WorldWideScience

Sample records for scaling units

  1. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  2. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Keith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU that will improve management decisions. Materials and methods. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the “Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A” questionnaire. Results. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. Conclusions. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  3. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jorge; Prior, Diego

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU) that will improve management decisions. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the "Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A)" questionnaire. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  4. National scale biomass estimators for United States tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of national-scale forest carbon (C) stocks and fluxes are typically based on allometric regression equations developed using dimensional analysis techniques. However, the literature is inconsistent and incomplete with respect to large-scale forest C estimation. We compiled all available diameter-based allometric regression equations for estimating total...

  5. JSTOR: Large Scale Digitization of Journals in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. Guthrie

    1999-01-01

    The JSTOR database now includes well over 2 million pages from 61 important journals in 13 academic disciplines. Additional journal content is being digitized at a rate of more than 100,000 pages per month. More than 320 libraries in the United States and Canada have become participating institutions, providing support for the creation, maintenance and growth of this database. Outside of North America, we have established a mirror site in the United Kingdom. Through a novel collaborative rela...

  6. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.; Jones, Samuel T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  7. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  8. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  9. JSTOR: Large Scale Digitization of Journals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Guthrie

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The JSTOR database now includes well over 2 million pages from 61 important journals in 13 academic disciplines. Additional journal content is being digitized at a rate of more than 100,000 pages per month. More than 320 libraries in the United States and Canada have become participating institutions, providing support for the creation, maintenance and growth of this database. Outside of North America, we have established a mirror site in the United Kingdom. Through a novel collaborative relationship with the Joint Information Systems Committee, the JSTOR database is now being made available to over 20 higher education institutions in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland from a mirror site at the University of Manchester. In addition, plans are underway to establish a second overseas mirror site in Budapest, Hungary to serve institutions in Eastern Europe and Russia. As each day passes, new opportunities are presented to us to extend the reach of this enterprise. It is an exciting and challenging time.

  10. 1:2,000,000-scale state boundaries of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage is of the state boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the 1:2,000,000-scale...

  11. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  12. An extinction scale-expansion unit for the Beckman DK2 spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes a simple but accurate unit for the Beckman DK2 recording spectrophotometer, whereby any 0·1 section of the extinction (`absorbance') scale may be expanded tenfold, while preserving complete linearity in extinction. PMID:6048800

  13. Determining relative bulk viscosity of kilometre-scale crustal units using field observations and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robyn L.; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R.

    2017-11-01

    Though the rheology of kilometre-scale polymineralic rock units is crucial for reliable large-scale, geotectonic models, this information is difficult to obtain. In geotectonic models, a layer is defined as an entity at the kilometre scale, even though it is heterogeneous at the millimetre to metre scale. Here, we use the shape characteristics of the boundaries between rock units to derive the relative bulk viscosity of those units at the kilometre scale. We examine the shape of a vertically oriented ultramafic, harzburgitic-lherzolitic unit, which developed a kilometre-scale pinch and swell structure at mid-crustal conditions ( 600 °C, 8.5 kbar), in the Anita Shear Zone, New Zealand. The ultramafic layer is embedded between a typical polymineralic paragneiss to the west, and a feldspar-quartz-hornblende orthogneiss, to the east. Notably, the boundaries on either side of the ultramafic layer give the ultramafics an asymmetric shape. Microstructural analysis shows that deformation was dominated by dislocation creep (n = 3). Based on the inferred rheological behaviour from the field, a series of numerical simulations are performed. Relative and absolute values are derived for bulk viscosity of the rock units by comparing boundary tortuosity difference measured on the field example and the numerical series. Our analysis shows that during deformation at mid-crustal conditions, paragneisses can be 30 times less viscous than an ultramafic unit, whereas orthogneisses have intermediate viscosity, 3 times greater than the paragneisses. If we assume a strain rate of 10- 14 s- 1 the ultramafic, orthogneiss and paragneiss have syn-deformational viscosities of 3 × 1022, 2.3 × 1021 and 9.4 × 1020 Pa s, respectively. Our study shows pinch and swell structures are useful as a gauge to assess relative bulk viscosity of rock units based on shape characteristics at the kilometre scale and in non-Newtonian flow regimes, even where heterogeneity occurs within the units at the

  14. Wear properties of H13 with micron scale and nano scale grains bionic units processed by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Cheng-tao; Liu, Yan; Ren, Lu-quan

    2013-12-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, a combination of soft part (untreated substrate) and hard part (laser remelting area) structure was designed on metal surface to get an improved performance. Different specimens were prepared which contained units with micro and nano scale grains. The microstructures were observed by environmental field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases. The results of these tests indicate that due to the rapid solidification condition in the water, nano scale grains have a high microhardness between 1300 and 1000 HV. Retained austenite was found in it. Some of them transform to martensite in block on ring wear test. Specimens with bionic unit have a better wear resistance. Especially, the units with nano grains bring a further enhancement. The alternate soft and hard in macroscopic (substrate and laser remelting area) and microscopic (austenite and martensite) structure played a key role in improving the H13 wear resistance.

  15. Contractual Duration and Investment Incentives: Evidence from Large Scale Production Units in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Feng, Shuyi; D'Haese, Marijke; Lu, Hualiang; Qu, Futian

    2017-04-01

    Large Scale Production Units have become important forces in the supply of agricultural commodities and agricultural modernization in China. Contractual duration in farmland transfer to Large Scale Production Units can be considered to reflect land tenure security. Theoretically, long-term tenancy contracts can encourage Large Scale Production Units to increase long-term investments by ensuring land rights stability or favoring access to credit. Using a unique Large Scale Production Units- and plot-level field survey dataset from Jiangsu and Jiangxi Province, this study aims to examine the effect of contractual duration on Large Scale Production Units' soil conservation behaviours. IV method is applied to take into account the endogeneity of contractual duration and unobserved household heterogeneity. Results indicate that farmland transfer contract duration significantly and positively affects land-improving investments. Policies aimed at improving transaction platforms and intermediary organizations in farmland transfer to facilitate Large Scale Production Units to access farmland with long-term tenancy contracts may therefore play an important role in improving soil quality and land productivity.

  16. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  17. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  18. Designing and validity evaluation of Quality of Nursing Care Scale in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Mashaalah; Alavi, Negin Masoudi

    2014-01-01

    Quality of nursing care measurement is essential in critical care units. The aim of this study was to develop a scale to measure the quality of nursing care in intensive care units (ICUs). The 68 items of nursing care standards in critical care settings were explored in a literature review. Then, 30 experts evaluated the items' content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). Items with a low CVI score (nursing care scale in ICU (Quality of Nursing Care Scale- ICU) that was developed in this research had acceptable CVI and CVR.

  19. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize...... different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  20. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  1. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  2. Spatial scaling of non-native fish richness across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Julian D. Olden

    2014-01-01

    A major goal and challenge of invasion ecology is to describe and interpret spatial and temporal patterns of species invasions. Here, we examined fish invasion patterns at four spatially structured and hierarchically nested scales across the contiguous United States (i.e., from large to small: region, basin, watershed, and sub-watershed). All spatial relationships in...

  3. A Psychometric Investigation of the Academic Motivation Scale Using a United States Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin O.; Bernard, Naijean; Cunningham, Dana; Motoike, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Examines the factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale with a United States student population. There was some support for a 7-factor structure. Evidence of construct validity examining the relationship with academic self concept and academic achievement is mixed. Discusses ethnic and gender differences in motivation. (Contains 37…

  4. 1:1,000,000-Scale Ferries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the ferries on major roads in the United States and Puerto Rico. The file was produced by extracting ferries from the 1:1,000,000-scale Major...

  5. Diffuse Phosphorus Models in the United States and Europe: Their Usages, Scales, and Uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radcliffe, D.E.; Freer, J.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2009-01-01

    Today there are many well-established computer models that are being used at different spatial and temporal scales to describe water, sediment, and P transport from diffuse sources. In this review, we describe how diffuse P models are commonly being used in the United States and Europe, the

  6. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  7. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and Hounsfield Unit (HU in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  8. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Patient Safety Violation Scale in Medical Oncology Units in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shali, Mahboobeh; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is one of the key components of nursing care for cancer cases. Valid and reliable context-based instruments are necessary for accurate evaluation of patient safety in oncology units. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Patient Safety Violation Scale in medical oncology units in Iran. In this methodological study, a pool of 58 items was generated through reviewing the existing literature. The validity of the 58-item scale was assessed through calculating impact score, content validity ratio, and content validity index for its items as well as conducting exploratory factor analysis. The reliability of the scale was evaluated by assessing its internal consistency and test- retest stability. Study sample consisted of 300 oncology nurses who were recruited from thirteen teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Sixteen items were excluded from the scale due to having low impact scores, content validity ratios, or content validity indices. In exploratory factor analysis, the remaining 42 items were loaded on five factors including patient fall, verification of patientidentity, harm during care delivery, delay in care delivery, and medication errors. These five factors explained 62% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale and the test-retest interclass correlation coefficient were equal to 0.933 and 0.92, respectively. The 42-item Patient Safety Violation Scale is a simple and short scale which has acceptable validity and reliability. Consequently, it can be used for assessing patient safety in clinical settings such as medical oncology units and for research projects.

  9. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimdina, Ginta; Timma, Lelde; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  10. Braden Scale: evaluation of clinical usefulness in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, InSook; Noh, Maengseok

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the usability and utility of the Braden in intensive care units. An understanding of the clinical usage of the Braden Scale is valuable when considering the incidence of pressure ulcers in a critical-care setting. A retrospective analysis of 21,115 hospital-days of 715 inpatients in an intensive-care unit in 2006 in South Korea was applied to data extracted electronically from an electronic medical record system in October 2007. Of the 715 patients, 42 (5.9%) developed a pressure ulcer, corresponding to an incidence density of 198 ulcers per 1000 hospital-days. The usage rate of the Braden Scale was 11.26%, and an analysis of its utility, based on a receiver operating characteristic analysis with the cutoff set at 13, gave sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of 75.9%, 47.3%, 18.1% and 92.8% respectively. There were weak correlations between the scores and nursing interventions except for the category of position changes. The variety of nursing interventions was also limited. Our data suggest that the Braden Scale has a very low usage rate and a low-to-moderate positive predictive performance. Our quantification of the relationship between Braden Scale score and nursing interventions indicates the need for a more comprehensive and fundamental approach to the use of this scale.

  11. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance ...

