). Silicon RIE etch rates of up to 18 mu/hr were obtained under optimum conditions, using a 0.8 μm aluminum mask. The circuit and sensor substrates were bonded with silver adhesive, and wire bonding was used to make electrical contacts between the substrates. The two substrates were then integrated in a custom package for testing. The electrode was tested on an electrical test bench and on human subjects in four modalities of EEG activity, namely: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory event-related potentials, (3) brain stem potentials, and (4

  9. Cirsoid aneurysm of scalp: Value of multidetector CT scan in pre-operative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Umamaheswara Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirsoid aneurysm of scalp is a rare arteriovenous malformation (AVM of external carotid branches and scalp veins. This malformation of scalp is also synonymously called as plexiform angioma, aneurysma racesomsum, and aneurysm cirsoide, aneurysma serpentinum. This AVM can be congenital or acquired; a congenital form will be present at birth, however, becomes overt only after puberty. Superficial temporal artery is the feeder in approximately 70-80% of the cases, followed by occipital and supraorbital artery. Multidetector computed tomography angiography reconstructed images can provide excellent detail of the feeders, draining veins and their soft tissue relations. Volume rendering data sets in computer workstations we can actually perform virtual dissection layers of the lesion for operative planning. Well planned surgical excision can have least surgical recurrence rates and complications.

  10. [Complications of supratemporalis approach with scalp coronal incision for orbital-zygomatic fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanan, Wang; Yanli, Huang; Dilxat, Dilnur; Weilong, Liu; Hui, Li; Yi, Wang; Lei, Liu

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the complications of supratemporalis approach with scalp coronal incision for the treatment of orbital-zygomatic fractures. A total of 206 patients with orbital-zygomatic fractures were treated with scalp coronal incision through the supratemporalis approach. The effects and complications of the treatment were analyzed. The degree of fracture of the 206 patients was successfully reduced. The facial morphologies and functions were improved. No facial nerve injury was observed in all of the cases. However, the following complications were noted: fossa introcession in 1 case, forehead scalp pain or paresthesia in 11 cases, incision infection in 1 case, subcutaneous hematoma in 1 case, incision scar in 5 cases, and alopecia in 3 cases. The supratemporalis approach prevents facial nerve injury and does not increase the frequency of other complications. Therefore, this approach can be applied as a routine and safe procedure in clinical settings. 
.

  11. Spinal cord infarction in giant cell arteritis associated with scalp necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Khader N; Hadidy, Azmy; Joudeh, Anwar; Obeidat, Fatima Nouri; Abdulfattah, Khalid W

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord infarction is extremely rare in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). There are only four case reports in the literature. We describe a 65-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia and back pain of 4-days duration with sensory loss below the umbilicus and bilateral scalp necrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging finding was consistent with dorsal spinal cord infarction. Biopsy of the temporal artery confirmed the diagnosis of GCA. The patient was treated with high dose of corticosteroids, which resulted in healing of the scalp ulcerations in 3 weeks, but the paraplegia was irreversible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal cord infarction and simultaneous occurrence of bilateral scalp necrosis in a histopathologically proven GCA. Although literature about spinal cord involvement in GCA is very limited, cord infarction is associated with high mortality and therapeutic challenges since little is understood regarding the pathogenesis that leads to infarction.

  12. A new scalp formulation of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate compared with each of its active ingredients in the same vehicle for the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoffmann, V.; Anstey, A.; Barnes, L.; Bolduc, C.; Reich, K.; Saari, S.; Segaert, S.; Vaillant, L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for new treatments for scalp psoriasis, as many topical treatments are cosmetically unacceptable and difficult to apply, resulting in poor compliance. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of a new, once-daily, two-compound scalp formulation (Xamiol; LEO Pharma

  13. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau M; Oostenveld, Robert; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Ruffieux, Silvia; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  14. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2017-03-01

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M Andersen

    Full Text Available The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  16. Technique for Management of Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp With a Skin Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonie, Sarah; Phua, Yun; Burge, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Aplasia cutis congenital is a rare condition presenting with localized or widespread congenital absence of skin, most commonly affecting the scalp. Its management remains controversial due to risks associated with both conservative and surgical approaches. The authors report a new technique to manage a large area of aplasia cutis congenital on a newborn's scalp, initially 5.5 cm × 6 cm, with a single skin allograft application. This is a simple procedure, which can be performed on a ward without need for anaesthetic and led to complete epithelialization of the skin defect.

  17. Heavy metals concentrations in scalp hairs of ASGM miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriati Arifin, Yayu; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sera, Koichiro

    2017-06-01

    We performed the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis on scalp hair samples of 115 ASGM miners and inhabitants of Gorontalo Utara regency. Along with mercury (Hg), we presented other trace elements such as Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn). Concentrations of Cu, Mn and Hg in the scalp hairs of ASGM miners are higher non miners. Significant and positive correlations coefficients between Cu and Hg concentration with Mn concentration may indicate that there are still unknown metabolism process related with ASGM activities.

  18. Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the scalp with secondary infection in an elderly man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man presented with the complaints of a growth on the scalp, which ruptured spontaneously leading to bleeding and foul smelling discharge associated with severe pain. Examination revealed ulceroproliferative growth with slough and surrounding induration, infested with maggots. Histopathological examination revealed proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT with secondary infection. Wide excision of the tumor was done with 1 cm margin all around it. PTT is a benign neoplasm that can rarely undergo malignant transformation thought to originate from trichilemmal cyst. Malignant PTT (MPTT predominantly affects the scalp, eyelids, neck, and face and the treatment recommended being a wide local excision.

  19. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following hair coloring/treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit O. Tewari, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp is a process often attributed to secondary factors such as trauma, infection, or a myriad of iatrogenic etiologies. Here, we are presenting a case report of an adult patient with spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following a hair coloring/treatment. We performed an extensive review of literature on this topic, however, could not find a single case with similar presentation of subcutaneous emphysema. This case demonstrates an unreported etiology for this diagnosis and is thus being reported for its uniqueness and to raise clinical awareness.

  20. Scalp acupuncture effect on language development in children with autism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Hemat; ElDine, Nirvana Gamal; Helmy, Ghada

    2008-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays in social interaction, language used in social communication, and symbolic or imaginative play, with an onset prior to age 3 years. Language therapy (LT) for children with autism is the main form of rehabilitation, because it emphasizes its major presenting symptom (i.e., language impairment). Scalp acupuncture (scalp AP) is a modality based on the physiologic function of different brain areas, where different scalp zones are stimulated with needles so as to stimulate the reflexively related nervous tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the role of scalp AP as a complementary modality to LT in rehabilitation of children with autism. The study involved 20 children (divided into 2 equal groups: A and B), diagnosed as autistic according to DSM IV classification. Their ages ranged between 4 and 7 years old. All subjects underwent LT twice weekly, aiming at stimulation of cognitive and verbal abilities. Group B only was subjected to scalp AP sessions--twice weekly--as a rehabilitation complementary tool during the 9-month period of the study. The acupoints used were: Du 20, 26, GV17; three temple needles; and Yamamoto's New Scalp Acupuncture cerebrum and aphasia points (acupuncture needles 0.3 x 30 mm). A language test was performed before and after therapy to monitor cognition and expression (an Arabic test was included). Both groups, whose mean age range was 5.5 years+/-1.22 years, showed a significant improvement in cognitive and expressive language skills pre- and post-therapy, which was highly significant among group B children treated with scalp AP (attention 2.8+/-0.8 in group A versus 3.5+/-0.8 in group B; receptive semantics were 7+/-3.8 in group A versus 9.4+/-3.1 in group B). Expressive semantics significantly improved in both groups. Scalp AP is a safe complementary modality when combined with LT and has a significantly positive effect on language development in children with autism.

  1. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  2. Impact of scalp cooling on chemotherapy-induced alopecia, wig use and hair growth of patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van den Akker-van Marle, E.M.; Breed, W.P.M.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Nortier, J.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cytotoxic therapy for patients with cancer frequently induces reversible, but long-lasting alopecia which might be prevented by scalp cooling. This study evaluates the effectiveness of scalp cooling with respect to the severity of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) and the purchase and

  3. The Scalp Has a Lower Stratum Corneum Function with a Lower Sensory Input than Other Areas of the Skin Evaluated by the Electrical Current Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Takagi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that can affect its sensitivity and functions. However, not much is known about stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp. Here we evaluated stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp of 47 normal male individuals in various skin conditions and compared the results to that to the forehead. The neural sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the electrical current perception threshold (CPT. The cutaneous barrier function and stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA of the scalp were significantly lower than on the forehead, even if there were some scalp problems. Depending on the increase in severity of scalp skin problems, both these skin functional properties and the CPT decreased significantly. However, regardless of its lower functional properties, scalp skin was not significantly lower than that of the forehead. Although the scalp has a low stratum corneum function compared with the forehead and has easily induced skin problems, the scalp skin has less sensitive sensory nerves, resulting in experiencing a worsening of scalp symptoms more easily.

  4. Multiple facial and scalp injuries from petrol explosion: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Severe injuries if not fatal may follow explosive accidents during welding of petrol containers if adequate protective or precautionary measures are not taken. Materials and Methods: This paper describes two non fatal cases of multiple severe maxillofacial and scalp injuries from an explosion during roadside ...

  5. Safety and effectiveness of scalp cooling in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, Corina Johanna Geertruida van den

    2013-01-01

    Various cytotoxics cause severe alopecia, it is estimated to affect more than 15.000 Dutch cancer patients per year. Hair loss has high impact on the majority of these patients, they describe it as stigmatizing and a constant reminder of cancer disease. Scalp cooling decreases hair loss and is well

  6. Surgical Techniques for Closure of a Scalp Defect After Resection of Skin Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz, Maciej; Grzelecki, Dariusz; Mazurek, Maciej; Starościak, Stanisław; Krajewski, Romuald

    2017-05-01

    Surgery for scalp malignancies is aimed at the complete resection and a good aesthetic outcome. The goal was to develop an algorithm for scalp reconstruction based on the authors' surgical experience. This is a retrospective analysis of 123 procedures of scalp malignancies in 105 patients. Twenty eight procedures were for resection of squamous cell carcinoma, 54 for basal cell carcinoma, and 41 for suspected melanomas. Primary closure (27 procedures), local flap (LF; 19), split-thickness skin graft (SG; 64), rotated LF and SG (9), and free vascularized flaps (4) were used. Complications were partial (4) and total (1) necrosis of SG, free-flap atrophy (1), infection (2), wound dehiscence (1), and death due to cardiovascular complications (1). During follow-up, recurrence occurred in 22 patients (21%) and metastases to lymph nodes in 3 (3%). Surface area size and the presence of the periosteum as well as a bone infiltration are important factors that can guide selection of a reconstruction method after resection of scalp malignancy.

  7. POSTEROLATERAL NECK DISSECTION IN PATIENTS WITH MELANOMA OF THE SKIN OF THE POSTERIOR SCALP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERMEY, A; PLUKKER, JTM; ROODENBURG, JLN; OLDHOFF, J

    1993-01-01

    19 consecutive patients underwent a posterolateral neck dissection (PLND) in continuity with a wide excision of the primary melanoma on the posterior scalp. After a mean follow-up of 74 months, 5 patients are alive with minimal morbidity. PLND can safely be performed, even bilaterally, as an

  8. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  9. Solitary Giant Neurofibroma of the Scalp with Calvarial Defect in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... The cells have wavy to comma-shaped nuclei and moderate cytoplasm. H and E stain, ×400. Figure 5: Postoperative contrast CT at eight weeks. There was re- expansion of the right frontal lobe. Ismail, et al.: Solitary giant scalp neurofibroma. [Downloaded free from http://www.jstcr.org on Tuesday, June 29, ...

  10. Actinomycotic Mycetoma Of Scalp Caused By Actinomadura Pelletierii-A Report Of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycotic mycetoma of the scalp caused by Actinomadura pelletierii are described with their classical clinical, mycological, histopathological and radiological features. The first case was treated with contrimoxazole as monotherapy. She developed recurrence later, even while on therapy. The second case was treated with combined oral cotrimoxazole and parenteral streptomycin with a good response.

  11. Trichosporon inkin and Trichosporon mucoides as unusual causes of white piedra of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendolkar, Uma; Shinde, Alka; Baveja, Sujata; Dhurat, Rachita; Phiske, Meghana

    2014-01-01

    White piedra of scalp hair is considered a rare entity. We report three cases of this disorder all of whom presented with nodules on the hair. Potassium hydroxide preparations of the hair revealed clustered arthrospores and mature, easily detachable nodules. Cultures grew Trichosporon inkin in 2 patients and Trichosporon mucoides in one patient. Both these fungi are unusual causes of white piedra.

  12. Use of skin staples to fix film dressings on scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Reiji; Ishikura, Naotaka; Kawakami, Shigehiko; Heshiki, Takaya; Shimada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Tomoko

    2002-05-01

    Split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) from the scalp have been used in large burns. The donor site wounds are usually covered using occlusive dressings, such as film dressings because they contribute to reduce donor site pain and infection under exudative crust and to enhance re-epithelialization. However, it is not always easy to fix such film dressings to the scalp because of the presence of hair. In this paper, we report the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressings. Eight donor sites in four patients were dressed in this way. The patients had 50-78% of the body burned, all of them survived. The mean healing time for the donor sites was 6.8 days. Three patients had their scalps re-harvested several times (range two to three times). There were no infections nor secondary skin ulcers at the donor sites. The technique of this dressing is very simple and speedy, thus we recommend the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressing to scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

  13. Demodex Folliculitis of the Scalp: Clinicopathological Study of an Uncommon Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Wissam; Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Bergman, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    Demodex is a saprophytic mite in humans commonly present in the pilosebaceous units, which has been implicated as a pathogen in several skin conditions. The clinical presentation and histopathology of Demodex folliculitis of the scalp have been described in only a few case reports. This study was performed to further elucidate the clinicopathological features of this entity. We have studied 333 consecutively submitted scalp biopsies performed for hair loss and alopecia. All specimens were completely step-sectioned. Biopsies with Demodex mites were further studied histopathologically, and the patients' clinical files were reviewed. There were 17 biopsies (5.1%) with Demodex in at least 1 pilosebaceous unit. Based on the clinical presentation, histopathology, and response to therapy, Demodex was considered to be nonpathogenic in 13 cases. The remaining 4 cases were characterized by hair loss, scalp erythema, scales, and pustules. There were 2 or more pilosebaceous units with Demodex along mononuclear and/or neutrophilic infiltrates around and in the involved follicles and occasionally granulomas. All 4 cases responded completely to metronidazole therapy. In conclusion, Demodex is infrequently found in scalp biopsies for hair loss and alopecia, and, in most cases, it does not seem to be pathogenic. Occasionally, however, it is associated with folliculitis characterized by hair loss, erythema, scales, and pustules clinically; neutrophilic and/or mononuclear-cell folliculitis with occasional granulomas histopathologically; and a prompt response to anti-Demodex therapy.

  14. Congenital (infantile) fibrosarcoma of the scalp: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Nasir; Minhas, Khurram; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Mushtaq, Naureen; Fadoo, Zehra

    2015-11-01

    Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma (CIFS) is a soft tissue sarcoma of infants mainly involving lower extremities usually presenting during the first year of life. A subset of cases occur in the head and neck, but scalp involvement is exceptionally rare. We report clinicopathological features of three cases of CIFS involving the scalp diagnosed between 2011 and 2012. The ages of the three patients at the time of diagnosis ranged from 12 to 90 days (mean 48 days). All were males and presented with scalp swelling at birth which grew rapidly in size. The tumor was located in the left temporal region in two cases and the right temporoparietal region in one case. On imaging, underlying bone involvement was noted in two cases. The mean size of the resected tumors was 8 cm. All cases exhibited a cellular tumor arranged in sheets of uniform oval to spindle cells, increased mitosis, and hemangiopericytoma-like vessels. All patients are alive after a mean follow-up of 39.6 months. Recurrence was seen in one case due to incomplete excision. No metastasis was seen in any of the cases. CIFS of the scalp is rare and carries a good prognosis. Underlying bone erosion is rare but was noted seen in two of our cases. A male predominance was seen in our cases.

  15. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  16. Outpatient-based scalp surgery without shaving and allowing use of shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Soon-Kwon; Park, Kwan-Woong; Im, Soo-Bin; Shin, Won-Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2012-02-01

    To assess the authors' experience of wound management following scalp mass surgery after introducing a policy of leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo. The authors retrospectively reviewed 93 patients who underwent outpatient-based excision of a scalp or skull mass. Surgical complications, mass depth, and maximal mass size were analyzed. All of the surgeries were performed without shaving around the lesion; the hair was simply parted along the proposed incision, and the parting was maintained using adhesive plasters. Routine antiseptic scalp preparations, skin closure with staples after mass excision, and topical ointment on the day following surgery were used, and use of shampoo was allowed. The staples were removed on postoperative days 7-10. The masses were located in the skin (23 cases), subcutaneously (64 cases), and subgaleally (6 cases). All patients except one had satisfactory wound healing. No infections occurred. Leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo can be applied in wound management after scalp mass surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial thickness scalp grafts: clinical experience of their use in resurfacing facial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucan, T; Budo, J; Clarke, J A

    1984-10-01

    Partial thickness scalp grafts provide a good cosmetic match for resurfacing small facial defects. The donor site is convenient for harvesting the graft, comfortable for the patient in the post-operative period and heals quickly with few complications. This paper outlines our experience with this procedure.

  18. Scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Bartonella henselae after Tick Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Pulcini, Céline; Waton, Julie; Imbert, Patrick; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Dellamonica, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2010-02-15

    Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii have been associated with a syndrome characterized by scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy following tick bites. However, in many cases, the causative agent remains undetermined. We report 3 cases of this syndrome caused by Bartonella henselae, and we propose the term "SENLAT" to collectively describe this clinical entity.

  19. Extensive, non-healing scalp ulcer associated with trauma-induced chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerón-Almazán, Pedro; Gómez-Duaso, Anselmo Javier; Rivero, Pino; Vilar, Jaime; Dehesa, Luis; Santana, Néstor; Carretero, Gregorio

    2011-12-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with a trauma to the scalp caused from the blade of a windmill. The condition was persistent from the past 50 years. At the initial examination, a deep, foul-smelling and well-circumscribed ulcer was apparent on the head region, involving the majority of the cranium. Skin biopsy specimens of the lesion were nonspecific. The bone biopsy showed extensive necrotic areas of bone and soft tissues, with lymphocytic exudate foci. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed bone destruction principally involving both the parietal bones, and parts of the frontal and occipital bones. Streptococcus parasanguis was isolated from the skin culture, and Proteus mirabilis and Peptostreptococcus sp. were identified in the cultures from the bone. A long-term treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1 g/12 h) and levofloxacin (500 mg/day) was prescribed, but even after 6 months, the lesion remained unchanged. The frequency of occurrence of scalp ulcers in dermatological patients is less, principally because of the rich blood supply to this area. We have not found any similar case report of a scalp ulcer secondary to chronic osteomyelitis discovered more than 50 years after the causal trauma. We want to highlight the importance of complete cutaneous evaluation including skin and bone biopsies, when scalp osteomyelitis is suspected.

  20. Performance of epileptic single-channel scalp EEG classifications using single wavelet-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasjitt, Suparerk

    2017-03-01

    Classification of epileptic scalp EEGs are certainly ones of the most crucial tasks in diagnosis of epilepsy. Rather than using multiple quantitative features, a single quantitative feature of single-channel scalp EEG is applied for classifying its corresponding state of the brain, i.e., during seizure activity or non-seizure period. The quantitative features proposed are wavelet-based features obtained from the logarithm of variance of detail and approximation coefficients of single-channel scalp EEG signals. The performance on patient-dependent based epileptic seizure classifications using single wavelet-based features are examined on scalp EEG data of 12 children subjects containing 79 seizures. The 4-fold cross validation is applied to evaluate the performance on patient-dependent based epileptic seizure classifications using single wavelet-based features. From the computational results, it is shown that the wavelet-based features can provide an outstanding performance on patient-dependent based epileptic seizure classification. The average accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of patient-dependent based epileptic seizure classification are, respectively, 93.24%, 83.34%, and 93.53%.

  1. Insights Into the Therapeutic Effect of Responsive Neurostimulation Assessed With Scalp EEG Recording: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Maria Jose; Issa, Naoum; Rose, Sandra; Warnke, Peter; Towle, Vernon L; Tao, James X; Wu, Shasha

    2017-10-10

    The responsive neurostimulation system (RNS) is the first closed-loop neurostimulator approved as an adjunctive treatment for adults with medically refractory focal epilepsy from no more than two seizure foci. In addition to its therapeutic effect, it provides chronic intracranial EEG recordings, with limited storage capacity. Long-term monitoring with scalp EEG recordings can provide additional information regarding seizure patterns, the efficacy of RNS stimulation in aborting individual seizures, and the net effect of RNS on seizure control. We present a 34-year-old woman with medically intractable right temporoparietal lobe epilepsy who failed two resective epilepsy surgeries and MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT), after which RNS was implanted. Long-term scalp EEG performed 16 months after implantation showed continuous right hemisphere slowing and right temporal sharp waves. In addition, RNS stimulation produced bursts of high-voltage, broad-field, surface-negative activity, which allowed correlation of RNS stimulation with scalp EEG patterns. Twenty-seven seizures were captured. Responsive neurostimulation system stimulation did not abort any of the seizures recorded on the scalp EEG. However, the frequency of seizures doubled after RNS stimulation was discontinued and returned to baseline once it was turned back on. This observation supports the neuromodulation effect of RNS.

  2. Giant congenital cellular blue nevus of the scalp: neonatal presentation and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debyser M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Martine Debyser1, Sofie De Schepper2, James D'haese1, Veerle De Ketelaere3, Luc Cornette11Neonatal Intensive Care Unit AZ St Jan Bruges-Ostend AV, Bruges, Belgium; 2Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Paediatrics, St Rembert Hospital, Torhout, BelgiumAbstract: The authors report the case of a massive vaginal bleeding during labor and delivery, resulting in the birth of a newborn infant in hypovolemic shock. The origin of the bleeding was a giant congenital cellular blue nevus (CBN of the scalp. The report illustrates the crucial role of immediate and aggressive volume resuscitation, suturing of the skin dehiscence, and firm external compression. This therapy was combined with whole-body hypothermia. The neurological outcome of the patient was normal. A shiny blue mass on the scalp should alert neonatologists to the possibility of a blue nevus of the scalp, rather than a simple scalp hematoma. Final diagnosis is made by biopsy and histologic examination. Early surgical intervention is necessary to prevent malignant degeneration and metastasis. A multidisciplinary approach involving a pediatrician/neonatologist, dermatologist, and surgeon is thus needed for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up.Keywords: neonate, cellular blue nevus, giant blue nevus, giant congenital blue nevus, hemorrhagic shock, whole-body hypothermia

  3. A rare case of adult scalp pyoderma gangrenosum with cranial osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aljohmani

    2018-03-01

    This is the first case report of scalp PG with cranial osteolysis in an 80-year-old adult, with an initial presentation mimicking skin carcinoma. This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary team (MDT meeting discussion, diagnosis of PG by exclusion and the successful treatment of this patient's PG eroding to the bone.

  4. Evaluation of realistic layouts for next generation on-scalp MEG: spatial information density maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Bushra; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schneiderman, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    While commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are the functional neuroimaging state-of-the-art in terms of spatio-temporal resolution, MEG sensors have not changed significantly since the 1990s. Interest in newer sensors that operate at less extreme temperatures, e.g., high critical temperature (high-T c ) SQUIDs, optically-pumped magnetometers, etc., is growing because they enable significant reductions in head-to-sensor standoff (on-scalp MEG). Various metrics quantify the advantages of on-scalp MEG, but a single straightforward one is lacking. Previous works have furthermore been limited to arbitrary and/or unrealistic sensor layouts. We introduce spatial information density (SID) maps for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of sensor arrays. SID-maps present the spatial distribution of information a sensor array extracts from a source space while accounting for relevant source and sensor parameters. We use it in a systematic comparison of three practical on-scalp MEG sensor array layouts (based on high-T c SQUIDs) and the standard Elekta Neuromag TRIUX magnetometer array. Results strengthen the case for on-scalp and specifically high-T c SQUID-based MEG while providing a path for the practical design of future MEG systems. SID-maps are furthermore general to arbitrary magnetic sensor technologies and source spaces and can thus be used for design and evaluation of sensor arrays for magnetocardiography, magnetic particle imaging, etc.

  5. Outcomes of Tissue Expander Application for Scalp Reconstruction in Extensive Aplasia Cutis Congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, Eyuphan; Eser, Cengiz; Tabakan, Ibrahim; Kesiktas, Erol; Yavuz, Metin

    2016-02-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder. The purpose of this study was to present outcomes of tissue expander application for scalp reconstruction in extensive ACC. In this retrospective study, medical records were reviewed for six patients who underwent serial tissue expander application for scalp reconstruction in ACC between 2000 and 2015. Patient average age was 14.5 (range, 4-25 years). One of the six cases had frontal bone defect, the others had bone and soft tissue defect at the vertex. In the newborn period, all patients have been managed by split-thickness skin grafts without cranioplasty procedures. After grafting and calvarial regeneration, one (or more) sessions of tissue expanders and scalp flap applications were performed for alopecia and soft tissue correction. Radiologic and clinical examination was performed for complications and outcomes. Computerized tomography showed intact calvarium with patchy hyperostosis in all patients. The mean size of grafted areas was 69.5 cm(2) (range, 32-148.5 cm(2)). Minimal distal flap necrosis (6 × 1 cm) was observed in one patient. Serial scalp tissue expansion was performed with at least one session in a 1-year interval. One expander was extracted due to exposition and infection. No total flap losses and no calvarial defects were observed during follow-up (mean; 8.6 years). Clinical examination revealed acceptable cosmetic results in all patients. We advocate late expander scalp reconstruction for management of extensive ACC cases. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  7. [Protein S100b in differential diagnosis of brain concussion and superficial scalp injury in inebriated patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matek, J; Vajtr, D; Krška, Z; Springer, D; Filip, M; Zima, T

    2012-10-01

    Concussion cannot be differentiated from superficial scalp injury, especially in inebriated or uncooperative patients. This can have serious medical or forensic consequences. The aim of the study was to determine whether serum concentrations of S-100b in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients are significantly higher than those in patients with superficial scalp injury with scalp wound and alcohol intoxication. A total of 50 patients with head injury, 25 with mild concussion without scalp wound and alcohol intoxication, 25 superficial scalp injury patients with scalp wound and clinical signs of inebriety. Neurological status and cranial CT scan were evaluated 60-120 minutes after injury in all the 50 patients to exclude focal cerebral injury or skull fracture. The serum levels of S-100b were significantly increased in patients with concussion (median 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/l ) in comparison with the group of patients with scalp injury and alcohol intoxication (median 0.09 ± 0.002 μg/l). All 50 patients had a normal cranial CT finding and neurological status. In all superficial scalp injury patients alcohol intoxication was confirmed (0.96 - 3.11š). We proved significantly higher values of S-100b in patients with brain concussion. Diagnostically decisive value of S-100b concentration in the serum was set at 146 μg/l and higher (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Alcohol intoxication (up to 3.11 š) and scalp wound seem to have had no crucial impact on serum S-100b level.

  8. Efficacy of a new tonic containing urea, lactate, polidocanol, and glycyrrhiza inflata root extract in the treatment of a dry, itchy, and subclinically inflamed scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Baufeld, Caroline; Drescher, Philip; Oltrogge, Bernhardt; Höpfner, Simone; Mess, Aylin; Lüttke, Juliane; Rippke, Frank; Filbry, Alexander; Max, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Dry, itchy and inflamed scalp conditions are common and often associated with diseases such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. To improve these symptoms, we investigated the efficacy of a new tonic containing the active ingredients urea, lactate, polidocanol, and Glycyrrhiza inflata root extract, containing licochalcone A. 30 subjects with dry and itchy scalp conditions underwent a randomized half-head study for 4 weeks, applying the leave-on tonic three times a week on one side of the scalp. Tonic effects on skin hydration, itching, lipids, microinflammation, and substantivity of tonic compounds were determined using corneometry, middle-infrared spectroscopy, direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Volunteers performed a self-assessment; changes in scalp condition were documented by in vivo microscopy. After tonic treatment, scalp moisture was significantly increased, whereas scalp itching and tautness were significantly reduced. Results also demonstrated a high substantivity of urea and lactate on the scalp, an increase in triglyceride, and a decrease in free fatty acid levels. The amount of total lipids was unchanged. Analyses of scalp wash-ups verified a significant reduction in important pro-inflammatory markers. Due to the actives urea, lactate, polidocanol, and the anti-inflammatory licochalcone A, the new scalp tonic exhibited excellent performance in alleviating scalp dryness, itching, microinflammation, and in normalizing disturbances of scalp lipids. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Predicting epileptic seizures from scalp EEG based on attractor state analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hyunho; Chung, Chun Kee; Jeong, Woorim; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common disease of the brain. Epilepsy makes it difficult for patients to live a normal life because it is difficult to predict when seizures will occur. In this regard, if seizures could be predicted a reasonable period of time before their occurrence, epilepsy patients could take precautions against them and improve their safety and quality of life. In this paper, we investigate a novel seizure precursor based on attractor state analysis for seizure prediction. We analyze the transition process from normal to seizure attractor state and investigate a precursor phenomenon seen before reaching the seizure attractor state. From the result of an analysis, we define a quantified spectral measure in scalp EEG for seizure prediction. From scalp EEG recordings, the Fourier coefficients of six EEG frequency bands are extracted, and the defined spectral measure is computed based on the coefficients for each half-overlapped 20-second-long window. The computed spectral measure is applied to seizure prediction using a low-complexity methodology. Within scalp EEG, we identified an early-warning indicator before an epileptic seizure occurs. Getting closer to the bifurcation point that triggers the transition from normal to seizure state, the power spectral density of low frequency bands of the perturbation of an attractor in the EEG, showed a relative increase. A low-complexity seizure prediction algorithm using this feature was evaluated, using ∼583h of scalp EEG in which 143 seizures in 16 patients were recorded. With the test dataset, the proposed method showed high sensitivity (86.67%) with a false prediction rate of 0.367h-1 and average prediction time of 45.3min. A novel seizure prediction method using scalp EEG, based on attractor state analysis, shows potential for application with real epilepsy patients. This is the first study in which the seizure-precursor phenomenon of an epileptic seizure is investigated based on attractor

  10. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2)=0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥ 4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  11. Brain tumor detection using scalp eeg with modified Wavelet-ICA and multi layer feed forward neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, V Salai; Shenbagadevi, S

    2011-01-01

    Use of scalp EEG for the diagnosis of various cerebral disorders is progressively increasing. Though the advanced neuroimaging techniques such as MRI and CT-SCAN still stay as principal confirmative methods for detecting and localizing brain tumors, the development of automated systems for the detection of brain tumors using the scalp EEG has started attracting the researchers all over the world notably since 2000. This is because of two important facts: (i) cheapness and easiness of methods of recording and analyzing the scalp EEG and (ii) lower risk and possible early detection. This paper presents a method of detecting the brain tumor using the first, second and third order statistics of the scalp EEG with a Modified Wavelet-Independent Component Analysis (MwICA) technique and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network.

  12. The effect of a scalp massage on stress hormone, blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy female

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, In-Hong; Kim, Tae-Young; Ko, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] A scalp massage was conducted on female office workers divided into a 15 minute group and 25 minute group and its effect on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate was analyzed in order...

  13. A review of scalp camouflaging agents and prostheses for individuals with hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jeff C H; Shapiro, Ron L; Shapiro, Paul; Zupan, Matt; Pierre-Louis, Margareth; Hordinsky, Maria K

    2012-08-15

    Hair loss is a common problem for both men and women and may impact negatively on self-esteem. A variety of medical and surgical treatment options are available depending on the type of alopecia. Many patients also seek the advice of their physicians about options to hide or reduce the appearance of hair loss with hair prostheses (wigs, hairpieces, and extensions) or hair camouflaging agents (hair fibers, powder cakes, lotions, sprays, hair crayons, and scalp tattooing). Herein, we review current methods to hide or reduce the appearance of hair loss and discuss their associated costs, advantages, and disadvantages. Knowledge of products available to cover scalp, eyebrow, and eyelash hair loss may not only better equip clinicians to respond to questions from concerned patients, but may provide additional options to help these patients best cope with their hair loss.

  14. Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp with large underlying skull defect: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucq, N. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Montpellier (France)); Montoya y Martinez, P. (Dept. of Craniofacial Recontructive Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Montpellier (France)); Montoya-Vigo, F. (Dept. of Neonatal Paediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Montpellier (France)); Castan, P. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Montpellier (France))

    1994-08-01

    Localised agenesis of the scalp is the most frequent patern in aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), a congenital absence of the skin and occasionally of deeper layers. Several clinical groups are characterised by the location and pattern of skin defects, associated malformations and the mode of inheritance. Death occurs in 20 % of cases, secondary to the associated anomalies, to infections or to haemorrhage from ulceration of the sagittal sinus when there is also a defect of the underlying skull. In this latter case, we close the defect by two rotational scalp flaps (Orticochea technique) at birth. A three-dimensional CT study is useful for showing the extent of the skull defect and the deformity of the craniofacial complex and the changes in the bone after treatment. (orig.)

  15. Human scalp recorded sigma activity is modulated by slow EEG oscillations during deep sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Jürgen; Elfadil, Hakim; Röschke, Joachim; Burr, Wieland; Klaver, Peter; Elger, Christian E; Fernández, Guillén

    2002-07-01

    The EEG during deep sleep exhibits a distinct cortically generated slow oscillation of around and below 1 Hz which can be distinguished from other delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) activity. Intracranial studies showed that this slow oscillation triggers and groups cortical network firing. In the present study, we examined whether the phases of the slow oscillation during sleep stage 4 are correlated with the magnitude of sigma (12-16 Hz) and gamma (> 20 Hz) scalp activity. For this purpose, 10-min segments of uninterrupted stage 4 sleep EEG from 9 subjects were analyzed by applying wavelet techniques. We found that scalp recorded sigma, but not gamma, activity is modulated by the phases of the slow oscillation during deep sleep. Enhancement of sigma activity was observed to be triggered by the peak of the surface positive slow wave component, whereas reduction of sigma activity started around the peak of the negative component.

  16. Combining Follicular Unit Extraction and Scalp Micropigmentation for the Cosmetic Treatment of Alopecias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rassman, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two relatively new modalities, follicular unit extraction (FUE and scalp micropigmentation have changed the treatment of hair loss, to reduce the number of procedures and the total costs of the hair restoration process. These 2 modalities augment each other when treating patients with thinning hair and balding. The explosion of FUE procedures (which reflected 52.6% of the hair transplant procedures performed in 2016, up from 48.5% and the appearance of more and more new physicians offering hair restoration technologies employing FUE have caused a 20% annual growth in this industry over the past few years. This article reviews the use of FUE and scalp micropigmentation when used in combination.

  17. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; A. Abbassi; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondai...

  18. Efficacy of Iralfaris shampoo in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a videodermoscopy evaluation prospective study in 70 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Pranteda, G; Iorio, A; Mari, E; Milani, M

    2012-12-01

    This work has the aim to test the sensibility of VSCAPSI method in the evaluation of effectiveness of a medicated shampoo for the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease histologically characterized by proliferation and loss of differentiation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis with vasodilatation and increased permeability, and inflammation. Scalp involvement is a common clinical feature of psoriasis, that is present in the 25% of patients who suffer of it. Videodermoscopy (VD) permits a magnified view of the surface components of the epidermis and papillary dermis, which are not visible to the naked eye, together with the ability to capture digitally the viewed images and to store them for later use. Moreover videodermoscopy is a non-invasive technique, used to analyze cutaneous peripheral microcirculation. Therefore VD could be an useful tool in evaluating the efficacy of treatments for scalp psoriasis. The clinical benefit of currently available medicated shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted, due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and safety and tolerability problems. Therefore effective and safe products are needed especially for the long term management of scalp psoriasis. A specific shampoo designed for the scalp hygiene in psoriatic patients has been recently developed. This shampoo contains urea, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, icthyol pale and laureth 9 (polidocanol). Aim of the study was to evaluate in a 12-week prospective monocenter, open-study the efficacy and tolerability of an emollient, keratolytic shampoo (Iralfaris shampoo ISDIN, Barcelona; Ir-S) applied three times a week in patients with scalp psoriasis. The efficacy of the shampoo has been valuated with VSCAPSI. Seventy subjects with mild to moderate/severe scalp psoriasis were enrolled in the trial, after their informed consent. Efficacy was assessed using a specific and validated videodermoscopy scalp psoriasis severity

  19. SCALP: Scintillating ionization chamber for ALPha particle production in neutron induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhaut, B.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, F. R.; Ledoux, X.; Lehaut, G.; Manduci, L.; Mary, P.

    2017-09-01

    The SCALP collaboration has the ambition to build a scintillating ionization chamber in order to study and measure the cross section of the α-particle production in neutron induced reactions. More specifically on 16O and 19F targets. Using the deposited energy (ionization) and the time of flight measurement (scintillation) with a great accuracy, all the nuclear reaction taking part on this project will be identify.

  20. Primary scalp alopecia: new histopathological tools, new concepts and a practical guide to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary scalp alopecia remains one of the most challenging fields in dermatopathology. In this review, we would like to connect the established classification of primary alopecia into scarring (cicatricial) and non-scarring (non-cicatricial) with current concepts. We introduce a simplified pathway for the diagnosis of the most common causes of alopecia, including a discussion of tissue processing techniques and use of immunohistochemistry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using CSP and LDA for Scalp EEG Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaiby, Turky N.; Saleh A. Alshebeili; Alotaibi, Faisal M.; Alrshoud, Saud R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a patient-specific epileptic seizure predication method relying on the common spatial pattern- (CSP-) based feature extraction of scalp electroencephalogram (sEEG) signals. Multichannel EEG signals are traced and segmented into overlapping segments for both preictal and interictal intervals. The features extracted using CSP are used for training a linear discriminant analysis classifier, which is then employed in the testing phase. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy...

  2. Trichosporon inkin and Trichosporon mucoides as unusual causes of white piedra of scalp hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Tendolkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White piedra of scalp hair is considered a rare entity. We report three cases of this disorder all of whom presented with nodules on the hair. Potassium hydroxide preparations of the hair revealed clustered arthrospores and mature, easily detachable nodules. Cultures grew Trichosporon inkin in 2 patients and Trichosporon mucoides in one patient. Both these fungi are unusual causes of white piedra.

  3. Scalp acupuncture attenuates neurological deficits in a rat model of hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiaowei; Zou, Wei; Leng, Mengtong; Zhang, Beng; Kang, Xiaoyu; He, Tao; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited human studies suggested that scalp acupuncture could facilitate functional recovery after cerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we used an animal model of cerebral hemorrhage to examine the potential effects of scalp acupuncture. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received autologous blood (50μL) into the right caudate nucleus on the right side under pentobarbital anesthesia, and then received scalp acupuncture (DU20 through GB7 on the lesion side) or sham acupuncture (1cm to the right side of the acupoints) (n=10 per group). A group of rats receiving autologous blood into the caudate nucleus but no other intervention, as well as a group of rats receiving anesthesia but no blood injection to the brain (n=10 per group) were included as additional controls. Composite neuroscore, corner turn test, forelimb placing test, wire hang task and beam walking were used to evaluate the behavior of rats. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes. Western blot was used to detect the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-KappaB (NFκB) protein expression. Scalp acupuncture attenuated neurological deficits (pvs. sham acupuncture using a variety of behavioral tests) at 1-7days after the treatment. The brain content of TNF-α and NFκB was decreased (pacupuncture could improve neurological deficits in a rat model of hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linear non scarring alopecia of the scalp: A rare manifestation of lupus panniculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhyarani Kshetrimayum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia in a linear pattern is very rare with only a few cases reported in the medical literature. We report a case of linear non scarring alopecia involving the scalp in a 17-year-old boy with a histological diagnosis of lupus panniculitis. We report this case because of its rarity and also the inclusion of this entity as one of the rare differential of non scarring alopecia.

  5. Bolus-dependent dosimetric effect of positioning errors for tangential scalp radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Eric, E-mail: eclobb2@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    The dosimetric effect of errors in patient position is studied on-phantom as a function of simulated bolus thickness to assess the need for bolus utilization in scalp radiotherapy with tomotherapy. A treatment plan is generated on a cylindrical phantom, mimicking a radiotherapy technique for the scalp utilizing primarily tangential beamlets. A planning target volume with embedded scalplike clinical target volumes (CTVs) is planned to a uniform dose of 200 cGy. Translational errors in phantom position are introduced in 1-mm increments and dose is recomputed from the original sinogram. For each error the maximum dose, minimum dose, clinical target dose homogeneity index (HI), and dose-volume histogram (DVH) are presented for simulated bolus thicknesses from 0 to 10 mm. Baseline HI values for all bolus thicknesses were in the 5.5 to 7.0 range, increasing to a maximum of 18.0 to 30.5 for the largest positioning errors when 0 to 2 mm of bolus is used. Utilizing 5 mm of bolus resulted in a maximum HI value of 9.5 for the largest positioning errors. Using 0 to 2 mm of bolus resulted in minimum and maximum dose values of 85% to 94% and 118% to 125% of the prescription dose, respectively. When using 5 mm of bolus these values were 98.5% and 109.5%. DVHs showed minimal changes in CTV dose coverage when using 5 mm of bolus, even for the largest positioning errors. CTV dose homogeneity becomes increasingly sensitive to errors in patient position as bolus thickness decreases when treating the scalp with primarily tangential beamlets. Performing a radial expansion of the scalp CTV into 5 mm of bolus material minimizes dosimetric sensitivity to errors in patient position as large as 5 mm and is therefore recommended.

  6. Erosive pustular dermatosis (chronic atrophic dermatosis of the scalp and extremities)

    OpenAIRE

    Semkova K; Tchernev G.; Wollina U

    2013-01-01

    Kristina Semkova,1 Georgi Tchernev,2 Uwe Wollina31Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Sofia Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Policlinic for Dermatology and Venereology, Saint Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, GermanyAbstract: Erosive pustular dermatosis is a rare noninfectious disease of the scalp or legs. Clinical findings are nonspecific, with crusts, atrophy, and ...

  7. Measuring time-varying information flow in scalp EEG signals: Orthogonalized partial directed coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Omidvarnia, Amir; Azemi, Ghasem; Boashash, Boualem; Otoole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a time-frequency method for measuring directional interactions over time and frequency from scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in a way that is less affected by volume conduction and amplitude scaling. We modified the time-varying generalized partial directed coherence (tv-gPDC) method, by orthogonalization of the strictly causal multivariate autoregressive model coefficients, to minimize the effect of mutual sources. The novel measure, generalize...

  8. [Observation on therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding for 33 cases of insomnia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2012-10-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding in the treatment of insomnia. Sixty-four insomniacs were randomly divided into catgut embedding group (n = 33) and routine acupuncture group (n = 31). Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24) and bilateral Fengchi (GB 20) were selected for subcutaneous embedding of catgut, once a week for 4 weeks. GV 20, GV 24, bilateral GB 20, bilateral Shenmen (HT 7), bilateral Neiguan (PC 6) and bilateral Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were punctured with filiform needles for patients of the acupuncture group. The treatment was performed once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by using International Unified Sleep Efficiency Value and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). After the treatment, the falling asleep latency and PSQI scores of both catgut embedding and routine acupuncture groups were decreased significantly (P efficiency increased considerably (P acupuncture in prolonging sleep duration and improving sleep efficiency (P 0.05). Both routine acupuncture and scalp-acupoint catgut embedding interventions can effectively reduce falling asleep latency and prolong sleep duration. The therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding is relatively better in improving sleep duration and sleep efficiency.

  9. Ictal high-frequency oscillations on scalp EEG recordings in symptomatic West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Yoshiko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tominaga, Koji; Okinaga, Takeshi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Kato, Amami; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2012-11-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) on intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings have been reported to be useful to identify the epileptogenic zone in intractable epilepsy. We investigated whether the ictal HFOs on scalp EEG seen during spasms contributed to identification of the epileptogenic zone in symptomatic West syndrome (S-WS). In S-WS, ictal scalp EEGs were recorded during a series of spasms. The HFOs associated with spasms were visualized in the temporally expanded EEG traces and subjected to time-frequency analysis. The results on the distribution of HFOs were compared with that of cortical lesions indicated by neuroimaging. In the 4 children examined, HFOs at 80-150 Hz preceded the clinical onsets of spasms. The maximum augmentation of these HFOs was larger than that of HFOs at 20-70 Hz. The regions of the maximum augmentation of HFOs at 80-150 Hz were identical to the lesions detected by neuroimaging. Two patients who underwent dissection of the area including the area with HFOs resulted in Engel class I. Ictal HFOs of spasms on scalp EEG showed a strong association with neuroimaging abnormalities presumed to be the epileptogenic zone in S-WS. Ictal HFOs can thus be a useful marker for exploring lesions for epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Half forehead reconstruction with a single rotational scalp flap for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a soft tissue neoplasm of intermediate to low-grade malignancy. Although metastasis rarely occurs, DFSP has a locally aggressive behavior with a high recurrence rate. In the head and neck area, resection involving a wide margin of healthy tissue can be difficult because of functional and cosmetic considerations. We describe a novel reconstructive method for half forehead defects with an innovative single local wide scalp flap following excision of DFSP with a 3 cm margin of healthy tissue. Methods Two patients underwent wide resection of forehead DFSP and reconstruction with a single rotational scalp flap. The scalp flap blood supply was provided from three main vessels: the superficial temporal artery, occipital artery and posterior auricular artery. Results No early or late complications were observed in either patient with no local recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. The donor area could be closed primarily in both cases and the flaps survived completely. Conclusion This innovative technique allowed a radical excision of forehead DFSP with sufficient healthy margins, thus potentially decreasing tumor recurrence rate. Reconstruction was achieved avoiding microsurgery, skin expanders and large skin grafts. Moreover, all main reconstructive criteria, such as functional and cosmetic tissue characteristics, were completely fulfilled.

  11. Human Scalp Potentials Reflect a Mixture of Decision-Related Signals during Perceptual Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, Hauke R.; Sajda, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Single-unit animal studies have consistently reported decision-related activity mirroring a process of temporal accumulation of sensory evidence to a fixed internal decision boundary. To date, our understanding of how response patterns seen in single-unit data manifest themselves at the macroscopic level of brain activity obtained from human neuroimaging data remains limited. Here, we use single-trial analysis of human electroencephalography data to show that population responses on the scalp can capture choice-predictive activity that builds up gradually over time with a rate proportional to the amount of sensory evidence, consistent with the properties of a drift-diffusion-like process as characterized by computational modeling. Interestingly, at time of choice, scalp potentials continue to appear parametrically modulated by the amount of sensory evidence rather than converging to a fixed decision boundary as predicted by our model. We show that trial-to-trial fluctuations in these response-locked signals exert independent leverage on behavior compared with the rate of evidence accumulation earlier in the trial. These results suggest that in addition to accumulator signals, population responses on the scalp reflect the influence of other decision-related signals that continue to covary with the amount of evidence at time of choice. PMID:25505339

  12. Attention effects at auditory periphery derived from human scalp potentials: displacement measure of potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hayashi, Akiko; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Era, Shukichi

    2006-10-01

    It is known in humans that electrophysiological measures such as the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are difficult to identify the attention effect at the auditory periphery, whereas the centrifugal effect has been detected by measuring otoacoustic emissions. This research developed a measure responsive to the shift of human scalp potentials within a brief post-stimulus period (13 ms), that is, displacement percentage, and applied it to an experiment to retrieve the peripheral attention effect. In the present experimental paradigm, tone pips were exposed to the left ear whereas the other ear was masked by white noise. Twelve participants each conducted two conditions of either ignoring or attending to the tone pips. Relative to averaged scalp potentials in the ignoring condition, the shift of the potentials was found within early component range during the attentive condition, and displacement percentage then revealed a significant magnitude difference between the two conditions. These results suggest that, using a measure representing the potential shift itself, the peripheral effect of attention can be detected from human scalp potentials.

  13. Trichoscopic Findings of Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp Associated with Gefitinib

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    Tomohisa Fukui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor therapy is a rare cutaneous side effect with the potential to progress to scarring alopecia. Thus, dermatologists should make an early diagnosis. We present the case of a 57-year-old Japanese female with scarring alopecia associated with gefitinib, which is an EGFR inhibitor, including trichoscopic findings. The patient treated with gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer experienced skin rash and hair loss of the scalp. The scalp lesions appeared similar to erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp. Trichoscopic examination showed follicular keratotic plugging, milky red areas, white patches, hair shaft disorder, tapering hair, and absence of follicular opening. Histological examination showed ruptured hair follicles with a perifollicular infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and histiocytes. Oral minocycline and topical steroid treatment produced no improvement. With a reduction in the gefitinib dosage, alopecia gradually improved, although scarring remained. We consider these trichoscopic findings and suspect that follicular keratotic plugging might be a finding associated with scarring alopecia due to EGFR inhibitor therapy.

  14. [Unusual presentation of mycetoma caused by Actinomadurella pelletieri on the scalp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, M; Niang, S O; Tounkara, T; Fricker, A; Mbaye, P S

    2011-04-01

    Mycetoma is chronic inflammatory process characterized by areas of tumefaction with draining sinus tracts. It affects the foot in 80% of cases. The purpose of this report is to describe a case that posed a diagnostic challenge due to unusual scalp location and clinical presentation. A 23-year-old woman residing in a rural zone of Senegal consulted for indolent lesions ongoing on the scalp for 2 years. Physical examination showed two soft tumid lesions measuring about 3 cm in diameter on the vertex. The surface of the lesions was crusty but showed no sign of granules. Skull x-ray was normal. Skin biopsy demonstrated a polymorphous granulomatous infiltrate with foci of suppuration circumscribing small, irregular grains with radiating filaments. Mycological culture on Lowenstein medium demonstrated Actinomadurella pelletiere. Treatment with cotrimoxazole for 8 months led to significant regression of the lesions. The mycetoma described in this report posed a diagnostic challenge because of its unusual scalp location and especially its tumoral or pseudo-cystic presentation. This clinical form of mycetoma must be taken into account for diagnosis in any patient from endemic areas.

  15. Occupational Therapy and the amazon riverside child victim of scalping by motor boat shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dayse Braga Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although scalping is a recurrentaccident innorthern Brazil, there are still few studies on the subject. The aim of the present work was to report the occupational therapy procedure on the minimization of the occupational performance impairment of two riverside children that were victims of scalping by unprotected motor boat shaft, through the evaluation of occupational performance and exposure of the intervention performed. This is a case study with two scalped riverside girls hospitalized between April and June, 2013. The application of evaluation protocols verified changes in the areas of occupational performance, where activities of daily living (ADL such as dependence for bathing and ambulationare inserted; changesin the performance context, verified in the anxiety to be discharged from hospital; and changesin the performance component, with decreased self-esteem because of the change on their self-image. Reassessment after intervention showed improvement in the performance of ADL and self-image perceptionof both patients. Thereby it is believed that the development of the research allowed the contact with a theme that is so typical in the Braziliannorth region, stressing the importance of Occupational Therapy assistance, providing greater independence in the performance of ADL that are meaningful to each child.

  16. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.

  17. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  18. Comparative metal distribution in scalp hair of Pakistani and Irish referents and diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Talpur, Farah Naz

    2013-01-16

    The essential metals, chromium (Cr), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn), are necessary for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. The toxic metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), have no beneficial role in human metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in scalp hair samples of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of both genders, ages ranging from 30 to 50 y, and belong to urban areas of Ireland and Pakistan. For comparison purposes, age matched non-diabetic subjects of both countries were selected as referents. The concentrations of metals in scalp hair samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by conventional wet-acid-digestion method and using certified reference materials. The mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both Pakistani and Irish diabetic patients as compared to referents of both countries (Pdiabetes versus healthy subjects of both countries. This study showed that, increased toxic elements and decreased essential elements are associated with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, these elements may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Studying the Role of Dexamethasone in Scalp Nerve Blocks for Supratentorial Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Riya; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Nair, Shalini; Joseph, Mathew; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Korula, Grace

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this double-blinded randomized control study was to examine the role of the steroid dexamethasone as an adjuvant to lignocaine and ropivacaine in scalp nerve blocks in adults undergoing supratentorial craniotomy under general anesthesia. We compared the intraoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic requirement with and without the addition of dexamethasone to the local anesthetics. The consented 90 patients were randomized into 2 groups: one group received 8 mg (2 mL) of dexamethasone, whereas the other received 2 mL of normal saline along with the local anesthetics in the scalp nerve block administered soon after induction of general anesthesia. All patients received oral/intravenous dexamethasone perioperatively to decrease cerebral edema. The general anesthetic technique for induction, maintenance, and recovery was standardized in the 2 groups. The primary outcome assessed was the time to administration of the first dose of analgesic postoperatively. The secondary outcomes included intraoperative opioid requirement, time to emergence, and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. There was no significant difference between the dexamethasone and saline groups with respect to time to first analgesic requirement, intraoperative fentanyl requirements, time to emergence from general anesthesia, and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Addition of dexamethasone as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in scalp nerve blocks in the setting of perioperative steroid therapy does not appear to provide any additional benefit with respect to prolongation of the duration of the block.

  20. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  1. Safety of Simultaneous Scalp or Intracranial EEG during MRI: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan B. Hawsawi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the brain and its activity is one of the great challenges of modern science. Normal brain activity (cognitive processes, etc. has been extensively studied using electroencephalography (EEG since the 1930's, in the form of spontaneous fluctuations in rhythms, and patterns, and in a more experimentally-driven approach in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs allowing us to relate scalp voltage waveforms to brain states and behavior. The use of EEG recorded during functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI is a more recent development that has become an important tool in clinical neuroscience, for example for the study of epileptic activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the magnetic resonance imaging safety aspects specifically associated with the use of scalp EEG and other brain-implanted electrodes such as intracranial EEG electrodes when they are subjected to the MRI environment. We provide a theoretical overview of the mechanisms at play specifically associated with the presence of EEG equipment connected to the subject in the MR environment, and of the resulting health hazards. This is followed by a survey of the literature on the safety of scalp or invasive EEG-fMRI data acquisitions across field strengths, with emphasis on the practical implications for the safe application of the techniques; in particular, we attempt to summarize the findings in terms of acquisition protocols when possible.

  2. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Miao, Miao; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Collins, Luisa Z; Jones, Andrew; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2015-10-15

    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer solution was used as the sampling method for the extraction of ZPT and CBZ from scalp. Derivatization of ZPT was carried out prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The identification of ZPT and CBZ was performed by examining ratios of selected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions in combination with UHPLC retention times. The limit of detection for ZPT and CBZ was established to be 1 and 2ng/mL, respectively. This sensitivity enables the quantification of ZPT and CBZ at deposition levels in the low ng/cm(2) range. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of scalp buffer scrub samples from an in vivo study. The levels of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp at different time points after application of the AD shampoo were measured. The results revealed that dual-active AD shampoo delivered more ZPT onto the scalp in a single wash than single active shampoo did. The amount of ZPT and CBZ retained on the scalp after AD shampoo application declined over 72h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Which one is more effective for analgesia in infratentorial craniotomy? The scalp block or local anesthetic infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcil, Eren Fatma; Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz; Vehid, Hayriye; Ibısoglu, Lutfiye Serap; Tunali, Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    The most painful stages of craniotomy are the placement of the pin head holder and the skin incision. The primary aim of the present study is to compare the effects of the scalp block and the local anesthetic infiltration with bupivacaine 0.5% on the hemodynamic response during the pin head holder application and the skin incision in infratentorial craniotomies. The secondary aims are the effects on pain scores and morphine consumption during the postoperative 24h. This prospective, randomized and placebo controlled study included forty seven patients (ASA I, II and III). The scalp block was performed in the Group S, the local anesthetic infiltration was performed in the Group I and the control group (Group C) only received remifentanil as an analgesic during the intraoperative period. The hemodynamic response to the pin head holder application and the skin incision, as well as postoperative pain intensity, cumulative morphine consumption and opioid related side effects were compared. The scalp block reduced the hemodynamic response to the pin head holder application and the skin incision in infratentorial craniotomies. The local anesthetic infiltration reduced the hemodynamic response to the skin incision. As well as both scalp block and local anesthetic infiltration reduced the cumulative morphine consumption in postoperative 24h. Moreover, the pain intensity was lower after scalp block in the early postoperative period. The scalp block may provide better analgesia in infratentorial craniotomies than local anesthetic infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological and microbiological verification of the benefit of hair washing in patients with skin conditions of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Ito, Kei; Sugita, Takashi; Murakami, Yumi; Yamashita, Ryoko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2016-12-01

    It is unclear whether hair washing is effective against scalp eruption and pruritus caused by seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris. To assess whether a proper hair-washing regimen, including the use of antibacterial shampoo, can ameliorate scalp eruption symptoms and alter the composition of the scalp microflora. Eighteen patients with seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris scalp eruptions were instructed in proper techniques of daily hair washing, rinsing, and shampooing, which they underwent for 12 weeks. They used control shampoo in weeks 1-4 and 9-12, and an antibacterial shampoo during weeks 5-8. At the start of the test period and at weeks 4, 8, and 12, we assessed scalp symptoms (erythema, scaling/desquamation, dryness, itchiness, and scratching scars); microbial DNA levels from lesion and nonlesion areas; and levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ra, and total protein in the scalp's horny layer. Compared to baseline values, scaling/desquamation and itchiness improved significantly at weeks 8 and 12. Other observed skin symptoms also improved over time. Malassezia colonization levels in lesion and nonlesion areas decreased gradually; the decrease was significant at week 8 in lesion areas and at weeks 4 and 8 in nonlesion areas. Bacterial colonization levels also decreased gradually, achieving significance in lesion areas at week 4. Gradual decreases in IL-1ra/IL-1α level showed statistical significance at weeks 4 and 12, while the protein quantity significantly decreased at week 12. Proper hair washing improved scalp condition symptoms, and possibly the underlying etiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Epileptic seizure classifications of single-channel scalp EEG data using wavelet-based features and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasjitt, Suparerk

    2017-02-13

    In this study, wavelet-based features of single-channel scalp EEGs recorded from subjects with intractable seizure are examined for epileptic seizure classification. The wavelet-based features extracted from scalp EEGs are simply based on detail and approximation coefficients obtained from the discrete wavelet transform. Support vector machine (SVM), one of the most commonly used classifiers, is applied to classify vectors of wavelet-based features of scalp EEGs into either seizure or non-seizure class. In patient-based epileptic seizure classification, a training data set used to train SVM classifiers is composed of wavelet-based features of scalp EEGs corresponding to the first epileptic seizure event. Overall, the excellent performance on patient-dependent epileptic seizure classification is obtained with the average accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of, respectively, 0.9687, 0.7299, and 0.9813. The vector composed of two wavelet-based features of scalp EEGs provide the best performance on patient-dependent epileptic seizure classification in most cases, i.e., 19 cases out of 24. The wavelet-based features corresponding to the 32-64, 8-16, and 4-8 Hz subbands of scalp EEGs are the mostly used features providing the best performance on patient-dependent classification. Furthermore, the performance on both patient-dependent and patient-independent epileptic seizure classifications are also validated using tenfold cross-validation. From the patient-independent epileptic seizure classification validated using tenfold cross-validation, it is shown that the best classification performance is achieved using the wavelet-based features corresponding to the 64-128 and 4-8 Hz subbands of scalp EEGs.

  6. SCOPE-mTL: A non-invasive tool for identifying and lateralizing mesial temporal lobe seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Maus, Douglas; Zafar, Sahar F; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2017-09-01

    In mesial temporal lobe (mTL) epilepsy, seizure onset can precede the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern by many seconds. The ability to identify this early, occult mTL seizure activity could improve lateralization and localization of mTL seizures on scalp EEG. Using scalp EEG spectral features and machine learning approaches on a dataset of combined scalp EEG and foramen ovale electrode recordings in patients with mTL epilepsy, we developed an algorithm, SCOPE-mTL, to detect and lateralize early, occult mTL seizure activity, prior to the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern. Using SCOPE-mTL, 73% of seizures with occult mTL onset were identified as such, and no seizures that lacked an occult mTL onset were identified as having one. Predicted mTL seizure onset times were highly correlated with actual mTL seizure onset times (r=0.69). 50% of seizures with early mTL onset were lateralizable prior to scalp ictal onset, with 94% accuracy. SCOPE-mTL can identify and lateralize mTL seizures prior to scalp EEG ictal onset, with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Quantitative analysis of scalp EEG can provide important information about mTL seizures, even in the absence of a visible scalp EEG ictal correlate. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  8. The importance of Hair and Scalp Hygiene for pediculus humanus capitis epidemic prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vonny Rumampuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pediculus humanus capitis have cosmopolite attributes, and normally affect school age children. This research aims at obtaining the number of people infested with pediculus humanus capitis and is categorized by the age, sex, education, social-economic status, way of life, and prevalence of lice, louse nymphs and eggs among children living in ten orphanages within the Province of North Sulawesi in 2012. Method: The research is designed using crosssectional approach and is based on samples taken from 568 respondents. Result: The fi ndings of this research indicate that 106 (18.66% children are infested by Pediculus humanus capitis. Statistic test using chi-square approach results in a score of p<0.05 which indicates a correlation between hair length, type of cleansing agents used for hair wash, the frequency of hair wash, the use of towels, the use of combs, sleeping habit, scalp itchiness, and scalp irritation with lice prevalence in the hair. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression test results in a score of p<0.05 attributable to the prevalence of adult lice among children with long hair, hairwash frequency, use of comb and sleeping habit. Those that are mostly attributable to lice prevalence is hairwash frequency with a score of Wald 58 and OR 326. Discussion: Pediculus humanus capitis is found among children of 7 – 12 years, and dominated by girls, elementary school education, low social-economic status, unhealthy way of life, comprising children living in densely populated orphanages. Children infested with head lice suffer from head itches and irritation. It is recommended that orphanages make efforts of head lice prevention, control and eradication as well as instilling the awareness in governesses and orphans of the importance of scalp and hair hygiene. Keywords: epidemiology, Pediculus humanus capitis, child/children, orphanage/orphanages.

  9. Determination of arsenic in scalp hair of children and its correlation with drinking water in exposed areas of Sindh Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Afridi, Hassan I; Kolachi, Nida F; Khan, Sumaira; Wadhwa, Sham K; Shah, Faheem

    2011-10-01

    This study was focused on the analysis of arsenic (As) levels in scalp hair of children (age, effects of As-contaminated groundwater. For comparative purposes, scalp hair samples of children were also collected from that area having low levels of As (water. Groundwater and scalp hair samples of children were collected and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The average As concentrations in groundwater samples of two towns, Thari Mirwah and Gambat, were found to be 28.5 and 98.3 μg/L, respectively. The range of As concentrations in scalp hair samples of children who belong to Thari Mirwah and Gambat was 1.25-1.61 μg/g and 1.73-3.63 μg/g, respectively. Twenty percent of the total children who belong to Gambat have skin lesions on their hands and feet. A positive correlation coefficient (R = 0.91-0.99) was obtained between As contents in drinking water and scalp hairs of children of both towns.

  10. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: The role of tissue expansion in reconstructive surgery of the scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Richard; Nikolorakos, Dimitrios; Lam, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans is an uncommon tumour, making up less than 0.1% of all malignancies. With regards to soft tissue tumours; this pathology is thought to make up less than 2% of the sum total. Traditionally treatment has been wide local excision, with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Presentation of case We present a case of a 42 year old man referred by his GP with a lump on the right parietal region of the scalp. An USS done by his GP revealed a complex hypoechoic...

  11. Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp treated with serial free flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    was seen with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp. The lesions were of full thickness, about 10-15 cm in diameter and included the calvarial bone and the dura layer. The reconstruction process included split-thickness skin grafting, local flaps, and three free microvascular flaps; two latissimus...... dorsi flaps and one anterolateral thigh flap. No total flap loss was seen, but partial flap necrosis called for secondarily reconstruction. The final result was cosmetically acceptable and the patient is of good health. In conclusion, serial free microvascular flaps may be used with good results when...

  12. Soft tissue myoepithelioma of the scalp in a 11-year-old girl: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlub, Natacha; Galiani, Eva; Fraitag, Sylvie; Boudjema, Sabah; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Coulomb, Aurore; Picard, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Myoepithelioma is a well-known tumor in the salivary glands and breasts in adults. It is exceptionally rare in soft tissue and in children. We present a case of subcutaneous scalp myoepithelioma in an 11-year-old girl. On clinical examination, it appeared as a dermoid cyst. Myoepithelioma is uncommon in the subcutaneous tissue. Clinically, the neoplasm is nonspecific. Because of the variable appearance of myoepithelial cells and their phenotype, the pathological diagnosis is challenging. We report a case of subcutaneous myoepithelioma in a child and discuss the literature. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  14. Dandruff Is Associated with Disequilibrium in the Proportion of the Major Bacterial and Fungal Populations Colonizing the Scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavaud, Cécile; Jourdain, Roland; Bar-Hen, Avner; Tichit, Magali; Bouchier, Christiane; Pouradier, Florence; El Rawadi, Charles; Guillot, Jacques; Ménard-Szczebara, Florence; Breton, Lionel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Mouyna, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject’s were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal) and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05). These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface. PMID:23483996

  15. Clinical and mycological study of scalp white piedra in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva Pontes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available White piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeasts. In the present study, clinical and mycological findings of scalp white piedra caused by Trichosporon spp. are related. Twenty three cases of scalp white piedra were observed with a high incidence in women (87% and preschool children from 2 to 6 (74% years old. These groups presented a relationship of dependence with this infection. Despite the low socio-economic status, poor standards of hygiene, (48% of the patients as well as the fact that 30.4% of the children shared the same nursery, these factors were not significant for the transmission of the mycosis. These were the first reports of scalp white piedra in João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil.

  16. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  17. Ear-EEG detects ictal and interictal abnormalities in focal and generalized epilepsy - A comparison with scalp EEG monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, I. C.; Kidmose, Preben; Christensen, Christian Bech

    2017-01-01

    Objective Ear-EEG is recording of electroencephalography from a small device in the ear. This is the first study to compare ictal and interictal abnormalities recorded with ear-EEG and simultaneous scalp-EEG in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Methods We recorded and compared simultaneous ear......-EEG and scalp-EEG from 15 patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy. EEGs were compared visually by independent neurophysiologists. Correlation and time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the similarity between ear and scalp electrodes. Spike-averages were used to assess similarity of interictal...... and frequency dynamics can be observed from visual inspection and time-frequency analysis. Spike averages derived from ear-EEG electrodes yield a recognizable spike appearance. Conclusions Our results suggest that ear-EEG can reliably detect electroencephalographic patterns associated with focal temporal lobe...

  18. Dermoscopic findings in scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis; Two new signs; Signet ring vessel and hidden hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Kibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis are both chronic erythemato-squamous dermatoses that can involve the scalp. It may be difficult to differentiate these two diseases when there is isolated scalp involvement. Recently, trichoscopy is commonly used to differentiate noncicatricial alopecias including psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis that can lead to telogen effluvium (TE. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the trichoscopic figures that may help to differentiate scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty one with scalp psoriasis and 112 patients with seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled. Trichoscopic examinations were performed using a videodermatoscope (MoleMax 3 ® . Trichoscopic findings of scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis were compared with each other, with 100 healthy individuals and with other noncicatricial alopecias including female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA (n: 138, male androgenetic alopecia (n: 63, FAGA of male pattern (FAGA.M (n: 5, alopecia areata (39, TE (n: 22 and trichotillomania (n: 4. Results: Atypical red vessels, red dots and globules (RDG, signet ring vessels (SRV, structureless red areas and hidden hairs (HH were statistically more common in psoriasis while twisted red loops and comma vessels (CV in seborrheic dermatitis. RDG were considered as the characteristic videodermatoscopic figure for psoriasis and arborizing red lines and CV for seborrheic dermatitis. In comparison with previous reports, our study yielded two new trichoscopic structures supporting the diagnosis of psoriasis; HH and SRV. Besides, according to our study, CV were described for the first time in seborrheic dermatitis and considered to be specific for seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion: This study confirmed that trichoscopy might be useful in differentiating scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis from each other and from other noncicatricial alopecia with three trichoscopic

  19. Scalp and Source Power Topography in Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors: A High-Density EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnovo, Anna; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-10-01

    To examine scalp and source power topography in sleep arousals disorders (SADs) using high-density EEG (hdEEG). Fifteen adult subjects with sleep arousal disorders (SADs) and 15 age- and gender-matched good sleeping healthy controls were recorded in a sleep laboratory setting using a 256 channel EEG system. Scalp EEG analysis of all night NREM sleep revealed a localized decrease in slow wave activity (SWA) power (1-4 Hz) over centro-parietal regions relative to the rest of the brain in SADs compared to good sleeping healthy controls. Source modelling analysis of 5-minute segments taken from N3 during the first half of the night revealed that the local decrease in SWA power was prominent at the level of the cingulate, motor, and sensori-motor associative cortices. Similar patterns were also evident during REM sleep and wake. These differences in local sleep were present in the absence of any detectable clinical or electrophysiological sign of arousal. Overall, results suggest the presence of local sleep differences in the brain of SADs patients during nights without clinical episodes. The persistence of similar topographical changes in local EEG power during REM sleep and wakefulness points to trait-like functional changes that cross the boundaries of NREM sleep. The regions identified by source imaging are consistent with the current neurophysiological understanding of SADs as a disorder caused by local arousals in motor and cingulate cortices. Persistent localized changes in neuronal excitability may predispose affected subjects to clinical episodes.

  20. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp - is it really a rare condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levakov Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that usually occurs in the elderly and is characterized by multiple pustules, erosions and crusts that appear on the scalp leading to scarring alopecia. The histopathology and laboratory tests are not specific which is the reason that EPDS is a frequently misdiagnosed condition. Case report. We presented two patients with EPDS. The first patient had the known history of local trauma, both patients had chronic recidivant process, classic clinical presentations, and nonspecific histological findings. Each patient had prompt therapeutical response to potent topical steroids. Conclusion. The diagnosis of EPDS can be made if a condition fulfills the following criteria: atrophic or actinic damaged skin, clinical association of erosions, pustules, scales and crusts, no specific histopathology, no infectious agent found responsible for the condition, and chronic course leading to scarring alopecia, and prompt response to the treatment with topical steroids. The history of chemical or physical trauma is often present.

  1. Methods for artifact detection and removal from scalp EEG: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kafiul; Rastegarnia, Amir; Yang, Zhi

    2016-11-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most popular brain activity recording technique used in wide range of applications. One of the commonly faced problems in EEG recordings is the presence of artifacts that come from sources other than brain and contaminate the acquired signals significantly. Therefore, much research over the past 15 years has focused on identifying ways for handling such artifacts in the preprocessing stage. However, this is still an active area of research as no single existing artifact detection/removal method is complete or universal. This article presents an extensive review of the existing state-of-the-art artifact detection and removal methods from scalp EEG for all potential EEG-based applications and analyses the pros and cons of each method. First, a general overview of the different artifact types that are found in scalp EEG and their effect on particular applications are presented. In addition, the methods are compared based on their ability to remove certain types of artifacts and their suitability in relevant applications (only functional comparison is provided not performance evaluation of methods). Finally, the future direction and expected challenges of current research is discussed. Therefore, this review is expected to be helpful for interested researchers who will develop and/or apply artifact handling algorithm/technique in future for their applications as well as for those willing to improve the existing algorithms or propose a new solution in this particular area of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. MATLAB Toolboxes for Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) of Scalp EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Fali; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG. One version of REST is closely integrated into EEGLAB, which is a popular MATLAB toolbox for processing the EEG data; and another is a batch version to make it more convenient and efficient for experienced users. Both of them are designed to provide an easy-to-use for novice researchers and flexibility for experienced researchers. All versions of the REST toolboxes can be freely downloaded at http://www.neuro.uestc.edu.cn/rest/Down.html, and the detailed information including publications, comments and documents on REST can also be found from this website. An example of usage is given with comparative results of REST and average reference. We hope these user-friendly REST toolboxes could make the relatively novel technique of REST easier to study, especially for applications in various EEG studies.

  3. History and Mechanism for Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Scalp Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is an important public health problem with high rates of mortality, morbidity, and disability, but no clinically proven treatment strategy is available to date. Scalp acupuncture (SA refers to a therapy for treating diseases by needling and stimulating the specific areas of the scalp. The evidence from clinical studies suggested that SA therapy may produce significant benefits for patients with acute ICH. However, the therapeutic mechanisms are yet not well addressed. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview on the history and mechanisms of SA therapy on acute ICH. Although SA has been practiced for thousands of years in China and could date back to 5 BC, SA therapy for acute ICH develops only in the recent 30 years. The possible mechanisms associated with the therapeutic effects of SA on ICH include the influence on hematoma, brain edema, and blood brain barrier, the products released from haematoma, the immune and inflammatory reaction, focal perihemorrhagic hypoperfusion and hemorheology, neuroelectrophysiology, and so on. At last, the existence of instant effect of SA on acute ICH and its possible mechanisms are presented.

  4. Our experiences on the reconstruction of lateral scalp burn alopecia with tissue expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzey, Serbulent; Alhan, Doğan; Şahin, Ismail; Aykan, Andaç; Eski, Muhitdin; Nişancı, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    Cicatricial alopecia is a form of hair loss that causes both cosmetic and psychological concerns. Although tissue expanders are the common approach to reconstruction, no algorithm exists in the literature for this process. In this study, it was aimed to create an algorithm for the reconstruction of lateral scalp alopecias with the goal to achieve better and standardized results. Lateral scalp alopecias were divided into three groups: total lateral alopecia (type I), temporal and sideburn alopecia (type II), and sideburn alopecia (type III). Tissue expanders were placed at the parieto-occipital area in type I defects, parietal area in type II defects, and the temporal region in type III defects. Tissue expanders were used to create flaps that were advanced with 60° rotation, 90° rotation, and no rotation for type I, II, and III defects, respectively. Fifteen patients were treated with this algorithm. Using this simple approach, we achieved natural, standardized aesthetic results for each patient, all of whom were satisfied with the final results. Although the number of case were limited, the ideal and standardized cosmetic results could be obtained by this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in scalp and cortical blood flow during hyperventilation measured with diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ninck, Markus; Gisler, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Changes in scalp and cortical blood flow induced by voluntary hyperventilation are investigated by near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy. The temporal intensity autocorrelation function g(2) (τ) of multiply scattered light is recorded from the forehead of subjects during hyperventilation. Blood flow within the sampled tissue volume is estimated by the mean decay rate of g(2) (τ) . Data measured from six subjects show that the pattern of the hemodynamic response during 50 s hyperventilation is rather complicated: within the first 10 s, in three subjects an initial increase in blood flow is observed; from 10 s to 20 s, the mean blood flow is smaller than its baseline value for all six subjects; for the duration from 20 s to 30 s, the blood flow increases again. However, after 30 s the change is not consistent across subjects. Further study on one of these subjects by using two receivers probing the blood flow in the cortex and in the superficial layers simultaneously, reveals that during hyperventilation, the direction of change in blood flow within the scalp is opposite to the one in the brain. This helps to understand the complicated hemodynamic response observed in our measurements.