  12. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  13. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  14. Nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units. Correlation between NAS and NEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Martínez Lareo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The high costs of intensive care and the importance of patient safety and quality of care highlight the need to develop instrument to measure, as precisely as possible, nursing workload and staffing levels in intensive care. To assess the ideal staff number, we need instruments to measure the real nursing workload. The aim of this research is to compare two nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units, the Nursing Activities Score (NAS and Nine Equivalents of Nurse Manpower Use Score (NEMS. We also want to assess the staffing needs of our ICU. A descriptive correlational study will be performed in a mixed medical ICU. The sample will be composed of of a minimum of 70 patients. Data regarding individual patients and unit global workload will be recorded, measured both with the NEMS and NAS scales. The required nursing staff will be calculated according to the measured workload. Nursing staffing needs using both scales will be calculated and compared to the actual staff. A descriptive analysis of the variables will be performed, and the existing correlation between both scales will be assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A Student-t test will be performed to determine the differences between the calculated staffing requirements and the actual nursing staff. All data analyses will be done using a statistical software.

  15. Development of in situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf H; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl; Nordblad, Mathias; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Woodley, John M

    2017-03-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform, it is possible to compartmentalize different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept, it was possible to continuously feed the main substrate benzylacetone (BA) and extract the main product MPPA throughout the reaction, thereby overcoming the challenges of low substrate solubility and product inhibition. The tested ISPR concept achieved a product concentration of 26.5 gMPPA  · L-1 , a purity up to 70% gMPPA  · gtot-1 and a recovery in the range of 80% mol · mol-1 of MPPA in 20 h, with the possibility to increase the concentration, purity, and recovery further. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 600-609. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-16

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the United States, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  17. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  18. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  19. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  20. Roll and roll-to-roll process scaling through development of a compact flexo unit for printing of back electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    electrode printing that is parsimonious in terms of ink usage and more gentle than laboratory scale flexo units where the foil transport is either driven by the flexo unit or the flexo unit is driven by the foil transport. We demonstrate fully operational flexible polymer solar cell manufacture using...... some of the most critical steps in the scaling process. We describe the development of such a machine that comprise web guiding, tension control and surface treatment in a compact desk size that is easily moved around and also detail the development of a small cassette based flexographic unit for back...

  1. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  2. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  3. Usefulness of the Braden Scale in Intensive Care Units: A Study Based on Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na Han, Yi; Choi, Jung Eun; Jin, Yin Ji; Jin, Tai Xian; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2017-12-08

    Nurses working in intensive care units have expressed concern that some categories of the Braden scale such as activity and nutrition are not suitable for intensive care unit patients. Upon examining the validity of the Braden scale using the electronic health data, we found relatively low predictability of the tool. Risk factors from the sensory perception and activity categories were not associated with risk of pressure ulcers.

  4. The implementation leadership scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Methods Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. Results The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation

  5. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R

    2014-04-14

    In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation. The ILS also holds promise as a tool for

  6. The feasibility of genome-scale biological network inference using Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Alavi, Amir; Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Bazil, Jason N; Beard, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Systems research spanning fields from biology to finance involves the identification of models to represent the underpinnings of complex systems. Formal approaches for data-driven identification of network interactions include statistical inference-based approaches and methods to identify dynamical systems models that are capable of fitting multivariate data. Availability of large data sets and so-called 'big data' applications in biology present great opportunities as well as major challenges for systems identification/reverse engineering applications. For example, both inverse identification and forward simulations of genome-scale gene regulatory network models pose compute-intensive problems. This issue is addressed here by combining the processing power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and a parallel reverse engineering algorithm for inference of regulatory networks. It is shown that, given an appropriate data set, information on genome-scale networks (systems of 1000 or more state variables) can be inferred using a reverse-engineering algorithm in a matter of days on a small-scale modern GPU cluster.

  7. Experimental proof of concept of a pilot-scale thermochemical storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescari, Stefania; Singh, Abhishek; de Oliveira, Lamark; Breuer, Stefan; Agrafiotis, Christos; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian; Marcher, Johnny; Pagkoura, Chrysa; Karagiannakis, George; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.

    2017-06-01

    The present study presents installation and operation of the first pilot scale thermal storage unit based on thermochemical redox-cycles. The reactive core is composed of a honeycomb ceramic substrate, coated with cobalt oxide. This concept, already analyzed and presented at lab-scale, is now implemented at a larger scale: a total of 280 kg of storage material including 90 kg of cobalt oxide. The storage block was implemented inside an existing solar facility and connected to the complete experimental set-up. This experimental set-up is presented, with focus on the measurement system and the possible improvement for a next campaign. Start-up and operation of the system is described during the first complete charge-discharge cycle. The effect of the chemical reaction on the stored capacity is clearly detected by analysis of the temperature distribution data obtained during the experiments. Furthermore two consecutive cycles show no evident loss of reactivity inside the material. The system is cycled between 650°C and 1000°C. In this temperature range, the total energy stored was about 50 kWh, corresponding to an energy density of 630 kJ/kg. In conclusion, the concept feasibility was successfully shown, together with a first calculation on the system performance.

  8. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  9. Catchment-scale determinants of nonindigenous minnow richness in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K.; Midway, Stephen R.; DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of biological invasions is critical for preserving aquatic biodiversity. Stream fishes make excellent model taxa for examining mechanisms driving species introduction success because their distributions are naturally limited by catchment boundaries. In this study, we compared the relative importance of catchment-scale abiotic and biotic predictors of native and nonindigenous minnow (Cyprinidae) richness in 170 catchments throughout the eastern United States. We compared historic and contemporary cyprinid distributional data to determine catchment-wise native/nonindigenous status for 152 species. Catchment-scale model predictor variables described natural (elevation, precipitation, flow accumulation) and anthropogenic (developed land cover, number of dams) abiotic features, as well as native congener richness. Native congener richness may represent either biotic resistance via interspecific competition, or trait preadaptation according to Darwin's naturalisation hypothesis. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine evidence supporting the relative roles of abiotic and biotic predictors of cyprinid introduction success. Native congener richness was positively correlated with nonindigenous cyprinid richness and was the most important variable predicting nonindigenous cyprinid richness. Mean elevation had a weak positive effect, and effects of other abiotic factors were insignificant and less important. Our results suggest that at this spatial scale, trait preadaptation may be more important than intrageneric competition for determining richness of nonindigenous fishes.

  10. Duration of mechanical ventilation in an adult intensive care unit after introduction of sedation and pain scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa Ann; Martin, Suzanne; Leslie, Gavin; Thomas, Linda; Leen, Timothy; Tamaliunas, Sheralee; Lee, K Y; Dobb, Geoffrey

    2008-07-01

    Sedation and analgesia scales promote a less-distressing experience in the intensive care unit and minimize complications for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. To evaluate outcomes before and after introduction of scales for sedation and analgesia in a general intensive care unit. A before-and-after design was used to evaluate introduction of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Behavioral Pain Scale for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Data were collected for 6 months before and 6 months after training in and introduction of the scales. A total of 769 patients received mechanical ventilation for at least 6 hours (369 patients before and 400 patients after implementation). Age, scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, and diagnostic groups were similar in the 2 groups, but the after group had more men than did the before group. Duration of mechanical ventilation did not change significantly after the scales were introduced (median, 24 vs 28 hours). For patients who received mechanical ventilation for 96 hours or longer (24%), mechanical ventilation lasted longer after implementation of the scales (P=.03). Length of stay in the intensive care unit was similar in the 2 groups (P= .18), but patients received sedatives for longer after implementation (P=.01). By logistic regression analysis, APACHE II score (Pmechanical ventilation lasting 96 hours or longer. Sedation and analgesia scales did not reduce duration of ventilation in an Australian intensive care unit.

  11. Identifying soil landscape units at the district scale by numerically clustering remote and proximal sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Identifying soil landscape units at a district scale is important as it allows for sustainable land-use management. However, given the large number of soil properties that need to be understood and mapped, cost-effective methods are required. In this study, we use a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach where remote and proximal sensed ancillary data collected across a farming district near Bourke, are numerical clustered (fuzzy k-means: FKM) to identify soil landscape units. The remote data was obtained from an air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey (i.e. potassium-K, uranium-U, thorium-Th and total counts-TC). Proximal sensed data was collected using an EM38 in the horizontal (EM38h) and vertical (EM38v) mode of operation. The FKM analysis (using Mahalanobis metric) of the kriged ancillary (i.e. common 100 m grid) data revealed a fuzziness exponent (phi) of 1.4 was suitable for further analysis and that k = 4 classes was smallest for the fuzziness performance index (FPI) and normalised classification entropy (NCE). Using laboratory measured physical (i.e. clay) and chemical (i.e. CEC, ECe and pH) properties we found k = 4 was minimized in terms of mean squared prediction error (i.e. 2p,C) when considering topsoil (0-0.3 m) clay (159.76), CEC (21.943), ECe (13.56) and pH (0.2296) and subsoil (0.9-1.2 m) clay (80.81), CEC (31.251) and ECe (16.66). These sigma2p,C are smaller than those calculated using the mapped soil landscape units identified using a traditional approach. Nevertheless, class 4A represents the Aeolian soil landscape (i.e. Nb4), while 4D, represents deep grey (CC19) self-mulching clays, and 4B and 4C yellow-grey (II1) self-mulching clays adjacent to the river and clay alluvial plain, respectively. The differences in clay and CEC reveal why 4B, 4C and 4D have been extensively developed for irrigated cotton production and also why the slightly less reactive 4B might be a source of deep drainage; evidenced by smaller topsoil (2.13 dS/m) and subsoil

  12. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...... which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...

  13. Improving modified tardieu scale assessment using inertial measurement unit with visual biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoyoung Choi; Jonghyun Kim

    2016-08-01

    Reliable spasticity assessment is important to provide appropriate intervention for spasticity. Modified Tardieu scale (MTS) assessment is simple and convenient enough to be used in clinical environment, but has poor or moderate reliability due to irregular passive stretch velocity and goniometric measurement. We proposed a novel inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based MTS assessment with gyroscope-based visual biofeedback to improve the reliability of MTS by providing regular passive stretch velocity. With five children with cerebral palsy and two raters, the IMU-based MTS assessment was compared with conventional MTS assessment. The results showed that the proposed one has good test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities (ICC > .08) while the conventional MTS has poor or moderate reliability. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed visual biofeedback is effective enough to provide regular passive stretch velocity.

  14. Pelletizing of fuel blends mixed with lignin for energetic use in small scale combustion units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Döhling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of future bio-economy concepts technical lignin, by-products derived from the pulp- and paper industry, may be recycled for further utilization. Via a specially developed process the liquid lignin lye can be converted into a solid state. The lignin granules were mixed with a blend of canola straw and peeled oat bran in different proportions (1–2 wt.-% to adjust the characteristics of the mixtures for pelletizing. Combustion tests with the produced pellets were carried out in a small scale combustion unit (25 kW showing that depending on the amount and kind of lignin CO-, SO2- and particulate matter emissions are affected. Through further optimization of fuel mixtures and by means of secondary measures existing emission limits could be complied.