  6. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  7. A case of chemical scalp burns after hair highlights: experimental evidence of oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Roberta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Pendolino, Flavio; Facchin, Giangiacomo; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-12-01

    Hair highlights are quite common procedures carried out in hair salons by using a mixture of a lightening powder containing persulfates with a suspension containing hydrogen peroxide: a representative case of chemical scalp burns is described as a consequence of this treatment. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the strict relationship between the scalp damage and the commercial products used in a case of hair highlighting. The results of some chemical analyses have been reported, showing, in particular, that the chemical reactivity of the mixture changes in the time, thus strongly suggesting that the procedure for the application of the mixture is critical for the occurrence of possible accidents. The presence in the powder of chemical compounds bearing aliphatic chains as surfactants explains the appearance of dramatic symptoms after days due to a slow dissolution of the oxidant compounds in the stratum corneum of skin with no effect in reducing injury of palliative treatments. Safety suggestions and recommendations for producers and workers are also included.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cylindroma of scalp: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Subrata; Bose, Kingshuk; Sikder, Mrinal; Chowdhury, Manaj

    2016-12-01

    Cylindromas are uncommon benign adnexal tumor. Multiple cylindromas are commonly genetically inherited and also known as "turban tumor." Cytology of dermal cylindroma is rarely discussed in previous literature. We have diagnosed a case of dermal cylindroma of scalp in an elderly female patient by fine needle aspiration cytology of the lesion and further confirmation was done by histopathology. Cytology consists of many clusters of small round to oval basaloid cells surrounded and attached with magenta coloured acellular hyaline material. The cells have very scanty cytoplasm and dark, round to oval hyperchromatic nuclei without any nuclear membrane irregularity. Histopathology revealed nests of tumor cells separated by dense pink, PAS positive basement membrane material with a jigsaw puzzle appearance. Cytology of cylindroma should be differentiated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and other benign adnexal tumor like spiradenoma. We have discussed the case of cylindroma of scalp diagnosed by cytology and confirmed by histopathology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1082-1084. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cytomorphology of skin adnexal tumors: A tale of two scalp swellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Panwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary and metastatic tumors of the skin can be effectively diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC; however, the cytomorphological features of skin adnexal tumors are rarely described in the literature. We hereby describe the cytological features of two histologically confirmed cases of benign skin adnexal tumors. Case 1 is of a 46-year-old female who presented with an elevated firm nodule over the scalp. A cytological diagnosis of benign adnexal tumor possibly of sebaceous origin was given. The nodule was excised and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of sebaceoma. Case 2 is of a 19-year-old male who presented with a pigmented scalp swelling. Cytomorphological features were suggestive of benign skin adnexal tumor with foci of melanin pigment. The swelling was excised and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of eccrine poroma. To the best of our knowledge, only one previous report of sebaceoma and no report of eccrine poroma describing the cytological findings of these two tumors exist. We report these two cases of benign skin adnexal tumors to discuss the cytological features and the potential diagnostic dilemma that they pose to the cytologist.

  10. ["Windmill-plasty" for coverage of large defects of the scalp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Ionescu, S; Frosch, P J

    1998-07-01

    The closure of large circular defects on the scalp is technically difficult and cosmetically often not satisfying, if a free transplant is necessary. Following the technique of Tillmann described first in 1908, several flaps shaped like a windmill can be combined. We report on 14 patients (ages 41-88 years) where large defects resulting from the excision of various tumors (5 melanomas, 5 basal cell carcinomas, 1 keratoacanthoma, 1 trichilemmal cyst, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 skin metastasis) were successfully closed by this method. The diameter of the defect ranged between 4 and 8 cm (mean 5.7 cm). Size and number of the rotating flaps (3 or 4) was varied according to the size of the defect and the mobility of the surrounding tissue. The procedure was performed with local anesthesia in all cases. Wound healing occurred without complications except in 3 cases. 2 patients (63 years, 70 years) developed small necrotic areas on the tips of the flaps. In a 74 year old man with a very large defect of 8 cm diameter, one flap of four underwent total necrosis. The cosmetic result was rated "very good" in 71.4% and "good" in 14.3%. The preservation of the terminal hair turned out to be of special advantage. The "windmill procedure" is an important addition to the surgical approaches for closure of large defects on the scalp, particularly in young patients.

  11. Distinct Somatic Discrimination Reflected by Laser-Evoked Potentials Using Scalp EEG Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Jen-Jui; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    Discrimination is an important function in pain processing of the somatic cortex. The involvement of the somatic cortex has been studied using equivalent dipole analysis and neuroimaging, but the results are inconsistent. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) can reflect functional changes of particular brain regions underneath a lead. However, the responses of EEG leads close to the somatic cortex in response to pain have not been systematically evaluated. The present study applied CO2 laser stimulation to the dorsum of the left hand. Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) of C4, T3, and T4 leads and pain ratings in response to four stimulus intensities were analyzed. LEPs started earlier at the C4 and T4 leads. The onset latency and peak latency of LEPs for C4 and T4 leads were the same. Only 10 of 22 subjects (45 %) presented equivalent current dipoles within the primary somatosensory or motor cortices. LEP amplitudes of these leads increased as stimulation intensity increased. The stimulus-response pattern of the C4 lead was highly correlated with pain rating. In contrast, an S-shaped stimulus-response curve was obtained for the T3 and T4 leads. The present study provides supporting evidence that particular scalp channels are able to reflect the functional characteristics of their underlying cortical areas. Our data strengthen the clinical application of somatic-cortex-related leads for pain discrimination.

  12. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  13. Conservative Treatment of Large Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp With Bone Defect With Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgun, Doruk; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Ayato; Shimoji, Kazuaki; Arai, Hajime; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    The object of this report is to share our experience of conservative management of giant aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp with the topical application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Complete epithelialization of the 9 × 8 cm sized defect was achieved in 33 weeks. Careful conservative management could eliminate the requirement of surgery for giant ACC defects of the scalp with bone defects and should be tried if surgery is thought to be risky or has consecutive morbidity. Topical bFGF application seems to accelerate healing, also providing a better epithelium for later reconstructive treatments and its usage could be standardized in the future.

  14. Algorithm for removing scalp signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals in real time using multidistance optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Masashi; Funane, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    A real-time algorithm for removing scalp-blood signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals is proposed. Scalp and deep signals have different dependencies on the source-detector distance. These signals were separated using this characteristic. The algorithm was validated through an experiment using a dynamic phantom in which shallow and deep absorptions were independently changed. The algorithm for measurement of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins using two wavelengths was explicitly obtained. This algorithm is potentially useful for real-time systems, e.g., brain-computer interfaces and neuro-feedback systems.

  15. Scalp Metastasis from Leiomyosarcoma of the Inferior Vena Cava Sign as the First Clinical Sign: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Muñoz, Isabel; Pardo Masferrer, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The presentation of scalp metastases from leiomyosarcoma of the vena cava is an extremely infrequent event. There are no other publications that describe such finding and very few of leiomyosarcoma in vessels. About this event we have reviewed the English literature describing studies on scalp metastases and skin metastases in general: their incidence, origin, clinical appearance, meaning, and diagnosis. The case we describe would be the second one presented worldwide because, as far as we know, it has been only one more published in 2005. PMID:23091758

  16. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  17. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp after aplasia cutis congenita in a 9-year-old patient: A 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Cadore de Farias, Débora; Simão Corrêa Filho, Sandro; Rigatti, Marcelo; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-11-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare inflammatory skin disease that occurs mainly in elderly adults with a history of trauma to the scalp, but a few cases of EPDS in children have been reported. We report a rare case of EPDS after aplasia cutis congenita in a child. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reconstruction of scalp defects with exposed bone after surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: the use of a bilayer matrix wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironi, Laura C; Boggio, Paolo; Colombo, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of scalp defects after tumor resection or traumatic events is a challenging problem. Large defects with loss of soft tissue down to the bone require complex reconstructive options, including tissue expansion, local and distal scalp flaps, and free split thickness skin graft. Nonetheless, these techniques are often disfiguring and are limited by the relatively poor elasticity and vascularity of scalp tissues after recurrent resection or previous irradiation. Moreover, comorbid conditions among elderly patients often limit anesthetic tolerance and the use of distant flaps. We report a case of a 75-year-old woman with large tissue loss and bone exposure after Mohs micrographic surgery of basal cell carcinoma of the scalp which was successfully rebuilt through the use of a skin substitute. We describe the uncommon use of a bilayer matrix wound dressing as a single procedure option for the management of full-thickness scalp defects with bone exposure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparing cold-air analgesia, systemically administered analgesia and scalp nerve blocks for pain management during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis of the scalp presenting as field cancerization: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Karrer, S; Horner, C; Werner, A; Heinlin, J; Zeman, F; Koller, M; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M; Gruber, M; Graf, B; Hansen, E; Kerscher, C

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is an effective treatment for extensive actinic keratosis (AK). However, pain is a major side-effect of this therapy. To investigate whether scalp nerve blocks (group 1) provide adequate pain relief during MAL-PDT of the scalp and forehead in 32 men with baldness. The patients received intravenous (IV) analgesia [piritramide 7.5 mg IV, plus oral metamizole (40 drops 30 min prior to PDT)] in combination with cold-air analgesia (group 2; IV analgesia) and cold-air analgesia alone (group 3). Maximum pain was evaluated by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS) during and up to 300 min after PDT. Pain during PDT was further analysed according to a pain perception scale. Furthermore, we measured haemodynamics and investigated stress hormone levels in blood samples at different time points. Maximum pain during PDT (primary end point) was significantly reduced in the treatment group receiving scalp nerve blocks (VAS 2.1 ± 1.3) compared with the treatment groups receiving IV analgesia (VAS 7.3 ± 1.1) and cold-air analgesia (VAS 8.4 ± 2.0; P pain relief (P = 0.32). The increase in systolic blood pressure during the first 3 min of PDT was significantly lower for group 1 than for groups 2 and 3 (P pain were found. Scalp nerve blocks provide an effective method for pain management during PDT for patients with extensive AK. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Comparison of Three Different Helmet Bolus Device for Total Scalp Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Min; Kim, Jong Sik; Hong, Chae Seon; Ju, Sang Gyu; Park, Ju Young; Park, Su Yeon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the usefulness of Helmet bolus device using Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material in total scalp irradiation. Using Rando phantom, we applied Bolx-II (Action Products, USA), paraffin wax (Densply, USA), solid thermoplastic material (Med-Tec, USA) on the whole scalp to make helmet bolus device. Computed tomography (GE, Ultra Light Speed16) images were acquired at 5 mm thickness. Then, we set up the optimum treatment plan and analyzed the variation in density of each bolus (Philips, Pinnacle). To evaluate the dose distribution, Dose-homogeneity index (DHI, D{sub 90}/D{sub 10}) and Conformity index (CI, V{sub 95}/TV) of Clinical Target Volume (CTV) using Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) and V{sub 20},V{sub 30} of normal brain tissues. we assessed the efficiency of production process by measuring total time taken to produce. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to verify the accuracy. Density variation value of Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material turned out to be 0.952{+-}0.13 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.842{+-}0.17 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.908{+-}0.24 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The DHI and CI of each helmet bolus device which used Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material were 0.89, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.86, 0.78, 0.74, respectively. The result of Bolx-II was the best. V{sub 20} and V{sub 30} of brain tissues were 11.50%, 10.80%, 10.07% and 7.62%, 7.40%, 7.31%, respectively. It took 30, 120, 90 minutes to produce. The measured TLD results were within {+-}7% of the planned values. The application of helmet bolus which used Bolx-II during total scalp irradiation not only improves homogeneity and conformity of Clinical Target Volume but also takes short time and the production method is simple. Thus, the helmet bolus which used Bolx-II is considered to be useful for the clinical trials.

  1. A survey of the etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran in 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghi Tafti

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis have changed in Yazd over the past 13 years. In the present study, replacement of anthropophilic dermatophytes by zoophilic species was noteworthy, highlighting the necessity of efficient surveillance for the management and prevention of infections.

  2. A case study of radiotherapy planning for Intensity Modulation Radiation Therapy for the whole scalp with matching electron treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu [Masters Program at the University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paravathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate a technique to match an electron field to the dose distribution of an Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan. A patient with multiple areas of squamous cell carcinoma over the scalp was treated using 60 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions to the entire scalp and first echelon nodes with multiple 6-MV photon fields. To deliver an adequate dose to the scalp, a custom 1.0-cm bolus helmet was fashioned using a solid piece of aquaplast. Along with the IMRT scalp treatment, a left zygoma area was treated with electrons matching the anterior border of the IMRT dose distribution. The border was matched by creating a left lateral field with the multileaf collimator shaped to the IMRT dose distribution. The result indicated an adequate dose to the skin match between the IMRT plan and the electron field. Results were confirmed using optically stimulated luminescence placed at the skin match area, so that the dose matched the prescription within 10%.

  3. Fetal scalp blood lactate during second stage of labor: determination of reference values and impact of obstetrical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Nana; Källén, Karin

    2017-03-01

    To determine the reference interval of fetal scalp blood lactate during second stage of labor. Two hundred and fifty-three women in first stage of labor with a reassuring CTG were asked for permission to sample fetal scalp blood during second stage. In cases with reassuring CTG and five minute Apgar score ≥9, the mean lactate value (±2 SD) was 2.5 mmol/L (lower limit 1.1, higher limit 5.2). The lactate concentration was significantly higher among nulliparous and in cases with use of epidural or oxytocin (p scalp lactate values and active pushing time. When parity, epidural, oxytocin and active pushing time were analyzed together, they had equal influence on lactate values (p scalp lactate during second stage is 1.1-5.2 mmol/L. Parity, use of epidural or oxytocin and the duration of pushing are associated to increased lactate concentration; however, we could not demonstrate any correlation to advancing gestational age or birthweight.

  4. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): Implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm’s Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson’s source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the “cortical dipole” into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  5. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994

  6. When EMG contamination does not necessarily hide high-frequency EEG: scalp electrical recordings before and after Dysport injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsova, Julia A; Danko, Sergey G; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate effects of partial reductions of electromyogram (EMG) on high-frequency scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest and during performance of certain cognitive tasks. Nineteen healthy women performed the same cognitive tasks before and after cosmetic injections of Dysport in certain sites of facial muscles. Scalp EEG and EMG were recorded. Impact of Dysport injections on changes of spectral power in β2 and low γ frequency ranges (18-40 Hz) in EEG and EMG derivations was investigated. Also changes of spectral power in EEG and EMG derivations during comparisons of different cognitive states were calculated before and after Dysport injections separately. Dysport injections led to EMG decreases in facial muscles around the injection zones and also led to reductions of power of electric processes in scalp derivations. Along with it results of EEG power comparisons between the pairs of the cognitive states were qualitatively similar before and after Dysport injections. These facts to all appearance demonstrate that though scalp EEGs in the range above 15-40 Hz are contaminated by EMG, in certain experimental situations EMG contamination does not preclude qualitative detections of electroencephalographic correlates of mental activities in β2 and low γ frequency ranges. Parallel EEG and EMG registrations can help not to overestimate EMG contamination in psychophysiological EEG studies.

  7. Results of 20- versus 45-min post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.M.; Breed, W.P.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Ploeg, T. van der; Goey, S.H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Hurk, C.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: For patients, chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of treatment. Scalp cooling can prevent or minimise CIA; the results may depend on the duration of cooling. Since a previous study on post-infusion cooling time in patients treated with docetaxel

  8. Ring and peg electrodes for minimally-Invasive and long-term sub-scalp EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benovitski, Y B; Lai, A; McGowan, C C; Burns, O; Maxim, V; Nayagam, D A X; Millard, R; Rathbone, G D; le Chevoir, M A; Williams, R A; Grayden, D B; May, C N; Murphy, M; D'Souza, W J; Cook, M J; Williams, C E

    2017-09-01

    Minimally-invasive approaches are needed for long-term reliable Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to assist with epilepsy diagnosis, investigation and more naturalistic monitoring. This study compared three methods for long-term implantation of sub-scalp EEG electrodes. Three types of electrodes (disk, ring, and peg) were fabricated from biocompatible materials and implanted under the scalp in five ambulatory ewes for 3months. Disk electrodes were inserted into sub-pericranial pockets. Ring electrodes were tunneled under the scalp. Peg electrodes were inserted into the skull, close to the dura. EEG was continuously monitored wirelessly. High resolution CT imaging, histopathology, and impedance measurements were used to assess the status of the electrodes at the end of the study. EEG amplitude was larger in the peg compared with the disk and ring electrodes (pEEG, mechanical stability, and lower chewing artifact. Whereas, ring electrode arrays tunneled under the scalp enable minimal surgical techniques to be used for implantation and removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ear-EEG detects ictal and interictal abnormalities in focal and generalized epilepsy - A comparison with scalp EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrandtsen, I C; Kidmose, P; Christensen, C B; Kjaer, T W

    2017-12-01

    Ear-EEG is recording of electroencephalography from a small device in the ear. This is the first study to compare ictal and interictal abnormalities recorded with ear-EEG and simultaneous scalp-EEG in an epilepsy monitoring unit. We recorded and compared simultaneous ear-EEG and scalp-EEG from 15 patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy. EEGs were compared visually by independent neurophysiologists. Correlation and time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the similarity between ear and scalp electrodes. Spike-averages were used to assess similarity of interictal spikes. There were no differences in sensitivity or specificity for seizure detection. Mean correlation coefficient between ear-EEG and nearest scalp electrode was above 0.6 with a statistically significant decreasing trend with increasing distance away from the ear. Ictal morphology and frequency dynamics can be observed from visual inspection and time-frequency analysis. Spike averages derived from ear-EEG electrodes yield a recognizable spike appearance. Our results suggest that ear-EEG can reliably detect electroencephalographic patterns associated with focal temporal lobe seizures. Interictal spike morphology from sufficiently large temporal spike sources can be sampled using ear-EEG. Ear-EEG is likely to become an important tool in clinical epilepsy monitoring and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigler, Tessa; Isseroff, Devora; Fiederlein, Barbara; Schneider, Sarah; Chuang, Ellen; Vahdat, Linda; Moore, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a distressing adverse effect of many chemotherapy agents. The TC (docetaxel [Taxotere] and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen is typically associated with complete alopecia. Scalp cooling with cold caps has been reported to minimize or prevent CIA. We conducted a prospective study to assess efficacy of scalp cooling in preventing CIA among women receiving adjuvant TC chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women at the Weill Cornell Breast Center who independently elected to use scalp cooling with cold caps during adjuvant TC chemotherapy were asked to participate. Degree of hair loss was assessed by a single practitioner using Dean's alopecia scale (grade 1/excellent [ 75% hair loss]), by digital photographs, and by patient self-report of hair thinning or the need to wear a wig/head covering, or both. Assessments were made before each chemotherapy treatment and at follow-up visits between 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of chemotherapy. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10% reported a need to wear a wig/head covering at the follow-up visit. Dean's alopecia score was excellent for 65% of patients, good for 25% of patients, and moderate or poor for 10% of patients. The majority of patients reported hair thinning after every chemotherapy cycle. No patient discontinued therapy because of an intolerance to cold caps. Scalp cooling with cold caps appears to be effective in preventing CIA among the majority of women undergoing treatment with TC chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical

  12. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Miao, M.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Collins, L.Z.; Jones, A.; Janssen, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer

  13. Long-Term Cortisol Concentration in Scalp Hair of Asthmatic Children Using Inhaled Corticosteroids: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.P. (Maaike P.); E.H.G. van Leer (Eduard); G. Noppe (Gerard); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); Kramer van Driel, D. (Dieneke); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) can interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and may lead to adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a decrease of cortisol production. Cortisol levels measured in scalp hair provide a marker for long-term cortisol exposure.

  14. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  15. Clinical Application of Acellular Dermal Matrix in the Treatment of Aplasia Cutis Congenita on Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Soo; Park, Jun Ho; Shin, Ho Seong; Nam, Seung Min

    2017-11-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), also called cutis aplasia, is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by focal defect of the skin at birth, frequently involving the scalp, but may affect any region of the body. Approximately 80% of patients have the defect confined to the skin and generally less than 2 cm diameter, which can be managed conservatively with dressing alone. However, some patients present large cutaneous defects and aplasia of the underlying skull may also be present. The main complications of large defects include meningeal infection, bleeding, and thrombosis, which may be deadly. Some controversy remains in the literature regarding ACC treatment, with surgical and conservative treatment modalities having proponents and opponents.This article presents the first case of a newborn with full-thickness ACC lesion of the vertex healed by conservative treatment with application of acellular dermal matrix.

  16. Concordance and discordance between PET images and foci of scalp EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iinuma, Kazuie; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi

    1989-09-01

    Epileptic foci were determined by scalp EEG and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine 18 in 22 children with partial epilepsy (PE, n=13) and Lennoxy-Gastaut syndrome (LGS, n=9). The patients ranged in age from 6 to 18 years. The pattern of hypometabolism was classified into the following 4 categories: non-focal, localized, hemispheric, and diffuse. In the group of PE patients, 11 showed a relative agreement between the EEG foci and region of a low cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) determined by PET. A decreased CMRglc was matched with the EEG foci in 4 patients with LGS. A tendency of a higher relationship between the EEG foci and PET images was significant in PE than LGS. (N.K.).

  17. SCALP, a platform dedicated to material modifications and characterization under ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacri, C.-O.; Bachelet, C.; Baumier, C.; Bourçois, J.; Delbecq, L.; Ledu, D.; Pauwels, N.; Picard, S.; Renouf, S.; Tanguy, C.

    2017-09-01

    SCALP (Synthesis and Characterization using ion AcceLerators for Pluridisciplinary research) is a platform dedicated to characterization and modification of materials using ion beams. Located at CSNSM, a joint research unit of CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay-France, it is composed, on the one hand, by a 2 MV Tandem/Van de Graaff accelerator and a 190 kV implanter, both possibly coupled with a Transmission Electron Microscope. On the other hand, a 40 kV separator is dedicated to magnetic isotopic separation and enables either a pure isotope beam to be delivered, or mono-isotopic targets (purity of the order of ppm) to be manufactured by implantation or by deposition. The platform will be described, emphasizing on its originalities. New ongoing developments will also be presented.

  18. Cystic Pulmonary Metastasis in a Patient with Scalp Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Jong Ho; Kim, Ho Joong; Kim, Kwhan Mien; Baek, Chung Hwan [Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    It has been well known that angiosarcoma (AS), particularly scalp AS, metastasizes to the lungs with multiple air-filled cystic lesions on chest computed tomography scans. Pneumothorax, due to cystic lesion rupture into the pleural space, is frequent;however, we do not exactly know how rapidly the metastatic lesions spread to the lungs or what the exact pathogenetic mechanism for cystic metastasis is. According to our experience, the speed of disease progression in pulmonary metastasis is relatively fast and the entire lungs may be involved within two or three months. The infiltrating spindle cell tumors in the alveolar walls are tethering the adjacent alveolar spaces in order to form a dilated air-filled cystic lesion.

  19. Experiencia en el tratamiento de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo Scalp burns treatment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El cuero cabelludo es la barrera más externa y más importante del cráneo y del cerebro. Si bien las quemaduras de esta zona son raras, cuando se producen suelen estar causadas por alta tensión eléctrica, fuego, líquidos hirvientes u otras fuentes de calor. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una serie de casos de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo tratadas en los últimos 10 años en el Hospital del Trabajador de Santiago (Chile. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se analizó la información demográfica y terapéutica de los pacientes que requirieron hospitalización al tiempo que se revisó la literatura al respecto. En total se registraron 2.266 consultas por quemaduras en la cabeza, de las cuales 34 fueron del cuero cabelludo y 11 requirieron hospitalización; la mayoría fueron quemaduras eléctricas, 4 casos y por fuego, otros 4 casos. En el tratamiento, destacó el uso en 1 caso de colgajo libre asociado a colgajos locales de avance. En el tratamiento de las secuelas se utilizaron expansores y posteriormente colgajos locales de avance. Sólo una pequeña parte de los pacientes que consultan por quemaduras en la cabeza corresponden a quemaduras del cuero cabelludo. La mayoría son tratadas de forma ambulatoria y no requieren acciones mayores. Los pacientes con quemaduras eléctricas suelen requerir tratamientos más agresivos. Para el tratamiento de las secuelas son preferibles los expansores y los colgajos de avance.The scalp is the most external and important barrier of the skull and brain. Burns in this area are rare, but often caused by high voltage injuries, fire, liquid or other heat sources. The aim of this paper is to present a series of cases of scalp burns of the last 10 years in the Hospital del Trabajador de Santiago (Chile. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. We analyzed the demography and treatment of patients requiring hospitalization and we reviewed the literature. There were 2

  20. Apocrine carcinoma of the scalp – A case report and highlights for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arden RL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine sweat gland carcinoma is a rare cutaneous adnexal neoplasm that may occur in the scalp, eyelid, and ear canal. More often, it presents as an asymptomatic, slow-growing, solid or cystic mass with variable color. The clinical appearance may be confused with basal cell carcinoma and the pathologic appearance with metastatic breast carcinoma. Supportive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings, together with careful clinicopathologic correlation, aid in diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is wide local excision and neck dissection for node positive disease. The role of elective neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy remain controversial. Chemotherapy has been used for palliation in disseminated disease. This case report offers an algorithm that can aid the clinician in differential diagnosis of this often elusive neoplasm.

  1. Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using CSP and LDA for Scalp EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turky N. Alotaiby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a patient-specific epileptic seizure predication method relying on the common spatial pattern- (CSP- based feature extraction of scalp electroencephalogram (sEEG signals. Multichannel EEG signals are traced and segmented into overlapping segments for both preictal and interictal intervals. The features extracted using CSP are used for training a linear discriminant analysis classifier, which is then employed in the testing phase. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy is adopted in the experiments. The experimental results for seizure prediction obtained from the records of 24 patients from the CHB-MIT database reveal that the proposed predictor can achieve an average sensitivity of 0.89, an average false prediction rate of 0.39, and an average prediction time of 68.71 minutes using a 120-minute prediction horizon.

  2. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of moderate to thick actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated PDT is a simple and tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. Methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT is approved for the treatment of thin or nonhyperkeratotic AKs...... on the face and scalp. However, thick AK lesions are often treated as well when present in the field-cancerized treatment area. Objectives: In a randomized multicentre study to evaluate efficacy of daylight-mediated PDT for different severity grades of AKs. Methods One hundred and forty-five patients...... response rate and light dose in patients who received an effective light dose of > 3·5 J cm . Conclusions: Daylight-mediated PDT of moderate to thick AKs was less effective than daylight-mediated PDT of thin AKs especially in some centres. However, nearly all thicker lesions (grades II and III) were...

  3. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  4. Clinical efficacy of a new ciclopiroxolamine/zinc pyrithione shampoo in scalp seborrheic dermatitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorette, Gérard; Ermosilla, Valérie

    2006-01-01

    Ciclopiroxolamine (CPO) and Zinc Pirythione (ZP) antifungals are efficient at treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis. This multicentre, single-blind, clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a shampoo containing the 1.5% CPO/1% ZP association compared to the vehicle shampoo and to 2% ketoconazole foaming gel in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In 189 patients randomised to apply 1 of the 3 products twice a week for 28 days, the global lesional score, erythema, pruritus, global efficacy, quality of life (SF12 and DLQI questionnaires) and tolerance were measured at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days. The 3 products reduced lesional score, erythema and pruritus from day 7 (p shampoo was more efficient in reducing pruritus than ketoconazole gel and vehicle (p = 0.032 and p shampoo improved all DLQI questionnaire dimensions. The CPO/ZP shampoo was as rapid and efficient as ketoconazole gel in SD treatment.

  5. Ingenol Mebutate 500 μg for Treatment of the Scalp in Refractory Field Cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaide, Olivier; Clayton, Helena; Girardin, Marie; Kuonen, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Patients suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia often develop actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma in sun-exposed areas. In these particular patients, who have a suboptimal immune function, AK treatment can be particularly challenging. We report the case of a patient who failed to respond to most AK treatments, including 5-FU, imiquimod and photodynamic therapy, but responded to ingenol mebutate. We started with 3 applications of 150 μg/g (registered treatment of the scalp) and also 2 applications of 500 μg/g (registered in for trunk and extremities). Both treatments were well tolerated, but only the latter led to significant clinical success. This suggests that 500 μg/g of ingenol mebutate may represent an interesting therapeutic option in patients with mild immunosuppression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: The role of tissue expansion in reconstructive surgery of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Richard; Nikolorakos, Dimitrios; Lam, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans is an uncommon tumour, making up less than 0.1% of all malignancies. With regards to soft tissue tumours; this pathology is thought to make up less than 2% of the sum total. Traditionally treatment has been wide local excision, with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. We present a case of a 42 year old man referred by his GP with a lump on the right parietal region of the scalp. An USS done by his GP revealed a complex hypoechoic cystic mass, some 2cm×1cm×2cm. Excision biopsy was performed and on review of the pathology it was noted that the lesion was a Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans. Due to the relatively low grade of this sarcoma, it was decided to treat with wide local excision with 2-4cm margins. The expected residual scalp defect would be difficult to close with local flaps. To facilitate closure tissue expansion was undertaken for 6 weeks prior to definitive surgery. With regards to tumours of the head and neck, use of a tissue expander has been recommended to improve cosmetic outcomes following respective surgery with wide margins. Ultimately the timing of tissue expansion i.e. before/after resection of the tumour, must weight the risk of delayed resective surgery on prognosis against the benefits of this reconstructive technique. Head and neck tumours requiring careful reconstruction may benefit from tissue expansion to provide adequate volumes of matching soft tissue, as shown in this case. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring MEG closer to the brain: Performance of on-scalp sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivanainen, Joonas; Stenroos, Matti; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-02-15

    Optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) have recently reached sensitivity levels required for magnetoencephalography (MEG). OPMs do not need cryogenics and can thus be placed within millimetres from the scalp into an array that adapts to the individual head size and shape, thereby reducing the distance from cortical sources to the sensors. Here, we quantified the improvement in recording MEG with hypothetical on-scalp OPM arrays compared to a 306-channel state-of-the-art SQUID array (102 magnetometers and 204 planar gradiometers). We simulated OPM arrays that measured either normal (nOPM; 102 sensors), tangential (tOPM; 204 sensors), or all components (aOPM; 306 sensors) of the magnetic field. We built forward models based on magnetic resonance images of 10 adult heads; we employed a three-compartment boundary element model and distributed current dipoles evenly across the cortical mantle. Compared to the SQUID magnetometers, nOPM and tOPM yielded 7.5 and 5.3 times higher signal power, while the correlations between the field patterns of source dipoles were reduced by factors of 2.8 and 3.6, respectively. Values of the field-pattern correlations were similar across nOPM, tOPM and SQUID gradiometers. Volume currents reduced the signals of primary currents on average by 10%, 72% and 15% in nOPM, tOPM and SQUID magnetometers, respectively. The information capacities of the OPM arrays were clearly higher than that of the SQUID array. The dipole-localization accuracies of the arrays were similar while the minimum-norm-based point-spread functions were on average 2.4 and 2.5 times more spread for the SQUID array compared to nOPM and tOPM arrays, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. White Matter Connectivity Pattern Associate with Characteristics of Scalp EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinnan; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xuebin; Zhang, Rui; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Guo, Lanjin; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-11-01

    The rhythm of electroencephalogram (EEG) depends on the neuroanatomical-based parameters such as white matter (WM) connectivity. However, the impacts of these parameters on the specific characteristics of EEG have not been clearly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that, these parameters contribute the inter-subject differences of EEG during performance of specific task such as motor imagery (MI). Though researchers have worked on this phenomenon, the idea is yet to be understood in terms of the mechanism that underlies such differences. Here, to tackle this issue, we began our investigations by first examining the structural features related to scalp EEG characteristics, which are event-related desynchronizations (ERDs), during MI using diffusion MRI. Twenty-four right-handed subjects were recruited to accomplish MI tasks and MRI scans. Based on the high spatial resolution of the structural and diffusion images, the motor-related WM links, such as basal ganglia (BG)-primary somatosensory cortex (SM1) pathway and supplementary motor area (SMA)-SM1 connection, were reconstructed by using probabilistic white matter tractography. Subsequently, the relationships of WM characteristics with EEG signals were investigated. These analyses demonstrated that WM pathway characteristics, including the connectivity strength and the positional characteristics of WM connectivity on SM1 (defined by the gyrus-sulcus ratio of connectivity, GSR), have a significant impact on ERDs when doing MI. Interestingly, the high GSR of WM connections between SM1 and BG were linked to the better ERDs. These results therefore, indicated that the connectivity in the gyrus of SM1 interacted with MI network which played the critical role for the scalp EEG signal extraction of MI to a great extent. The study provided the coupling mechanism between structural and dynamic physiological features of human brain, which would also contribute to understanding individual differences of EEG in MI

  9. SU-E-T-633: Preparation and Planning of a VMAT Multi - Arc Radiation Therapy Technique for Full Scalp Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C; Bardock, A; Berkelaar, S; Gillund, D; McGee, K; Mohamed, I; Lapointe, C [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The target volume for angiosarcoma of the scalp encompasses the entire scalp. Full scalp radiotherapy (FSRT) requires careful design of required bolus, immobilization and marking of the field before the patient CT is acquired. A VMAT multi-arc technique was designed to deliver FSRT for a patient with angiosarcoma of the scalp to a dose of 6000cGy in 25 fractions. Methods: A custom bolus helmet was fabricated from a 0.5 cm thick sheet of aquaplast material, which was molded to the patient’s head. With the bolus helmet in place the patient was then positioned supine on a H&N immobilization board. A custom vaclock bag positioned on a standard headrest and a thermoplastic mask were used to immobilize the patient. Additional bolus to cover the remaining treatment area was attached to the mask. We acquired two CT scans of the patient’s head, one in treatment position and an additional scan without the immobilization mask with wires marking the treatment area that the oncologist had delineated on the patient’s skin. The second scan was registered to the first and used to define the treatment CTV. A four-arc VMAT treatment planned using Varian-Eclipse was optimized to cover the skin with a PTV margin while sparing the brain and limiting the dose to the optic apparatus and lacrimal glands. Daily treatment setup was verified using anterior and lateral kV on-board-imaging. To verify the treated dose, TLDs were positioned on the patient’s scalp during one fraction. Results: With full dose coverage to the PTV, the mean dose to the brain was less than 24 Gy. The dose measured by the TLDs (mean difference 1%, standard deviation 4%)showed excellent agreement with the treatment planning calculation. Conclusion: FSRT delivered with a bolus helmet and a VMAT multi-arc technique can be accurately delivered with high dose uniformity and conformality.

  10. Microscopic examination in quantifying of Malassezia yeast in scalp and rapid diagnosis of fungi invasive condition: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zareei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malassezia Species are often commensal of the human skin and scalp that opportunistically in exist of particular predisposing factors, their proliferation increases; as, in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis which both togather affect more than 50% of humans, the excess proliferation of yeast in scalp, leads to scalp-flaking and causes physical and mental disorder in peaple, spacially in youth that their health and hiar hygiene and beauty is more important for them. Thus, this survey has been done for rapid, easy and inexpensive method to diagnosis of abnormal proliferation and invasive condition of Malassezia yeast and can be more benefical for proper treatment.Methods: Sampling with scalpel scraping from scalp of volunteer persons that had not bathed at least two day ago were done and preparation of direct microscopic slides and staining with methylene blue were accomplished. Then, survey of morpholgic characte-ristics, yeast quantification and mycelium detection were done by direct microscopic examination.Results: From 140 scalp samples of adult persons of both gender (male and female with different age groups, observation of malassezia yeast in 93.5% (131 were positive and 6.5% (9 were negative in direct microscopic examination. Results of yeast quanti-fication in positive cases were: mild or normal flora 25.2%, intermediate 24.5%, severe 50.3%. Detection of mycelium in positive cases were 22.9% (30 (P=0.007 df=2.Conclusion: Application of an accessible, easy and inexpensive method and a determi-nated pattern (yeast quantification with direct microscopic examination to distinguish normal flora from abnormal condition (excess proliferation and mycelium production in cases of Malassezia yeasts can be more useful to rapid diagnosis of abnormal pro-liferation and invasive condition in order to initiate a proper antifungal treatment.

  11. Reconstrucción inmediata de cuero cabelludo Immediate scalp reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Iribarren Brown

    2006-03-01

    . En conclusión, la estrategia de reconstrucción del cuero cabelludo mediante colgajos arterializados permite el cierre de grandes defectos en una operación fácil y con cicatrices inaparentes que quedan ocultas bajo el cabello. Es por ello que creemos que estos procedimientos son la mejor alternativa de tratamiento y recomendamos su uso por sus resultados fiables cuando se siguen los principios técnicos del manejo de colgajos.We present sucessive cases performed at Surgery Department of Hospital San Pablo, Coquimbo, Chile, between April1998, and April 2005: Twenty two consecutive patients suffering surgical or postinjury scalp defects, greater than 3 cm of diameter. Semilunar flap, mirror flap, or multiple pinwheel flap arterialized from the main scalp arteries were used for reconstruction. We determinate in every case the large of the defect, asociated bone loss, kind of surgery, end result and complications. Patients’ mean age was 40.6 years with rank between 3 and 71 years old. The involved anatomical area was parietal on 11 patients, (50 %, temporal in 7 cases (31.8 %, occipital in 3 cases (13.6 % and frontal 1 case, (4.5 %. The origin of scalp loss was malign or benign tumor resection in 10 patients, post injury 5 cases, secondary to neurosurgical procedures in 4 cases, and alopecia or baldness in 3 cases. The mean large of the defect was 147 cm² with rank between 28 and 615 cms² . The mirror flap was used in 10 cases (50 %, the sliding semilunar flap in 9 patients (36.4 %, and the multiple pinwheel flap in 3 patients (13.6 %. An aditional dermoepidermal graft was used on 6 patients to cover a small area of flap donor site (two mirror flaps, and two semilunar flaps. Patients’ evolution were without complications in 95 % of cases (21/22. One woman with a temporal bone necrosis after two craniotomies suffered a distal flap necrosis, and finally died due aspirative pneumonia. The three kind of flap were compared according the defect length and defect area

  12. Trace elements in scalp hair samples from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tamburo

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases.To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily.ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls.MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 μg/g vs. 4.49 μg/g and Rb = 0.007 μg/g vs. 0.01 μg/g; and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 μg/g vs. 0.007 μg/g compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01 for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living.The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of metabolic imbalance of chemical elements in the

  13. Trace Elements in Scalp Hair Samples from Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburo, Elisa; Varrica, Daniela; Dongarrà, Gaetano; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE) in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Objective To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily). Methods ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing–remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls. Results MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 μg/g vs. 4.49 μg/g and Rb = 0.007 μg/g vs. 0.01 μg/g;) and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 μg/g vs. 0.007 μg/g) compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01) for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living. Conclusion The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of

  14. A robust adaptive denoising framework for real-time artifact removal in scalp EEG measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Atilla; Grossman, Robert G.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Non-invasive measurement of human neural activity based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allows for the development of biomedical devices that interface with the nervous system for scientific, diagnostic, therapeutic, or restorative purposes. However, EEG recordings are often considered as prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts of different types and frequency characteristics. Among them, ocular artifacts and signal drifts represent major sources of EEG contamination, particularly in real-time closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, which require effective handling of these artifacts across sessions and in natural settings. Approach. We extend the usage of a robust adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) scheme ({H}∞ filtering) for removal of eye blinks, eye motions, amplitude drifts and recording biases simultaneously. We also characterize the volume conduction, by estimating the signal propagation levels across all EEG scalp recording areas due to ocular artifact generators. We find that the amplitude and spatial distribution of ocular artifacts vary greatly depending on the electrode location. Therefore, fixed filtering parameters for all recording areas would naturally hinder the true overall performance of an ANC scheme for artifact removal. We treat each electrode as a separate sub-system to be filtered, and without the loss of generality, they are assumed to be uncorrelated and uncoupled. Main results. Our results show over 95-99.9% correlation between the raw and processed signals at non-ocular artifact regions, and depending on the contamination profile, 40-70% correlation when ocular artifacts are dominant. We also compare our results with the offline independent component analysis and artifact subspace reconstruction methods, and show that some local quantities are handled better by our sample-adaptive real-time framework. Decoding performance is also compared with multi-day experimental data from 2 subjects

  15. Subcutaneous axillary and scalp metastases from non-gynecological retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma: an unusual presentation after surgical resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simrandeep Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas are rare sarcomas, with an incidence of less than 2 per million population. Cutaneous metastases from sarcoma account for only 1-2.6% of metastatic skin lesions. Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastasis from retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity. We present a case of 72-year-old male with scalp nodule and subcutaneous swelling in left posterior axillary fold. Fine needle aspiration cytology from both these sites revealed a sarcoma, which was positive for Smooth Muscle Actin and negative for S100 on cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC. The past history revealed surgical resection of a retroperitoneal mass in 2010 which was diagnosed on histopathology and IHC as leiomyosarcoma. A final diagnosis of metastatic deposits from leiomyosarcoma was made. Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma presenting as scalp and subcutaneous metastasis is an unusual presentation. Adequate clinical history and a high index of clinical suspicion is required to detect cutaneous and subcutaneous metastatic deposits occurring five years after surgical resection.

  16. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  17. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...

  19. Scalp congenital hemangioma with associated high-output cardiac failure in a premature infant: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sumedh S; Snelling, Brian M; Sur, Samir; Ramnath, Alexandra R; Bandstra, Emmalee S; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Scalp congenital hemangiomas (CHs) are rare vascular malformations among infants; they can be associated with an array of complications, including cardiac and cosmetic issues. Here, we report the endovascular treatment of a premature infant with a suspected large right parietal scalp hemangioma and associated high-output cardiac failure. Case description A two-day-old female premature infant (29 weeks gestational age; 1330 g birth weight) was referred by the neonatologists to our department for consultation and potential treatment of a large right parietal CH causing abrupt hypotension and high-output cardiac failure. Doppler ultrasound imaging at bedside revealed areas of arterial-venous shunting from the scalp and the presence of a superior sagittal sinus waveform, consistent with intracranial venous drainage. To alleviate cardiac dysfunction secondary to this lesion, trans-arterial embolization via n-butyl cyanoacrylate (nBCA) glue and deployment of detachable coils was performed via umbilical artery to occlude the right superficial temporal and occipital artery branches supplying the CH. Following treatment, the infant continued to require ventilator management, vasopressor support, and correction of coagulopathy, but by post-operative day two, her condition improved remarkably and the mass size began decreasing. The patient was discharged after a relatively uncomplicated subsequent 2½-month course in the neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusion Endovascular therapy proved effective and safe in treating cardiac failure associated with scalp CH, despite potential complications associated with neuro-interventional surgery in premature infants. Appropriate consideration in this patient population should be given to factors including blood loss, contrast use, radiation exposure, operative time, and possible intra-/post-operative complications.

  20. Assessing the quality of reports about randomized controlled trials of scalp acupuncture combined with another treatment for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Nim; Cho, Myung-Rae; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Ju-Hyung; Park, Gwang-Cheon; Song, Min-Yeong; Choi, Jin-Bong; Han, Jae-Young

    2017-09-06

    This study was designed to assess the quality of reporting on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of scalp acupuncture for the treatment of stroke. The following 8 databases were systematically investigated from their inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, National Institute of Informatics Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator, National Digital Science Library, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, and Korean Studies Information Service System. RCTs utilizing scalp acupuncture as an intervention for stroke were selected, and the quality of reports was assessed based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement (CONSORT) and Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture 2010 (STRICTA). For each study, the overall quality score (OQS) of 13 CONSORT items, a combined key methodological index score (MIS) of 5 CONSORT items, and the OQS of 17 STRICTA items were measured. The original reports of 63 RCTs were ultimately obtained, and the median CONSORT OQS was 7 (minimum 2, maximum 11). Particularly, the items 'trial design', 'sample size', 'ancillary analyses', and 'harms' had a positive rate of less than 10%. The median MIS was 1 (minimum 0, maximum 5), with 'allocation concealment and implementation' and 'intent-to-treat analysis (ITT) analysis' having a positive rate of less than 10%. The median STRICTA OQS was 11 (minimum 6, maximum 14), and only the items 'sample size' and 'intent-to-treat analysis' were reported, with a positive rate of less than 10%. The mean CONSORT OQS increased by approximately 0.81 for each 5-year period in which manuscripts were published (95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 1.19; p scalp acupuncture treatment for stroke was moderate to low. Furthermore, reporting of some items was either insufficient or inadequate in the majority of studies. In order to improve and standardize the quality of RCTs investigating scalp acupuncture

  1. Mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum canis: hystopathologic, mycologic, and immunogenetic features in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, Laura S; Dib, Moisés D; Nuncira, Carmen T; Nardelli, Luciana; Vullo, Carlos; Collino, César; Abiega, Claudio; Cortes, Paulo R; Spesso, María F; Masih, Diana T

    2011-05-01

    Dermatophytic mycetoma is an extremely rare subcutaneous mycosis. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with clinical, histologic, and mycologic findings consistent with a mycetoma of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the immunologic and immunogenetic features of a patient with a recalcitrant dermatophytic mycetoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  3. Reduction of global interference of scalp-hemodynamics in functional near-infrared spectroscopy using short distance probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takanori; Nambu, Isao; Takeda, Kotaro; Aihara, Takatsugu; Yamashita, Okito; Isogaya, Yuko; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Otaka, Yohei; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki; Osu, Rieko

    2016-11-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is used to measure cerebral activity because it is simple and portable. However, scalp-hemodynamics often contaminates fNIRS signals, leading to detection of cortical activity in regions that are actually inactive. Methods for removing these artifacts using standard source-detector distance channels (Long-channel) tend to over-estimate the artifacts, while methods using additional short source-detector distance channels (Short-channel) require numerous probes to cover broad cortical areas, which leads to a high cost and prolonged experimental time. Here, we propose a new method that effectively combines the existing techniques, preserving the accuracy of estimating cerebral activity and avoiding the disadvantages inherent when applying the techniques individually. Our new method accomplishes this by estimating a global scalp-hemodynamic component from a small number of Short-channels, and removing its influence from the Long-channels using a general linear model (GLM). To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, we collected fNIRS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements during a motor task. First, we measured changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Oxy-Hb) from 18 Short-channels placed over motor-related areas, and confirmed that the majority of scalp-hemodynamics was globally consistent and could be estimated from as few as four Short-channels using principal component analysis. We then measured ∆Oxy-Hb from 4 Short- and 43 Long-channels. The GLM identified cerebral activity comparable to that measured separately by fMRI, even when scalp-hemodynamics exhibited substantial task-related modulation. These results suggest that combining measurements from four Short-channels with a GLM provides robust estimation of cerebral activity at a low cost. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feedback solutions for low crosstalk in dense arrays of high-T c SQUIDs for on-scalp MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, S.; Xie, M.; Chukharkin, M.; Pfeiffer, C.; Kalabukhov, A.; Winkler, D.; Schneiderman, J. F.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems based on a dense array of high critical temperature (high-T c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can theoretically outperform a state-of-the-art MEG system. On the way towards building such a multichannel system, we evaluate feedback methods suitable for use in dense high-T c SQUID arrays where the sensors are in very close proximity to the head (on-scalp MEG). We test on-chip superconducting coils and direct injection of the feedback current into the SQUID loop as alternatives to the wire-wound copper coils commonly used in single-channel high-T c SQUID-based MEG systems. For the evaluation, we have performed coupling, noise, and crosstalk measurements. We conclude that direct injection is the optimal solution for dense on-scalp MEG as it gives crosstalk below 0.5% even between SQUIDs whose pickup loops are within 0.8 mm of one another. Further, this solution provides sufficient flux coupling without adding additional noise. Finally, it does not compromise the standoff distance, which is important for on-scalp MEG.

  5. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  6. PHOEBE: a method for real time mapping of optodes-scalp coupling in functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollonini, Luca; Bortfeld, Heather; Oghalai, John S

    2016-12-01

    Recent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instrumentation encompasses several dozen of optodes to enable reconstructing a hemodynamic image of the entire cerebral cortex. Despite its potential clinical applicability, widespread use of fNIRS with human subjects is currently limited by unresolved issues, namely the collection from the entirety of optical channels of signals with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficient to carry out a reliable estimation of cortical hemodynamics, and the considerable amount of time that placing numerous optodes take with individuals for whom achieving good optical coupling to the scalp is difficult due to thick or dark hair. To address these issues, we developed a numerical method that: 1) at the channel level, computes an objective measure of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) related to its optical coupling to the scalp, akin to electrode conductivity used in electroencephalography (EEG), and 2) at the optode level, determines and displays the coupling status of all individual optodes in real time on a model of a human head. This approach aims to shorten the pre-acquisition preparation time by visually displaying which optodes require further adjustment for optimum scalp coupling, and to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of all optical channels contributing to the functional hemodynamic mapping. The methodology described in this paper has been implemented in a software tool named PHOEBE (placing headgear optodes efficiently before experimentation) that is freely available for use by the fNIRS community.

  7. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  8. Influence of the location and type of epileptogenic lesion on scalp interictal epileptiform discharges and high-frequency oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Oderiz, Carolina; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2017-12-01

    To increase the diagnostic power of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) by investigating whether lesion type and location influence the morphology of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and the likelihood that IEDs and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are present. We studied EEG activity in epilepsy patients with lesional epilepsy. Lesions were classified by type and by location (region and depth). We marked a maximum of 50 IEDs during deep non-rapid eye movement sleep. IEDs were identified as spikes or sharp waves with or without slow waves, or bursts of spikes or sharp waves with or without slow waves. We analyzed HFOs in the studies showing at least 50 IEDs. In 192 scalp EEG studies, the differences in the percentage of studies showing IEDs in each depth-related group were not statistically significant, whereas HFOs (55 studies) predominated in patients exhibiting superficial lesions (pinfluence the presence of IEDs, as one might expect, but it influences that of HFOs. This is explained as follows. HFOs are generated in the epileptogenic region, do not propagate, and hence are only visible on scalp EEG with superficial lesions. IEDs can result from a nearby focus or propagate from a deep generator and are therefore equally present with deep, intermediate, and superficial lesions. Additionally, IED morphology provides information in determining the lesion type. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Multidimensional ultrasound and computed tomography imaging support in bleeding plexiform neurofibromatosis of the scalp: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Wortsman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active bleeding in plexiform neurofibromatosis can be a life-threatening complication in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. The prompt imaging support of 2D-3D ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT during the active hemorrhage phase of cutaneous neurofibromas has not been previously reported. We report a case with NF1 who experienced a sudden swelling in the parieto-temporal region that corresponded to a massive and active hemorrhage within a plexiform neurofibroma. The US and CT imaging characteristics of this bleeding tumor are shown. Active hemorrhage in a plexiform neurofibroma of the scalp appeared in US as a heterogeneous hypodermal mass. CT demonstrated a fully hyperdense soft tissue mass. These characteristics differ from the non-complicated or old hemorrhagic imaging appearances of scalp plexiform neurofibromas and encourage prompt surgical treatment. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of imaging support in the early diagnosis of this hemorrhagic complication of NF1 in the scalp and also stimulates multispecialty management.

  10. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  11. Total Resolution of Large Scalp Swelling due to Calvarial Tuberculosis with Medical Management Only: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Pankaj; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2015-01-01

    Calvarial tuberculosis is rare. It presents with single or multiple discharging sinus or a localized focal scalp swelling with overlying skin discoloration. Usually subgaleal collection is associated with evolution of sinus formation in different stages. However, extensive scalp swelling spreading across bifrontal area and overlying healthy scalp is not reported. Pathologically it causes significant destruction of calvarium including erosion of both the tables with concurrent significant epidural granulation tissue deposits as dura acts as barrier to trans-dural spread. Concurrent surgical management and antitubercular medication is the standard treatment modality. Authors report a unique presentation of calvarial tuberculosis in 17-year- female presented with complaint of large painless scalp swelling extensively spreading over both frontal area from supraorbital margin to coronal suture without discoloration, puckering of overlying scalp or sinus formation, and neuroimaging showed absence of extradural granulation tissue deposits with very subtle bony architecture changes of adjacent calvarium. The swelling completely subsided with medical therapy alone. To the best of knowledge of authors such case of calvarial tuberculosis having large scalp swelling in western literature has not been reported. Clinical presentation, imaging, management and pertinent literature are reviewed.

  12. Hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells from human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Tang-You; Lu, Yuan-Gang; Liu, Rong-Qing; Mai, Yue; Cheng, Bo; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Tang, Shu-Qian

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells in vivo and in vitro. Dermal papilla cells, dermal sheath cells obtained from human scalp skin by enzyme digestion were mixed with collagen to form mesenchymal cell-populated collagen gels. Superior and inferior epithelial cells and bulb matrical cells were then cultured on these gels by organotypic culture to recombine bilayer artificial skins. Dermal papilla cells and outer root sheath keratinocytes were mingled together and transplanted under subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal skin of nude mice. The results of histologic examination was observed with HE stain. These recombinants by organotypic culture all reformed bilayer structure like nature skin. Hair follicle-like structure reformation was found in dermal sheath cell-populated collagen gel when combined with superior or inferior epithelial cells. Dermal papilla cells also induced superior and inferior epithelial cells to form hair follicle on nude mice. Low passage dermal papilla cells mixed with hair follicle epithelial cells reformed many typical hair follicle structures and produced hair fibres after transplantation on nude mice. The dermal part of hair follicle, such as dermal papilla cells and dermal sheath cells, has the ability to induce hair follicle formation by interaction with the epithelial cells of hair follicle.

  13. Scalp EEG acquisition in a low-noise environment: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Ali Shahidi; Dumont, Guy A; Yedlin, Matthew J; Lapeyrie, Philippe; Sudre, Christophe; Gaffet, Stéphane

    2011-08-01

    This pilot study investigates effects of an ultra shielded capsule at the low-noise underground laboratory (LSBB), Rustrel, France, when used to acquire scalp electroencephalogram (EEG). Analysis of EEG recordings from three volunteers confirms that clean EEG signals can be acquired in the LSBB capsule without the need for notch filtering. In addition, using different setups for acquiring EEG in the capsule, statistical analysis of power spectral densities based on a geodesic distance measure reveals that the laptop computer and patient module do not introduce any noise on recorded signals. Moreover, the current study shows that the backward counting task as a mental activity can be better detected using the EEG acquired in the capsule due to the higher level of â-band activities. The counting-relaxed â-band energy ratio is calculated using the S transform and compared between the hospital and capsule, revealing significantly higher values in the capsule (p EEG studies, including establishing novel low-noise EEG benchmarks.

  14. Surface Laplacian of scalp electrical signals and independent component analysis resolve EMG contamination of electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, S P; DeLosAngeles, D; Lewis, T W; Powers, D M W; Whitham, E M; Willoughby, J O; Pope, K J

    2015-09-01

    The serious impact of electromyogram (EMG) contamination of electroencephalogram (EEG) is well recognised. The objective of this research is to demonstrate that combining independent component analysis with the surface Laplacian can eliminate EMG contamination of the EEG, and to validate that this processing does not degrade expected neurogenic signals. The method involves sequential application of ICA, using a manual procedure to identify and discard EMG components, followed by the surface Laplacian. The extent of decontamination is quantified by comparing processed EEG with EMG-free data that was recorded during pharmacologically induced neuromuscular paralysis. The combination of the ICA procedure and the surface Laplacian, with a flexible spherical spline, results in a strong suppression of EMG contamination at all scalp sites and frequencies. Furthermore, the ICA and surface Laplacian procedure does not impair the detection of well-known, cerebral responses; alpha activity with eyes-closed; ERP components (N1, P2) in response to an auditory oddball task; and steady state responses to photic and auditory stimulation. Finally, more flexible spherical splines increase the suppression of EMG by the surface Laplacian. We postulate this is due to ICA enabling the removal of local muscle sources of EMG contamination and the Laplacian transform being insensitive to distant (postural) muscle EMG contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measures of spatial similarity and response magnitude in MEG and scalp EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Huber, David E

    2008-01-01

    Sensor selection is typically used in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but this practice cannot differentiate between changes in the distribution of neural sources versus changes in the magnitude of neural sources. This problem is further complicated by (1) subject averaging despite sizable individual anatomical differences and (2) experimental designs that produce overlapping waveforms due to short latencies between stimuli. Using data from the entire spatial array of sensors, we present simple multivariate measures that (1) normalize against individual differences by comparison with each individual's standard response; (2) compare the similarity of spatial patterns in different conditions (angle test) to ascertain whether the distribution of neural sources is different; and (3) compare the response magnitude between conditions which are sufficiently similar (projection test). These claims are supported by applying the reported techniques to a short-term word priming paradigm as measured with MEG, revealing more reliable results as compared to traditional sensor selection methodology. Although precise cortical localization remains intractable, these techniques are easy to calculate, relatively assumption free, and yield the important psychological measures of similarity and response magnitude.

  16. Detection and characterization of traumatic scalp injuries for forensic evaluation using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malli, Norbert; Ehammer, Thomas; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the rate of detection and correct classification of traumatic soft tissue injuries of the head using clinical multislice computed tomography (MSCT) compared with an external forensic examination. Thirty-one patients with soft tissue injuries after head trauma and clinically indicated cerebral MSCT scan underwent an external forensic examination with documentation of the morphological appearance and the exact localization of scalp and facial injuries. MSCT data were evaluated by a radiologist blinded to the results of the external examination using axial images as well as multiplanar reconstruction tools. The results of the radiological and forensic report were compared and analyzed. The main finding was that clinical MSCT data of the head detected 55 % of all external lesions and diagnosed the correct morphological type of lesion in 30 %. All lacerations and 44 % of the hematomas were correctly identified in the radiological report, whereas the diagnosis of swellings and abrasions was difficult. MSCT showed a high specificity for all types of soft tissue lesions. Additionally, a substantial number of internal lesions such as fractures or intracerebral bleedings were revealed which were not detected in the external examination. The results demonstrate that the forensic-radiologic evaluation of clinical MSCT data has a good diagnostic performance and is a valuable method to retrospectively supplement external forensic examination in living crime victims. It also might-to a certain extent-be used as the only source in cases where no forensic external examination has taken place within due time.

  17. Effect of scalp and facial hair on air displacement plethysmography estimates of percentage of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P B; Fields, D A; Hunter, G R; Gower, B A

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body hair (scalp and facial) on air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) estimates of percentage of body fat. A total of 25 men (31.4 +/- 8.0 years, 83.4 +/- 12.2 kg, 181.8 +/- 6.9 cm) agreed to grow a beard for 3 weeks to participate in the study. Total body density (g/cm(3)) and percentage of body fat were evaluated by BOD POD. To observe the effect of trapped isothermal air in body hair, BOD POD measures were performed in four conditions: criterion method (the beard was shaven and a swimcap was worn), facial hair and swimcap, facial hair and no swimcap, and no facial hair and no swimcap(.) The presence of only a beard (facial hair and swimcap) resulted in a significant underestimation of percentage of body fat (16.2%, 1.0618 g/cm(3)) vs. the criterion method (17.1%, 1.0597 g/cm(3), p BOD POD.

  18. Trace elements in human scalp hair and soil in Irian Jaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaseo Ponzetta, M; Nardi, S; Calliari, I; Lucchese, M

    1998-06-01

    Pb, Cd, and Ni contents were determined in the scalp hair of the Asmat of Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea) on 35 adult subjects. These data are presented together with those of Al, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr, which were determined in previous research on the same group. Hair samples were analyzed by EDXRS and ICP. Trace elements were also determined in 12 soil samples from the same area by EDXRS (Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) and ICP (Cu, Sr, Ti), and by AAS (Cd, Ni, Pb). When hair element levels are compared and discussed with those of other New Guinea populations, acculturated and nonacculturated tropical groups, populations from Western countries and from polluted areas, and "recommended levels" in the literature, they greatly exceed Western levels and generally fit those of other New Guinea populations, stressing the importance of common environment, subsistence, and behavior. The results of soil analyses are consistent with the presence of those elements in hair, and their quantitative distribution follows a common trend. Metal mobility in soil, patterns of absorption, and transfer from soil to plants and to humans are considered here.

  19. Circadian variation of scalp EEG: a novel measure based on wavelet packet transform and differential entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Ali Shahidi; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B; Dumont, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel entropy-based measure to quantify the circadian variations of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) by analyzing waking epochs of nap opportunities under an ultradian sleep-wake cycle (USW) protocol. To compute this circadian measure for a nap opportunity, each waking epoch (~1 sec) is decomposed using wavelet packet transform and the relative energy for the desired frequency band (here, 10-12 Hz) is calculated. Then, in a bootstrapping procedure, a shape statistic (skewness or kurtosis) of the relative energy distribution, after each resampling, is computed. Finally, the probability density function of this statistic is estimated, and the corresponding differential entropy is considered as the circadian measure. This measure was evaluated using EEG recordings from 4 healthy subjects during a 72-h USW procedure. According to the results, the proposed measure showed a significant circadian variation both for individual and group data, with peak values occurring near the core body temperature minimum. The performance of the entropy-based measure was also compared with that of two other measures, namely mean energy logarithm and mean energy ratio, revealing the superiority of this measure.

  20. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  1. Classification of epilepsy types through global network analysis of scalp electroencephalograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Uncheol; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Ki-Young

    2006-04-01

    Epilepsy is a dynamic disease in which self-organization and emergent structures occur dynamically at multiple levels of neuronal integration. Therefore, the transient relationship within multichannel electroencephalograms (EEGs) is crucial for understanding epileptic processes. In this paper, we show that the global relationship within multichannel EEGs provides us with more useful information in classifying two different epilepsy types than pairwise relationships such as cross correlation. To demonstrate this, we determine the global network structure within channels of the scalp EEG based on the minimum spanning tree method. The topological dissimilarity of the network structures from different types of temporal lobe epilepsy is described in the form of the divergence rate and is computed for 11 patients with left (LTLE) and right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE). We find that patients with LTLE and RTLE exhibit different large scale network structures, which emerge at the epoch immediately before the seizure onset, not in the preceding epochs. Our results suggest that patients with the two different epilepsy types display distinct large scale dynamical networks with characteristic epileptic network structures.

  2. Adams-Oliver syndrome, a successful conservative approach for a large scalp defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Baptista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adams-Oliver syndrome was first described in 1945 as a multiple congenital malformations association including aplasia cutis congenita and terminal transverse limb defects, along with cardiovascular and central nervous system anomalies. We report the case of a boy, prenatally diagnosed with a malformation of feet and right hand. At birth, a malformation of the skull was observed, at midline and right frontal, parietal and occipital region, with meningeal exposition. He presented with abnormal feet and right hand with hypoplastic fingers and also exhibiting cutis marmorata telangiectatica. Cardiac, abdominal and central nervous system malformations were excluded. He started a conservative approach based on daily dressings. The scalp defect closed at 4 months with this management strategy. At this age, a skull defect about 5 cm long was still perceptible by palpation of the area. The boy showed normal growth and neurologic development. No complications were reported. This report reinforces the effectiveness of conservative management strategies for extensive bone and epithelization defects in syndromes of aplasia cutis congenita like Adams-Oliver syndrome.

  3. The treatment of extensive scalp lesions using coplanar and non-coplanar photon IMRT: a single institution experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This clinical study compared four different cases of extensive scalp malignancies treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The merits of coplanar and non-coplanar Step-and-shoot total scalp irradiation techniques were evaluated against the background of the literature. Methods Four patients (angiosarcoma, n=2, cutaneous B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, B-NHL, n=1, mycosis fungoides, n=1) treated between 2008 and 2012 at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient with executed coplanar plan, a non-coplanar plan and vice versa has been calculated additionally for direct comparison. Three patients underwent limited surgery before radiotherapy. Individual adapted bolus material was used for every patient (helmet). Total scalp dose was 30 Gy (B-NHL, mycosis fungoides) and 50 Gy (angiosarcoma) with fractional doses of 2.0-2.5 Gy (without sequential local boost in three patients). Conformity and homogeneity indexes and dose volume histograms were used for treatment plan comparison. Results Dose hot spots were higher in coplanar plans (110-128% Dmax). Non-coplanar plans showed a more homogeneous dose distribution (HI = .12 - .17) and superior PTV coverage (88 - 96%). Target dose coverage was 81-117% in non-coplanar and 30-128% in coplanar plans. Coplanar plans yielded a stronger dose gradient across the target (.7-1.6 Gy/mm) compared to non-coplanar plans (.8-1.3 Gy/mm). The most conformal plan was a non-coplanar plan (CI = .7). Mean and maximum brain doses were comparable and showed an almost linear decrease between min. and max. dose. The optic chiasm and brain stem was spared most with non-coplanar plans, mean doses to the lenses ranged between 4 and 8 Gy and were higher in non-coplanar plans as were doses to the optic nerves. Radiotherapy tolerance was acceptable and acute side effects included erythema, scalp pain, alopecia and radiodermatitis which all spontaneously resolved. Two patients accomplished partial response, two

  4. Identification of scalp EEG circadian variation using a novel correlation sum measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Zandi, Ali; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B.; Dumont, Guy A.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the circadian variation of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in both individual and group levels using a correlation sum measure, quantifying self-similarity of the EEG relative energy across waking epochs. Approach. We analysed EEG recordings from central-parietal and occipito-parietal montages in nine healthy subjects undergoing a 72 h ultradian sleep-wake cycle protocol. Each waking epoch (˜1 s) of every nap opportunity was decomposed using the wavelet packet transform, and the relative energy for that epoch was calculated in the desired frequency band using the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then, the resulting set of energy values was resampled randomly to generate different subsets with equal number of elements. The correlation sum of each subset was then calculated over a range of distance thresholds, and the average over all subsets was computed. This average value was finally scaled for each nap opportunity and considered as a new circadian measure. Main results. According to the evaluation results, a clear circadian rhythm was identified in some EEG frequency ranges, particularly in 4-8 Hz and 10-12 Hz. The correlation sum measure not only was able to disclose the circadian rhythm on the group data but also revealed significant circadian variations in most individual cases, as opposed to previous studies only reporting the circadian rhythms on a population of subjects. Compared to a naive measure based on the EEG absolute energy in the frequency band of interest, the proposed measure showed a clear superiority using both individual and group data. Results also suggested that the acrophase (i.e., the peak) of the circadian rhythm in 10-12 Hz occurs close to the core body temperature minimum. Significance. These results confirm the potential usefulness of the proposed EEG-based measure as a non-invasive circadian marker.

  5. Delving into α-stable distribution in noise suppression for seizure detection from scalp EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Qi, Yu; Wang, Yiwen; Lei, Zhen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Objective. There is serious noise in EEG caused by eye blink and muscle activities. The noise exhibits similar morphologies to epileptic seizure signals, leading to relatively high false alarms in most existing seizure detection methods. The objective in this paper is to develop an effective noise suppression method in seizure detection and explore the reason why it works. Approach. Based on a state-space model containing a non-linear observation function and multiple features as the observations, this paper delves deeply into the effect of the α-stable distribution in the noise suppression for seizure detection from scalp EEG. Compared with the Gaussian distribution, the α-stable distribution is asymmetric and has relatively heavy tails. These properties make it more powerful in modeling impulsive noise in EEG, which usually can not be handled by the Gaussian distribution. Specially, we give a detailed analysis in the state estimation process to show the reason why the α-stable distribution can suppress the impulsive noise. Main results. To justify each component in our model, we compare our method with 4 different models with different settings on a collected 331-hour epileptic EEG data. To show the superiority of our method, we compare it with the existing approaches on both our 331-hour data and 892-hour public data. The results demonstrate that our method is most effective in both the detection rate and the false alarm. Significance. This is the first attempt to incorporate the α-stable distribution to a state-space model for noise suppression in seizure detection and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  6. Trace elements in scalp hair and fingernails as biomarkers in clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdalla Momen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are accumulating evidences that the metabolism of several trace elements might have specific roles in clinical disorders and the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM and hypertension (HT. Objectives: To validate the analytical procedure and compare the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in scalp hair (SH and fingernails (FN of patients. Furthermore, to prove that human tissues such as hair and nails are useful in the studies pertaining to chronic body exposure and good biomarkers in clinical studies. Setting and Design: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy operating conditions were carefully selected and well-optimised in order to maximise the sensitivity for the desired elements and to obtain the best precision and accuracy. Factors affecting analytical and biological variability of the concentrations under study were discussed and carefully optimised. Materials and Methods: Totally, 160 samples of SH and 130 FN were collected from occupants of urban population from different districts adjacent to Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different analytical procedures were investigated, and the most reliable one was developed and validated. Method Validity: The validity of the method was checked by standard addition method. The recoveries were in the range of 96.2-105.7%. Results: Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb levels in SH were significantly higher in DM and HT compared to control groups, whereas, Zn was significantly lower. Cd and Pb levels in FN were significantly higher in DM and HT, whereas, Cr and Zn were lower, and Cu was in the same levels as compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings may be consistent with those obtained in other studies, confirming that the deficiency and efficiency of trace elements play a role in clinical disorders and the pathogenesis of many diseases.

  7. Using nicotine in scalp hair to assess maternal passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Lu, Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying population exposure level to tobacco smoke is important for investigating its adverse effects on human health. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and application of using population hair concentrations of nicotine and cotinine to indicate their exposure level to tobacco smoke among pregnant women. Our study recruited 256 mothers who delivered healthy babies and collected their hair samples from scalp, of which 172 mothers were self-reported non-passive smokers and the other 84 mothers were self-reported passive smokers. We analyzed nicotine and cotinine concentrations of the hair section grown during the early pregnancy. The linear relationship between cotinine and nicotine was developed and validated by internal cross-validation method. Our results revealed that self-reported passive smokers had higher concentrations of nicotine [2.08 (1.00-4.46) ng/mg hair, i.e. median value (inter-quartile range)] and cotinine [0.063 (0.041-0.148) ng/mg hair] than non-passive smokers [1.35 (0.58-2.59) ng/mg hair of nicotine and 0.049 (0.022-0.087) ng/mg hair of cotinine, respectively]. There existed a linear regression model between hair cotinine and nicotine concentrations, i.e. [cotinine] = 0.024 × [nicotine]+0.0184 (R2 = 0.756) for this population. The internal cross-validation squared correlation coefficient slightly increased from 0.689 to 0.734 with the training subjects varying from 20% to 90%, suggesting that this regression model had high robustness and predictive accuracy. It was concluded that nicotine in maternal hair can evaluate the hair cotinine level and reflect maternal passive exposure level to ambient tobacco smoke with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of single bipolar scalp derivation for the detection of ictal events during long-term EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Frank C; Geertsema, Evelien E; Velis, Demetrios N; Reus, Elise Em; Visser, Gerhard H

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is difficult to diagnose using routine EEG recordings of short duration in patients who have low seizure frequency. Long-term EEG may be useful but is impractical in an out-of-hospital setting. We investigated whether single-channel scalp EEG placed behind the earlobe is suitable for seizure identification during prolonged EEG monitoring. Scalp EEG samples were selected from subjects over 15 years of age, and comprised two segments of either background followed by seizure or background followed by background. Bipolar EEG derivations in three directions (F8-T8, C4-T8 and T8-P8) were evaluated for the presence of a seizure by two experienced reviewers. For each EEG segment containing a seizure, one pair of electrodes was oriented towards the suspected region of seizure onset, while two pairs of electrodes were oriented elsewhere. The EEG data contained five frontally localized seizures, five parietal, five temporal, two occipital, and four primary or secondary generalized seizures. The sensitivity and specificity for recognition of seizures was 86% and 95% for Reviewer 1, and 79% and 99% for Reviewer 2, respectively. When identifying a seizure with the lead orientation towards the region of seizure onset, both reviewers identified 20 out of 21 seizures (95%). When the lead was not oriented towards the region of seizure onset, the reviewers identified 34 and 30 out of 42 ictal records correctly, respectively. These results suggest that it is possible to identify epileptic seizures by bipolar EEG derivation using only two scalp electrodes. Lead orientation towards the suspected region of seizure onset is important for optimal detection sensitivity.

  9. Differences between the N1 waves of the responses to interaural time and intensity disparities: scalp topography and dipole sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, P; Yagcioglu, S; Goksoy, C

    2001-03-01

    Being the two complementary cues to directional hearing, interaural time and intensity disparities (ITD and IID, respectively), are known to be separately encoded in the brain stem. We address the question as to whether their codes are collapsed into a single lateralization code subcortically or they reach the cortex via separate channels and are processed there in different areas. Two continuous trains of 100/s clicks were dichotically presented. At 2 s intervals either an interaural time delay of 1ms or an interaural level difference of 20 dB (HL) was introduced for 50 ms, shifting the intracranial sound image laterally for this brief period of time. Long-latency responses to these directional stimuli, which had been tested to evoke no potentials under monotic or diotic conditions, as well as to sound pips of 50 ms duration were recorded from 124 scalp electrodes. Scalp potential and current density maps at N1 latency were obtained from thirteen normal subjects. A 4-sphere head model with bilaterally symmetrical dipoles was used for source analysis and a simplex algorithm preceded by a genetic algorithm was employed for solving the inverse problem. Inter- and intra-subject comparisons showed that the N1 responses evoked by IID and ITD as well as by sound pip stimuli had significantly different scalp topographies and interhemispheric dominance patterns. Significant location and orientation differences between their estimated dipole sources were also noted. We conclude that interaural time and intensity disparities (thus the lateral shifts of a sound image caused by these two cues) are processed in different ways and/or in different areas in auditory cortex.