  15. Measuring psychological outcomes following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: psychometric analysis of the Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Janet E; Johnston, C Celeste; Lambert, Sylvie D; Rashotte, Judy M; Schmitz, Norbert; Earle, Rebecca J; Stevens, Bonnie J; Tewfik, Ted; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    Critically ill children are at risk for psychological sequelae following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This article reports on the psychometric testing of the first self-report measure of psychological distress for 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale. This 23-item scale takes approximately 15 mins for children to complete. Psychometric testing based on Classic Test Theory and guidelines for health measurement scale development. The pediatric intensive care units of four Canadian pediatric hospitals and the ear, nose, and throat clinic of one participating hospital. A total of 172 children (pediatric intensive care unit group, n = 84; ear, nose, and throat group, n = 88) aged 6-12 yrs and their parents. None. We assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale and conducted contrasted group comparisons and convergent and concurrent validation testing. Fit indices and internal consistency were best for a three-factor solution, suggesting three dimensions of psychological distress: 1) worries about getting sick again, 2) feeling things have changed, and 3) feeling anxious and fearful about hospitalization. As expected, Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores were positively correlated with child anxiety and medical fear scores. The ear, nose, and throat group scores were higher than expected. Higher Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores in older children may reflect a better understanding of the situation and its complexity and meaning, and younger children's tendency to provide more positive self-evaluation. The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale is a promising new self-report measure of psychological distress with demonstrated reliability and validation testing in 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This new measure has potential

  16. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  18. The structure and large-scale organization of extreme cold waves over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuowei; Black, Robert X.; Deng, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Extreme cold waves (ECWs) occurring over the conterminous United States (US) are studied through a systematic identification and documentation of their local synoptic structures, associated large-scale meteorological patterns (LMPs), and forcing mechanisms external to the US. Focusing on the boreal cool season (November-March) for 1950‒2005, a hierarchical cluster analysis identifies three ECW patterns, respectively characterized by cold surface air temperature anomalies over the upper midwest (UM), northwestern (NW), and southeastern (SE) US. Locally, ECWs are synoptically organized by anomalous high pressure and northerly flow. At larger scales, the UM LMP features a zonal dipole in the mid-tropospheric height field over North America, while the NW and SE LMPs each include a zonal wave train extending from the North Pacific across North America into the North Atlantic. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in general simulates the three ECW patterns quite well and successfully reproduces the observed enhancements in the frequency of their associated LMPs. La Niña and the cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) favor the occurrence of NW ECWs, while the warm PDO phase, low Arctic sea ice extent and high Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) are associated with elevated SE-ECW frequency. Additionally, high Eurasian SCE is linked to increases in the occurrence likelihood of UM ECWs.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Conterminous United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for the conterminous United States. The streams are...

  20. Spatial disaggregation of complex soil map units at regional scale based on soil-landscape relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sébastien; Lemercier, Blandine; Berthier, Lionel; Walter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Accurate soil information over large extent is essential to manage agronomical and environmental issues. Where it exists, information on soil is often sparse or available at coarser resolution than required. Typically, the spatial distribution of soil at regional scale is represented as a set of polygons defining soil map units (SMU), each one describing several soil types not spatially delineated, and a semantic database describing these objects. Delineation of soil types within SMU, ie spatial disaggregation of SMU allows improved soil information's accuracy using legacy data. The aim of this study was to predict soil types by spatial disaggregation of SMU through a decision tree approach, considering expert knowledge on soil-landscape relationships embedded in soil databases. The DSMART (Disaggregation and Harmonization of Soil Map Units Through resampled Classification Trees) algorithm developed by Odgers et al. (2014) was used. It requires soil information, environmental covariates, and calibration samples, to build then extrapolate decision trees. To assign a soil type to a particular spatial position, a weighed random allocation approach is applied: each soil type in the SMU is weighted according to its assumed proportion of occurrence in the SMU. Thus soil-landscape relationships are not considered in the current version of DSMART. Expert rules on soil distribution considering the relief, parent material and wetlands location were proposed to drive the procedure of allocation of soil type to sampled positions, in order to integrate the soil-landscape relationships. Semantic information about spatial organization of soil types within SMU and exhaustive landscape descriptors were used. In the eastern part of Brittany (NW France), 171 soil types were described; their relative area in the SMU were estimated, geomorphological and geological contexts were recorded. The model predicted 144 soil types. An external validation was performed by comparing predicted

  1. Validity of the FOUR Score Coma Scale in the Medical Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vivek N.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Danielson, Richard D.; Zubkov, Alexander Y.; Elmer, Jennifer L.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score (ranging from 0 to 16), a new coma scale consisting of 4 components (eye response, motor response, brainstem reflexes, and respiration pattern), when used by the staff members of a medical intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This interobserver agreement study prospectively evaluated the use of the FOUR score to describe the condition of 100 critically ill patients from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2008. We compared the FOUR score to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. For each patient, the FOUR score and the GCS score were determined by a randomly selected staff pair (nurse/fellow, nurse/consultant, fellow/fellow, or fellow/consultant). Pair wise weighted κ values were calculated for both scores for each observer pair. RESULTS: The interrater agreement with the FOUR score was excellent (weighted κ: eye response, 0.96; motor response, 0.97; brainstem reflex, 0.98; respiration pattern, 1.00) and similar to that obtained with the GCS (weighted κ: eye response, 0.96; motor response, 0.97; verbal response, 0.98). In terms of the predictive power for poor neurologic outcome (Modified Rankin Scale score, 3-6), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 for the FOUR score and 0.76 for the GCS score. The mortality rate for patients with the lowest FOUR score of 0 (89%) was higher than that for patients with the lowest GCS score of 3 (71%). CONCLUSION: The interrater agreement of FOUR score results was excellent among medical intensivists. In contrast to the GCS, all components of the FOUR score can be rated even when patients have undergone intubation. The FOUR score is a good predictor of the prognosis of critically ill patients and has important advantages over the GCS in the ICU setting. PMID:19648386

  2. The assessment of parental stress and support in the neonatal intensive care unit using the Parent Stress Scale - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melanie; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Winefield, Helen; Stanners, Melinda

    2015-09-01

    Parental stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been reported, however identifying modifiable stress factors and looking for demographic parent factors related to stress has not been well researched. This study aims to identify the most stressful elements for parents in the neonatal intensive care unit. Parents of babies in an Australian neonatal intensive care unit (N=73) completed both the Parent Stress Scale - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and a survey of parent and baby demographic and support experience variables (Parent Survey) over an 18-month period. Older parental age, very premature birth and twin birth were significantly associated with a higher Parent Stress Scale - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit score. Having a high score in the Relationship and Parental Role scale was strongly associated with attendance at the parent support group. These results indicate the variables associated with stress and this knowledge can be used by teams within hospitals to provide better supportive emotional care for parents. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Ferries of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the ferries on major roads in the United States and Puerto Rico. The file was produced by extracting ferries from the 1:1,000,000-scale Major...

  4. Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-04-01

    Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Waterbodies and Wetlands of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains waterbodies and wetlands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was produced primarily from the...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Contours of the Conterminous United States 201404 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows elevation contour lines for the conterminous United States. The map layer was derived from the 100-meter resolution elevation data set which is...

  8. Functional evaluation of pediatric patients after discharge from the intensive care unit using the Functional Status Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriela Alves; Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Ferrari, Renata Salatti

    2017-12-07

    To evaluate the functional status of pediatric patients after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit using the Functional Status Scale and to compare the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit, and Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 results among individuals with different degrees of functional impairment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were discharged from a pediatric intensive care unit. The functional evaluation by the Functional Status Scale was performed on the first day after discharge from the unit, and the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 was used to predict the mortality rate at the time of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The sample consisted of 50 individuals, 60% of which were male, with a median age of 19 [6 - 61] months. The overall score of the Functional Status Scale was 11.5 [7 - 15], and the highest scores were observed in the "motor function" 3 [1 - 4] and "feeding" 4 [1 - 4] domains. Compared to patients who were not readmitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, patients who were readmitted presented a worse overall score (p = 0.01), worse scores in the "motor function" (p = 0.01), "feeding" (p = 0.02), and "respiratory" (p = 0.036) domains, and a higher mortality rate according to the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (p = 0.025). Evaluation of the functional status using the Functional Status Scale indicated moderate impairment in patients after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit, mainly in the "motor function" and "feeding" domains; patients who were readmitted to the pediatric intensive care unit demonstrated worse overall functional, motor function, feeding and respiratory scores. Individuals with greater functional impairment had longer times of invasive mechanical ventilation and hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit.

  9. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1 discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols

  10. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB.In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  11. Small scale homelike special care units and traditional special care units: effects on cognition in dementia; a longitudinal controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jeroen S; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Berg, Ina J; Scherder, Erik J A

    2016-02-16

    Evidence shows that living in small scale homelike Special Care Units (SCU) has positive effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. Effects on cognitive functioning in relation to care facilities, however, are scarcely investigated. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the effects of living in small scale homelike Special Care Units, compared to regular SCU's, on the course of cognitive functioning in dementia. A group of 67 patients with dementia who moved from a regular SCU to a small scale homelike SCU and a group of 48 patients with dementia who stayed in a regular SCU participated in the study. Cognitive and behavioural functioning was assessed by means of a neuropsychological test battery and observation scales one month before (baseline), as well as 3 (post) and 6 months (follow-up) after relocation. Comparing the post and follow-up measurement with the baseline measurement, no significant differences on separate measures of cognitive functioning between both groups were found. Additional analyses, however, on 'domain clusters' revealed that global cognitive functioning of the small scale homelike SCU group showed significantly less cognitive decline three months after the transfer (p Effect sizes (95% CI) show a tendency for better aspects of cognition in favour of the homelike small scaled SCU group, i.e., visual memory, picture recognition, cognitive decline as observed by representatives and the clustered domains episodic memory and global cognitive functioning. While there is no significant longitudinal effect on the progression of cognitive decline comparing small scaled homelike SCU's with regular SCU's for patients with dementia, analyses on the domain clusters and effect sizes cautiously suggest differences in favour of the small scaled homelike SCU for different aspects of cognition.

  12. Association between migraine and stroke in a large-scale epidemiological study of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, K R; Fenton, B T; Cheng, S H; Stolar, M J; Risch, N

    1997-04-01

    To examine the association between stroke and migraine in an epidemiological study. DATA SOURCES AND DESIGN: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey baseline and first follow-up data were used to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between headache/migraine and stroke. Study participants from a national probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Self-reported physician diagnosis of stroke. After controlling for established risk factors for stroke (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and gender), both migraine and severe nonspecific headache were associated with a significantly increased risk for stroke reported at follow-up. The risk for stroke associated with migraine decreased as the age at stroke increased. Our results strengthen previous evidence regarding a nonrandom association of both headache and migraine with stroke, particularly among young women. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic examination in a large-scale prospective epidemiological study of men and women with sufficient statistical power to test the association between migraine and stroke in women. Severe headache and migraine should be considered as risk factors for the development of stroke, particularly in the absence of other well-established stroke risk factors. Further investigation is required to identify the putative mechanisms underlying comorbidity of migraine and stroke.

  13. Large scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post-hoc processing and analysis. New Method Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. Results We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22x speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. Comparison with Existing Method(s) To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Conclusions Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. PMID:25277633

  14. Large-scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2015-01-15

    Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post hoc processing and analysis. Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22× speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An empirical analysis of project cost, performance, and pricing trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weaver, Samantha [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects-defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic ("PV"), concentrating photovoltaic ("CPV"), or concentrating solar power ("CSP" or solar thermal) project larger than 5 MWAC-existed in the United States prior to 2007.

  16. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  17. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Cities and Towns of the United States 200402 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  19. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem : An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2017-01-01

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem

  20. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett G. Dickson; Barry R. Noon; Curtis H. Flather; Stephanie Jentsch; William M. Block

    2009-01-01

    Landscape-scale disturbance events, including ecological restoration and fuel reduction activities, can modify habitat and affect relationships between species and their environment. To reduce the risk of uncharacteristic stand-replacing fires in the southwestern United States, land managers are implementing restoration and fuels treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning,...

  1. United Kingdom national paediatric bilateral project: Results of professional rating scales and parent questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, H E; Bele, D; Brinton, J C; Cooper, S; Daft, M; Harding, J; Hatton, N; Humphries, J; Lutman, M E; Maddocks, J; Maggs, J; Millward, K; O'Donoghue, G; Patel, S; Rajput, K; Salmon, V; Sear, T; Speers, A; Wheeler, A; Wilson, K

    2017-01-01

    This fourteen-centre project used professional rating scales and parent questionnaires to assess longitudinal outcomes in a large non-selected population of children receiving simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants. This was an observational non-randomized service evaluation. Data were collected at four time points: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, one year, two years, and three years after. The measures reported are Categories of Auditory Performance II (CAPII), Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR), Bilateral Listening Skills Profile (BLSP) and Parent Outcome Profile (POP). Thousand and one children aged from 8 months to almost 18 years were involved, although there were many missing data. In children receiving simultaneous implants after one, two, and three years respectively, median CAP scores were 4, 5, and 6; median SIR were 1, 2, and 3. Three years after receiving simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants, 61% of children were reported to understand conversation without lip-reading and 66% had intelligible speech if the listener concentrated hard. Auditory performance and speech intelligibility were significantly better in female children than males. Parents of children using sequential implants were generally positive about their child's well-being and behaviour since receiving the second device; those who were less positive about well-being changes also generally reported their children less willing to wear the second device. Data from 78% of paediatric cochlear implant centres in the United Kingdom provide a real-world picture of outcomes of children with bilateral implants in the UK. This large reference data set can be used to identify children in the lower quartile for targeted intervention.

  2. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  3. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Paul

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  4. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Greg A; Severns, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m) ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm), this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches.

  5. Implementation of a large-scale hospital information infrastructure for multi-unit health-care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun K; Kim, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung C; Park, Youn Jung; Chang, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in demand for high quality medical services, the need for an innovative hospital information system has become essential. An improved system has been implemented in all hospital units of the Yonsei University Health System. Interoperability between multi-units required appropriate hardware infrastructure and software architecture. This large-scale hospital information system encompassed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems), EMR (Electronic Medical Records) and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). It involved two tertiary hospitals and 50 community hospitals. The monthly data production rate by the integrated hospital information system is about 1.8 TByte and the total quantity of data produced so far is about 60 TByte. Large scale information exchange and sharing will be particularly useful for telemedicine applications.

  6. Development of the Medical Intensive Care Unit Shift Report Communication Scale as a measure of nurses' perception of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available David James,1 Angela Jukkala,2 Andres Azuero,2 Pamela Autrey,3 Lynne Vining,4 Rebecca Miltner2 1Center for Nursing Excellence, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, 2School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Nursing Administration, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, 4Medical Intensive Care Unit, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Objective: Evidence documenting the negative impact of poor communication on patient safety during intra-hospital transfer is prevalent and attributed to 80% of serious medical errors. An event particularly vulnerable to communication error is the patient "handoff." One of the more common handoffs occurring in health care settings is the report provided between nurses at the change of shift. The objective of this article is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of a Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU Shift Report Communication Scale to measure nurses' perception of the quality and quantity of communication during shift report. Design and participants: This was a scale development and descriptive study undertaken at the Medical Intensive Care Unit within an Academic Health Center. Forty-three medical intensive care nurses took part. Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed three domains: communication openness, quality of information, and shift report. Medical Intensive Care Unit Shift Report Communication Scale scores ranged from 12 to 27 (mean = 18.78; standard deviation = 3.28. Perception of communication did not vary between nurses based on years of nursing experience or age. Scale reliability was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.079. Nurses were likely to have had a positive perception of the openness of communication on the unit. However, they had a less favorable perception of peer ability to fully understand information shared during shift report and identified as a common problem the frequent need to

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Streams and Waterbodies of the United States 200512 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - State Boundaries of the United States 200506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Major Roads of the United States 199911 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  12. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  13. 1:1,000,000-Scale Contours of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows elevation contour lines for the conterminous United States. The map layer was derived from the 100-meter resolution elevation data set which is...

  14. 1:2,000,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage is of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the...

  15. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  16. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... embedded in an industrial economy, about 90% of resources (seJ) were used for supporting labor and service....

  17. Development of the Thai breast cancer belief scale for Thai immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsuk, Suwattana; Flick, Louise H; Schneider, C S Joanne K

    2012-01-01

    Asian American women have not benefited from the decline in breast cancer mortality and have lower rates of mammography use. Understanding mammography behaviors among these Asian American women requires culturally specific measures. Champion's belief scale was translated into Thai and cultural items were added. The Thai breast cancer belief scale (TBCBS), the Suinn-Lew self-identification acculturation, and the Asian values scale-revised were administered to 250 Thai immigrants. The TBCBS was tested for face validity, construct validity, and internal consistency. Factor analysis reflected the 4 constructs of the health belief model and accounted for 45.8% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .77 to .90. Modest correlations were observed between TBCBS subscales and acculturation scales. Results indicate that the TBCBS measures breast cancer beliefs among Thai immigrant population.

  18. Post-fire bedload sediment delivery across spatial scales in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire sediment yields can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than sediment yields in unburned forests. Much of the research on post-fire erosion rates has been at small scales (100m2 or less), and post-fire sediment delivery rates across spatial scales have not been quantified in detail. We developed relationships for post-fire bedload sediment delivery...

  19. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginta Cimdina; Lelde Timma; Ivars Veidenbergs; Dagnija Blumberga

    2015-01-01

    ... leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  20. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  1. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs, for marine turtles globally. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities

  2. Nurse perceptions of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale in two palliative care inpatient units: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Annmarie; Lobb, Elizabeth; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; Chye, Richard; Phillips, Jane

    2015-11-01

    To explore nurse perceptions of the feasibility of integrating the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale into practice within the inpatient palliative care setting. Delirium occurs frequently in palliative care inpatient populations, yet is under-recognised. Exploring feasibility of delirium screening tools in this setting can provide insights into how recognition can be improved. This was a qualitative study using a focus group methodology. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 21 nurses working in two Australian palliative care units. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. Three major themes were identified: (1) Delirium screening using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale is feasible, but then what? (2) Nuances, ambiguity and clinical complexity; and (3) Implementing structured processes requires firmer foundations. Themes describe how nurses perceived the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale to be an easy and brief screening tool which raised their awareness of delirium. They were largely willing to adopt it into practice, yet had uncertainty and misunderstandings of the tool specifically and delirium screening generally, application in a palliative care context, interventions for delirium and impact of screening on medical practice. The Nursing Delirium Screening Scale is feasible for use in a palliative care inpatient setting, but requires investigation of its psychometric properties before routine use in this patient population. Nurses require understanding of delirium, tailored guidance and a united approach with doctors to support their effective use of a delirium screening tool in the palliative care unit. Delirium practice change in this setting will also require nurses to become more active leaders and collaborators within their interdisciplinary teams. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Ports of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Airports of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Conterminous United States Land Cover 1992 - 200-Meter Resolution 200509 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is GeoTIFF of 1992 land cover for the conterminous United States, at a resolution of 200 meters. The map layer was compiled by staff in the National...

  6. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Indian Lands of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. For the most part, only areas of 320 acres or more are included; some smaller areas deemed to be important or...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Cities and Towns of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A city or town is a place with a recorded population,...

  8. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Major Dams of the United States 200603 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  10. Income Inequality across Micro and Meso Geographic Scales in the Midwestern United States, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the spatial distribution of income inequality and the socioeconomic factors affecting it using spatial analysis techniques across 16,285 block groups, 5,050 tracts, and 618 counties in the western part of the North Central Region of the United States. Different geographic aggregations result in different inequality outcomes,…

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Cities and Towns of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  12. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  13. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Urban Areas of the United States 201504 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes urban areas in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from the 2010 TIGER/Line Urban Areas data...

  14. Synoptic Scale Influences on Increasing Summertime Extreme Precipitation Events in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison; Bosilovich, Mike; Koster, Randal

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the northeastern United States has seen a statistically significant increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events that is larger and more widespread than anywhere else in the country. This increase in events is more likely to be associated with frontal and low-pressure systems, rather than being caused by more tropical cyclones impacting the region.

  15. Application of Linked Regional Scale Growth, Biogeography, and Economic Models for Southeastern United States Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Robert Abt; Bryan Smith; Ge Sun; Michael Gavazzi; John Bartlett; Brian Murray; Robert A. Mickler; John D. Aber

    2000-01-01

    The southern United States produces over 50% of commercial timber harvests in the US and the demand for southern timber are likely to increase in the future. Global change is altering the physical and chemical environmental which will play a major role in determining future forest stand growth, insect and disease outbreaks, regeneration success, and distribution of...