  10. Differences in Topographical Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Scalp Between Patients With Migraine and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, Johanna; Ruiz, Marina; Palacios-Ceña, María; Madeleine, Pascal; Guerrero, Ángel L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-02-01

    To investigate differences in topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the scalp between patients with migraine and healthy controls considering the chronicity (episodic/chronic) and side (strictly unilateral/bilateral) of the symptoms. It seems that the trigeminal area is sensitized in migraine. No study has investigated topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the scalp in patients with migraine. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed from 21 points distributed over the scalp in 86 patients with episodic migraine, 76 with chronic migraine, and 42 healthy age and matched healthy controls in a blinded design. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps based on interpolation of the PPTs were constructed. Clinical features of migraine, anxiety, and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) were collected. The multivariate ANCOVA revealed significant differences in PPT between points (F = 55.674; P migraine groups than in healthy controls in all points (P migraine (P > .335) except for Fp1 (P = .045) and Fp2 (P = .017) points where subjects with chronic migraine had lower PPTs than those with episodic migraine; (3) no differences between bilateral/unilateral migraine (P > .417). An anterior to posterior gradient was found, with the lowest PPTs located in frontal regions and the highest PPTs in occipital areas (all groups, P migraine exhibited generalized pressure pain hypersensitivity in the head as compared to healthy controls and that hypersensitivity was similar between episodic/chronic and unilateral/bilateral migraine. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed an anterior to posterior gradient of pressure pain sensitivity in both migraine and control groups. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  11. Scalp hair analysis as a tool in assessing human exposure to heavy metals (S. Domingos mine, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R; Ribeiro, R; Gonçalves, F

    2004-07-05

    Hair samples from the scalp were used in a preliminary assessment of heavy metals exposure (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn) of the human population living near an abandoned cupric pyrite mine (Mina de S. Domingos, Southeast Alentejo, Portugal). In parallel with the collection of hair samples, individuals from two different communities at the South and North of the mine area answered a questionnaire designed to obtain information about potential exposure pathways to these elements. The questionnaire allowed data collection about the most frequently consumed foodstuffs, drinking water sources, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and health condition. Higher concentrations, and subsequently higher ranges, of Cd, Cu and As were recorded in individuals living near the mine (MSD group), in opposition to individuals living several kilometers apart. Additionally, the concentrations recorded in the hair of some individuals from the MSD group were above the reference values for non-exposed individuals, suggesting their enhanced exposure. However, no significant differences were found for the average concentration of these elements between villages. Individuals from the CP and SC groups presented significantly higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in scalp hair. These results were in agreement with the concentrations of these elements recorded in soil samples. The water supplies of the area do not seem to be potential sources of trace elements for human beings. In opposition, individuals that frequently consume milk and cheese obtained from cattle that usually breeds in the area presented significantly higher concentrations of As and Mn in their scalp hair. Our results suggest that the population of S. Domingos mine area and neighbour localities may be exposed to some of the elements analysed namely Mn and Zn. The most likely exposure pathways seemed to be animal foodstuffs, however, a more detailed analysis of these products, as well as garden vegetables and fruits, should be

  12. Modelling and validation of diffuse reflectance of the adult human head for fNIRS: scalp sub-layers definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Montero-Hernández, Samuel; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-11-01

    Accurate estimation of brain haemodynamics parameters such as cerebral blood flow and volume as well as oxygen consumption i.e. metabolic rate of oxygen, with funcional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) requires precise characterization of light propagation through head tissues. An anatomically realistic forward model of the human adult head with unprecedented detailed specification of the 5 scalp sublayers to account for blood irrigation in the connective tissue layer is introduced. The full model consists of 9 layers, accounts for optical properties ranging from 750nm to 950nm and has a voxel size of 0.5mm. The whole model is validated comparing the predicted remitted spectra, using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation propagation with 108 photons, against continuous wave (CW) broadband fNIRS experimental data. As the true oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during acquisition are unknown, a genetic algorithm searched for the vector of parameters that generates a modelled spectrum that optimally fits the experimental spectrum. Differences between experimental and model predicted spectra was quantified using the Root mean square error (RMSE). RMSE was 0.071 +/- 0.004, 0.108 +/- 0.018 and 0.235+/-0.015 at 1, 2 and 3cm interoptode distance respectively. The parameter vector of absolute concentrations of haemoglobin species in scalp and cortex retrieved with the genetic algorithm was within histologically plausible ranges. The new model capability to estimate the contribution of the scalp blood flow shall permit incorporating this information to the regularization of the inverse problem for a cleaner reconstruction of brain hemodynamics.

  13. Presurgical evaluation for partial epilepsy: Relative contributions of chronic depth-electrode recordings versus FDG-PET and scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Henry, T.R.; Risinger, M.W.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Sutherling, W.W.; Levesque, M.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1990-11-01

    One hundred fifty-three patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy underwent chronic stereotactic depth-electrode EEG (SEEG) evaluations after being studied by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scalp-sphenoidal EEG telemetry. We carried out retrospective standardized reviews of local cerebral metabolism and scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets to determine when SEEG recordings revealed additional useful information. FDG-PET localization was misleading in only 3 patients with temporal lobe SEEG ictal onsets for whom extratemporal or contralateral hypometabolism could be attributed to obvious nonepileptic structural defects. Two patients with predominantly temporal hypometabolism may have had frontal epileptogenic regions, but ultimate localization remains uncertain. Scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets were misleading in 5 patients. For 37 patients with congruent focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets and temporal hypometabolic zones, SEEG recordings never demonstrated extratemporal or contralateral epileptogenic regions; however, 3 of these patients had nondiagnostic SEEG evaluations. The results of subsequent subdural grid recordings indicated that at least 1 of these patients may have been denied beneficial surgery as a result of an equivocal SEEG evaluation. Weighing risks and benefits, it is concluded that anterior temporal lobectomy is justified without chronic intracranial recording when specific criteria for focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG onsets are met, localized hypometabolism predominantly involves the same temporal lobe, and no other conflicting information has been obtained from additional tests of focal functional deficit, structural imaging, or seizure semiology.

  14. Quantification of arsenic in dialysate solution and scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients by cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Mahar, Khalida Perveen

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in pharmaceutical and scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients by cloud point extraction (CPE). The scalp hair samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion in nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide (2 + 1, v/v). Then, dialysate and digested scalp hair solutions were preconcentrated by CPE using pyronine B as a complexing agent. The resulting complex was entrapped in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114) prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The validity of the CPE method for As was checked by analysis of a certified reference material of human hair and a standard addition method for dialysate solution. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the CPE methods were studied and optimized. After optimization of the complexation and extraction conditions, a preconcentration factor of 52 was obtained for As in 10 mL of dialysate solution and acid digested samples of scalp hair. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ of As for the preconcentration of 10 mL of solution were 0.022 and 0.073 microg/L, respectively. The level of As in scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients was higher than in healthy controls.

  15. Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp- what are the steps to be followed? Case report and review of the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Pinteala, Tudor; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare malformation characterized by localized congenital absence of the skin. It rarely occurs on the trunk and limbs, and can occur in isolation or as part of a heterogeneous group of syndromes. We report a case of a 4-day-old boy with a 5.6-cm- diameter tumor, with a central crust, non-indurate and no inflammatory rim; localized on the scalp and a small, atrophic hairless scar appeared 6 months later (approximately 5cm in length) at the site of the previous tumor. PMID:25672305

  16. Children presenting in delayed fashion after minor head trauma with scalp swelling: do they require further workup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Moreno, Amee; Ryan, Sheila L; Lam, Sandi K; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    It is common to evaluate children who have sustained minor head trauma with computed tomography (CT) of the head. Scalp swelling, in particular, has been associated with intracranial injury. A subset of patients, however, present in delayed fashion, often days after the head trauma, as soft tissue edema progresses and their caregiver notices scalp swelling. We explore the value of further workup in this setting. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of children ≤24 months of age presenting to the Texas Children's Hospital with scalp swelling more than 24 h following a head trauma. Cases were collected over a 2-year study period from June 1, 2014 to May 31, 2016. Seventy-six patients comprising 78 patient encounters were included in our study. The mean age at presentation was 8.8 months (range 3 days-24 months). All patients had noncontrast CT of the head as part of their evaluation by emergency medicine, as well as screening for nonaccidental trauma (NAT) by the Child Protection Team. The most common finding on CT head was a linear/nondisplaced skull fracture (SF) with associated extra-axial hemorrhage (epidural or subdural hematoma), which was found in 31/78 patient encounters (40%). Of all 78 patient encounters, 43 patients (55%) were discharged from the emergency room (ER), 17 patients (22%) were admitted for neurologic monitoring, and 18 patients (23%) were admitted solely to allow further NAT evaluation. Of those patients admitted, none experienced a neurologic decline and all had nonfocal neurologic exams on discharge. No patient returned to the ER in delayed fashion for a neurologic decline. Of all the patient encounters, no patient required surgery. Pediatric patients ≤24 months of age presenting to the ER in delayed fashion with scalp swelling after minor head trauma-who were otherwise nonfocal on examination-did not require surgical intervention and did not experience any neurologic decline. Further radiographic

  17. Non-linear Analysis of Scalp EEG by Using Bispectra: The Effect of the Reference Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Chella

    2017-05-01

    considering the effects of the reference choice in the interpretation and comparison of the results of bispectral analysis of scalp EEG.

  18. Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal consecutive stages of motivated attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Abraham, Karen S; Alschuler, Daniel M; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Skipper, Jamie; Warner, Virginia; Bruder, Gerard E; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-11-15

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have provided evidence for an allocation of attentional resources to enhance perceptual processing of motivationally salient stimuli. Emotional modulation affects several consecutive components associated with stages of affective-cognitive processing, beginning as early as 100-200ms after stimulus onset. In agreement with the notion that the right parietotemporal region is critically involved during the perception of arousing affective stimuli, some ERP studies have reported asymmetric emotional ERP effects. However, it is difficult to separate emotional from non-emotional effects because differences in stimulus content unrelated to affective salience or task demands may also be associated with lateralized function or promote cognitive processing. Other concerns pertain to the operational definition and statistical independence of ERP component measures, their dependence on an EEG reference, and spatial smearing due to volume conduction, all of which impede the identification of distinct scalp activation patterns associated with affective processing. Building on prior research using a visual half-field paradigm with highly controlled emotional stimuli (pictures of cosmetic surgery patients showing disordered [negative] or healed [neutral] facial areas before or after treatment), 72-channel ERPs recorded from 152 individuals (ages 13-68years; 81 female) were transformed into reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms and submitted to temporal principal components analysis (PCA) to identify their underlying neuronal generator patterns. Using both nonparametric randomization tests and repeated measures ANOVA, robust effects of emotional content were found over parietooccipital regions for CSD factors corresponding to N2 sink (212ms peak latency), P3 source (385ms) and a late centroparietal source (630ms), all indicative of greater positivity for negative than neutral stimuli. For the N2 sink, emotional effects were

  19. Tratamento endovascular de aneurismas cirsoideos do couro cabeludo Endovascular treatment of scalp cirsoid aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wajnberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados da aplicação de técnicas endovasculares no tratamento de aneurismas cirsoideos do couro cabeludo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Quatro pacientes com diagnóstico de aneurismas cirsoideos foram submetidos ao tratamento por via endovascular. Todos os quatro pacientes incluídos nesta série tinham malformações arteriovenosas e foram tratados apenas com embolização. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento endovascular mediante embolização transarterial e um foi tratado por punção direta da porção venosa. Os resultados clínicos e cosméticos foram satisfatórios em todos os pacientes. Não houve recidiva clínica durante o período de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÃO: A via endovascular é uma alternativa segura e eficaz no tratamento dos aneurismas cirsoideos. Embora possa ser efetivamente utilizado como uma alternativa adjuvante ou complementar à cirurgia, especialmente quando é necessário lidar com aferências profundas, a maioria dos casos pode ser totalmente curada apenas com a terapêutica endovascular. A escolha do método de tratamento deve ser baseada em uma variedade de características próprias da lesão, incluindo sua angioarquitetura, tamanho e apresentação clínica.OBJECTIVE: To report results of the application of endovascular techniques in the management of scalp cirsoid aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four patients diagnosed with cirsoid aneurysms were submitted to treatment by endovascular approach. All the four patients included in the present series had arteriovenous malformations and were treated solely by embolization. RESULTS: Three of the patients underwent endovascular treatment by transarterial embolization and one was treated by direct puncture of the venous segment. Both clinical and cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory in all of the patients. Clinical relapse was not observed along the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The endovascular approach is safe and effective in

  20. Accuracy of intrapartum fetal blood gas analysis by scalp sampling: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Mrkvicka, Jennifer; Rezniczek, Günther A; Dogan, Askin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-12-01

    Fetal blood gas analysis (FBGA) using scalp blood is commonly used to identify serious fetal distress. However, there is a lack of data regarding its accuracy and reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis in case of nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings (NRFHRT). To this end, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton term deliveries with NRFHRT according to Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique and Fisher cardiotocography scores undergoing FBGA in a university hospital. The PPV and NPV of FBGA regarding neonatal acidosis (defined as a pH value ≤ 7.15 in arterial or venous umbilical cord blood) and Apgar scores indicating neonatal depression (defined as a 5-min Apgar score ≤5) were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of cardiotocography variations and the time delay between FBGA and delivery on the accuracy of FBGA. We analyzed 343 deliveries with NRFHRT. In 32 (9%) of these cases, fetal acidosis was confirmed by a postpartum umbilical cord blood pH value ≤ 7.15. In 308/343 (90%) cases, FBGA identified NRFHRT as false positive (as confirmed by nonacidotic postpartum pH values) and thus avoided unnecessary interventions such as operative delivery. The overall test accuracy of FBGA was 91%. FBGA accurately predicted postpartum cord blood pH values with a margin of ±0.2 in 319/343 (93%) cases. On the other hand, the false negative rate of FBGA was 8% (29/343). The PPV and NPV of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis were 50% and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity was 9% and the specificity was 99%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.17; P = .029) and cardiotocography variations (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; P = .029) independently affected the predictive value of

  1. Angiosarcoma of the Scalp: Metastatic Pulmonary Cystic Lesions Initially Misinterpreted as Benign Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Francis Andersen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are rare and only represent about 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They arise from vascular or lymphatic endothelial cells and are most commonly located in the heart, liver, breast, and skin. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp is highly malignant and with dismal prognosis. Reported five-year survival is <30%. The mainstay of treatment is surgical resection and adjuvant radiation therapy, but failure rates following local therapy are high. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp has a predilection for pulmonary metastases with a variety of morphologic patterns on imaging. Metastatic disease in terms of pulmonary thin-walled, cystic lesions, may not be hypermetabolic on 18F-FDG PET and, as such, could be misinterpreted as benign findings. We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic uncertainty and delay in an elderly male with angiosarcoma of the scalp presenting with metastatic lung lesions following failure of local therapy.

  2. Effects of a novel finasteride 0.25% topical solution on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone in healthy men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserini, Maurizio; Radicioni, Milko; Leuratti, Chiara; Terragni, Emanuela; Iorizzo, Matilde; Palmieri, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The effects on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) of different doses of a novel topical solution of 0.25% finasteride (P-3074), a type 2 5α-reductase, were investigated in men with androgenetic alopecia. Two randomized, parallel-group studies were conducted. Study I: 18 men received 1 mL (2.275 mg) P-3074, applied to the scalp once a day (o.d.) or twice a day (b.i.d), or 1 mg oral tablet o.d. for 1 week. Study II: 32 men received P-3074 at the dose of 100 (0.2275 mg), 200 (0.455 mg), 300 (0.6285 mg), or 400 (0.91 mg) μL or the vehicle o.d. for 1 week. Scalp and serum DHT and serum testosterone were evaluated at baseline and treatment end. Change from baseline in scalp DHT was -70% for P-3074 o.d. and approx. -50% for P-3074 b.i.d. and the tablet. Serum DHT decreased by 60 - 70%. The doses of 100 and 200 μL P-3074 resulted in a -47/-52% scalp DHT reduction, similar to the 300 and 400 μL doses (i.e., -37/-54%). A -5.6% inhibition was observed for the vehicle. Serum DHT was reduced by only -24/-26% with 100 and 200 μL P-3074 and by -44/-48% with 300 and 400 μL P-3074. No relevant changes occurred for serum testosterone. The novel finasteride 0.25% solution applied o.d. at the doses of 100 and 200 μL results in an appropriate inhibition of scalp DHT potentially minimizing the untoward sexual side-effects linked to a systemic DHT reduction.

  3. Physiological changes in scalp, facial and body hair after the menopause: a cross-sectional population-based study of subjective changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, I; Wojnarowska, F

    2011-03-01

    Significant changes in scalp, facial and body hair occur after the menopause. These can have a significant negative impact on self-esteem and are also potential markers of endocrine or metabolic diseases. Knowledge of postmenopausal hair changes is important for clinicians to distinguish between normal physiological change and those that require further medical investigation. To assess the subjective experience of scalp, facial and body hair change in a large cohort of normal postmenopausal females. Postmenopausal females aged 45 years or over of northern European origin completed a questionnaire detailing scalp, facial and body hair changes following the menopause. Women with a history of thyroid disease, oophorectomy or premature menopause were excluded from the study. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the χ(2) test were used to assess the correlation between scalp, facial and body hair changes with age. Diffuse generalized hair loss was the most common form of scalp hair loss, reported by 26% of women. Frontal hair loss was reported by 9% of women. Facial hair gain was cited by 39% of females with the chin being the most frequent site for new growth (32% of women). Body hair loss was significantly correlated with older age (P hair loss in which diffuse generalized scalp hair loss was significantly correlated with body hair loss and increasing age (P hair loss which was associated with higher facial hair scores and relatively younger age (P hair loss. This is the first comprehensive study of the subjective hair changes in postmenopausal women. This study demonstrates two distinct patterns of hair change relating to age, which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and are of relevance to the medical management of these women as well as being possible predictors of health outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Prolonged skin retention of clobetasol propionate by bio-based microemulsions: a potential tool for scalp psoriasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langasco, Rita; Tanrıverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Özer, Özgen; Roldo, Marta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2017-11-08

    Novel effective and cosmetically acceptable formulations are needed for the treatment of scalp psoriasis, due to the poor efficacy of the current products. The challenge in developing safe, efficient, and convenient delivery systems for this drug was addressed in the present work by formulating clobetasol propionate-loaded W/O microemulsions (MEs). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by using a combination of biocompatible and biodegradable excipients. Characterization studies demonstrated that selected MEs had suitable technological features such as being Newtonian fluids, possessing low viscosity, and high thermodynamic stability. Photomicrographs showed a significant alteration of the skin structure after treatment with MEs, and a preferential concentration of these in the stratum corneum and epidermis. These data, together with ex vivo permeation results, suggested an enhanced topical targeted effect due to an increased drug retention efficacy in the upper skin layers, as desired. Moreover, the bio-based excipients selected could contribute to the healing of the psoriatic scalp. In this way, the improvement of clobetasol efficacy is combined with the useful properties of the microemulsion components and with environmental safety.

  5. Lateralization of language function in epilepsy patients: A high-density scalp-derived event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Sachsenweger, Jens; Lindinger, Gerald; Auff, Eduard; Zimprich, Fritz; Pataraia, Ekaterina

    2017-03-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents the clinical standard for language lateralization assessment in presurgical epilepsy evaluation, but still many patients experience postoperative language deficits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), especially the negative component around and after 400ms, are related to language processing and could therefore represent a complementary method of language lateralization assessment. Scalp EEG was recorded from 64 locations in 36 epilepsy patients and 37 controls during three visually presented language tasks: A short-term language memory task (differentiation memorized vs. unknown words), a phonological task (detection of rhymes in word pairs), and a semantic decision task (differentiation words vs. pseudowords). ERPs were analyzed in the 300ms-800ms epoch. Language fMRI was routinely obtained in patients. ERPs were significantly more negative over the left compared to the right hemisphere in all three tasks in patients and controls. Laterality indices showed highest concordance with fMRI for the Word/Pseudoword Task. ERPs of language processing were lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of epilepsy patients and controls. In patients, single-subject laterality indices showed high concordance with fMRI results. Results indicate that scalp-derived ERPs are a promising tool to investigate lateralization of language function in epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous scalp electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and whole-body segmental inertial recording for multi-modal neural decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Ozdemir, Recep; Paloski, William H; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2013-07-26

    Recent studies support the involvement of supraspinal networks in control of bipedal human walking. Part of this evidence encompasses studies, including our previous work, demonstrating that gait kinematics and limb coordination during treadmill walking can be inferred from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with reasonably high decoding accuracies. These results provide impetus for development of non-invasive brain-machine-interface (BMI) systems for use in restoration and/or augmentation of gait- a primary goal of rehabilitation research. To date, studies examining EEG decoding of activity during gait have been limited to treadmill walking in a controlled environment. However, to be practically viable a BMI system must be applicable for use in everyday locomotor tasks such as over ground walking and turning. Here, we present a novel protocol for non-invasive collection of brain activity (EEG), muscle activity (electromyography (EMG)), and whole-body kinematic data (head, torso, and limb trajectories) during both treadmill and over ground walking tasks. By collecting these data in the uncontrolled environment insight can be gained regarding the feasibility of decoding unconstrained gait and surface EMG from scalp EEG.

  7. Simultaneous Scalp Electroencephalography (EEG), Electromyography (EMG), and Whole-body Segmental Inertial Recording for Multi-modal Neural Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Ozdemir, Recep; Paloski, William H.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies support the involvement of supraspinal networks in control of bipedal human walking. Part of this evidence encompasses studies, including our previous work, demonstrating that gait kinematics and limb coordination during treadmill walking can be inferred from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with reasonably high decoding accuracies. These results provide impetus for development of non-invasive brain-machine-interface (BMI) systems for use in restoration and/or augmentation of gait- a primary goal of rehabilitation research. To date, studies examining EEG decoding of activity during gait have been limited to treadmill walking in a controlled environment. However, to be practically viable a BMI system must be applicable for use in everyday locomotor tasks such as over ground walking and turning. Here, we present a novel protocol for non-invasive collection of brain activity (EEG), muscle activity (electromyography (EMG)), and whole-body kinematic data (head, torso, and limb trajectories) during both treadmill and over ground walking tasks. By collecting these data in the uncontrolled environment insight can be gained regarding the feasibility of decoding unconstrained gait and surface EMG from scalp EEG. PMID:23912203

  8. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenschen, H J; Van de Kerkhof, P C M

    2010-04-01

    Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical practice. Second, to identify subgroup variables that may predict treatment success or failure. A total of 56 patients with scalp psoriasis were treated with short-contact clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Data on treatment satisfaction, user convenience, safety and effectiveness were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale using postal questionnaires. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables that may predict treatment outcome. A total of 41 patients returned both questionnaires (73%). Positive treatment satisfaction and user convenience were reported by 66% and 79% of patients respectively. Patient-rated indicators for disease severity improved by 39-46% (P 0.05). Short-contact treatment with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo has high user convenience and patient satisfaction rates. Moreover, the treatment is well-tolerated and efficacious from patients' perspective. Subgroup analyses did not reveal factors predicting treatment outcome, although treatment success tended to be more evident in patients who had received fewer treatments previously.

  9. Automated real-time epileptic seizure detection in scalp EEG recordings using an algorithm based on wavelet packet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Ali Shahidi; Javidan, Manouchehr; Dumont, Guy A; Tafreshi, Reza

    2010-07-01

    A novel wavelet-based algorithm for real-time detection of epileptic seizures using scalp EEG is proposed. In a moving-window analysis, the EEG from each channel is decomposed by wavelet packet transform. Using wavelet coefficients from seizure and nonseizure references, a patient-specific measure is developed to quantify the separation between seizure and nonseizure states for the frequency range of 1-30 Hz. Utilizing this measure, a frequency band representing the maximum separation between the two states is determined and employed to develop a normalized index, called combined seizure index (CSI). CSI is derived for each epoch of every EEG channel based on both rhythmicity and relative energy of that epoch as well as consistency among different channels. Increasing significantly during ictal states, CSI is inspected using one-sided cumulative sum test to generate proper channel alarms. Analyzing alarms from all channels, a seizure alarm is finally generated. The algorithm was tested on scalp EEG recordings from 14 patients, totaling approximately 75.8 h with 63 seizures. Results revealed a high sensitivity of 90.5%, a false detection rate of 0.51 h(-1) and a median detection delay of 7 s. The algorithm could also lateralize the focus side for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  10. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S; Lev, Michael H; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left-right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors' custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left-right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors' preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left-right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors

  11. [Effect of Scalp-acupuncture Treatment on Levels of Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein, and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Min; Bao, Ying-cun; Shang, Jun-fang; Yan, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-chang; Du, Xiao-zheng; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Wu-de

    2016-02-01

    To observe the influence of scalp acupuncture on levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACl), so as to investigate its mechanism underlying improvement of ACI. A total of 61 patients with ACI were randomly allocated to scalp acupuncture group (n = 31) and control (medication) group (n = 30). The patients of the control group were routinely treated by administration of Aspirin, Danhong injection, Cytidine Diphosphate for neurotrophy, blood pressure-control and blood-fat lowering medicines, etc., while those of the scalp acupuncture group were treated by routine treatment with the medicines mentioned above plus daily scalp acupuncture stimulation of bilateral Dingnieqianxiexian [MS 6, penetrative needling from Qianding (GV 21) to Xuanli (GB 6)] and Dingniehouxiexian [MS 7, from Baihui (GV 20) to Qubin (GB 7)]. The treatment was conducted once daily for 7 days. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β contents were assayed by using enzyme linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). The therapeutic effects of scalp acupuncture were evaluated by using clinical neurological disfunction scale (NDS, 0-45 points for consciousness, gazing, facial palsy, speech, myodynamia, walking-ability). (1) Of the 30 and 31 cases in the control and scalp acupuncture groups, 5 (16.7%) and 8 (25.8%) were basically controlled, 9 (30.0%) and 16 (51.6%) experienced remarkable improvement in their symptoms, 12 (40.0%) and 6 (19.4%) were improved, 4 (13.3%) and 1(3.2%) failed, with the effective rates being 86.7% and 96.8%, respectively. The increased levels of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in ACl patients were reversed on the 3rd and 7th day after scalp acupuncture treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). (2) A positive correlation existed between the NDS score and the serum levels of hs-CRP (r = 0.497, P < 0.01). (3) NDS scores were obviously decreased in both groups on the 7th day after the treatment compared

  12. Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Christine E; Leader, Leo R; Sheehan, Penelope; Henshall, Naomi E; Colditz, Paul B; Lau, Rosalind

    2015-05-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling for lactate estimation may be considered following identification of an abnormal or non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern. The smaller volume of blood required for this test, compared with the more traditional pH estimation, may improve sampling rates. The appropriate use of this practice mandates systematic review of its safety and clinical effectiveness prior to widespread introduction. To evaluate the effectiveness and risks of fetal scalp lactate sampling in the assessment of fetal well-being during labour, compared with no testing or alternative testing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared fetal scalp lactate testing with no testing or alternative testing to evaluate fetal status in the presence of a non-reassuring cardiotocograph during labour. We used the standard methodological procedures of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. Two review authors independently assessed the studies. The search identified two completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and two ongoing trials. The two published RCTs considered outcomes for 3348 mother-baby pairs allocated to either lactate or pH estimation of fetal blood samples when clinically indicated in labour. Overall, the published RCTs were of low or unclear risk of bias. There was a high risk of performance bias, because it would not have been feasible to blind clinicians or participants.No statistically significant between-group differences were found for neonatal encephalopathy (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 3.09, one study, 2992 infants) or death. No studies reported neonatal seizures. We had planned to report death with other morbidities, for example, neonatal encephalopathy; however, the data were not available in a format suitable for this, therefore death due to congenital abnormality was considered alone

  13. Efficient Low-pH Iron Removal by a Microbial Iron Oxide Mound Ecosystem at Scalp Level Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Christen L; Pearce, Alexandra R; Bibby, Kyle J; Jones, Daniel S; Burgos, William D; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of kilometers of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable among sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County, PA), first-order iron oxidation rates are 10 times greater than at other coal-associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate. Despite strong geochemical gradients, including a >10-fold change in the concentration of ferrous iron from 57.3 mg/liter at the emergence to 2.5 mg/liter at the base of the coal tailings pile, the bacterial community composition was nearly constant with distance from the spring outflow. Scalp Level Run contains many of the same taxa present in other AMD sites, but the community is dominated by two strains of Ferrovum myxofaciens, a species that is associated with high rates of Fe(II) oxidation in laboratory studies.IMPORTANCE Acid mine drainage pollutes more than 19,300 km of rivers and streams and 72,000 ha of lakes worldwide. Remediation is frequently ineffective and costly, upwards of $100 billion globally and nearly $5 billion in Pennsylvania alone. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation is more efficient than abiotic Fe(II) oxidation at low pH (P. C. Singer and W. Stumm, Science 167:1121-1123, 1970, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3921.1121). Therefore, AMD bioremediation could harness microbial Fe(II) oxidation to fuel more-cost-effective treatments. Advances will require a deeper understanding of the ecology of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial communities and the factors that control their distribution and rates of Fe(II) oxidation. We investigated bacterial communities that inhabit an AMD site with rapid Fe(II) oxidation and found that they were dominated by two

  14. 595 nm long pulsed dye laser with a hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue on the scalp in postsurgical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Megan N; Landau, Jennifer M; Goldberg, Leonard H; Marquez, Denise; Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J

    2011-07-15

    The formation of hypergranulation tissue is an aberrant process that interferes with normal wound healing. Excessive granulation tissue results in the persistence of open wounds. It is resistant to currently available treatment modalities. We report a case series of patients with hypergranulation tissue on the scalp who were successfully treated with a 595 nm pulsed dye laser and hydrocolloid dressing.

  15. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal

  16. Evaluation of Clinical Contributions Provided by Addition of the Brain, Calvarium, and Scalp to the Limited Whole Body Imaging Area in FDG-PET/CT Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Tasdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to detect additional findings in whole body FDG-PET/CT scan including the brain, calvarium, and scalp (compared to starting from the base of the skull in cancer patients and to determine contributions of these results to tumor staging and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods. We noted whether the findings related to the brain, calvarium, and scalp in 1359 patients had a potential to modify staging of the disease, chemotherapy protocol, radiotherapy protocol, and surgical management. We identified rates of metastatic findings on the brain, calvarium, and scalp according to the tumor types on FDG-PET/CT scanning. Results. We found FDG-PET/CT findings for malignancy above the base of the skull in 42 patients (3.1%, one of whom was a patient with an unknown primary tumor. Twenty-two of the metastatic findings were in the brain, 16 were in the calvarium, and two were in the scalp. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that addition of the brain to the limited whole body FDG-PET/CT scanning may provide important contributions to the patient’s clinical management especially in patients with lung cancer, bladder cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, stomach cancer, and unknown primary tumor.

  17. The effect of secukinumab on moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis: Results of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3b study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagel, Jerry; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Moore, Angela; Ferris, Laura K; Siu, Kimberly; Steadman, Jennifer; Kianifard, Farid; Nyirady, Judit; Lebwohl, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis has not been evaluated in prospective trials of patients without moderate-to-severe body psoriasis. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis. In this 24-week, double-blind, phase 3b study, 102 patients were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous secukinumab 300 mg or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every 4 weeks from week 4 to 20. The primary efficacy variable was 90% improvement of Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI 90) score from baseline to week 12. At week 12, PSSI 90 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 52.9% vs 2.0%) and Investigator's Global Assessment modified 2011 scalp responses of 0 or 1 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 56.9% vs 5.9%) were significantly greater with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (P psoriasis at week 12 with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (35.3% vs 0%; P psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-12-01

    Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  19. Interaction between carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic trace elements in the scalp hair samples of different types of Pakistani female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Naeemullah

    2015-01-15

    It was investigated that carcinogenic processes are linked with the imbalances of essential trace and toxic elements in body fluid and tissues of human. In this study, the relationship between carcinogenic elements, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), and anti-carcinogenic elements, selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in the scalp hair of different female cancer patients (breast, cervix, mouth and ovarian) was studied. The scalp hair samples were collected from cancer patients and referent female subjects of the same age group and socioeconomic status. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by 65% nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide by microwave oven and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material of human hair (BCR 397). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, and Ni were found to be significantly higher in the scalp hair samples of cancerous patients as compared to referents, while reverse results were obtained in the case of Zn and Se (p<0.01). The study revealed that low level of trace elements (Se, Zn) and high level of heavy elements (As, Cd, and Ni) were associated with increased risk of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluated the levels of lead and cadmium in scalp hair of adolescent boys consuming different smokeless tobacco products with related to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Memon, G Zuhra

    2015-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12-15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2-110 and 60.6-94.5% higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents.

  1. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01541969). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp, Composite Type: The Criticality and Inseparability of Neurosurgical and Plastic Surgical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Ken R; Ketch, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The object of this report is to review the management of patients having the composite type of aplasia cutis congenita in the context of the relevant literature on this condition. Clinical records, neuroimaging and photographic documentation of identified cases of composite type aplasia cutis congenita, with a comprehensive review of the literature, are the material basis of this report. Two neonates with composite type aplasia cutis congenita are described as examples of this disorder, and their management, including complications, is discussed. Both had satisfactory outcomes. Early aggressive surgical management with scalp rotation flaps has a low rate of complications, provides satisfactory functional and esthetic outcome, minimizes hospital stays, and should provide cost-effective care by reduction of the time to secure wound closure. Most bony defects, even large ones, commonly ossify completely. Optimal case management requires a synchronized neurosurgical and plastic surgical team. Intuitive nonsurgical and surgical approaches by the inexperienced can be hazardous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of healthy people, hyperplasia and breast cancer patients with XRF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmogorov, Yuriy; Kovaleva, Valentina; Gonchar, Alexandr

    2000-06-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for the control of trace elements (TE) content in the hair of women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Ten hair samples were taken from 25- to 60-year-old women who have been operated for mammary cancer and from 23 patients under oncologist's observation on the occasion of hyperplastic process in the mammary gland (fibrocystous mastopathy). The results of the analyses of trace elements content in the hair of 52 practically healthy women were used as control. The results demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology are characterized by the significant decrease of the concentration of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and by the increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with hyperplasia (fiducial probability p<0.05)

  4. Does modifying the particle size distribution of a granular material (i.e., material scalping alters its shear strength?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azéma Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of two dimensional contact dynamics simulations, we analyzed the effect of the particle size distribution (PSD on the shear strength of granular materials composed of un-breakable disks. We modelled PSDs with a normalized beta function, which allows for building S-shaped gradation curves, such as those that typically occur in soils. We systematically controlled and varied the size span and the shape of the PSD, and found that the shear strength is independent both characteristics. This implies that PSD modification procedures such as material scalping (i.e., removing the smallest and/or largest particles in the sample should not affect significantly the shear strength of the material composed of unbreakable discs. In order to explore the origins of the invariance of the shear strength with PSD, we analyzed the connectivity, force transmission, and friction mobilization in terms of anisotropies, finding that the constant shear strength is due to a subtle compensation of anisotropies.

  5. Gene expression profiling in psoriatic scalp hair follicles: clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% normalizes psoriasis disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Reiniche, P; Fogel, P; Poulin, Y; Lui, H; Lynde, C; Shapiro, J; Villemagne, H; Soto, P; Voegel, J J

    2010-11-01

    Clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in treatment of scalp psoriasis (SP). Gene expression profiling of psoriatic skin biopsies led to the identification of numerous disease-related genes. However, it remained unknown whether the gene expression profile of hair follicles of SP patients was also affected. To determine whether psoriasis-related genes are differentially regulated in the hair follicles of SP patients and whether the modulation of these genes can be correlated with clinical severity scores. A single arm, open study was conducted in three centres. SP patients received daily treatment with clobetasol propionate shampoo. At Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4, investigators assessed clinical severity parameters and collected scalp hair follicles in anagen phase. Total RNA extracted from hair follicles was used to determine the expression level of 44 genes, which were reported previously to be upregulated in the skin of psoriasis patients. RNA of good quality and sufficient quantity was obtained from hair follicles of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers (HV). The expression level of 10 inflammation-related genes was significantly increased in psoriatic hair follicles. The patient's exploratory transcriptomic score, defined as the mean fold modulation of these 10 genes compared with HV, correlated with clinical severity scores. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was effective in decreasing both the exploratory transcriptomics and the clinical severity scores. Hair follicles of SP patients are affected by the inflammatory process. The change in the expression level of inflammation-related genes correlates with the severity of the disease. © 2010 Galderma R&D. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Sustained response with ixekizumab treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis with scalp involvement: results from three phase 3 trials (UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2, UNCOVER-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Kristian; Leonardi, Craig; Lebwohl, Mark; Kerdel, Francisco; Okubo, Yukari; Romiti, Ricardo; Goldblum, Orin; Dennehy, Ellen B; Kerr, Lisa; Sofen, Howard

    2017-06-01

    Scalp is a frequently affected and difficult-to-treat area in psoriasis patients. We assessed the efficacy of ixekizumab in the treatment of patients with scalp psoriasis over 60 weeks using the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI). In three Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in UNCOVER-1 (N = 1296), UNCOVER-2 (N = 1224) and UNCOVER-3 (N = 1346) were randomized to subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every two weeks (Q2W) or every four weeks (Q4W) after a 160 mg starting dose, or placebo through Week 12. Additional UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3 cohorts were randomized to 50 mg bi-weekly etanercept through Week 12. Patients entering the open-label long-term extension (LTE) (UNCOVER-3) received ixekizumab Q4W; UNCOVER-1 and UNCOVER-2 included a blinded maintenance period in which static physician global assessment (sPGA) 0/1 responders were re-randomized to placebo, ixekizumab Q4W, or 80 mg ixekizumab every 12 weeks (Q12W) through Week 60. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis with baseline scalp involvement, PSSI 90 and 100 were achieved at Week 12 in higher percentages of patients treated with ixekizumab Q2W (81.7% and 74.6%) or ixekizumab Q4W (75.6% and 68.9%) compared with patients treated with placebo (7.6% and 6.7%; p psoriasis in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with most patients achieving complete or near-complete resolution of scalp psoriasis and maintaining this response over 60 weeks.