  16. Foundation species' overlap enhances biodiversity and multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale in southeastern United States salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Christine; van der Heide, Tjisse; Griffin, John N; Morton, Joseph P; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Lamers, Leon P M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Silliman, Brian R

    2015-07-22

    Although there is mounting evidence that biodiversity is an important and widespread driver of ecosystem multifunctionality, much of this research has focused on small-scale biodiversity manipulations. Hence, which mechanisms maintain patches of enhanced biodiversity in natural systems and if these patches elevate ecosystem multifunctionality at both local and landscape scales remain outstanding questions. In a 17 month experiment conducted within southeastern United States salt marshes, we found that patches of enhanced biodiversity and multifunctionality arise only where habitat-forming foundation species overlap--i.e. where aggregations of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) form around cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) stems. By empirically scaling up our experimental results to the marsh platform at 12 sites, we further show that mussels--despite covering only approximately 1% of the marsh surface--strongly enhance five distinct ecosystem functions, including decomposition, primary production and water infiltration rate, at the landscape scale. Thus, mussels create conditions that support the co-occurrence of high densities of functionally distinct organisms within cordgrass and, in doing so, elevate salt marsh multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale. Collectively, these findings suggest that patterns in foundation species' overlap drive variation in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning within and across natural ecosystems.We therefore argue that foundation species should be integrated in our conceptual understanding of forces that moderate biodiversity--ecosystem functioning relationships, approaches for conserving species diversity and strategies to improve the multifunctionality of degraded ecosystems.

  17. Decadal-scale changes of nitrate in ground water of the United States, 1988-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated decadal-scale changes of nitrate concentrations in ground water samples collected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program from 495 wells in 24 well networks across the USA in predominantly agricultural areas. Each well network was sampled once during 1988-1995 and resampled once during 2000-2004. Statistical tests of decadal-scale changes of nitrate concentrations in water from all 495 wells combined indicate there is a significant increase in nitrate concentrations in the data set as a whole. Eight out of the 24 well networks, or about 33%, had significant changes of nitrate concentrations. Of the eight well networks with significant decadal-scale changes of nitrate, all except one, the Willamette Valley of Oregon, had increasing nitrate concentrations. Median nitrate concentrations of three of those eight well networks increased above the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 10 mg L(-1). Nitrate in water from wells with reduced conditions had significantly smaller decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations than oxidized and mixed waters. A subset of wells had data on ground water recharge date; nitrate concentrations increased in response to the increase of N fertilizer use since about 1950. Determining ground water recharge dates is an important component of a ground water trends investigation because recharge dates provide a link between changes in ground water quality and changes in land-use practices.

  18. Urban forest health monitoring: large-scale assessments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel B. Twardus; David J. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), together with state partners, developed methods to monitor urban forest structure, function, and health at a large statewide scale. Pilot studies have been established in five states using protocols based on USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring program data collection standards....

  19. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  20. How well do terrestrial biosphere models simulate coarse-scale runoff in the contiguous United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R.B. Cook; Y. Wei; I.T. Baker; R.P. Neilson; B. Poulter; Peter Caldwell; G. Sun; H.Q. Tian; N. Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes in the water cycle are expected under current global environmental change. Robust assessment of present-day water cycle dynamics at continental to global scales is confounded by shortcomings in the observed record. Modeled assessments also yield conflicting results which are linked to differences in model structure and simulation protocol. Here we...

  1. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States.

  2. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  3. Study of the Arrangement Effect of Units on the Shear Strength Masonry Walls in Meso-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Masonry is one of the oldest building materials which have been used in most heritage structures and new construction. In this study by using a meso-scale finite element model, the behavior of masonry walls is investigated under monotonic loading by Abaqus software. The most important factor in determining the behavior of masonry structures is discontinuity joints which are interface between unit and mortar. In most previous studies cohesive element is used for modeling of interface element. But in this study, by ignoring cohesive elements that represents the interface element between unit and mortar in masonry structures, it can be seen that while reducing the computational requirements, the results are in good agreement with experimental studies. Another important factor in the behavior of masonry walls is the arrangement of masonry units. In this study the overlapping effect of rows of units on the shear strength and failure mode of masonry walls have been investigated. As a result, it was observed that by increasing overlap, shear resistance of masonry walls increased.

  4. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    of the simplified method is that the models are based on the standards EN 410 and EN 673 taking the thermal mass of the glazing into account. In addition, angle and spectral dependency of solar characteristic will also be considered during the calculation. Using the method, it is possible to calculate the whole......) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing) of a double glazing unit. Double glazing unit is defined as 1D model with nodes representing different layers of material. Several models with different number of nodes and position of these are compared and verified in order...... to find a simplified method which can calculate the performance as accurately as possible. The calculated performance in terms of internal surface temperature is verified with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). The advantage...

  5. A Scaling-based Robust Empirical Model of Stream Dissolved Oxygen for the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddik, M. A. Z.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    We predicted the diurnal cycles of hourly dissolved oxygen (DO) in streams by using a scaling-based empirical model. A single reference observation from each DO cycle was considered as a scaling parameter to convert the DO cycles into a single dimensionless diurnal curve, which was then estimated by employing an extended stochastic harmonic algorithm (ESHA). Hourly DO observations of growing season (May-August) during 2008-2015 from sixteen USGS water quality monitoring stations of the eastern U.S. were used for model calibrations and validations. The study sites incorporated a gradient in climate (tropical vs. temperate), land use (rural vs. urban vs. forest vs. coastal), and catchment size (2.4 - 184.0 mile2) — representing different USEPA level III ecoregions. The estimated model parameters showed a notable spatiotemporal robustness by collapsing into narrow ranges across the growing seasons and study sites. DO predicted using the site-specific, temporally averaged model parameters from a day-specific single reference observation exhibited good model fitting efficiency and accuracy. The model performance was also assessed by simulating the DO time-series using a regional scale parameter set that was obtained from the spatiotemporal aggregation (average) of the estimated parameters for all the sites. Further, model robustness to the individual and simultaneous perturbations in parameters was determined by calculating the analytical sensitivity and uncertainty measures. The study is a continuation of our previous research with a goal to develop a regional-scale predictive model of diurnal cycles of DO. The model can be used to estimate missing data in the observed fine-resolution time-series of DO with a single set of parameter across the eastern USA from limited observations. The fine-resolution DO time-series will be useful to dynamically assess the general health of the aquatic ecosystem.

  6. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  7. Toward large-scale many-fermion calculations on Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kyle; Drut, Joaquin; Lahde, Timo

    2010-11-01

    We apply Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to simulations of quantum many-body systems. Specifically, we study the performance of sparse matrix-vector multiplication and preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration on the NVIDIA Tesla c1060 GPU card. These operations are of direct relevance to Hybrid Monte Carlo calculations at finite temperature and density. We report a CPU-GPU performance comparison for the Fermi Hubbard model in d+1 space-time dimensions, where we find speedup factors in excess of 40. We present an overview of our algorithm, possible optimization strategies and projected performance on the recently released NVIDIA Fermi architecture.

  8. Cross-validation of the Student Perceptions of Team-Based Learning Scale in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H. Lein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the factor structure of the previously developed Student Perceptions of Team-Based Learning (TBL Scale among students in an entry-level doctor of physical therapy (DPT program in the United States. Methods Toward the end of the semester in 2 patient/client management courses taught using TBL, 115 DPT students completed the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale, with a response rate of 87%. Principal component analysis (PCA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were conducted to replicate and confirm the underlying factor structure of the scale. Results Based on the PCA for the validation sample, the original 2-factor structure (preference for TBL and preference for teamwork of the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale was replicated. The overall goodness-of-fit indices from the CFA suggested that the original 2-factor structure for the 15 items of the scale demonstrated a good model fit (comparative fit index, 0.95; non-normed fit index/Tucker-Lewis index, 0.93; root mean square error of approximation, 0.06; and standardized root mean square residual, 0.07. The 2 factors demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha= 0.83 and 0.88, respectively. DPT students taught using TBL viewed the factor of preference for teamwork more favorably than preference for TBL. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence supporting the replicability of the internal structure of the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale when assessing perceptions of TBL among DPT students in patient/client management courses.

  9. Statistical Comparisons of watershed scale response to climate change in selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John; Moradkhani, Hamid; Hay, Lauren; Markstrom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In an earlier global climate-change study, air temperature and precipitation data for the entire twenty-first century simulated from five general circulation models were used as input to precalibrated watershed models for 14 selected basins across the United States. Simulated daily streamflow and energy output from the watershed models were used to compute a range of statistics. With a side-by-side comparison of the statistical analyses for the 14 basins, regional climatic and hydrologic trends over the twenty-first century could be qualitatively identified. Low-flow statistics (95% exceedance, 7-day mean annual minimum, and summer mean monthly streamflow) decreased for almost all basins. Annual maximum daily streamflow also decreased in all the basins, except for all four basins in California and the Pacific Northwest. An analysis of the supply of available energy and water for the basins indicated that ratios of evaporation to precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to precipitation for most of the basins will increase. Probability density functions (PDFs) were developed to assess the uncertainty and multimodality in the impact of climate change on mean annual streamflow variability. Kolmogorov?Smirnov tests showed significant differences between the beginning and ending twenty-first-century PDFs for most of the basins, with the exception of four basins that are located in the western United States. Almost none of the basin PDFs were normally distributed, and two basins in the upper Midwest had PDFs that were extremely dispersed and skewed.

  10. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  11. Estimation and scaling of hydrostratigraphic units: application of unsupervised machine learning and multivariate statistical techniques to hydrogeophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical models provide a way to evaluate groundwater systems, but determining the hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) used in constructing these models remains subjective, nonunique, and uncertain. A three-step machine-learning approach is proposed in which fusion, estimation, and clustering operations are performed on different data sets to arrive at HSUs at different scales. In step one, data fusion is performed by training a self-organizing map (SOM) with sparse borehole hydrogeologic (lithology, hydraulic conductivity, aqueous field parameters, dissolved constituents) and geophysical (gamma, spontaneous potential, and resistivity) measurements. Estimation is handled by iterative least-squares minimization of the SOM quantization and topographical errors. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria to k-means clustering of SOM nodes is used to determine the number and location of discontinuous borehole HSUs with low lateral density (based on borehole spacing at 100 s m) and high vertical density (based on cm-scale logging). In step two, a scaling network is trained using the estimated borehole HSUs, airborne electromagnetic measurements, and numerically inverted resistivity profiles. In step three, independent airborne electromagnetic measurements are applied to the scaling network, and the estimation performed to arrive at a set of continuous HSUs with high lateral density (based on sounding locations at meter (m) spacing) and medium vertical density (based on m-layer modeled structure). Performance metrics are used to evaluate each step of the approach. Efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated to map local-to-regional scale HSUs using hydrogeophysical data collected at a heterogeneous surficial aquifer in northwestern Nebraska, USA.

  12. Large-scale forest inventories of the United States and China reveal positive effects of biodiversity on productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Watson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background With the loss of species worldwide due to anthropogenic factors, especially in forested ecosystems, it has become more urgent than ever to understand the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship (BEFR. BEFR research in forested ecosystems is very limited and thus studies that incorporate greater geographic coverage and structural complexity are needed. Methods We compiled ground-measured data from approx. one half million forest inventory sample plots across the contiguous United States, Alaska, and northeastern China to map tree species richness, forest stocking, and productivity at a continental scale. Based on these data, we investigated the relationship between forest productivity and tree species diversity, using a multiple regression analysis and a non-parametric approach to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results In general, forests in the eastern United States consisted of more tree species than any other regions in the country. The highest forest stocking values over the entire study area were concentrated in the western United States and Central Appalachia. Overall, 96.4 % of sample plots (477,281 showed a significant positive effect of species richness on site productivity, and only 3.6 % (17,349 had an insignificant or negative effect. Conclusions The large number of ground-measured plots, as well as the magnitude of geographic scale, rendered overwhelming evidence in support of a positive BEFR. This empirical evidence provides insights to forest management and biological conservation across different types of forested ecosystems. Forest timber productivity may be impaired by the loss of species in forests, and biological conservation, due to its potential benefits on maintaining species richness and productivity, can have profound impacts on the functioning and services of forested ecosystems.

  13. [The modified Brussels scale as a predictor of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Velázquez, L D; Carrillo-Muñoz, A; Díaz-Riveros, M A

    2015-01-01

    To compare discrimination and calibration of the modified Brussels score with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score version 3 (SAPS-3) in predicting mortality. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of Mexico General Hospital. A total of 251 patients out of 285 admissions to the RICU in 2012 were included. The mean age was 48.4±17.1 years, and 132 of the patients were men (52.8%). None. Demographic data, SAPS-3 score upon admission and the modified Brussels score on the day 1 of stay in the RICU. On day 1, the modified Brussels and SAPS-3 scores were 4.7 ± 3.8 and 54.7 ± 17.8, respectively. Areas under the ROC curve for the modified Brussels score on day 1 and the SAPS-3 were 0.837 ± 0.025 (95% CI 0.787-0.887) and 0.813 ± 0.027 (95% CI 0.761-0.865), respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit values were 5,885 (P=.660) and 4,026 (P=.855), respectively. The modified Brussels score on day 1 offers excellent discrimination and calibration in predicting mortality in the RICU, comparable to that of the SAPS-3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances.

  15. Communication: A reduced scaling J-engine based reformulation of SOS-MP2 using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, S A; Kussmann, J; Ochsenfeld, C

    2014-08-07

    We present a low-prefactor, cubically scaling scaled-opposite-spin second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method which is highly suitable for massively parallel architectures like graphics processing units (GPU). The scaling is reduced from O(N⁵) to O(N³) by a reformulation of the MP2-expression in the atomic orbital basis via Laplace transformation and the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation of the integrals in combination with efficient sparse algebra for the 3-center integral transformation. In contrast to previous works that employ GPUs for post Hartree-Fock calculations, we do not simply employ GPU-based linear algebra libraries to accelerate the conventional algorithm. Instead, our reformulation allows to replace the rate-determining contraction step with a modified J-engine algorithm, that has been proven to be highly efficient on GPUs. Thus, our SOS-MP2 scheme enables us to treat large molecular systems in an accurate and efficient manner on a single GPU-server.

  16. Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Gerhart, Laci M.; Battles, John J.; Craine, Joseph M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Higuera, Phil E.; Mack, Michelle M; McNeil, Brendan E.; Nelson, David M.; Pederson, Neil; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Forests cover 30% of the terrestrial Earth surface and are a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Humans have doubled the amount of global reactive nitrogen (N), increasing deposition of N onto forests worldwide. However, other global changes—especially climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations—are increasing demand for N, the element limiting primary productivity in temperate forests, which could be reducing N availability. To determine the long-term, integrated effects of global changes on forest N cycling, we measured stable N isotopes in wood, a proxy for N supply relative to demand, on large spatial and temporal scales across the continental U.S.A. Here, we show that forest N availability has generally declined across much of the U.S. since at least 1850 C.E. with cool, wet forests demonstrating the greatest declines. Across sites, recent trajectories of N availability were independent of recent atmospheric N deposition rates, implying a minor role for modern N deposition on the trajectory of N status of North American forests. Our results demonstrate that current trends of global changes are likely to be consistent with forest oligotrophication into the foreseeable future, further constraining forest C fixation and potentially storage.

  17. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  18. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  19. TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT: NATIONAL-SCALE MERCURY RISK ASSESSMENT SUPPORTING THE APPROPRIATE AND NECESSARY FINDING FOR COAL- AND OIL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA has completed a national-scale risk assessment for mercury to inform the appropriate and necessary determination for electric utility steam generating unites in the United States (U.S. EGU's), persuant to Section 112(n)(1)(A) of the Clean Air Act. This document describes...

  20. Graphics Processing Unit Acceleration and Parallelization of GENESIS for Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoon; Naurse, Akira; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-10-11

    The graphics processing unit (GPU) has become a popular computational platform for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules. A significant speedup in the simulations of small- or medium-size systems using only a few computer nodes with a single or multiple GPUs has been reported. Because of GPU memory limitation and slow communication between GPUs on different computer nodes, it is not straightforward to accelerate MD simulations of large biological systems that contain a few million or more atoms on massively parallel supercomputers with GPUs. In this study, we develop a new scheme in our MD software, GENESIS, to reduce the total computational time on such computers. Computationally intensive real-space nonbonded interactions are computed mainly on GPUs in the scheme, while less intensive bonded interactions and communication-intensive reciprocal-space interactions are performed on CPUs. On the basis of the midpoint cell method as a domain decomposition scheme, we invent the single particle interaction list for reducing the GPU memory usage. Since total computational time is limited by the reciprocal-space computation, we utilize the RESPA multiple time-step integration and reduce the CPU resting time by assigning a subset of nonbonded interactions on CPUs as well as on GPUs when the reciprocal-space computation is skipped. We validated our GPU implementations in GENESIS on BPTI and a membrane protein, porin, by MD simulations and an alanine-tripeptide by REMD simulations. Benchmark calculations on TSUBAME supercomputer showed that an MD simulation of a million atoms system was scalable up to 256 computer nodes with GPUs.

  1. Large-scale analytical Fourier transform of photomask layouts using graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed.

  2. Decadal-scale changes of pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide data for ground water sampled across the United States between 1993-1995 and 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were evaluated for trends in detection frequency and concentration. The data analysis evaluated samples collected from a total of 362 wells located in 12 local well networks characterizing shallow ground water in agricultural areas and six local well networks characterizing the drinking water resource in areas of variable land use. Each well network was sampled once during 1993-1995 and once during 2001-2003. The networks provide an overview of conditions across a wide range of hydrogeologic settings and in major agricultural areas that vary in dominant crop type and pesticide use. Of about 80 pesticide compounds analyzed, only six compounds were detected in ground water from at least 10 wells during both sampling events. These compounds were the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine, and prometon; the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor; the urea herbicide tebuthiuron; and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA). Observed concentrations of these compounds generally were <0.12 ??g L-1. At individual wells, changes in concentrations typically were <0.02 ??g L-1. Data analysis incorporated adjustments for changes in laboratory recovery as assessed through laboratory spikes. In wells yielding detectable concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon, concentrations were significantly lower (?? = 0.1) in 2001-2003 than in 1993-1995, whereas detection frequency of these compounds did not change significantly. Trends in atrazine concentrations at shallow wells in agricultural areas were found to be consistent overall with recent atrazine use data. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Frozen Fractals all Around: Solar flares, Ampere’s Law, and the Search for Units in Scale-Free Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James

    2015-08-01

    My soul is spiraling in frozen fractals all around, And one thought crystallizes like an icy blast, I'm never going back, the past is in the past.Elsa, from Disney’s Frozen, characterizes two fundamental aspects of scale-free processes in Nature: fractals are everywhere in space; fractals can be used to probe changes in time. Self-Organized Criticality provides a powerful set of tools to study scale-free processes. It connects spatial fractals (more generically, multifractals) to temporal evolution. The drawback is that this usually results in scale-free, unit-less, indices, which can be difficult to connect to everyday physics. Here, I show a novel method that connects one of the most powerful SOC tools - the wavelet transform modulus maxima approach to calculating multifractality - to one of the most powerful equations in all of physics - Ampere’s law. In doing so I show how the multifractal spectra can be expressed in terms of current density, and how current density can then be used for the prediction of future energy release from such a system.Our physical understanding of the solar magnetic field structure, and hence our ability to predict solar activity, is limited by the type of data currently available. I show that the multifractal spectrum provides a powerful physical connection between the details of photospheric magnetic gradients of current data and the coronal magnetic structure. By decomposing Ampere’s law and comparing it to the wavelet transform modulus maximum method, I show how the scale-free Holder exponent provides a direct measure of current density across all relevant sizes. The prevalence of this current density across various scales is connected to its stability in time, and hence to the ability of the magnetic structure to store and then release energy. Hence (spatial) multifractals inform us of (future) solar activity.Finally I discuss how such an approach can be used in any study of scale-free processes, and highlight the necessary

  4. Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan: Manufacturing full-scale plasma-facing unit prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezato, Koichiro, E-mail: ezato.koichiro@jaea.go.jp [Department of ITER Project, Naka Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Suzuki, Satoshi; Seki, Yohji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Kenji [Department of ITER Project, Naka Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Escourbiac, Frederic; Hirai, Takeshi [ITER Organization, route de vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • JADA has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing the full-W plasma-facing units (W-PFU). • The surface profiles of the W monoblocks of the W-PFU prototypes on the test frame to mimic the support structure of the ITER OVT were examined by using an optical three-dimensional measurement system. The results show the most W monoblock surface in the target part locates within + 0.25 mm from the CAD data. • The strict profile control with the profile tolerance of ±0.3 mm is imposed on the OVT to prevent the leading edges of the W monoblocks from over-heating. • The present full-scale prototyping demonstrates to satisfy this requirement on the surface profile. • It can be concluded that the technical maturities of JADA and its suppliers are as high as to start series manufacturing the ITER divertor components. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology demonstration toward Full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, W monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 10 s. Under the framework of the W divertor qualification program developed ITER organization, JAEA as Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) manufactured seven full-scale plasma-facing unit (PFU) prototypes with the Japanese industries. Four prototypes that have 146 W monoblock joint with casted copper (Cu) interlayer passed successfully the ultrasonic testing. In the other three prototypes that have the different W/Cu interlayer joint, joint defects were found. The dimension measurements reveal the requirements of the gap between W monoblocks and the surface profile of PFU are feasible.