  7. Algorithm to find high density EEG scalp coordinates and analysis of their correspondence to structural and functional regions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Perdue, Katherine L; Diamond, Solomon G

    2014-05-30

    Interpretation and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) measurements relies on the correspondence of electrode scalp coordinates to structural and functional regions of the brain. An algorithm is introduced for automatic calculation of the International 10-20, 10-10, and 10-5 scalp coordinates of EEG electrodes on a boundary element mesh of a human head. The EEG electrode positions are then used to generate parcellation regions of the cerebral cortex based on proximity to the EEG electrodes. The scalp electrode calculation method presented in this study effectively and efficiently identifies EEG locations without prior digitization of coordinates. The average of electrode proximity parcellations of the cortex were tabulated with respect to structural and functional regions of the brain in a population of 20 adult subjects. Parcellations based on electrode proximity and EEG sensitivity were compared. The parcellation regions based on sensitivity and proximity were found to have 44.0 ± 11.3% agreement when demarcated by the International 10-20, 32.4 ± 12.6% by the 10-10, and 24.7 ± 16.3% by the 10-5 electrode positioning system. The EEG positioning algorithm is a fast and easy method of locating EEG scalp coordinates without the need for digitized electrode positions. The parcellation method presented summarizes the EEG scalp locations with respect to brain regions without computation of a full EEG forward model solution. The reference table of electrode proximity versus cortical regions may be used by experimenters to select electrodes that correspond to anatomical and functional regions of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spiritual and religious aspects of torture and scalping among the Indian cultures in Eastern North America, from ancient to colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiltunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago a common perception prevailed that the historic­al Native Americans were very prone to violence and warfare. Scalping and torture were seen as a specific custom attached into their ideology and sociocultural ethos. However in the 1960s a completely reversed picture started to emerge, following the course of other worldwide movements, such as ethnic rights, pan-Indianism, ecological conscience, revisionist historiography and so on. Immediately the Native American people came to be seen as the victims of the European colonialism and the Whites were the bad guys who massacred innocent women and children, either at Sand Creek or in Vietnam. Books were written in which the historians pointed out that the practice of scalping was actually not present in the Americas before the whites came. This theory drew sustenance from some early colonial accounts, especially from the Dutch and New England colonies, where it was documented that a special bounty was offered for Indian scalps. According to this idea, the practice of scalping among the Indians escalated only after this. On the other hand, the blame fell on the Iroquois tribesmen, whose cruel fighting spread terror throughout the seventeenth century, when they expanded an empire in the north eastern wilderness. This accords with those theorists who wanted to maintain a more balanced view of the diffusion of scalping and torture, agreeing that these traits were indeed present in Pre-Columbian America, but limited only to the Iroquoians of the east. Colonial American history has been rewritten every now and then. In the 1980s, and in the field of archaeology especially, a completely new set of insights have arisen. There has been a secondary burial of the myth of Noble Savage and a return of the old Wild Indian idea, but this time stripped of its cartoon stereo­typical attachments. The Indians are now seen as being like any other human beings, with their usual mixture of vices

  9. The analysis of scalp irritation by coacervates produced in hair shampoo via FTIR with focal plane array detector, X-ray photoelectron microscopy and HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I K; Park, S C; Kim, S H; Kim, J H; Cha, N R; Bae, W R; Kim, H N; Cho, S A; Yoo, J W; Kim, B M; Lee, J H

    2017-04-01

    Coacervates are inevitably formed on scalp on using hair washing products. Our goal was to analyse the coacervates in detail to identify the part responsible for scalp stimulation. Shampoo that increases coacervate formation was applied to in vitro skin and was washed. The residue was then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-focal plane array (FTIR-FPA) and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS). And HaCaT cells were used for irritant test of coacervate. Through this research, it was confirmed that the coacervate was a macromolecule structurally similar to a cationic polymer and contains an anionic surfactant. Its anionic surfactant was structurally semi-stable so that it released onto scalp when it absorbs moisture. Coacervate releases sulphate bonding into the matrix when it is exposed to water. Thus, the scalp stimulation would be expected. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Association Between Scalp Laxity, Elasticity, and Glidability and Donor Strip Scar Width in Hair Transplantation and a New Elasticity Measuring Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Hair transplantation requires precise evaluation of donor site laxity, elasticity, and glidability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between donor strip scar width and preoperative laxity, elasticity, and glidability. Preoperative measurements of scalp laxity, elasticity, and glidability and of donor site scar width 10 months postoperatively were evaluated in 88 patients who underwent hair transplantation with strip harvesting. Elasticity was measured by firmly pressing the scalp with the fingertips of one hand at 2 points to restrict dermis movement while stretching the skin with the other hand. Glidability was calculated as laxity minus elasticity. Scar width positively correlated with laxity (p elasticity (p elasticity (≥10 mm) versus others (elasticity, and glidability are of great clinical importance in hair transplantation. The authors' novel method of measuring elasticity will assist surgeons in predicting donor site scar width.

  11. SU-E-T-424: Dosimetric Verification of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Delivered Using An Electron Specific Multileaf Collimator for Treatment of Scalp Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldib, A [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Al-Azhar University Cairo (Egypt); Jin, L; Martin, J; Li, J; Chibani, O; Galloway, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mora, G [Universidade de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) has the potential to achieve better treatment outcome for shallow tumors such as those of breast and scalp. In a separate study with scalp lesions, MERT was compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy. Our results showed a reduction in the dose reaching the brain with MERT. However dose calculation accuracy and delivery efficiency challenges remain. Thus in the current study we proceed to add more cases to demonstrate MERT beneficial outcome and its delivery accuracy using an electron specific multileaf collimator (eMLC). Methods: We have used the MCBEAM code for treatment head simulation and for generating phase space files to be used as radiation source input for our Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (MC TPS). MCPLAN code is used for calculation of patient specific dose deposition coefficient and for final MERT plan dose calculation. An in-house developed optimization code is used for the optimization process. MERT plans were generated for real patients and head and neck phantom. Film was used for dosimetric verification. The film was cut following the contour of the curved phantom surface and then sealed with black masking tape. In the measurement, the sealed film packet was sandwiched between two adjacent slabs of the head and neck phantom. The measured 2D dose distribution was then compared with calculations. Results: The eMLC allows effective treatment of scalps with multi-lesions spreading around the patient head, which was usually difficult to plan or very time consuming with conventional applicators. MERT continues to show better reduction in the brain dose. The dosimetric measurements showed slight discrepancy, which was attributed to the film setup. Conclusion: MERT can improve treatment plan quality for patients with scalp cancers. Our in-house MC TPS is capable of performing treatment planning and accurate dose calculation for MERT using the eMLC.

  12. Physiological Ripples (± 100 Hz) in Spike-Free Scalp EEGs of Children With and Without Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Raijmann, Renee C M A; Jansen, Floor E; Braun, Kees P J; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2017-11-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep. We differentiated true ripples from spurious ripples such as filtering effects of sharp artifacts and high frequency components of muscle artifacts by viewing ripples simultaneously in bipolar and average montage and double-checking the unfiltered signal. We calculated mean frequency, duration and root mean square amplitude of the ripples, and studied their shape and distribution. We found ripples in EEGs of 20 out of 23 children (4 with, 16 without epilepsy). Ripples had a regular shape and occurred mostly on central and midline channels. Mean frequency was 102 Hz, mean duration 70 ms, mean root mean square amplitude 0.95 µV. Ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children without epilepsy were considered physiological; the similarity in appearance suggested that the ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children with epilepsy were also physiological. The finding that it is possible to study physiological neocortical ripples in scalp EEG paves the way for investigating their occurrence during brain development and their relation with cognitive functioning.

  13. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of clobetasol propionate shampoo (CPS) maintenance in patients with moderate scalp psoriasis: a Pan-European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K; Poulin, Y; Barber, K; Lynde, C; Prinz, J C; Berg, M; Kerrouche, N; Rives, V P

    2012-11-01

    Scalp psoriasis is a difficult to treat and usually chronic manifestation of psoriasis. The CalePso study showed that CPS (Clobex(®) Shampoo) in maintenance therapy of scalp psoriasis (twice weekly) significantly increases the probability of keeping patient under remission during 6 months, compared with vehicle (40.3% relapses vs. 11.6% relapses, ITT). The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a maintenance therapy with CPS vs. its vehicle in nine European countries. A 24-week decision tree model was developed with 4-weekly time steps. The considered population has moderate scalp psoriasis successfully treated with a daily application of CPS up to 4 weeks. Data were taken from the CalePso study and from national experts' recommendations for alternative treatment choices, with their probabilities of success taken from literature to develop country-specific models. Health benefits are measured in disease-free days (DFD). The economic analysis includes drug and physician costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PrSA) assesses the uncertainty of the model. Depending on the country, the mean total number of DFDs per patient is 21-42% higher with CPS compared with vehicle, and the mean total cost is 11-31% lower. The mean costs per DFD are 30-46% lower with CPS compared with the vehicle. The PrSA showed in 1000 simulations that CPS is more effective vs. vehicle in 100% of the cases and less expensive than its vehicle in 80-99% of the cases. This model suggests that CPS is cost-effective in maintaining the success achieved in moderate scalp psoriasis patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multispectral imaging based on a Smartphone with an external C-MOS camera for detection of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manjae; Kim, Sewoong; Hwang, Minjoo; Kim, Jihun; Je, Minkyu; Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2017-02-01

    To date, the incident rates of various skin diseases have increased due to hereditary and environmental factors including stress, irregular diet, pollution, etc. Among these skin diseases, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis are a chronic/relapsing dermatitis involving infection and temporary alopecia. However, they typically exhibit similar symptoms, thus resulting in difficulty in discrimination between them. To prevent their associated complications and appropriate treatments for them, it is crucial to discriminate between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis with high specificity and sensitivity and further continuously/quantitatively to monitor the skin lesions during their treatment at other locations besides a hospital. Thus, we here demonstrate a mobile multispectral imaging system connected to a smartphone for selfdiagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis and further discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp, which is the more challenging case. Using the system developed, multispectral imaging and analysis of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp was carried out. It was here found that the spectral signatures of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis were discernable and thus seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp could be distinguished from psoriasis by using the system. In particular, the smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis moreover offered better discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis than the RGB imaging and analysis. These results suggested that the multispectral imaging system based on a smartphone has the potential for self-diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis with high portability and specificity.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine and Ropivacaine Mixture for Scalp Nerve Block and Local Infiltration Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Sugino, Shigekazu; Janicki, Piotr K; Ishioka, Yoshiya; Hatakeyama, Yosuke; Hayase, Tomo; Kaneuchi-Yamashita, Miki; Kohri, Naonori; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Mixtures of various local anesthetics, such as lidocaine and ropivacaine, have been widely used. However, their efficacy and safety for scalp nerve blocks and local infiltration during awake craniotomy have not been fully elucidated. We prospectively investigated 53 patients who underwent awake craniotomy. Scalp block was performed for the blockade of the supraorbital, supratrochlear, zygomaticotemporal, auriculotemporal, greater occipital, and lesser occipital nerves with a mixture containing equal volumes of 2% lidocaine and 0.75% ropivacaine, including 5 μg/mL of epinephrine. Infiltration anesthesia was applied at the site of skin incision using the same mixture. The study outcomes included changes in heart rate and blood pressure after head pinning and skin incision, and incidence of severe pain on emergence from anesthesia. Total doses and plasma concentrations of lidocaine and ropivacaine were measured at different time points after performing the block. The heart rate and blood pressure after head pinning were marginally, but significantly, increased when compared with baseline values. There were no significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure before and after the skin incision. Nineteen percent of the patients (10/53) complained of incisional pain at emergence from anesthesia. The highest observed blood concentrations of lidocaine and ropivacaine were 1.9±0.9 and 1.1±0.4 μg/mL, respectively. No acute anesthetic toxicity symptom was observed. Scalp block with a mixture of lidocaine and ropivacaine seems to provide effective and safe anesthetic management in patients undergoing awake craniotomy.

  17. Development and Experimental Validation of a Dry Non-Invasive Multi-Channel Mouse Scalp EEG Sensor through Visual Evoked Potential Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyeon Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a dry non-invasive multi-channel sensor for measuring brainwaves on the scalps of mice. The research on laboratory animals provide insights to various practical applications involving human beings and other animals such as working animals, pets, and livestock. An experimental framework targeting the laboratory animals has the potential to lead to successful translational research when it closely resembles the environment of real applications. To serve scalp electroencephalography (EEG research environments for the laboratory mice, the dry non-invasive scalp EEG sensor with sixteen electrodes is proposed to measure brainwaves over the entire brain area without any surgical procedures. We validated the proposed sensor system with visual evoked potential (VEP experiments elicited by flash stimulations. The VEP responses obtained from experiments are compared with the existing literature, and analyzed in temporal and spatial perspectives. We further interpret the experimental results using time-frequency distribution (TFD and distance measurements. The developed sensor guarantees stable operations for in vivo experiments in a non-invasive manner without surgical procedures, therefore exhibiting a high potential to strengthen longitudinal experimental studies and reliable translational research exploiting non-invasive paradigms.

  18. Development and Experimental Validation of a Dry Non-Invasive Multi-Channel Mouse Scalp EEG Sensor through Visual Evoked Potential Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Yeon, Chanmi; Kim, Kiseon

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, we introduce a dry non-invasive multi-channel sensor for measuring brainwaves on the scalps of mice. The research on laboratory animals provide insights to various practical applications involving human beings and other animals such as working animals, pets, and livestock. An experimental framework targeting the laboratory animals has the potential to lead to successful translational research when it closely resembles the environment of real applications. To serve scalp electroencephalography (EEG) research environments for the laboratory mice, the dry non-invasive scalp EEG sensor with sixteen electrodes is proposed to measure brainwaves over the entire brain area without any surgical procedures. We validated the proposed sensor system with visual evoked potential (VEP) experiments elicited by flash stimulations. The VEP responses obtained from experiments are compared with the existing literature, and analyzed in temporal and spatial perspectives. We further interpret the experimental results using time-frequency distribution (TFD) and distance measurements. The developed sensor guarantees stable operations for in vivo experiments in a non-invasive manner without surgical procedures, therefore exhibiting a high potential to strengthen longitudinal experimental studies and reliable translational research exploiting non-invasive paradigms.

  19. [Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp: a retrospective study of 7 cases confirming the efficacy of oral isotretinoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudoukpo, C; Abdennader, S; Cavelier-Balloy, B; Gasnier, C; Yédomon, H

    2014-01-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp (DCS) is a rare and long-standing disease and its aetiopathogenesis remains unclear. Various therapeutic alternatives exist. We attempted to assess the efficacy of oral isotretinoin in a series of patients. Seven cases of DCS followed and treated by one of the authors at the Sabouraud Centre in the Saint-Louis Hospital between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively studied and the efficacy of oral isotretinoin was evaluated. The seven patients included were males aged between 22 and 39 years, with alopecic nodules on the occiput (two cases) or the top of the vertex (five cases). Most patients were given oral isotretinoin at a dosage of 0.75mg/kg/day for at least nine months. The outcome was satisfactory with complete healing of the lesions and good regrowth in all cases. Follow-up after recovery lasted between 16 and 42 months. Based on published studies and the results of the present study, oral isotretinoin at a dose of 0.75mg/kg/day may be proposed as first-line treatment for DCS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population-based study using cortisol in scalp hair.

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    Jackson, Sarah E; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for weight-based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2-cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity-associated health conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. Familiarity, opinions, experiences and knowledge about scalp cooling: a Dutch survey among breast cancer patients and oncological professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijke Peerbooms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scalp cooling (SC is applied to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA. The aim of this study was to investigate patients′ familiarity and opinions and oncological professionals′ attitude and knowledge about SC in the Netherlands. Methods: Ex breast cancer patients, nurses and medical oncologists (MDs from SC and non-SC hospitals filled out questionnaires. Results: The majority of MDs and nurses were satisfied with the results of SC, as were SC patients. Over 33% of MDs and nurses perceived their knowledge level insufficient to inform patients about effectiveness, which was over 43% for information about safety. MDs main reason to not apply SC was doubt about effectiveness and safety. Nurses generally offered SC to a minority of eligible patients. Patients were frequently unfamiliar with SC before diagnosis. Seventy percent of SC patients with insufficient results (20/52 reported to mind it very much. With expected success rates of 35% and 50%, respectively, 36% and 54% of patients would use SC again. Conclusion: Room for improvement has been shown for both patients′ familiarity and oncological professionals′ knowledge about SC. Sharing knowledge about results, safety and patients′ experiences will improve patient counseling and SC availability. The results of this survey led to the development of a national standard on CIA and SC.

  2. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  3. Assessing time-dependent association between scalp EEG and muscle activation: A functional random-effects model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Yang, Qi; Fan, Zhaozhi; Sun, Chang-Kai; Yue, Guang H

    2009-02-15

    This study investigates time-dependent associations between source strength estimated from high-density scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and force of voluntary handgrip contraction at different intensity levels. We first estimate source strength from raw EEG signals collected during voluntary muscle contractions at different levels and then propose a functional random-effects model approach in which both functional fixed effects and functional random-effects are considered for the data. Two estimation procedures for the functional model are discussed. The first estimation procedure is a two-step method which involves no iterations. It can flexibly use different smoothing methods and smoothing parameters. The second estimation procedure benefits from the connection between linear mixed models and regression splines and can be fitted using existing software. Functional ANOVA is then suggested to assess the experimental effects from the functional point of view. The statistical analysis shows that the time-dependent source strength function exhibits a nonlinear feature, where a bump is detected around the force onset time. However, there is the lack of significant variations in source strength on different force levels and different cortical areas. The proposed functional random-effects model procedure can be applied to other types of functional data in neuroscience.

  4. Sequential Curettage, 5-Fluorouracil, and Photodynamic Therapy for Field Cancerization of the Scalp and Face in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambusaria-Pahlajani, Anokhi; Ortman, Stephanie; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Liang, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Field cancerization with actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (AK/SCCIS) represents a common therapeutic challenge in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). These patients often show inadequate responses to methods traditionally used as monotherapy (e.g., topical chemotherapy). To describe the clinical outcomes and feasibility of a sequential approach to treatment of field cancerization in SOTRs. Four SOTRs with field cancerization of the scalp and/or face were treated using a sequential approach. Light curettage of hypertrophic lesions was followed by application of 5-fluorouracil 5% cream twice daily for 5 days and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 1-hour incubation on day 6. Pain level during and after PDT was recorded. Photographs were obtained immediately before and after treatment and at follow-up appointments. All 4 patients tolerated this approach well and demonstrated excellent responses to treatment with complete or near-complete clinical resolution of AK/SCCIS lesions. Patients remained free of AK/SCCIS based on clinical examination 1 to 6 months after treatment. For SOTRs with field cancerization, sequential therapy represents a viable therapeutic regimen with good tolerability and durable clinical response. This approach warrants further investigation to determine which therapeutic combinations have optimal tolerability and efficacy.

  5. Skin cancer: preventive photodynamic therapy in patients with face and scalp cancerization. A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalla, Z; Sotiriou, E; Chovarda, E; Lefaki, I; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Ioannides, D

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with a previous medical history of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) often develop multiple or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary tumour. This finding led to the field cancerization theory, which suggests that the entire epithelial surface of the regional skin has an increased risk for the development of malignant lesions. Management of field change is challenging, taking into account the high impact of NMSCs on public health and healthcare costs. Objectives We sought to investigate whether field-photodynamic therapy (PDT) of extreme photodamaged skin would prevent new NMSCs, in comparison with a control area receiving placebo-PDT, in patients with clinical and histological signs of field cancerization. Methods Forty-five patients, previously diagnosed as having NMSCs of the face or scalp, with actinic keratoses symmetrically distributed over the same regions, were randomized for field treatment with 20% aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT on one side and placebo-PDT on the other. During the next 12-month period of follow up, patients were clinically evaluated for new NMSCs. Results A significant delay in the mean time of appearance and a reduction in the total number of new lesions were observed in the field-PDT protocol, when compared with the control. Conclusions The results obtained showed that field therapy with ALA-PDT confers a significant preventive potential against the formation of new NMSCs in patients with field changes.

  6. Anatomical substrate and scalp EEG markers are correlated in subjects with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    davide v Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndromic diagnosis, encompassing various stage of severity and different anatomo-physiological substrates. The hippocampus is one of the first and most affected brain regions affected by both Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Morevoer, cronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD is one of the major risk factor for developing dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated different relationship between the anatomical substrate and scalp electroencephalography (EEG markers. Indeed, modifications of EEG rhythmicity is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy, whereas changes in EEG activity are directly proportional to the load of subcortical CVD.Quantitative EEG have been demonstrated a reliable tool in identifying specific patterns in dementia research (Coburn et al., 2006; John and Prichep, 2006. The computation of the spectral power and the analysis of the functional coupling of brain areas, through linear coherence, are two of the most known processing methods in EEG research. Two specific EEG markers, theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 frequency ratio have been reliable associated to the atrophy of amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Moreover, theta/gamma ratio has been related to MCI conversion i

  7. Development, stability and in vitro permeation studies of gels containing mometasone furoate for the treatment of dermatitis of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gomes Barros Salgado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis often affect the scalp and the eyebrows. Although there are many dosage forms available, these are particularly critical anatomic regions for application of topical formulations because of the presence of hair. Lotions are therefore the recommended type of drug delivery system for these areas. The presence of hair may limit the application and thus the acceptability of the formulation and its compliance. Because of its low apparent viscosity, lotion application is unpleasant. Gels, given their consistency and adhesiveness, are a suitable alternative to lotions in this situation. The aim of this study was to formulate a stable gel containing mometasone furoate, which is an anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic corticosteroid, in order to improve topical treatment of scalp dermatitis. In this study, pharmaceutical development, physical-chemical characterization, stability and in vitro permeation studies were performed. In terms of the pH, viscosity, assay and macroscopic and microbiological properties, the gel was stable over the period of study. The in vitro permeation studies allowed the characterization of the mometasone furoate permeation profile for the gel through different membranes. Mometasone furoate presented a slow permeation through the skin. This gel appears safe for topical application.Afecções dermatológicas do tipo inflamatório como a dermatite atópica, psoríase e dermatite seborreica, afetam freqüentemente o couro cabeludo e sobrancelhas. Apesar de existirem várias formas farmacêuticas para o seu tratamento, apenas as loções são indicadas para estas zonas, mas devido à baixa viscosidade, a aplicação de loções torna-se desagradável. Os geles, pela maior consistência e capacidade de adesão, apresentam-se como alternativa nesta situação. Neste trabalho procedeu-se ao desenvolvimento galênico de um gel com furoato

  8. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  9. Alkaline-earth elements of scalp hair and presence of hypertension in housewives: A perspective of chronic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Sun, Ying; Yan, Jingjing; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between population intakes of alkaline-earth elements (AEEs) and hypertension risk remains under discussion. Hair AEE concentrations can indicate their intake levels into human body. Thus, we aimed to investigate an association of hair AEE concentrations with hypertension risk, and the potential effect of dietary habit on this association. We recruited 398 housewives [163 subjects with hypertension (case group) and 235 subjects without hypertension (control group)] in Shanxi Province of north China. The scalp hair grown in the recent 2 years of each subject was collected and analyzed for the four concerned AEEs [i.e. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba)]. Our study results revealed that median concentrations (μg/g hair) of hair AEEs in the case group were systematically lower than those in control group [i.e. 701 vs. 1271 of Ca, 55.2 vs. 88.3 of Mg, 4.60 vs. 10.4 of Sr, and 1.02 vs. 1.68 of Ba]. Lower levels of the four individual AEEs of hair were associated with an increased presence of hypertension, respectively. Moreover, hair AEE concentrations were all positively correlated with the ingestion frequencies of meat, eggs, fresh vegetables, and fruits, while negatively with that of salted vegetables. A high ingestion frequency of fresh vegetables was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension with or without adjusting confounders, while salted vegetables revealed a reverse tend. It was concluded that low hair AEEs, as markers of their long-term dietary intake, were associated with the presence of hypertension in a rural Chinese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scalp-recorded evoked potentials as a marker for afferent nerve impulse in clinical vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Kenichi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sonoo, Masahiro; Saito, Nobuhito

    2013-07-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a palliative treatment for drug resistant epilepsy for which the efficacy and safety are well established. Accumulating evidence suggests that ascending vagal signals modulate abnormal cortical excitability via various pathways. However, there is no direct evidence for an ascending conduction of neural impulses in a clinical case of VNS. We recorded and analyzed the short-latency components of the vagus nerve (VN) evoked potential (EP) from the viewpoint of determining whether or not it is a marker for the ascending neural conduction. EPs within 20 ms were prospectively recorded simultaneously from a surgical wound in the neck and at multiple scalp sites during implantation surgery in 25 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Electrical stimulation was delivered using the clinical VNS Therapy system. A recording was made before and after a muscle relaxant was administered, when changing the rostrocaudal position of stimulation, or when stimulating the ansa cervicalis instead of the VN. The short-latency components consisted of four peaks. The early component around 3 ms, which was most prominent in A1-Cz, remained unchanged after muscle relaxation while the later peaks disappeared. Rostral transition of the stimulation resulted in an earlier shift of the early component. The estimated conduction velocity was 27.4 ± 10.2 m/s. Stimulation of the ansa cervicalis induced no EP. The early component was regarded as directly resulting from ascending neural conduction of A fibers of the VN, probably originating around the jugular foramen. Recording of VN-EP might document the cause of treatment failure in some patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MO-H-19A-02: Investigation of Modulated Electron Arc (MeArc) Therapy for the Treatment of Scalp Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldib, A [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Jin, L; Martin, J; Li, J; Chibani, O; Galloway, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Electron arc therapy has long been proposed as the most suitable technique for the treatment of superficial tumors that follow circularly curved surfaces. However it was challenged by unsuitability of the conventional applicators and the lack of adequate 3-D dose calculation tools for arc electron beams in the treatment planning systems (TPS). Now with the availability of an electron specific multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) and an in-house Monte Carlo (MC) based TPS, we were motivated to investigate more advanced modulated electron arc (MeARC) therapy and its beneficial outcome. Methods: We initiated the study by a film measurement conducted in a head and neck phantom, where we delivered electron arcs in a step and shoot manner using the light field as a guide to avoid fields abutments. This step was done to insure enough clearance for the arcs with eMLC. MCBEAM and MCPLAN MC codes were used for the treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation, respectively. Treatment plans were generated for targets drawn in real patient CTs and head and neck phantom. We utilized beams eye view available from a commercial planning system to create beamlets having same isocenter and adjoined at the scalp surface. Then dose-deposition coefficients from those beamlets were calculated for all electron energies using MCPLAN. An in-house optimization code was then used to find the optimum weights needed from individual beamlets. Results: MeARC showed a nicely tailored dose distribution around the circular curved target on the scalp. Some hot spots were noticed and could be attributed to fields abutment problem owing to the bulging nature of electron profiles. Brain dose was shown to be at lower levels compared to photon treatment. Conclusion: MeARC was shown to be a promising modality for treating scalp cases and could be beneficial to all superficial tumors with a circular curvature.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of home remedies used for treatment of hair and scalp and their methods of preparation in the West Bank-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa; Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Darwish, Saja Adam

    2017-07-05

    Natural products have many uses and purposes, including those linked to pharmaceutics and cosmetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of natural remedies for the treatment of hair and scalp disorders in the West Bank, Palestine. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies and other natural products used in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals was carried out in the West Bank, Palestine. A questionnaire was distributed to 267 herbalists, traditional healers, hairdressers and rural dwellers. Collected information included: the names of plants and other natural products, the parts used, hair conditions, diseases and problems for which these products were used and also their methods of preparation. To identify the most important species used, the factor of informant's consensus (Fic), fidelity level (Fl) and the use-value (UV) were calculated. Collected data showed that 41 plants are utilized for the treatment of hair and scalp disorders, belonging to 27 families; among them Lamiaceae and Rosaceae, which were the most commonly used. Plant oils and their fruits are the most commonly used parts. Hair loss, dandruff, split hair endings and lice treatment, are reported as the most treated disorders. The number of plant species used consisted of 19, 14, 13, and again 13 with a factor of informant's consensus (Fic) for these disorders corresponding to 0.93, 0.94, 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. Fl was 100% for many plants; the highest UV value (0.84) was registered for Lawsonia inermis, which belongs to the Lythraceae family. This study showed that many natural remedies are still used in Palestine for the treatment of scalp and hair disorders as well as for cosmeceutical purposes. This study is of great importance as it allows us to have a greater perspective on our folkloric use of these natural products. A combined scientific effort between informants and the scientific community, working in this field, may help in the discovery of new cosmetics, cosmeceutical

  13. [Reconstruction of large scalp and calvarium defects by using the semi-free latissimus dorsi flap associated with methylmethacrylate implant for cranioplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahi, A; Gharib, N E; Bencheikh, R; Abbassi, A; Mizahi, M

    2002-08-01

    The semi free latissimus dorsi flap is characterized by a temporary vascular anastomosis on a pedicle not belonging to the loco-regional anatomy of the skin defect; after a period of autonomy, the section of the flap pedicle is obligatory. Its advantage compared to the classic free flap is the great microsurgical security avoiding complex, and stressful supervision in the postoperative period. From June 1998 to January 2001, 7 patients ranging from 18 to 65 years old and suffering from large scalp defects going between 20 x 13 cm and 27 x 18 cm have benefited from this surgical method. The etiology of these defects was: in 4 cases dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans involving the periost, in 1 case destruction of the near entirety of the scalp and calvarium by electrical burn, in 1 case an instable scar of burn with osteomyelitis and in the last case an osteomyelitis on a frontal cranioplasty. Three stages have been used:--The thoraco-dorsal artery was anastomosed on the wrist to the radial artery in a termino-lateral way and the thoraco-dorsal vein to the superficiel radial vein in a termino-terminal way;--The flap was fixed to the forearm for 2 weeks, then, the debridement which has always exposed the dura was done; The flap was sutured to the defect after reconstruction of calvarial defect with the méthylmétacrylate implant;--After 3 weeks the pedicle was sectioned and the flap tailored exactly to the defect. No postoperative complications were reported. With a mean follow-up of 18 months, the scalp coverage was very satisfactory.

  14. Efficacious and safe management of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis using clobetasol propionate shampoo 0·05% combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2%: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Nikkels, A F; Reich, K; Ponce Olivera, R M; Lee, J H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F; Faergemann, J

    2011-07-01

    Topical antifungals and corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis. The short-contact clobetasol propionate 0·05% shampoo (CP) is an efficacious and safe once-daily treatment for scalp psoriasis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CP alone and combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2% (KC) in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. This randomized and investigator-blinded study consisted of three phases, each lasting 4 weeks. During the treatment phase, subjects were randomized to receive KC twice weekly (K2), CP twice weekly (C2), CP twice weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C2 + K2) or CP four times weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C4+K2). All subjects received KC once weekly during the maintenance phase and were untreated during the follow-up phase. At the end of the treatment phase, all three CP-containing regimens were significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing the overall disease severity (P < 0·05). Both combination regimens were also significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing each individual sign of the disease (P < 0·05). While the C2 and C4 + K2 groups experienced slight worsening during the maintenance phase, the efficacy of C2 + K2 was sustained and remained the highest among all groups. All regimens were well tolerated without inducing any skin atrophy. Similarly low incidences of telangiectasia, burning and adverse events were observed among the four groups. The combination therapy of twice-weekly CP alternating with twice-weekly KC provided significantly greater efficacy than KC alone and a sustained effect in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  15. Randomized study comparing the efficacy and tolerance of a lipohydroxy acid shampoo to a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Talarico, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    The success of a dandruff treatment depends not only on the ability of a shampoo to control dandruff, but also on patient compliance, which is closely linked to the cosmetic attributes of the product. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy, tolerance, and cosmetic properties of a LHA Shampoo [containing 0.1% lipohydroxy acid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid] to a CPO shampoo [containing 1.5% ciclopiroxolamine (CPO), 3% salicylic acid, and 0.5% menthol] in subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) of the scalp. One hundred subjects with mild to moderate scalp SD were randomized to receive either the LHA shampoo or the CPO shampoo every 2 days for 4 weeks. Efficacy and tolerance were evaluated at days 0, 14, and 28. The LHA and the CPO shampoo both decreased symptoms of scale, erythema, itching, cutaneous discomfort, and dryness from baseline to day 28. A higher percentage of patients showed improvement in the group treated with the LHA formulation than in the group treated with the CPO formulation, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. At day 28, the tolerance and the global efficacy of the LHA shampoo were significantly better (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively) than those of the CPO shampoo. Furthermore, the cosmetic acceptability was better or significantly better for all the endpoints evaluated for the LHA shampoo (P = 0.02 for cleaning, P = 0.04 for lathering). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the lipohydroxy acid shampoo evaluated in this study is a more convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment for mild-to-moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp than a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo.

  16. Comparison of intravenous labetalol and bupivacaine scalp block on the hemodynamic and entropy changes following skull pin application: A randomized, open label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharne, Sidhesh; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Badhe, Ashok Shankar; Parida, Satyen; Ramesh, Andi Sadayandi

    2016-01-01

    The application of skull pins in neurosurgical procedures is a highly noxious stimulus that causes hemodynamic changes and a rise in spectral entropy levels. We designed a study to compare intravenous (IV) labetalol and bupivacaine scalp block in blunting these changes. Sixty-six patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures were randomized into two groups, L (labetalol) and B (bupivacaine) of 33 each. After a standard induction sequence using fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium, patients were intubated. Baseline hemodynamic parameters and entropy levels were noted. Five minutes before, application of the pins, group L patients received IV labetalol 0.25 mg/kg and group B patients received scalp block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine. Following application of the pins, heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and response entropy (RE)/state entropy (SE) were noted at regular time points up to 5 min. The two groups were comparable with respect to their demographic characteristics. Baseline hemodynamic parameters and entropy levels were also similar. After pinning, the HR, SAP, DAP, MAP, and RE/SE all increased in both groups but were lower in the scalp block group patients. HR increased by 19.8% in group L and by 11% in group B. SAP increased by 11.9% in group L and remained unchanged in group B. DAP increased by 19.7% in group L and by 9.9% in group B, MAP increased by 15.6% in group L and 5% in group B (P labetalol in attenuating the rise in hemodynamic parameters and entropy changes following skull pin application.

  17. Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp--what are the steps to be followed? Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Pinteala, Tudor; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare malformation characterized by localized congenital absence of the skin. It rarely occurs on the trunk and limbs, and can occur in isolation or as part of a heterogeneous group of syndromes. We report a case of a 4-day-old boy with a 5.6-cm- diameter tumor, with a central crust, non-indurate and no inflammatory rim; localized on the scalp and a small, atrophic hairless scar appeared 6 months later (approximately 5 cm in length) at the site of the previous tumor.

  18. Immediate effects of scalp acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation on hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke: a hidden association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-zheng Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has the potential to provide information for improving clinical acupuncture strategies by uncovering hidden rules between acupuncture manipulation and therapeutic effects in a data set. In this study, we performed acupuncture on 30 patients with hemiplegia due to acute ischemic stroke. All participants were pre-screened to ensure that they exhibited immediate responses to acupuncture. We used a twirling reinforcing acupuncture manipulation at the specific lines between the bilateral Baihui (GV20 and Taiyang (EX-HN5. We collected neurologic deficit score, simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment score, muscle strength of the proximal and distal hemiplegic limbs, ratio of the maximal H-reflex to the maximal M-wave (H max /M max , muscle tension at baseline and immediately after treatment, and the syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine at baseline. We then conducted data mining using an association algorithm and an artificial neural network backpropagation algorithm. We found that the twirling reinforcing manipulation had no obvious therapeutic difference in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of "Deficiency and Excess". The change in the muscle strength of the upper distal and lower proximal limbs was one of the main factors affecting the immediate change in Fugl-Meyer scores. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between the muscle tension change of the upper limb and H max /M max immediate change, and both positive and negative correlations existed between the muscle tension change of the lower limb and immediate H max /M max change. Additionally, when the difference value of muscle tension for the upper and lower limbs was > 0 or < 0, the difference value of H max /M max was correspondingly positive or negative, indicating the scalp acupuncture has a bidirectional effect on muscle tension in hemiplegic limbs. Therefore, acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation has distinct effects on acute ischemic stroke patients

  19. A randomized, investigator-masked clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo and tar blend 1% shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christopher E M; Finlay, Andrew Y; Fleming, Colin J; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Mizzi, Fabienne; Arsonnaud, Stéphanie

    2006-01-01

    The clinical benefit of currently available tar blend shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and potential for carcinogenicity. This 4-week multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked study included 162 subjects and aimed to compare the efficacy, safety and cosmetic acceptability of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo versus a currently marketed tar blend 1% shampoo in subjects with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was superior to tar blend shampoo with respect to all efficacy variables tested (pshampoo was more cosmetically acceptable than tar blend shampoo. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo is a good alternative to tar blend shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  20. Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Stanislaw A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the non-inferiority of efficacy and tolerance of 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group, multicenter study was done. A total of 274 patients (145 miconazole, 129 ketoconazole) were enrolled. Treatment was twice-weekly for 4 weeks. Safety and efficacy assessments were made at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Assessments included symptoms of erythema, itching, scaling ['Symptom Scale of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis' (SSSD)], disease severity and global change [Clinical Global Impressions (CGIs) and Patient Global Impressions (PGIs)]. Miconazole shampoo is at least as effective and safe as ketoconazole shampoo in treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis scalp.