  5. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  6. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  7. Impediments and solutions to sustainable, watershed-scale urban stormwater management: lessons from Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison H; Wenger, Seth J; Fletcher, Tim D; Walsh, Christopher J; Ladson, Anthony R; Shuster, William D; Thurston, Hale W; Brown, Rebekah R

    2008-08-01

    In urban and suburban areas, stormwater runoff is a primary stressor on surface waters. Conventional urban stormwater drainage systems often route runoff directly to streams and rivers, thus exacerbating pollutant inputs and hydrologic disturbance, and resulting in the degradation of ecosystem structure and function. Decentralized stormwater management tools, such as low impact development (LID) or water sensitive urban design (WSUD), may offer a more sustainable solution to stormwater management if implemented at a watershed scale. These tools are designed to pond, infiltrate, and harvest water at the source, encouraging evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, and re-use of stormwater. While there are numerous demonstrations of WSUD practices, there are few examples of widespread implementation at a watershed scale with the explicit objective of protecting or restoring a receiving stream. This article identifies seven major impediments to sustainable urban stormwater management: (1) uncertainties in performance and cost, (2) insufficient engineering standards and guidelines, (3) fragmented responsibilities, (4) lack of institutional capacity, (5) lack of legislative mandate, (6) lack of funding and effective market incentives, and (7) resistance to change. By comparing experiences from Australia and the United States, two developed countries with existing conventional stormwater infrastructure and escalating stream ecosystem degradation, we highlight challenges facing sustainable urban stormwater management and offer several examples of successful, regional WSUD implementation. We conclude by identifying solutions to each of the seven impediments that, when employed separately or in combination, should encourage widespread implementation of WSUD with watershed-based goals to protect human health and safety, and stream ecosystems.

  8. Predictive validity and reliability of the Braden scale for risk assessment of pressure ulcers in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, M; González-Méndez, M I; Martín-Castaño, C; Alonso-Araujo, I; Lima-Rodríguez, J S

    2017-02-15

    Contribution to validation of the Braden scale in patients admitted to the ICU, based on an analysis of its reliability and predictive validity. An analytical, observational, longitudinal prospective study was carried out. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville (Spain). Patients aged 18years or older and admitted for over 24hours to the ICU were included. Patients with pressure ulcers upon admission were excluded. A total of 335 patients were enrolled in two study periods of one month each. None. The presence of gradei-iv pressure ulcers was regarded as the main or dependent variable. Three categories were considered (demographic, clinical and prognostic) for the remaining variables. The incidence of patients who developed pressure ulcers was 8.1%. The proportion of gradei andii pressure ulcer was 40.6% and 59.4% respectively, highlighting the sacrum as the most frequently affected location. Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the assessments considered indicated good to moderate reliability. In the three evaluations made, a cutoff point of 12 was presented as optimal in the assessment of the first and second days of admission. In relation to the assessment of the day with minimum score, the optimal cutoff point was 10. The Braden scale shows insufficient predictive validity and poor precision for cutoff points of both 18 and 16, which are those accepted in the different clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  10. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  11. Visual Mapping of Sedimentary Facies Can Yield Accurate And Geomorphically Meaningful Results at Morphological Unit to River Segment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Jackson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Long practiced in fisheries, visual substrate mapping of coarse-bedded rivers is eschewed by geomorphologists for inaccuracy and limited sizing data. Geomorphologists perform time-consuming measurements of surficial grains, with the few locations precluding spatially explicit mapping and analysis of sediment facies. Remote sensing works for bare land, but not vegetated or subaqueous sediments. As visual systems apply the log2 Wentworth scale made for sieving, they suffer from human inability to readily discern those classes. We hypothesized that size classes centered on the PDF of the anticipated sediment size distribution would enable field crews to accurately (i) identify presence/absence of each class in a facies patch and (ii) estimate the relative amount of each class to within 10%. We first tested 6 people using 14 measured samples with different mixtures. Next, we carried out facies mapping for ~ 37 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Finally, we tested the resulting data to see if it produced statistically significant hydraulic-sedimentary-geomorphic results. Presence/absence performance error was 0-4% for four people, 13% for one person, and 33% for one person. The last person was excluded from further effort. For the abundance estimation performance error was 1% for one person, 7-12% for three people, and 33% for one person. This last person was further trained and re-tested. We found that the samples easiest to visually quantify were unimodal and bimodal, while those most difficult had nearly equal amounts of each size. This confirms psychological studies showing that humans have a more difficult time quantifying abundances of subgroups when confronted with well-mixed groups. In the Yuba, mean grain size decreased downstream, as is typical for an alluvial river. When averaged by reach, mean grain size and bed slope were correlated with an r2 of 0.95. At the morphological unit (MU) scale, eight in-channel bed MU types had an r2 of 0.90 between mean

  12. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming : bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, N.R.C.F.; Rizzo, R.C.P.; Calsavara, V.; Takahashi, F.; Almeida, A.A.; Melo, F.R. de; Zschornack, M.A.; Bessani, A.N.; Rodrigues, R.M.O. [State University of Maringa, Maringa (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lab. of Catalysis; Schmal, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute; Cantao, M.P. [Institute of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. of Materials

    2003-07-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to produce hydrogen from ethanol reforming. This paper presents the bench-scale study unit that uses a 5 per cent copper-niobium2oxygen5 (Cu/Nb2O5) catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the catalyst contained copper oxide in an amorphous form and that the Nb2O5 was highly crystalline. The calcinated catalyst was analysed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed that 35 per cent of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55 per cent) and Cu{sup II} (45 per cent). The surface area was mainly comprised of meso and macro pores. There was a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu at 245 and 306 degrees C, as shown by temperature programmed reduction, as well as a 6 per cent reduction of Nb2O5. An internal reactor with 16 grams (g) of catalyst pellets was contained in the reaction unit. To optimize hydrogen production, reaction temperature and feed rate were varied, and the major by-product was carbon dioxide. Reagents (water and ethanol) were fed into and vaporized in, an electric pre-heater in stoichiometric proportion. Mean conversion increased from 17 per cent to 35 per cent through an increase of reaction temperature from 300 to 400 degrees C. Minor by-products were detected in the form of ethene and ethyl ether. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem: An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela; Jarchow, Christopher J; Roberts, Dar A

    2017-04-15

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) pertaining to indices such as NDVI and images at varying spatial resolutions. These issues are relevant to using NDVI values in spatial analyses. We compare two different methods of calculation of a mean NDVI: 1) using pixel values of NDVI within feature/object boundaries and 2) first calculating the mean red and mean near-infrared across all feature pixels and then calculating NDVI. We explore the nature and magnitude of these differences for images taken from two sensors, a 1.24m resolution WorldView-3 and a 0.1m resolution digital aerial image. We apply these methods over an urban park located in the Adelaide Parklands of South Australia. We demonstrate that the MAUP is not an issue for calculation of NDVI within a sensor for pure urban vegetation pixels. This may prove useful for future rule-based monitoring of the ecosystem functioning of green infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance measurement of a new concept reciprocating piston expander (RPE using a newly developed small-scale dynamometer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad MNA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the progress of a small-scale dynamometer prototype development for performance measurement of a reciprocating piston expander (RPE. Since the available dynamometer systems in the market are limited to specific applications that require for the customization, their price normally very expensive. Since the current study on the RPE required a dynamometer unit, therefore, a new and cheaper dynamometer prototype that was suitable for RPE application has been developed. Using air as RPE working fluid, a case study has been carried out to measure its performance at different inlet fluid conditions, i.e., within 20°C–140°C and 3–5 bars. The results observed that the performance of RPE was proportionally increased to the increased of inlet fluid pressure and temperature. The maximum brake power produced was 27 Watt when the RPE operated at 140°C, 5 bars and the speed of 820 rpm. It also revealed that the changes in the pressure of inlet fluid can give significant change on the performance of the RPE due to its direct relation to the RPE actual rotating force. Although the RPE and dynamometer seem good being adapted to each other, both of them require some improvements to ensure both systems well operated and reliable.

  15. Scales for evaluating self-perceived anxiety levels in patients admitted to intensive care units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá-Galvañ, Juana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    To review studies of anxiety in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit to describe the level of anxiety and synthesize the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. The CUIDEN, IME, ISOC, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PSYCINFO databases for 1995 to 2005 were searched. The search focused on 3 concepts: anxiety, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation for the English-language databases and ansiedad, cuidados intensivos, and ventilación mecánica for the Spanish-language databases. Information was extracted from 18 selected articles on the level of anxiety experienced by patients and the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. Moderate levels of anxiety were reported. Levels were higher in women than in men, and higher in patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation regardless of sex. Most multi-item instruments had high coefficients of internal consistency. The reliability of instruments with only a single item was not demonstrated, even though the instruments had moderate-to-high correlations with other measurements. Midlength scales, such the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory or the shortened state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory are best for measuring anxiety in critical care patients.

  16. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions applicable in Spain at the forest management unit scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valls-Donderis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to identify criteria and indicators (C&I of sustainable forest management (SFM under Mediterranean conditions. The indicators are meant to monitor changes in the provision of ecosystem services at a local scale (forest management unit, FMU. We support that if a forest provides a bundle of ecosystem services its management can be considered sustainable; thus, we adjust C&I to an ecosystem services classification. Area of study: La Hunde y La Palomera, a public FMU in the region of Valencia (east of Spain, 100km southwest of the city of Valencia. Material and methods: first, a literature review of the following themes took part: SFM, features of Mediterranean forests, ecosystem services and C&I. Some C&I were proposed and, later on, a participatory process in Ayora, the municipality where the mentioned FMU is located, was carried out with different stakeholders (forestry professionals, users for recreation, hunters, environmentalists and professionals of cultural and rural development activities in order for them to value the C&I proposed according to their management preferences for La Hunde y La Palomera. Research highlights: 15 criteria and 133 indicators were identified: a balance has been achieved among economic, social and ecological concerns. People value the ecological issues associated to forestry on top and the economic ones at the bottom. Results suggest that SFM under Mediterranean conditions is based on more than one product and on the provision of several ecosystem services.

  17. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem: An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela L.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2017-01-01

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) pertaining to indices such as NDVI and images at varying spatial resolutions. These issues are relevant to using NDVI values in spatial analyses. We compare two different methods of calculation of a mean NDVI: 1) using pixel values of NDVI within feature/object boundaries and 2) first calculating the mean red and mean near-infrared across all feature pixels and then calculating NDVI. We explore the nature and magnitude of these differences for images taken from two sensors, a 1.24 m resolution WorldView-3 and a 0.1 m resolution digital aerial image. We apply these methods over an urban park located in the Adelaide Parklands of South Australia. We demonstrate that the MAUP is not an issue for calculation of NDVI within a sensor for pure urban vegetation pixels. This may prove useful for future rule-based monitoring of the ecosystem functioning of green infrastructure.