  1. Bald scalp in men with androgenetic alopecia retains hair follicle stem cells but lacks CD200-rich and CD34-positive hair follicle progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Yang, Chao-Chun; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Lee, Michelle; He, Helen; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Spiegel, Jeffrey H.; Tobias, John W.; Cotsarelis, George

    2011-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as common baldness, is characterized by a marked decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem or progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed bald and non-bald scalp from AGA individuals for the presence of hair follicle stem and progenitor cells. Cells expressing cytokeratin15 (KRT15), CD200, CD34, and integrin, α6 (ITGA6) were quantitated via flow cytometry. High levels of KRT15 expression correlated with stem cell properties of small cell size and quiescence. These KRT15hi stem cells were maintained in bald scalp samples. However, CD200hiITGA6hi and CD34hi cell populations — which both possessed a progenitor phenotype, in that they localized closely to the stem cell–rich bulge area but were larger and more proliferative than the KRT15hi stem cells — were markedly diminished. In functional assays, analogous CD200hiItga6hi cells from murine hair follicles were multipotent and generated new hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays. These findings support the notion that a defect in conversion of hair follicle stem cells to progenitor cells plays a role in the pathogenesis of AGA. PMID:21206086

  2. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  3. Scalp hair and blood cadmium levels in association with chewing gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff, among patients with oral cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif Gul; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that smokeless tobacco (SLT) chewing can lead to caners of oral cavity. In this study, the relationship between cadmium exposure via consumption of different SLT products by patients with oral cancer with related to referents belongs to different cities of Pakistan are investigated. The cadmium in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri and snuff) consumed by studied population and biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of cancerous and healthy subjects were analyzed. Both referents and patients with cancer have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socioeconomic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of cadmium in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. It was estimated that 10 g intake of different types of gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff could contribute, 18-40%, 15.7-33.6%, and 14-68% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of cadmium, respectively for adults (60 kg). The results of present study showed that the mean value of cadmium was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of patients with oral cancer as compared to those results obtained for referents (P oral cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in human scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooger, Jan C; Jager, Agnes; Lam, Mei-Ho; den Boer, Mathilda D; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruijn, Peter

    2015-10-10

    The aim of this study was to validate an earlier developed high-performance highly sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tamoxifen and its three main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) in scalp hair. This non-invasive method might, by segmental analysis of hair, be useful in the determination of the concentration of drugs and its metabolites over time, which can be used to study a wide variety of clinical relevant questions. Hair samples (150-300 hair strands, cut as close to the scalp as possible from the posterior vertex region of the head) were collected from female patients taking tamoxifen 20mg daily (n=19). The analytes were extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with carbonate buffer at pH 8.8 and a mixture of n-hexane/isopropranol method, followed by UPLC-MS/MS chromatography, based on an earlier validated method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1.00-200 pmol for tamoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, with lower limit of quantitation of 1.00 pmol and 0.100-20.0 pmol with lower limit of quantitation of 0.100 pmol for endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Assay performance was fair with a within-run and between-run variability less than 9.24 at the three quality control samples and less than 15.7 for the lower limit of quantitation. Importantly, a steep linear decline was observed from distal to proximal hair segments. Probably, this is due to UV exposure as we showed degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites after exposure to UV-light. Furthermore, higher concentrations of tamoxifen were found in black hair samples compared to blond and brown hair samples. We conclude that measurement of the concentration of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in hair is possible, with the selective, sensitive, accurate and precise UPLC-MS/MS method. However, for tamoxifen, it seems not possible to determine

  5. Metástase em couro cabeludo de câncer do colo uterino: relato de caso Scalp metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabas Carlos Vieira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma de colo uterino é neoplasia comum, porém a ocorrência de metástase cutânea em câncer do colo uterino é rara, variando de 0,1 a 2,0%. Os sítios primários comuns em pacientes com metástase cutânea são mama, pulmão, intestino grosso e ovário. O intervalo entre o diagnóstico do câncer cervical e as lesões metastáticas varia indo desde a apresentação simultânea com a lesão inicial até 5 anos após o tratamento apresentando-se como nódulos em 86,7% das vezes. Representa manifestação de doença avançada e de mau prognostico. Apresentamos um caso de metástase cutânea de câncer de colo uterino em couro cabeludo. A paciente, 43 anos, tinha diagnóstico de carcinoma epidermóide indiferenciado do colo uterino. Evoluiu, seis meses após a cirurgia radical, com recidiva vaginal, sendo tratada com radioterapia pélvica. Quatro meses depois apresentou três nódulos metastáticos indolores em couro cabeludo. A paciente submeteu-se à quimioterapia com regressão completa das lesões do couro cabeludo.Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a common neoplasm; however skin metastasis from carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a very rare occurrence, varying from 0.1% to 2%. The common primary sites in patients with skin metastasis are the breast, lung, large intestine and ovary. The interval between the diagnosis of cervical cancer and skin lesions ranges from 0 to 69 months, and they present as nodules in 86,7%. Skin metastasis represents a late manifestation of advanced disease with poor prognosis. We present a case of scalp metastasis from carcinoma of the uterine cervix . The patient was 43 years old, had a diagnosis of undifferentiated epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Six months after radical surgery she presented with vaginal recurrence, being treated with pelvic radiotherapy. Four months later three painless metastatic nodules appeared at the scalp. The patient underwent chemotherapy with total regression of the

  6. Pulse photodynamic therapy reduces inflammation without compromising efficacy in the treatment of multiple mild actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Petersen, Bibi Øager; Wulf, H C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main side-effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AKs) are post-treatment erythema and oedema, and pain during illumination. Severe erythema after PDT enhances the down time associated with the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a randomized intraindividual...... study whether pulse-PDT and corticosteroid pulse-PDT would reduce treatment-induced erythema compared with conventional PDT. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with multiple mild AKs on the face and scalp were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT in three similar areas. Two areas were incubated...... with MAL for 30 min (pulse-PDT) and one area was incubated with MAL for 3 h (conventional PDT). All areas were illuminated with red light after 3 h. In one of the pulse-PDT areas a superpotent corticosteroid was applied before and just after PDT (S-pulse-PDT). RESULTS: Pulse-PDT significantly reduced PDT...

  7. Development of psoriasis scalp with alopecia during treatment of Crohn's disease with infliximab and rapid response to both diseases to ustekinumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, G; Marzo, M; Celleno, L; Guidi, L; Papa, A; Gasbarrini, A; Armuzzi, A

    2013-10-01

    Anti tumor necrosis factor antibodies are used to treat both psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Several paradoxical cases of psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy have been described in IBD patients in the recent years. Ustekinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-12/-23 monoclonal antibody, is the first drug of a new class of biologic therapy approved for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on the efficacy of ustekinumab in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease, especially in patients previously treated with infliximab, have been recently published. We report about the effectiveness of ustekinumab in the treatment of both severe scalp psoriasis lesions with alopecia and active Crohn's disease.

  8. Ragu: A Free Tool for the Analysis of EEG and MEG Event-Related Scalp Field Data Using Global Randomization Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest that interact with and bias statistics.

  9. Ragu: a free tool for the analysis of EEG and MEG event-related scalp field data using global randomization statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Kottlow, Mara; Stein, Maria; Melie-García, Lester

    2011-01-01

    We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface) for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest) that interact with and bias statistics.

  10. Extensa falha cutânea e craniana em paciente com aplasia cutis congenita Large scalp and skull defect in patient with aplasia cutis congenita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto de Brito Henriques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC é doença rara, caracterizada pela ausência de formação completa da pele. Geralmente ocorre no couro cabeludo, na linha mediana, e apresenta-se ao nascimento como uma ferida ulcerada que pode atingir diferentes profundidades e envolver o periósteo, crânio e dura-máter. Descrevemos o caso de menina recem-nascida que apresentava fácies dismórfica com defeito no couro cabeludo que abrangia a quase totalidade da abóbada craniana e apresentava falha óssea desde a base dos ossos frontais até os occipitais e mastóides. A dura-máter estava em sua maior parte exposta, sem sinais de fissuras. Devido à raridade da ACC e ao pequeno número de pacientes nas séries publicadas na literatura a padronização do tratamento ainda é incipiente. O que existem são recomendações. Ainda são necessários estudos que abordem desde a etiologia da doença até a avaliação dos métodos de tratamento e evolução de grupos maiores de pacientes.Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare condition characterized by the absence of skin layers. It is most common on the scalp, middle line, and it can be seen as a congenital ulcer involving periosteum, skull and dura. We present the case of a female newborn infant with a dysmorphic facies, a large scalp and skull defect exposing the dura. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The rarity of cases with large defects and small series reported make difficult to determinate the ideal treatment for aplasia cutis congenita. More studies are necessary to define the etiology and best management of this patients.

  11. Reconstrucción de cuero cabelludo mediante colgajo de galea frontal: a propósito de un caso Scalp reconstruction with galeal frontalis flap: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balaguer-Cambra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes pérdidas de sustancia a nivel de cuero cabelludo a menudo presentan dificultad de cobertura debido a la rigidez de los tejidos locales a movilizar, debiendose recurrir a reconstrucción con colgajos locales y expansión tisular, o bien a la transferencia microvascular de tejido libre. El presente trabajo tiene por objeto presentar el tratamiento para la resolución de una pérdida de sustancia de 6 meses de evolución a nivel temporal izquierdo, de 10 x 12 cm. con exposición de hueso temporal, junto con la restitución de la línea de implantación del pelo mediante utilización de colgajo de galea frontal y expansión tisular posterior. El colgajo de galea frontal tiene una vascularización rica y constante procedente del eje supratroclear, y su anatomía y disección ha sido estudiada y ampliamente descrita. En nuestro caso el colgajo de galea frontal ha resultado de utilidad en la reconstrucción de la zona temporal, permitiendo la cobertura de la bóveda craneal y la reconstrucción del cuero cabelludo mediante expansión tisular.Large defects of scalp are difficult for reconstruction because of lacking of local tissues. Most of the times, local flaps, tissue expansion and even free microvascular tissue transfer are indicated. This paper aims the treatment of a 6 months 10x12cm left temporal bone exposure, which was solved with a galea frontalis flap followed by scalp expansion for hair line restitution. The galea frontalis flap has a rich constant vascularization, and it´s anatomy and surgical dissection has been described elsewhere. This flap has been useful in our case for temporal area reconstruction, allowing bone coverage and hairline reconstruction with expansion tissue technique.

  12. Design and fabrication of a multi-layered solid dynamic phantom: validation platform on methods for reducing scalp-hemodynamic effect from fNIRS signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Tanikawa, Yukari; Yamada, Toru

    2017-02-01

    Scalp hemodynamics contaminates the signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Numerous methods have been proposed to reduce this contamination, but no golden standard has yet been established. Here we constructed a multi-layered solid phantom to experimentally validate such methods. This phantom comprises four layers corresponding to epidermides, dermis/skull (upper dynamic layer), cerebrospinal fluid and brain (lower dynamic layer) and the thicknesses of these layers were 0.3, 10, 1, and 50 mm, respectively. The epidermides and cerebrospinal fluid layers were made of polystyrene and an acrylic board, respectively. Both of these dynamic layers were made of epoxy resin. An infrared dye and titanium dioxide were mixed to match their absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa and μs', respectively) with those of biological tissues. The bases of both upper and lower dynamic layers have a slot for laterally sliding a bar that holds an absorber piece. This bar was laterally moved using a programmable stepping motor. The optical properties of dynamic layers were estimated based on the transmittance and reflectance using the Monte Carlo look-up table method. The estimated coefficients for lower and upper dynamic layers approximately coincided with those for biological tissues. We confirmed that the preliminary fNIRS measurement using the fabricated phantom showed that the signals from the brain layer were recovered if those from the dermis layer were completely removed from their mixture, indicating that the phantom is useful for evaluating methods for reducing the contamination of the signals from the scalp.

  13. Determination of major and trace elements in human scalp hair by pressurized-liquid extraction with acetic acid and inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [University of A Coruna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, A Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [University of A Coruna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Oleiros (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    An analytical method has been developed for determination of major (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Li, Ni, and Sr) in human scalp hair. The proposed method includes a novel, simple, rapid, highly efficient, and automated metal-leaching procedure, by pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE), combined with a rapid simultaneous detection system - inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). PLE is one of the most promising recently introduced sample-preparation techniques, with the advantages of reducing solvent consumption and enabling automated sample handling. The operating conditions for PLE, including concentration of the extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static time, number of extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio, and flush volume were studied using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design, PBD). The optimum conditions were use of 0.75 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid as extracting solution and powdered hair samples thoroughly mixed with DE, as a dispersing agent, at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 4. Extraction was performed at room temperature and an extraction pressure of 140 atm for 5 min in one extraction step. The flush volume was fixed at 60%. The PLE-assisted multi-element leaching proposed is complete after 7 min (5 min static time plus 1 min purge time plus 1 min end relief time). Under the optimised conditions the figures of merit, for example limits of detection and quantification, repeatability of the over-all procedure, and accuracy, were evaluated. Analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material revealed accuracy was good for the target elements. The optimised method was finally applied to several human scalp-hair samples. (orig.)

  14. Cryotherapy is preferable to ablative CO2 laser for the treatment of isolated actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, C; Facchinetti, E; Rossi, M T; Specchia, C; Ortel, B; Calzavara-Pinton, P

    2014-05-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. In the case of normal or mildly photodamaged skin, lesion-directed treatments are considered valuable options despite poor published evidence of their therapeutic activity. The aim of this single-centre, open-label, prospective, nonsponsored, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare CO2 laser ablation with cryotherapy in the treatment of isolated AKs of the face and scalp. Patients with isolated (≤ 4) AKs of the face and scalp were randomized to receive CO2 laser ablation or cryotherapy. After 90 days, the overall complete remission (CR) rates of patients and lesions were assessed and correlated with thickness grade. Two hundred patients with a total number of 543 AKs were enrolled. The CR rates of lesions after 3 months were 78·2% with cryotherapy and 72·4% with CO2 laser ablation. Thicker lesions were significantly more responsive to cryotherapy (P = 0·034). Seventy-three patients (71·6%) had CR of all lesions 3 months after cryotherapy and 64 (65·3%) after laser ablation. At 12 months after treatment the number of patients with CR was reduced to 53 with cryotherapy and 14 with laser ablation. The rate of patients and lesions with CR is similar after 3 months, but more patients remain in stable remission for 12 months after cryotherapy. Cryotherapy is more effective for thick lesions. The cosmetic outcome was good or excellent in almost all patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Macroanatomical Landmarks Featuring Junctions of Major Sulci and Fissures and Scalp Landmarks Based on the International 10–10 System for Analyzing Lateral Cortical Development of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Tsuzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic relationships between the macroanatomical structure of the lateral cortex, including sulci and fissures, and anatomical landmarks on the external surface of the head are known to be consistent. This allows the coregistration of EEG electrodes or functional near-infrared spectroscopy over the scalp with underlying cortical regions. However, limited information is available as to whether the topographic relationships are maintained in rapidly developing infants, whose brains and heads exhibit drastic growth. We used MRIs of infants ranging in age from 3 to 22 months old, and identified 20 macroanatomical landmarks, featuring the junctions of major sulci and fissures, as well as cranial landmarks and virtually determined positions of the international 10-20 and 10-10 systems. A Procrustes analysis revealed developmental trends in changes of shape in both the cortex and head. An analysis of Euclidian distances between selected pairs of cortical landmarks at standard stereotactic coordinates showed anterior shifts of the relative positions of the premotor and parietal cortices with age. Finally, cortical landmark positions and their spatial variability were compared with 10-10 landmark positions. The results indicate that variability in the distribution of each macroanatomical landmark was much smaller than the pitch of the 10-10 landmarks. This study demonstrates that the scalp-based 10-10 system serves as a good frame of reference in infants not only for assessing the development of the macroanatomy of the lateral cortical structure, but also for functional studies of cortical development using transcranial modalities such as EEG and fNIRS.

  16. Scalp flora in Indian patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumors - Implications for pre-surgical site preparation and surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasgar V Moiyadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causation of surgical site infection (SSI following craniotomy is multifactorial. Most preventive strategies (including site preparation and antibiotic prophylaxis revolve around reducing preoperative contamination of the local site. There is little evidence, however, linking site contamination with postoperative infections. This is important given the preference for performing non-shaved cranial surgery. We undertook a prospective study to document the scalp flora in neurosurgical patients in an Indian setting and to assess possible association with SSI. Materials and Methods: A prospective study recruited 45 patients undergoing non-shaved clean craniotomies for various brain tumors. Standard perioperative procedures and antibiotic policy were employed. Prior to and immediately following the pre-surgical scrubbing, we collected swabs and evaluated their growth qualitatively. SSI was documented adhering to CDC guidelines. The association of swab-positivity with various parameters (including SSI was evaluated. Results: Pre-scrub positivity was seen in 18 of 44 patients, three of them developed subsequent SSI. Most were known skin contaminants. Five patients had swab positivity after scrubbing, though none of these developed any SSI. Four of these five had pre-scrub positivity. In three the same organisms persisted (two being Staphylococcus aureus, and one had different growth post-scrub, whereas one patient developed new growth (contaminant mycelial fungus in the post-scrub swab. We did not find any association between swab positivity and SSI. Swab positivity was also not related to hair-length or hygiene. Conclusion: Scalp flora in Indian patients is similar to that described. Pre-surgical preparation does not always eliminate this contamination (especially staphylococcus. However, this does not necessarily translate into increased SSI. Moreover, the results also provide objective evidence to support the performance of non

  17. The Use of Integra Dermal Regeneration Template Versus Flaps for Reconstruction of Full-Thickness Scalp Defects Involving the Calvaria: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, M; Francescon, M; Drigo, D; Salloum, G; Baraziol, R; Tesei, J; Fraccalanza, E; Barbone, F

    2016-12-01

    INTEGRA® Dermal Regeneration Template is a well-known and widely used acellular dermal matrix. Although it helps to solve many challenging problems in reconstructive surgery, the product cost may make it an expensive alternative compared to other reconstruction procedures. This retrospective study aims at comparing INTEGRA-based treatment to flap surgery in terms of cost and benefit. We considered only patients treated for scalp defects with bone exposure in order to obtain two groups as homogeneous as possible. We identified two groups of patients: 17 patients treated with INTEGRA and 18 patients treated with flaps. All patients were admitted in our institution between 2004 and 2010, and presented a defect of the scalp following trauma or surgery for cancer, causing a loss of the soft tissues of the scalp with bone exposure without pericranium. To calculate the cost in constant euros of each treatment, three parameters were evaluated for each patient: cost of the surgical procedure (number of doctors and nurses involved, surgery duration, anesthesia, material used for surgery), hospitalization cost (hospitalization duration, dressings, drugs, topical agents), and outpatient cost (number of dressing changes, personnel cost, dressings type, anti-infective agents). The statistical test used in this study was the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney (α = 0.05). No significant difference was characterized between the two groups for gender, age, presence of diabetes, mean defect size, and number of surgical procedures. All patients healed with good quality and durable closure. The median total cost per patient was €11,121 (interquartile range (IQR) 8327-15,571) for the INTEGRA group and €7259 (IQR 1852-24,443) for the flap group (p = 0.34). A subgroup of patients (six patients in the INTEGRA group and five patients in the flap group) showing defects larger than 100 cm2 were considered in a second analysis. Median total cost was €11,825 (IQR 10,695-15,751) for the INTEGRA

  18. Stochastic Behavior of Phase Synchronization Index and Cross-frequency Couplings in Epileptogenic Zones During Interictal Periods Measured with Scalp dEEG

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    Ceon eRamon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic behavior of the phase synchronization index (SI and cross-frequency couplings on different days during a hospital stay of three epileptic patients was studied for noninvasive localization of the epileptogenic areas from high density, 256-channel, scalp EEG (dEEG recordings. The study was performed with short-duration (0-180 sec, seizure-free, epileptiform-free and spike-free interictal dEEG data on different days of three subjects. The seizure areas were localized with subdural recordings with an 8×8 macro-electrode grid array and strip electrodes. The study was performed in theta (3-7 Hz, alpha (7-12 Hz, beta (12-30 Hz and low gamma (30-50 Hz bands. A detrended fluctuation analysis was used to find the long range temporal correlations in the SI that reveals the stochastic behavior of the SI in a given time period. The phase synchronization was computed after taking Hilbert transform of the EEG data. Contour plots were constructed with 20 sec time-frames using a montage of the layout of 256 electrode positions. It was found that the stochastic behavior of the SI was higher in epileptogenic areas and in nearby areas on different days for each subject. The low gamma band was found to be the best to localize the epileptic sites. Also, a stable higher pattern of SI emerged after 60-120 seconds in the epileptogenic areas. The cross-frequency couplings of SI in theta-gamma, beta-gamma and alpha-gamma bands were decreased and spatial patterns were fragmented in epileptogenic areas. Combinations of an increase in the stochastic behavior of the SI and decrease in cross-frequency couplings are potential markers to assist in localizing epileptogenic areas. These findings suggest that it is possible to localize the epileptogenic areas noninvasively from a short-duration (~ 180 sec, seizure-free and spike-free interictal scalp dEEG recordings.

  19. Noncorticosteroid Combination Shampoo versus 1% Ketoconazole Shampoo for the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp: Results from a Randomized, Investigator-Single-Blind Trial Using Clinical and Trichoscopic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD). Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study. At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling from baseline for both groups, while pruritus showed a significant reduction only for group A. After 8 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling and pruritus for both groups. PGA showed a complete response in 90% of the cases in both groups. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo represents an alternative approach to standard topical treatment for scalp SD. A noncorticosteroid shampoo may be equally safe and effective as ketoconazole shampoo for scalp SD, and trichoscopy provides accurate and reliable quantifiable data to assist in therapeutic monitoring.

  20. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

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    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  2. Reconstrucción de cuero cabelludo con colgajo libre de omentum Reconstruction of the scalp with a free flap of omentum

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    C. Navarro Cuellar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos de cuero cabelludo pueden tener una etiología diversa. Resecciones oncológicas, lesiones postraumáticas e infecciosas pueden dar lugar a diferentes defectos en cuanto a tamaño y extensión. Para su reconstrucción disponemos de múltiples técnicas quirúrgicas como colgajos locales, regionales y expansores titulares. No obstante, para defectos extensos los colgajos libres son la única posibilidad reconstructiva. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con carcinomas epidermoides multicéntricos en cuero cabelludo tratado previamente con radioterapia en el que se realizó una resección amplia del cuero cabelludo y fue reconstruído con un colgajo libre de omentum.Scalp defects may have different etiologies. Oncologic resections, postraumatic lesions and infectious wounds may lead to a great variety of defects in size and extension. In order to accomplish the reconstruction we have different surgical techniques such as local and regional flaps and tissue expanders. Nevertheless, for more extensive defects free flaps are the only reconstructive possibility. We present the case of a patient with multicentric squamous cell carcinomas previously with radiotherapy. He underwent wide resection and was reconstructed with an omentum free flap.

  3. Efficacy of superficial cryotherapy on the eyebrows of patients with alopecia universalis also treated with contact immunotherapy on the scalp: a prospective, split-face comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Won-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Few treatment modalities are available for treating alopecia areata (AA) of the eyebrow. Due to the anatomical proximity of the eyebrows to the eyes, safety issues and side effects should always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment modality. This study was designed to examine the efficacy of superficial cryotherapy on patients with AA of the eyebrow. Superficial cryotherapy was performed every other week on the right eyebrow (SC-treated) in a total of 20 patients who had been previously treated with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) immunotherapy on the scalp. No specific treatment was performed on the left eyebrows as a control. The degree of eyebrow recovery was compared in 15 patients who continued to receive more than 10 superficial cryotherapy treatments (5 months of treatment) on their right eyebrow. Hair density was significantly increased on both treated and control eyebrows after 5 months of treatment compared with the pretreatment density; moreover, the SC-treated eyebrows exhibited a significantly greater increase in density than the control eyebrows. Although hair thickness in the control eyebrows did not change significantly over the treatment period, hair thickness of the SC-treated eyebrows showed a statistically significant increase at months 3 and 5. Superficial cryotherapy is associated with minimal to no adverse events and exhibits high compliance and relatively good efficacy. Thus, this treatment is an important additional option for patients with AA of the eyebrow. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. The scalp hair collar and tuft signs: A retrospective multicenter study of 78 patients with a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, Didier; Bigorre, Michèle; Malissen, Nausicaa; Captier, Guillaume; Chiaverini, Christine; Abasq, Claire; Barbarot, Sébastien; Boccara, Olivia; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; El Fertit, Hassan; Eschard, Catherine; Hubiche, Thomas; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Leboucq, Nicolas; Mahé, Emmanuel; Mallet, Stéphanie; Marque, Myriam; Martin, Ludovic; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Milla, Nathalie; Phan, Alice; Plantin, Patrice; Picot, Marie-Christine; Puzenat, Eve; Rigau, Valérie; Vabres, Pierre; Fraitag, Sylvie; Boralevi, Franck

    2017-03-01

    Hair collar sign (HCS) and hair tuft of the scalp (HTS) are cutaneous signs of an underlying neuroectodermal defect, but most available data are based on case reports. We sought to define the clinical spectrum of HCS and HTS, clarify the risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies, and provide imaging recommendations. A 10-year multicenter retrospective and prospective analysis of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of HCS and HTS in pediatric patients was performed. Of the 78 patients included in the study, 56 underwent cranial and brain imaging. Twenty-three of the 56 patients (41%) had abnormal findings, including the following: (1) cranial/bone defect (30.4%), with direct communication with the central nervous system in 28.6%; (2) venous malformations (25%); or (3) central nervous system abnormalities (12.5%). Meningeal heterotopia in 34.6% (9/26) was the most common neuroectodermal association. Sinus pericranii, paraganglioma, and combined nevus were also identified. The partial retrospective design and predominant recruitment from the dermatology department are limitations of this study. Infants with HCS or HTS are at high risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging scans should be performed in order to refer the infant to the appropriate specialist for management. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eflúvio telógeno após dermatite de contato no couro cabeludo Telogen effluvium after contact dermatitis in the scalp

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    José Marcos Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o caso de um paciente com alopecia areata tratado com difenciprona, que produziu dermatite de contato no couro cabeludo, com total repilação. Após quatro meses, o paciente apresentou queda muito intensa de cabelos, compatível com eflúvio telógeno. O autor chama a atenção para a possibilidade de eflúvio telógeno após dermatite de contato, uma vez que a produção da dermatite de contato é um dos tratamentos de escolha para a alopecia areata.A case of a patient with alopecia areata treated with diphencyprone, which produced contact dermatitis in the scalp, with later total regrowth is presented. After 4 months, patient presented a very intense hair loss compatible with telogen effluvium. The author calls attention for the possibility of telogen effluvium after contact dermatitis, once the production of the contact dermatitis is one of the choice treatments for alopecia areata.

  6. Dynamics of regional brain activity in epilepsy: a cross-disciplinary study on both intracranial and scalp-recorded epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Ventouras, Errikos; Gatzonis, Stylianos D.; Siatouni, Anna; Tsekou, Hara; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sakas, Damianos E.; Stonham, John

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Recent cross-disciplinary literature suggests a dynamical analogy between earthquakes and epileptic seizures. This study extends the focus of inquiry for the applicability of models for earthquake dynamics to examine both scalp-recorded and intracranial electroencephalogram recordings related to epileptic seizures. Approach. First, we provide an updated definition of the electric event in terms of magnitude and we focus on the applicability of (i) a model for earthquake dynamics, rooted in a nonextensive Tsallis framework, (ii) the traditional Gutenberg and Richter law and (iii) an alternative method for the magnitude-frequency relation for earthquakes. Second, we apply spatiotemporal analysis in terms of nonextensive statistical physics and we further examine the behavior of the parameters included in the nonextensive formula for both types of electroencephalogram recordings under study. Main results. We confirm the previously observed power-law distribution, showing that the nonextensive formula can adequately describe the sequences of electric events included in both types of electroencephalogram recordings. We also show the intermittent behavior of the epileptic seizure cycle which is analogous to the earthquake cycles and we provide evidence of self-affinity of the regional electroencephalogram epileptic seizure activity. Significance. This study may provide a framework for the analysis and interpretation of epileptic brain activity and other biological phenomena with similar underlying dynamical mechanisms.

  7. Establishing a Right Frontal Beta Signature for Stopping Action in Scalp EEG: Implications for Testing Inhibitory Control in Other Task Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johanna; Wessel, Jan R; Ghahremani, Ayda; Aron, Adam R

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have examined the rapid stopping of action as a proxy of human self-control. Several methods have shown that a critical focus for stopping is the right inferior frontal cortex. Moreover, electrocorticography studies have shown beta band power increases in the right inferior frontal cortex and in the BG for successful versus failed stop trials, before the time of stopping elapses, perhaps underpinning a prefrontal-BG network for inhibitory control. Here, we tested whether the same signature might be visible in scalp electroencephalography (EEG)-which would open important avenues for using this signature in studies of the recruitment and timing of prefrontal inhibitory control. We used independent component analysis and time-frequency approaches to analyze EEG from three different cohorts of healthy young volunteers (48 participants in total) performing versions of the standard stop signal task. We identified a spectral power increase in the band 13-20 Hz that occurs after the stop signal, but before the time of stopping elapses, with a right frontal topography in the EEG. This right frontal beta band increase was significantly larger for successful compared with failed stops in two of the three studies. We also tested the hypothesis that unexpected events recruit the same frontal system for stopping. Indeed, we show that the stopping-related right-lateralized frontal beta signature was also active after unexpected events (and we accordingly provide data and scripts for the method). These results validate a right frontal beta signature in the EEG as a temporally precise and functionally significant neural marker of the response inhibition process.

  8. Trace Element Levels in Scalp Hair of School Children in Shigatse, Tibet, an Endemic Area for Kaschin-Beck Disease (KBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wei, Binggan; Wang, Wuyi; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic osteoarthritis, and the etiology is closely related with levels of trace elements in the human body. Currently, it is clear that the selenium (Se) status of children in KBD areas is lower than that in non-KBD areas in the Tibetan Plateau, whereas role of other elements are yet unknown. This study aimed to assess some essential trace elements (Se, Mo, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Sr) in children using scalp hair as a biomarker, and 157 samples from school children aged 8-14 years old were collected from both KBD and non-KBD areas in Shigatse, Tibet. Se and Mo were measured by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the other elements were determined by inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Compared with the non-KBD areas, Se, Mo, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, and Sr levels of children in KBD areas were found to be significantly different (P 115 to 0.299 mg/kg, while in non-KBD areas it ranged from 0.135 to 0.519 mg/kg. The Zn content of children's hair was between 83 and 207 mg/kg in KBD areas, while it was 37 and 219 mg/kg in non-KBD areas. Lower Se and higher Zn levels in children in KBD areas was found when compared with non-KBD groups. In addition, Mo levels were found to be different between KBD areas and non-KBD areas on the opposite side of the Yarlung Zangbo River, but no close relationship was shown because there was no difference compared with the non-KBD area on the same side of the river. Our observations suggest that Se deficiency is still an important factor for the occurrence and prevalence of KBD, while the relationship between Zn and KBD needs to be further explored in the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of 2% Topical Minoxidil with Rosemary Solution in the Treatment of Alopecia Areata on the Scalp

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    R Yaghmaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Alopecia Areata is a chronic inflammatory disease which affects the hair roots. Different drugs and methods are used to treat this disease, nevertheless there is still no cure. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of topical Minoxidil 2% solution in the treatment of alopecia areata on the scalp with rosemary solution. Methods: The present clinical-trial study was conducted on 78 patients with Alopecia Areata. Block randomization was designed in two groups of four Minoxidil 2% (n=39 and Rosemary (n=39. During the initial evaluation, patients were assessed in terms of location, number and extent of lesions by a dermatologist, and then the data were recorded. Patients in the intervention group were administered rosemary, as well as those in the control group were given Minoxidil 2%. The patients were instructed to apply the medication to the lesion twice a day. The lesion was re-evaluated two months later. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 as well as T-test and Chi-square test and descriptive statistics. Results: There were no significant differences in terms of mean age, mean duration of disease, and alopecia conflict in the patients of two groups (p>0.05. There was no significant difference in cure rates between the two groups (05/0 p>0.05. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that both Rosemary and Minoxidil had the same effects on alopecia areata. Due to the fact that the treatment of alopecia areata by rosemary plant is effective and affordable, it can be recommended.

  10. The pattern flash elicited P300-complex (PF-P300): dynamics of its topographic scalp distribution in different states of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavy, A; Kügler, C F; Lösslein, H

    1988-04-01

    PF-P300 has been recorded from 13 healthy male subjects (21-35 years) in two different conditions of visual attention (transient versus sustained attention) at 16 electrode locations (10/20-system) against linked mastoids. The PFP300 complexes were measured and mapped. Thus, we obtained the following: (1) N250 did not show any significant differences between both conditions. (2) PF-P300, however, showed significantly different (p less than or equal to .05) maps between both conditions, especially bilateral frontal and left occipital with the measured PFP300a-amplitudes being higher (p less than or equal to .01) under sustained attention. The PFP300a-latencies did not show such differences. (3) N400 showed similar (p less than or equal to .001) differences in its mean peak distribution, but its latencies were shorter (p less than or equal to .01 resp. .0001) at all recording sites (except Fz, Pz) in condition (2). (4) Further evaluation of the PFP300-complex under sustained attention by means of increment mapping and multichannel potential measurements showed that PFP300 first rises at Fz, Pz, then spreads over the left occipital region and culminates bilateral frontal and parieto-occipital. Interestingly, the latencies of N250 and PFP300a were shorter at O1 (p less than or equal to .01) than at O2. With the help of electrical brain mapping it is possible to study the dynamics of both the PFP300 scalp distribution between two distinct mental states and within one mental state.

  11. Daylight photodynamic therapy vs. Conventional photodynamic therapy as skin cancer preventive treatment in patients with face and scalp cancerization: an intra-individual comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, E; Apalla, Z; Vrani, F; Lazaridou, E; Vakirlis, E; Lallas, A; Ioannides, D

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with medical history of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) usually develop multiple and/or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary neoplasm. The latter represents the clinical expression of the 'field cancerization' theory; supporting the presence of multiple malignant clones of dysplastic keratinocytes over the entire epithelium that potentially can progress into clinical lesions. Taking into consideration that the burden of NMSCs on public health and health-care cost is high, adequate control of recurrences and management of field change is challenging. To compare the safety and efficacy of daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) vs. conventional photodynamic therapy (C-PDT) in the prevention of occurrence of new NMSCs in patients with clinical and histological signs of actinic field damage. Twenty-six patients, with personal history of NMSCs on the face or scalp and actinic keratosis (AK) on the same fields, were randomized for DL-PDT on one side and C-PDT on the other. For a 12-month period, individuals were clinically evaluated for development of new NMSCs. The total number of new AKs and the mean time of their development did not significantly differ between the treated sides. Local adverse events were more intense with C-PDT, and patients' preference was more for DL-PDT compared to C-PDT. The current findings suggest equal preventive potential of DL-PDT vs. C-PDT against the formation of new NMSCs in patients exhibiting actinic field damage. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metal in scalp hair of people exposed in Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuwei; Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Mingshuo; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Qianqian; Zeng, Xiangfeng

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in soil, wheat, and scalp hair exposed to Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area (BSIA) in Tianjin were studied to evaluate the influence of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, with 55.2 and 8.62% of soil samples accumulating Cd and Zn, respectively, at concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain from BSIA were higher than these from the clean water irrigation area by 63.2% for Cd, 3.8% for Cu, 100% for Pb, 6.6% for Zn, and 326.7% for Cr. The heavy metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the following order: Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr. Interestingly, these accumulation of heavy metals in soil after sewage irrigation could increase the migration ability of heavy metals (particularly Zn and Cd) from soil to wheat. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in the hair of residents followed the decreasing trend of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd, which were higher than the control area by 110.0% for Cd, 20.0% for Cu, 55.9% for Zn, 36.6% for Pb, and 64.6% for Cr. Concentrations of heavy metals in male human hair in BSIA were higher than those of females. And the concentrations of heavy metals except for Pb in human hair increased with their increasing ages. The heavy metal BAF values of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the trend of Zn (98.0057) > Pb (7.0162) > Cr (5.5788) > Cu (5.4853) > Cd (3.5584); heavy metals had obvious biological amplification from wheat to human hair. These results indicated that local population health was potentially exposed to the heavy metal risk via wheat consumption.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in total scalp irradiation: a single institutional experience

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    Ostheimer, Christian; Huebsch, Patrick; Janich, Martin; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Total scalp irradiation (TSI) is a rare but challenging indication. We previously reported that non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was superior to coplanar IMRT in organ-at-risk (OAR) protection and target dose distribution. This consecutive treatment planning study compared IMRT with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). A retrospective treatment plan databank search was performed and 5 patient cases were randomly selected. Cranial imaging was restored from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) and target volumes and OAR were redelineated. For each patients, three treatment plans were calculated (coplanar/non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT; prescribed dose 50 Gy, single dose 2 Gy). Conformity, homogeneity and dose volume histograms were used for plan. VMAT featured the lowest monitor units and the sharpest dose gradient (1.6 Gy/mm). Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and homogeneity was better in VMAT (coverage, 0.95; homogeneity index [HI], 0.118) compared to IMRT (coverage, 0.94; HI, 0.119) but coplanar IMRT produced the most conformal plans (conformity index [CI], 0.43). Minimum PTV dose range was 66.8% –88.4% in coplanar, 77.5%–88.2% in non-coplanar IMRT and 82.8%–90.3% in VMAT. Mean dose to the brain, brain stem, optic system (maximum dose) and lenses were 18.6, 13.2, 9.1, and 5.2 Gy for VMAT, 21.9, 13.4, 14.5, and 6.3 Gy for non-coplanar and 22.8, 16.5, 11.5, and 5.9 Gy for coplanar IMRT. Maximum optic chiasm dose was 7.7, 8.4, and 11.1 Gy (non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT, and coplanar IMRT). Target coverage, homogeneity and OAR protection, was slightly superior in VMAT plans which also produced the sharpest dose gradient towards healthy tissue.

  14. Thyroid and parathyroid tumours in patients submitted to X-ray scalp epilation during the tinea capitis eradication campaign in the North of Portugal (1950-1963).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Tinea capitis attained epidemical proportions in the fifth and sixth decades in Portugal, as in other countries. Before starting the utilization of griseofulvin in 1959, the best approach to treat tinea capitis infection was X-ray scalp epilation combined with topical antimycotic ointments. A long-term side effect of this therapy is thyroid disease, namely thyroid cancer; data on parathyroid lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma) are scarce. We observed clinically 1,375 individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment in the North of Portugal with the main purpose of evaluating thyroid and parathyroid tumours as possible sequelae of the irradiation treatment. For each individual, a cervical ultrasound and a serum calcium measurement were proposed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggested whenever ultrasound thyroid nodules presented suspicious features. We observed a 54 % frequency of thyroid nodules and a 2.8 % frequency of thyroid carcinoma (38/1,375). Nineteen of the 38 (50 %) carcinomas were diagnosed by us, whereas the remaining 19 carcinomas had been diagnosed and treated prior to our observation. The carcinomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men. Benign excised lesions were also significantly more frequent in women and in patients irradiated at younger ages. Seven women, considered asymptomatic until our clinical observation, had laboratory signs of hyperparathyroidism. The data we have obtained, namely high thyroid cancer frequency, corroborate previous data from childhood irradiated cohorts and highlight the need for the close follow-up of these populations in order to identify and treat early undiagnosed head and neck lesions. No evidence of increased parathyroid disease was found in this cohort of head and neck X-irradiated patients.

  15. Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in scalp hair, soil and metallurgical wastes in Mitrovica, Kosovo: the role of oral bioaccessibility and mineralogy in human PHE exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisa, N; Bird, G; Brewer, P A; Dean, J R; Entwistle, J A; Kemp, S J; Macklin, M G

    2013-10-01

    Internationally publicized impacts upon human health associated with potentially harmful element (PHE) exposure have been reported amongst internally displaced populations (IDPs) in Mitrovica, Kosovo, following the Kosovan War. Particular concern has surrounded the exposure to Pb indicated by the presence of highly elevated concentrations of Pb in blood and hair samples. This study utilizes a physiologically-based in-vitro extraction method to assess the bioaccessibility of PHEs in surface soils and metallurgical waste in Mitrovica and assesses the potential daily intake of soil-bound PHEs. Maximum As (210mgkg(-1)), Cd (38mgkg(-1)), Cu (410mgkg(-1)), Pb (18790mgkg(-1)) and Zn (8500mgkg(-1)) concentrations in surface soils (0-10cm) are elevated above guideline values. Samples with high PHE concentrations (e.g. As >1000mgkg(-1); Pb >1500mgkg(-1)) exhibit a wide range of bioaccessibilities (5.40 - 92.20% in the gastric (G) phase and 10.00 - 55.80% in the gastric-intestinal (G-I) phase). Samples associated with lower bioaccessibilities typically contain a number of XRD-identifiable primary and secondary mineral phases, particularly As- and Pb-bearing arsenian pyrite, beudantite, galena and cerrusite. Quantification of the potential human exposure risk associated with the ingestion of soil-associated PHEs indicates that on average, 0.01μg Cd kg(-1) BW d(-1), 0.16μg Cu kg(-1) BW d(--1), 0.12μg As kg(-1) BW d(-1), 7.81μg Pb kg(-1) BW d(-1), and 2.68μg Zn kg(-1) BW d(-1) could be bioaccessible following ingestion of PHE-rich soils in the Mitrovica region, with Pb, and to a lesser extent As, indicating the likely possibility of local populations exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake. Lead present within surface soils of the area could indeed have contributed to the human Pb burden due to the high bioaccessibility of Pb present within these soils (13.40 - 92.20% in the gastric phase). Data for Pb levels in scalp hair (≤120μgg(-1)) and blood (≥650μgdL(-1

  16. Evidence-based guidelines of the spanish psoriasis group on the use of biologic therapy in patients with psoriasis in difficult-to-treat sites (nails, scalp, palms, and soles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Regaña, M; Aldunce Soto, M J; Belinchón Romero, I; Ribera Pibernat, M; Lafuente-Urrez, R F; Carrascosa Carrillo, J M; Ferrándiz Foraster, C; Puig Sanz, L; Daudén Tello, E; Vidal Sarró, D; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Fonseca Capdevila, E; Rodríguez Cerdeira, M C; Alsina Gibert, M M; Herrera Acosta, E; Marrón Moya, S E

    2014-12-01

    Psoriatic lesions affecting the scalp, nails, palms, and the soles of the feet are described as difficult-to-treat psoriasis and require specific management. Involvement of these sites often has a significant physical and emotional impact on the patient and the lesions are difficult to control with topical treatments owing to inadequate penetration of active ingredients and the poor cosmetic characteristics of the vehicles used. Consequently, when difficult-to-treat sites are involved, psoriasis can be considered severe even though the lesions are not extensive. Scant information is available about the use of biologic therapy in this setting, and published data generally comes from clinical trials of patients who also had moderate to severe extensive lesions or from small case series and isolated case reports. In this article we review the quality of the scientific evidence for the 4 biologic agents currently available in Spain (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab) and report level i evidence for the use of biologics to treat nail psoriasis (level of recommendation A) and a somewhat lower level of evidence in the case of scalp involvement and palmoplantar psoriasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of arsenic in scalp hair samples from exposed subjects using microwave-assisted digestion with and without enrichment based on cloud point extraction by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Baig, Jameel Ahmad; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Khan, Sumaira; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem; Baig, Akhtar Mehmood

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid cloud point extraction (CPE) procedure was applied for preconcentration of trace quantities of arsenic (As) in scalp hair samples. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2 + 1, v/v) prior to preconcentration by CPE. The As in digested samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), and the resultant As-PDC complex was extracted by a nonionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 M HNO3 in methanol and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The experimental parameters, i.e., amount of APDC, concentration of Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and time, were optimized. For validation of the proposed method, a certified reference material (CRM) of human hair (BCR 397) was used. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the experimental results and certified values of the CRM (paired t-test). The LOD and LOQ obtained under the optimal conditions were 0.025 and 0.083 microg/kg, respectively. The developed method was applied for the determination of As in scalp hair samples from male and female subjects of two villages of Khairpur Mir's, Pakistan.

  18. Efeitos da craniopuntura de Yamamoto na osteoartrite de joelho: estudo de caso The Yamamoto scalp acupuncture effects in knee osteoarthritis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorine da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos da craniopuntura de Yamamoto na dor, na amplitude de movimento, qualidade de vida e funcionalidade de paciente com osteoartrite (OA de joelho. Foi realizado um estudo de caso de uma paciente de 59 anos apresentando quadro de dor no joelho, redução funcional nos últimos três meses e radiografia constando o grau 3 de OA de joelhos. A avaliação foi feita antes e após o tratamento através da Escala Visual Analógica (EVA para avaliação da dor, da qualidade de vida pelo questionário Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC, da funcionalidade pelo Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS e da amplitude de movimento do joelho pela goniometria. A craniopuntura foi realizada duas vezes por semana, com duração de 40 minutos cada, totalizando 10 sessões. A análise dos dados foi feita de forma descritiva. A variável utilizada foi o ganho relativo (GR medido no pré e no pós-tratamento. A dor no joelho diminuiu (GR=100%, enquanto a amplitude de movimento aumentou em ambos os joelhos (GR=20%. Observou-se melhora na dor (GR=83%, na rigidez (GR=50%, na função (GR=80% e no escore total da WOMAC (GR= 79%. Verificou-se, através da KOOS, melhora nos sintomas (GR=8%, na dor (GR=26%, nas atividades de vida diária (GR=21% e na qualidade de vida (GR= 17%. Conclui-se que a craniopuntura foi efetiva no alívio da dor, na amplitude de movimento, qualidade de vida e funcionalidade de paciente com OA de joelho.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture in pain, range of motion, life quality and functionality of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a case study of a patient of 59 years complaining of knee pain, functional reduction in the last three months and radiography consisting of grade 3 knee OA. The evaluation was done before and after treatment using the Visual Analogue Scale index (VAS for pain

  19. Prediction of Long-Term Treatment Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs Using Scalp and Source Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials (LDAEP Analysis in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bun-Hee Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP is inversely related to central serotonergic activity, with a high LDAEP reflecting weak serotonergic neurotransmission and vice versa, though the findings in humans have been less consistent. In addition, a high pretreatment LDAEP appears to predict a favorable response to antidepressant treatments that augment the actions of serotonin. The aim of this study was to test whether the baseline LDAEP is correlated with response to long-term maintenance treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: Scalp N1, P2 and N1/P2 LDAEP and standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography-localized N1, P2, and N1/P2 LDAEP were evaluated in 41 MDD patients before and after they received antidepressant treatment (escitalopram (n = 32, 10.0 ± 4.0 mg/day, sertraline (n = 7, 78.6 ± 26.7 mg/day, and paroxetine controlled-release formulation (n = 2, 18.8 ± 8.8 mg/day for more than 12 weeks. A treatment response was defined as a reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of >50% between baseline and follow-up. Results: The responders had higher baseline scalp P2 and N1/P2 LDAEP than nonresponders (p = 0.017; p = 0.036. In addition, changes in total BDI score between baseline and follow-up were larger in subjects with a high baseline N1/P2 LDAEP than those with a low baseline N1/P2 LDAEP (p = 0.009. There were significantly more responders in the high-LDAEP group than in the low-LDAEP group (p = 0.041. Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that a high baseline LDAEP is associated with a clinical response to long-term antidepressant treatment.

  20. Combination of high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of advanced scalp angiosarcoma - case report; Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose associada a radioterapia externa no tratamento de angiossarcoma extenso do couro cabeludo - relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, Andre Cavalcanti; Lima Junior, Carlos Genesio Bezerra [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radioterapia]. E-mail: andregentil@hotmail.com; Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Pellizon, Antonio Carlos Assis [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pequisa

    2001-10-01

    The authors report a case of a patient with an extensive angiosarcoma of the scalp that was submitted only to radiotherapy with a combination of orthovoltage roentgentherapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy, using a mould. The clinical and technical features as well as the therapeutic outcome are presented, and the usefulness and peculiarities of high-dose rate brachytherapy for this particular indication is discussed. A comparative analysis of the difficulties and limitations of employing low-dose rate brachytherapy is also presented. The authors concluded that high-dose rate brachytherapy might be an useful, practical and safe option to treat neoplastic lesions of the scalp, and an alternative treatment to electrontherapy. (author)

  1. An outbreak of scalp white piedra in a Brazilian children day care Surto de piedra branca afetando os cabelos do couro cabeludo de crianças em creche brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Roselino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichosporon spp. that affects the hair shaft of any part of the body. It is presented an outbreak of scalp white piedra seen in 5.8% of the children frequenting a day care in Northeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. Mycological exam and culture identified T. cutaneum in all five cases, and scanning electron microscopy of nodules around hair shaft infected by Trichosporon spp. is demonstrated comparing them with those of black piedra and with nits of Pediculous capitis.Piedra branca caracteriza-se por ser micose superficial, causada por Trichosporon spp., que compromete a haste dos pelos de qualquer região do corpo. Um surto de piedra branca, afetando os cabelos do couro cabeludo, foi registrado em 5,8% das crianças que freqüentavam uma creche na região nordeste do estado de São Paulo. Exame micológico direto e cultura identificaram T. cutaneum nas cinco crianças afetadas. Enfatiza-se a utilização da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, que mostrou nódulos circundando a haste dos cabelos infectada por Trichosporon spp., comparando-os com nódulos de Piedra nigra e com lêndeas de Pediculus capitis.

  2. Reconstrucción de la subunidad estética de la ceja con un colgajo temporal en isla de cuero cabelludo Aesthetic reconstruction of the eyebrow unit using a temporal island scalp flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gaona Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de las cejas juega un papel importante en la Cirugía Reconstructiva facial, debido a que la ausencia o deformidad de las mismas altera la expresión y las características de la cara, ejerciendo una influencia poderosa en la apariencia de la región periorbitaria, así como en el aspecto y en la autoestima de los pacientes. Describimos una técnica quirúrgica basada en el empleo de un colgajo temporal en isla de cuero cabelludo para la reconstrucción de la subunidad estética de la ceja y presentamos 3 casos de pacientes con defectos alopécicos de las cejas reconstruidos mediante dicha técnica.Eyebrow reconstruction plays an important role in facial Reconstructive Surgery. Absence or deformity of the eyebrows alter the expression and other features in the face exerting a powerful influence in the appearance of the periorbital region, so in the aspect as well as in the self-esteem of the patients. This paper describes the use of a temporal island scalp flap technique to reconstruct the eyebrow unit and we present 3 patients who underwent eyebrows reconstruction with this technique.

  3. Placa fibrosa de la frente o del cuero cabelludo: Un marcador cutáneo temprano del complejo de la esclerosis tuberosa Forehead or scalp fibrous plaque: An earley cutaneous marker in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Saponaro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El complejo de la Esclerosis tuberosa es una afección hereditaria, que se transmite en forma autosómica dominante. Se caracteriza por convulsiones, retraso mental y manifestaciones en diversos órganos. Los signos cutáneos suelen ser determinantes para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Entre éstos se destaca la placa fibrosa, la que se localiza más frecuentemente en la frente, pero puede observarse en cualquier área del cuero cabelludo. Cuando está presente, suele ser el signo cutáneo inicial de la enfermedad, como ocurrió en nuestro paciente, subdiagnosticado. Su importancia radica entonces en reconocerlo como un marcador precoz y patognomónico de la enfermedad.The complex of tuberous sclerosis is an hereditary disease that passes in the autosomal dominant way. It is characterized by convulsions, mental retardation and manifestations in different organs. The cutaneous signs are used to be determinant for the diagnosis of the illness. Among these, it is important the fibrous plaque, which is usually localized in the forehead, but it can also be observed in any area of the scalp.When it is presented, it is used to be the first cutaneous sign of the illness, and like it happened in our patient, underdiagnosed. So, the importance of the fibrous plaque lies in recognizing it as an early cutaneous marker and pathognomonic of the disease.

  4. Modulation of hand motor-related area during motor imagery and motor execution before and after middle 2/5 of the MS6 line scalp acupuncture stimulation: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Romeo; Maieron, Marta; Tomasino, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Scalp acupuncture (SA) combines the concept of cerebral cortex organization with the principles of acupuncture. The SA stimulates sections of the cerebral cortex. We studied the functional modulation of the left hand sensorimotor area induced by SA in order to investigate the specificity of the SA-related functional effects of the middle 2/5 of the MS6 line of the left side, which corresponds to the upper limb motor segment of the primary motor area. To this purpose, we compared the pre- and post-SA functional activation patterns during an implicit motor imagery task (handedness decision in which participants simulated rotational hand movements) and an explicit manual motor execution task. Feet and mouth movements, and the fMRI changes in their respective representations were used as control conditions. Only SA on the hand area of the left side (as compared to the mouth and the foot representations which were used as control conditions) exerted a release effect on the right hand area. In addition, an increased activation of the superior parietal lobe was seen, which is involved in movement control and planning. Taken together, these preliminary findings may shed light on the SA effects and confirm a prolonged effect of SA even after cessation of needling stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose associada a radioterapia externa no tratamento de angiossarcoma extenso do couro cabeludo: relato de caso Combination of high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of advanced scalp angiosarcoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cavalcanti Gentil

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de extenso angiossarcoma do couro cabeludo submetido a radioterapia exclusiva, pela associação de roentgenterapia de ortovoltagem e braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose utilizando um molde. Descrevem os aspectos clínicos, técnicos e a evolução terapêutica. Destacam as particularidades e a utilidade da braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose, nesta situação em particular, e fazem uma análise comparativa das dificuldades e limitações caso a braquiterapia de baixa taxa de dose fosse empregada. Concluem ser a braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose uma opção útil, prática e segura para as lesões neoplásicas superficiais do escalpe, podendo ser considerada uma alternativa ao tratamento com elétrons.The authors report a case of a patient with an extensive angiosarcoma of the scalp that was submitted only to radiotherapy with a combination of orthovoltage roentgentherapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy, using a mould. The clinical and technical features as well as the therapeutic outcome are presented, and the usefulness and peculiarities of high-dose rate brachytherapy for this particular indication is discussed. A comparative analysis of the difficulties and limitations of employing low-dose rate brachytherapy is also presented. The authors concluded that high-dose rate brachytherapy might be an useful, practical and safe option to treat neoplastic lesions of the scalp, and an alternative treatment to electrontherapy.

  6. Colgajo de nuca para reconstrucción de lesiones en cuero cabelludo Retalho de nuca para reconstrução de lesões de couro cabeludo Nape flap for scalp lessions reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    écnica proposta apresentou com vantagens a correção em um só tempo cirúrgico e o fechamento direto da lesão com bom aspecto cosmético. Como desvantagens, identificaram-se aumento da área glabra e, algumas vezes, presença de cicatriz hipertrófica, a qual, na opinião dos pacientes, não comprometeu sua qualidade de vida.Sixteen male patients aging from 20 to 35 years had been submitted to Reconstructive Surgery with pediculate remnant of nape, from 2000 to 2003, at the Plastic Surgery Department of Agamenon Magalhães Hospital, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil, for treatment of chronic inflammatory injuries of mycotic origin and 1 case of secondary injury due to electric burning with scalp necrosis and bone exposition, all located in occipital region. The internment time varied between 3 and 4 days. Three cases of necrosis of remnant tip had been identified, in retro-auricular region, measuring between 0.5 cm and 1 cm that had healed by second intention. Any case of pedicular necrosis or infection has been registered. The proposal technique presented advantages as the correction in only one surgical procedure and the direct closing of the injury with a good cosmetic aspect. As disadvantages, there were increase of glabrous area and, sometimes, the presence of hypertrophic scar, which, in patients´ opinion, did not compromise their quality of life.

  7. Terapia fotodinâmica para tratamento de múltiplas lesões no couro cabeludo na síndrome do nevobasocelular: relato de caso Photodynamic therapy for treatment of multiple lesions on the scalp in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rezende Neves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A terapia fotodinâmica é uma alternativa eficaz de tratamento para neoplasias cutâneas não melanoma e tem como princípio a utilização de substâncias fotossensibilizantes que, após serem irradiadas com uma fonte de luz de comprimento de onda adequado, destroem seletivamente as células neoplásicas. A Síndrome do Nevobasocelular é uma genodermatose que cursa com o desenvolvimento de inúmeros carcinomas basocelulares em uma idade precoce, submetendo os pacientes a vários procedimentos cirúrgicos, muitas vezes desfigurantes. Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar o excelente resultado do tratamento de carcinomas basocelulares no couro cabeludo de uma paciente com a Síndrome do Nevobasocelular.Photodynamic therapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, selectively destroying the neoplastic cells through the use of photosensitizer substances that are irradiated with a source of light of adequate wave length. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a genodermatosis characterized by multiples basal cell carcinomas occurring at an early age, compelling patients to various surgeries, some of them disfiguring. The aim of this article is to show the excellent result of the treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas on the scalp of a patient suffering from Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.

  8. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery Ryan Hernandez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts to characterize human movement through EEG have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA dancers. Each dancer performed whole body functional movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities ('Neutral', non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities ('Think’, and enacted expressive movements ('Do'. The expressive movement qualities that were used in the 'Think' and 'Do' actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Efforts as defined by LMA - a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2 – 4 Hz EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher’s discriminant analysis (LFDA for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort (giving a total of 17 classes. Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore movements.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: scalp-ear-nipple syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nipple syndrome are born with a condition called aplasia cutis congenita, which involves patchy abnormal areas (lesions) on ... of the tissues that arise from the ectoderm (ectodermal dysplasia) and leads to the signs and symptoms of ...

  10. Cutaneous metastasis of breast adenoid cystic carcinoma to the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony J; Seline, Alison E; Swick, Brian L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a tumor that can be of primary cutaneous origin or secondary to metastatic disease, most commonly salivary origin. Aside from primary cutaneous and salivary types, ACC of the breast is a rare, more indolent variant. Cutaneous metastases secondary to breast ACC is exceedingly uncommon and not previously reported to our knowledge. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who developed cutaneous metastasis from primary breast ACC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Multiple Scalp Infarctions and Bilateral Orbital Compression in A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital compression syndromeis one of Orbital complications in sickle cell disease (SCD) in which a vaso-occlusive process affecting the marrow space of the orbital bone results in subperiosteal hematomas as a result of bone marrow infarctions. It is one of the unusual manifestations of SCD. Usually presents as frontal ...

  12. Emotion classification using single-channel scalp-EEG recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilifard, Amir; Brigante Pizzolato, Ednaldo; Kafiul Islam, Md

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have found evidence for corticolimbic Theta electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation in the neural processing of visual stimuli perceived as fear or threatening scene. Recent studies showed that neural oscillations' patterns in Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma sub-bands play a main role in brain's emotional processing. The main goal of this study is to classify two different emotional states by means of EEG data recorded through a single-electrode EEG headset. Nineteen young subjects participated in an EEG experiment while watching a video clip that evoked three emotional states: neutral, relaxation and scary. Following each video clip, participants were asked to report on their subjective affect by giving a score between 0 to 10. First, recorded EEG data were preprocessed by stationary wavelet transform (SWT) based denoising to remove artifacts. Afterward, the distribution of power in time-frequency space was obtained using short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and then, the mean value of energy was calculated for each EEG sub-band. Finally, 46 features, as the mean energy of frequency bands between 4 and 50 Hz, containing 689 instances - for each subject -were collected in order to classify the emotional states. Our experimental results show that EEG dynamics induced by horror and relaxing movies can be classified with average classification rate of 92% using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We also compared the performance of SVM to K-nearest neighbors (K-NN). The results show that K-NN achieves a better classification rate by 94% accuracy. The findings of this work are expected to pave the way to a new horizon in neuroscience by proving the point that only single-channel EEG data carry enough information for emotion classification.

  13. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garza, Jesus G.; Hernandez, Zachery R.; Nepaul, Sargoon; Bradley, Karen K.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to characterize human movement through electroencephalography (EEG) have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) dancers. Each dancer performed whole body movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities (“Neutral”), non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities (“Think”), and enacted expressive movements (“Do”). The expressive movement qualities that were used in the “Think” and “Do” actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Effort qualities as defined by LMA—a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2–4 Hz) EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis (LFDA) for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort quality (giving a total of 17 classes). Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort quality Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore movements. PMID:24782734

  14. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garza, Jesus G; Hernandez, Zachery R; Nepaul, Sargoon; Bradley, Karen K; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to characterize human movement through electroencephalography (EEG) have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) dancers. Each dancer performed whole body movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities ("Neutral"), non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities ("Think"), and enacted expressive movements ("Do"). The expressive movement qualities that were used in the "Think" and "Do" actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Effort qualities as defined by LMA-a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2-4 Hz) EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis (LFDA) for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort quality (giving a total of 17 classes). Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort quality Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore movements.

  15. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Daniël; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 ± 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. MANAGING SCALP DEFECTS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA J. N. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-02-01

    Feb 1, 2004 ... Main outcome measures: Size of defect, associated bone loss, osteomyelitis, type of surgery, duration of hospital stay and complications of surgery. Interventions: Patients went through a simple management protocol involving history, clinical examination, relevant tests and appropriate treatment, including ...

  17. Systemic sarcoidosis with necrobiosis lipoidica-like scalp lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1977-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman is described, having systemic sarcoidosis for 15 years, involving the lungs, lymph nodes and the skin. Over the last 6 years she developed a progressive cicatricial alopecia with histologic changes of the granulomatous type of necrobiosis lipoidica surrounded by sarcoid...

  18. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While most men prefer women as their sexual partners, some are bisexual and others are homosexuals. It has been debated for a long time whether a person's sexual preference is innate, learned, or due to a combination of both causes. It was recently discovered that the human right-versus-left-hand use preference and ...

  19. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... cryopreservation and as a tool in genetic improvement programmes of the cultivar. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Shoot tips of Musa sp. cv. Tanduk were placed on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 100 µM BAP, 1.0 µM IAA, 2.0 mgl-1 glycine, 0.4 mgl-1 thiamine HCl, 0.5 mgl-1 nicotinic ...

  20. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and

  1. Elements concentrations in the scalp hair of methamphetamine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruxin; Zhang, Sujing; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Zhuo, Xianyi; Ma, Dong

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of 16 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr and Zn) in the hair of 40 methamphetamine (METH) abusers and control subjects were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons of the element levels in the hair of properly matched METH abuser and control groups revealed significant imbalances in the concentrations of 6 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cu, Mg and Sr) between the abuser and control groups. Ca (p<0.01), Cu (p<0.05), Mg (p<0.01) and Sr (p<0.01) levels are significantly lower in the hair samples of METH abusers compared to control subjects, whereas the As (p<0.01) and Au (p<0.01) concentrations are higher. The concentration of the remaining elements in the hair of METH abusers was similar to the concentration in the control subjects. The geometric means for each element in hair of METH abuser and control subjects are presented. The cause of these alterations is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of clonidine, by infi ltration and by intravenous route, on scalp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fentanyl 0.5 μg/kg IV was given if a 20% increase in either heart rate (HR) and/or blood pressure (BP) was observed. HR and BP were monitored throughout the surgery and recorded on pin application, incision (planned 15 minutes after pins), at 15-minute intervals thereafter until dural closure, and every five minutes after ...

  3. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Zarami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries.

  4. Aplasia cutis congenita scalp presenting with life threatening hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Farrukh; Tasneem, Shahzadi; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of a patch of skin since birth. It may lead to life threatening complications at times. A 5-day-old neonate with Aplasia cutis congenita was received in a state of shock due to tremendous blood loss from the superior sagittal sinus. The neonate was resuscitated immediately followed by closure of the superior sagittal sinus and flap coverage to the defect as a life saving procedure.

  5. Stable Scalp EEG Spatiospectral Patterns Across Paradigms Estimated by Group ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labounek, René; Bridwell, David A; Mareček, Radek; Lamoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal; Slavíček, Tomáš; Bednařík, Petr; Baštinec, Jaromír; Hluštík, Petr; Brázdil, Milan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations reflect the superposition of different cortical sources with potentially different frequencies. Various blind source separation (BSS) approaches have been developed and implemented in order to decompose these oscillations, and a subset of approaches have been developed for decomposition of multi-subject data. Group independent component analysis (Group ICA) is one such approach, revealing spatiospectral maps at the group level with distinct frequency and spatial characteristics. The reproducibility of these distinct maps across subjects and paradigms is relatively unexplored domain, and the topic of the present study. To address this, we conducted separate group ICA decompositions of EEG spatiospectral patterns on data collected during three different paradigms or tasks (resting-state, semantic decision task and visual oddball task). K-means clustering analysis of back-reconstructed individual subject maps demonstrates that fourteen different independent spatiospectral maps are present across the different paradigms/tasks, i.e. they are generally stable.

  6. Experiencia en el tratamiento de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo Scalp burns treatment experience

    OpenAIRE

    N. Pereira; P. Léniz; E. Enríquez; G. Mangelsdorff; B. Piñeros; W. Calderón

    2013-01-01

    El cuero cabelludo es la barrera más externa y más importante del cráneo y del cerebro. Si bien las quemaduras de esta zona son raras, cuando se producen suelen estar causadas por alta tensión eléctrica, fuego, líquidos hirvientes u otras fuentes de calor. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una serie de casos de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo tratadas en los últimos 10 años en el Hospital del Trabajador de Santiago (Chile). Se trata de un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se an...

  7. [Expanded scalp flap in cicatricial areas affected by burns sequelae - an observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mazouz, S; Hafidi, J; Fejjal, N; Mejjati, H; Cherkab, L; Gharib, N; Abbassi, A

    2010-03-31

    Les séquelles esthétiques des alopécies cicatricielles sur séquelles de brûlures sont responsables de préjudices empêchant parfois la réinsertion sociale du patient, surtout chez les sujets de sexe féminin. Le cuir chevelu permet la réalisation de lambeaux permettant de couvrir ces alopécies. Les Auteurs décrivent le cas d'une jeune patiente victime d'une alopécie cicatricielle sur séquelles de brûlures chez qui ils ont réalisé un lambeau expansé du cuir chevelu et mettent le point sur la prise en charge de ces lésions à travers ce cas clinique et une revue de littérature.

  8. A rare and an unusually delayed presentation of orbital actinomycosis following avulsion injury of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Vidya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of orbital swelling presenting one year after head trauma. An initial fine needle aspiration cytology revealed it to be an infected organizing hematoma. However, broad-spectrum antibiotics did not resolve the infection and the orbital lesion continued to grow in size, as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Incisional biopsies were done, which were reported as orbital actinomycosis. Patient has responded well to treatment with penicillin. This case is of interest due to the delayed presentation of an orbital complication of head trauma and the rare infection with actinomyces. It also highlights the importance of using appropriate antibiotics, as well as the need for long-term treatment.

  9. Human botfly (Dermatobia hominis) larva in a child's scalp mimicking osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Kanupriya; Kalapos, Paul; Makkar, Abhishek; Engbrecht, Brett; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. However, because of widespread travel, furuncular myiasis has become more common in North America. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement can occur owing to limited awareness of the condition outside endemic areas. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in an immigrant from El Salvador with magnetic resonance imaging findings. The case is unique because neuroimaging was obtained upon the clinical suspicion of calvarial osteomyelitis. Parasitic infestation should be included in the differential diagnosis of a new skin lesion in patients who have traveled to endemic areas.

  10. Myiasis of the scalp due to Dermatobia hominis in a traveler returning from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Peruzzi, Simona; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Gatti, Stefano; Caleffi, Edoardo; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    This article describes a case of myiasis by Dermatobia hominis diagnosed in a young Italian man returning from a vacation through Brazil. Considering the increasing number of travels to tropical and subtropical areas, clinicians in nonendemic areas must think about the possibility of imported unusual infestations during their daily practice.

  11. Sitting and Standing Intention Can be Decoded from Scalp EEG Recorded Prior to Movement Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Bulea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency signals recorded from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG, in particular movement-related cortical potentials (MRPs, are associated with preparation and execution of movement and thus present a target for use in brain-machine interfaces. We investigated the ability to decode movement intent from delta-band (0.1-4 Hz EEG recorded immediately before movement execution in healthy volunteers. We used data from epochs starting 1.5 sec before movement onset to classify future movements into one of three classes: stand-up, sit-down, or quiet. We assessed classification accuracy in both externally triggered and self-paced paradigms. Movement onset was determined from electromyography (EMG recordings synchronized with EEG signals. We employed an artifact subspace reconstruction (ASR algorithm to eliminate high amplitude noise before building our time-embedded EEG features. We applied local Fisher’s discriminant analysis to reduce the dimensionality of our spatio-temporal features and subsequently used a Gaussian mixture model classifier for our three class problem. Our results demonstrate significantly better than chance classification accuracy (chance level = 33.3% for the self-initiated (78.0 ± 2.6% and triggered (74.7 ± 5.7% paradigms. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the self-paced and cued paradigms when using the full set of non-peripheral electrodes. However, accuracy was significantly increased for self-paced movements when only electrodes over the primary motor area were used. Overall, this study demonstrates that delta-band EEG recorded immediately before movement carries discriminative information regarding movement type. Our results suggest that EEG-based classifiers could improve lower-limb neuroprostheses and neurorehabilitation techniques by providing earlier detection of movement intent, which could be used in robot-assisted strategies for motor training and recovery of function.

  12. Sitting and standing intention can be decoded from scalp EEG recorded prior to movement execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Prasad, Saurabh; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency signals recorded from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), in particular movement-related cortical potentials (MRPs), are associated with preparation and execution of movement and thus present a target for use in brain-machine interfaces. We investigated the ability to decode movement intent from delta-band (0.1-4 Hz) EEG recorded immediately before movement execution in healthy volunteers. We used data from epochs starting 1.5 s before movement onset to classify future movements into one of three classes: stand-up, sit-down, or quiet. We assessed classification accuracy in both externally triggered and self-paced paradigms. Movement onset was determined from electromyography (EMG) recordings synchronized with EEG signals. We employed an artifact subspace reconstruction (ASR) algorithm to eliminate high amplitude noise before building our time-embedded EEG features. We applied local Fisher's discriminant analysis to reduce the dimensionality of our spatio-temporal features and subsequently used a Gaussian mixture model classifier for our three class problem. Our results demonstrate significantly better than chance classification accuracy (chance level = 33.3%) for the self-initiated (78.0 ± 2.6%) and triggered (74.7 ± 5.7%) paradigms. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the self-paced and cued paradigms when using the full set of non-peripheral electrodes. However, accuracy was significantly increased for self-paced movements when only electrodes over the primary motor area were used. Overall, this study demonstrates that delta-band EEG recorded immediately before movement carries discriminative information regarding movement type. Our results suggest that EEG-based classifiers could improve lower-limb neuroprostheses and neurorehabilitation techniques by providing earlier detection of movement intent, which could be used in robot-assisted strategies for motor training and recovery of function.

  13. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarami, A B; Satumari, N A; Ahmed, M

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries.

  14. Human scalp recorded sigma activity is modulated by slow EEG oscillations during deep sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Elfadil, H.; Roschke, J.; Burr, W.; Klaver, P.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The EEG during deep sleep exhibits a distinct cortically generated slow oscillation of around and below 1 Hz which can be distinguished from other delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) activity. Intracranial studies showed that this slow oscillation triggers and groups cortical network firing. In the present study, we

  15. Dermatophytes and other fungi associated with scalp-hair of nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2,117 nursery and primary school children aged 1-13 years were surveyed for scalphair infection in Awka, Nigeria between January and March 2004. Specimens for mycological investigations were confirmed by microscopic examinations in 100 cases (4.7%) and the causative agents was isolated and cultured in ...

  16. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  17. Cryosurgery for Facial and Scalp Lesions of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Study in 29 Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Satish; Savant, Sandeep; Sehgal, Virendra N

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the pre-eminent tumors of the epidermis, recognized by explicit clinical-pathologic characteristics. It is relatively uncommon in South Asia including India and is amenable to a variety of modalities, including cryosurgery. The outcome of cryosurgery was evaluated in 18 men and 11 women, aged 58 to 83 years, who were treated with two freeze-thaw cycles of liquid nitrogen under local anesthesia, after requisite preparations. Of the 29 patients, 27 had complete clearance of the lesions in the course of 3 years of follow-up, while only 2 had a recurrence, one at 17 months and one at 23 months. Recurrences were treated with a repeat cryosurgery, with a cure rate of 93%. Cryosurgery is a simple, inexpensive, and dermatologist-friendly office procedure with a high cure rates for well-defined facial BCC lesions.

  18. Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Giant scalp cutaneous horn in black Malawian adult: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cutenous horn is a common disease entity in European Caucasians and other populations in Asia, far-east, and North America. By far reported cases involving black Africans are exceedingly few. This presentation therefore is aimed to yet document another occurrence of a rare case from Malawi involving an ...

  20. Classifying Schizotypy Using an Audiovisual Emotion Perception Test and Scalp Electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woon Jeong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to the personality trait of experiencing “psychotic” symptoms and can be regarded as a predisposition of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology (Raine, 1991. Cumulative evidence has revealed that individuals with schizotypy, as well as schizophrenia patients, have emotional processing deficits. In the present study, we investigated multimodal emotion perception in schizotypy and implemented the machine learning technique to find out whether a schizotypy group (ST is distinguishable from a control group (NC, using electroencephalogram (EEG signals. Forty-five subjects (30 ST and 15 NC were divided into two groups based on their scores on a Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. All participants performed an audiovisual emotion perception test while EEG was recorded. After the preprocessing stage, the discriminatory features were extracted using a mean subsampling technique. For an accurate estimation of covariance matrices, the shrinkage linear discriminant algorithm was used. The classification attained over 98% accuracy and zero rate of false-positive results. This method may have important clinical implications in discriminating those among the general population who have a subtle risk for schizotypy, requiring intervention in advance.