  18. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads V. Markussen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high- and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables at the consumers’ door as the case system. The on-farm resource use measured in solar equivalent Joules (seJ was similar for the case system and the high-yielding model system and higher for the low-yielding model system. The distribution phase of the case system was at least three times as resource efficient as the models and had substantially less environmental impacts when assessed using LCA. The three systems ranked differently for emissions with the high-yielding model system being the worst for terrestrial ecotoxicity and the case system the worst for global warming potential. As a consequence of being embedded in an industrial economy, about 90% of resources (seJ were used for supporting labor and service.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Color Conterminous United States Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Grayscale Conterminous United States Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Color Conterminous United States Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Grayscale Conterminous United States Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Contours of the Conterminous United States 201404 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows elevation contour lines for the conterminous United States. The map layer was derived from the 100-meter resolution elevation data set which is...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Boundary Lines of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the boundaries of counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Inland Water Areas of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing waterbodies and wetlands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified...

  13. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Waterbodies and Wetlands of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains waterbodies and wetlands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was produced primarily from the...

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  15. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  16. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale on a Sample of University Students in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifford, Amy; Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang

    2009-01-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW; Spanierman & Heppner, 2004) on 766 White American university students from the southeastern United States. Results from confirmatory factor analyses supported the 3-factor model proposed by Spanierman and Heppner (2004). The construct validity of the…

  17. Geographical Dynamics of Environmental Service Firms at Metropolitan and National Scales in the United States: The Case of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Hathaway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A close look at Pittsburgh’s environmental service firms in recent decades provides insight into the locational dynamics and trends of the United States environmental industry and insight into forces underlying this broad ranging sector of the economy. For my purposes, I place environmental services into two categories of producer services: professional services (e.g., environmental consulting or engineering and environmental contractors (e.g., remediation, emergency response while the third category lies in the realm of consumer services: operation and maintenance services (e.g., waste collection, treatment and disposal. I will provide portraits of these businesses by describing their revenues, employment, labor characteristics, clientele, and overall nature. My sources of information include trade publications and business databases, census data, content from firm websites, and personal interviews. I use a political economy perspective 1 to illuminate the forces affecting the locational dynamics and evolution of environmental service firms at metropolitan, national, and global scales and 2 to see what an analysis of environmental firms can contribute to debates on such processes as agglomeration and dispersal, outsourcing, the changing regulatory environment, and the “greening” of industry. Large manufacturing job declines have stimulated a move in the Pittsburgh area toward the environmental sector, but some environmental service industries have had turbulent trajectories. Pittsburgh’s environmental service firms have benefited from the region’s long history of struggling with environmental issues and by national trends including the public sector’s retreat from the provision of services and the “greening” of industry.

  18. A Comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale Score with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scale to Predict Patients’ Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Jalali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment is an essential element of early warning scores used to recognize critically ill patients. We compared the performance of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR scale as an alternative method in the identification of clinically relevant outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of GCS with FOUR scale. Methods. For this study 104 patients with brain injury were recruited from the ICU of Taleghani Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Kermanshah in the western part of Iran. Data was collected concurrently from the ICU admissions by three well-educated nurses and then checked for accuracy by the researcher. Patients were followed up until two weeks or hospital discharge to record their survival status. As a final point expected risk of mortality was calculated using the original formulas for each scale. Results. The mean age of 104 participants was 41.38 ± 18.22 (rang 17 to 86 years mostly (81 patients 77.9% males. The FOUR scale has a better prediction for death than GCS. Conclusion. It appears that FOUR scale had better predictive power for mortality and may be a suitable alternative or complementary tool for GCS.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  1. Cross-cultural Study of Understanding of Scale and Measurement: Does the everyday use of US customary units disadvantage US students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar

    2013-06-01

    Following a sociocultural perspective, this study investigates how students who have grown up using the SI (Système International d'Unités) (metric) or US customary (USC) systems of units for everyday use differ in their knowledge of scale and measurement. Student groups were similar in terms of socioeconomic status, curriculum, native language transparency of number word structure, type of school, and makeup by gender and grade level, while varying by native system of measurement. Their performance on several tasks was compared using binary logistic regression, ordinal logistic regression, and analysis of variance, with gender and grade level as covariates. Participants included 17 USC-native and 89 SI-native students in a school in Mexico, and 31 USC-native students in a school in the Midwestern USA. SI-native students performed at a significantly higher level estimating the length of a metre and a conceptual task (coordinating relative size and absolute size). No statistically significant differences were found on tasks involving factual knowledge about objects or units, scale construction, or estimation of other units. USC-native students in the US school performed at a higher level on smallest known object. These findings suggest that the more transparent SI system better supports conceptual thinking about scale and measurement than the idiosyncratic USC system. Greater emphasis on the SI system and more complete adoption of the SI system for everyday life may improve understanding among US students. Advancing sociocultural theory, systems of units were found to mediate learner's understanding of scale and measurement, much as number words mediate counting and problem solving.

  2. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  3. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  4. A large scale GIS geodatabase of soil parameters supporting the modeling of conservation practice alternatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality modeling requires across-scale support of combined digital soil elements and simulation parameters. This paper presents the unprecedented development of a large spatial scale (1:250,000) ArcGIS geodatabase coverage designed as a functional repository of soil-parameters for modeling an...

  5. Comparison of two different methods for evaluating the hydrodynamic performance of an industrial-scale fish-rearing unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; McLean, Ewen

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-scale physical and mathematical models were evaluated for their utility in examining the hydrodynamic performance of a commercial fish-rearing tank. Each method was appraised with the common objective of predicting characteristic hydrodynamic behaviour of a full-scale tank. The two...

  6. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  7. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  8. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  10. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    ...) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method...

  11. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States - Parkways and Scenic Rivers 201506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the linear federally owned or administered land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States and...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Natural Earth of the Conterminous United States 201308 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains a natural-earth image of the conterminous United States. The image is land cover in natural colors combined with shaded relief, which...

  13. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Inland Water Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing waterbodies and wetlands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified...

  14. Characterization and partitioning of the char ash collected after the processing of pine wood chips in a pilot-scale gasification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Hui Pan; Leslie H. Groom; Chi-Leung So

    2011-01-01

    Southern yellow pine wood chips were used as the feedstock for a pilot-scale gasification unit coupled with a 25 kW generator. The pulp-grade wood chips were relatively free of bark and low in ash content. Processing this feedstock yielded a black/sooty by-product that upon combustion in a muffle furnace resulted in an ash content of about 48%. The term "char ash...

  15. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  16. Clinical validity of a relocation stress scale for the families of patients transferred from intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HyunSoo; Lee, Seul; Kim, JiSun; Lee, EunJu; Min, HyoNam; Cho, OkJa; Seo, WhaSook

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop a family relocation stress scale by modifying the Son's Relocation Stress Syndrome Scale, to examine its clinical validity and reliability and to confirm its suitability for measuring family relocation stress. The transfer of ICU patients to general wards is a significant anxiety-producing event for family members. However, no relocation stress scale has been developed specifically for families. A nonexperimental, correlation design was adopted. The study subjects were 95 family members of 95 ICU patients at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Face and construct validities of the devised family relocation stress scale were examined. Construct validity was examined using factor analysis and by using a nomological validity test. Reliability was also examined. Face and content validity of the scale were verified by confirming that its items adequately measured family relocation stress. Factor analysis yielded four components, and the total variance explained by these four components was 63·0%, which is acceptable. Nomological validity was well supported by significant relationships between relocation stress and degree of preparation for relocation, patient self-care ability, family burden and satisfaction with the relocation process. The devised scale was also found to have good reliability. The family relocation stress scale devised in this study was found to have good validity and reliability, and thus, is believed to offer a means of assessing family relocation stress. The findings of this study provide a reliable and valid assessment tool when nurses prepare families for patient transfer from an ICU to a ward setting, and may also provide useful information to those developing an intervention programme for family relocation stress management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Engaging communities and climate change futures with Multi-Scale, Iterative Scenario Building (MISB) in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Murphy; Carina Wyborn; Laurie Yung; Daniel R. Williams; Cory Cleveland; Lisa Eby; Solomon Dobrowski; Erin Towler

    2016-01-01

    Current projections of future climate change foretell potentially transformative ecological changes that threaten communities globally. Using two case studies from the United States Intermountain West, this article highlights the ways in which a better articulation between theory and methods in research design can generate proactive applied tools that enable...

  18. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  19. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Indian Lands of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. For the most part, only areas of 320 acres or more are included; some smaller areas deemed to be important or...

  20. Chapter 6 - Links between land cover and lichen species richness at large scales in forested ecosystems across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Randall S. Morin; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt Riitters; Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Lichen community composition is well known for exhibiting response to air pollution, and to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental variables. Lichens are useful indicators of air quality impact, forest health, and forest ecosystem integrity across the United States (McCune 2000, reviews in Nimis and others 2002, USDA Forest Service 2007).

  1. Century-Scale Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Flux to Multiple Environmental Changes in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanqin Tian; Guangsheng Chen; Chi Zhang; Mingliang Liu; Ge Sun; Arthur Chappelka; Wei Ren; Xiaofeng Xu; Chaoqun Lu; Shufen Pan; Hua Chen; Dafeng Hui; Steven McNulty; Graeme Lockaby; Eric Vance

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the southern United States (SUS) have experienced a complex set of changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, tropospheric ozone (O3), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) during the past century. Although each of these factors has received attention for its alterations on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics,...

  2. The increasing importance of small-scale forestry: evidence from family forest ownership patterns in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Zhang; X. Liao; B.J. Butler; J. Schelhas

    2009-01-01

    The state-level distribution of the size of family forest holdings in the contiguous United States was examined using data collected by the USDA Forest Service in 1993 and 2003. Regressions models were used to analyze the factors influencing the mean size and structural variation among states and between the two periods. Population density, percent of the population at...

  3. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  4. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  5. Continental-scale simulation of burn probabilities, flame lengths, and fire size distribution for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Charles W. McHugh; Isaac Grenfell; Karin L. Riley

    2010-01-01

    Components of a quantitative risk assessment were produced by simulation of burn probabilities and fire behavior variation for 134 fire planning units (FPUs) across the continental U.S. The system uses fire growth simulation of ignitions modeled from relationships between large fire occurrence and the fire danger index Energy Release Component (ERC). Simulations of 10,...

  6. An examination of the validity of the Academic Motivation Scale with a United States business student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Rosenberg, Donald L

    2010-04-01

    This study examined alternative seven-, five-, and three-factor structures for the Academic Motivation Scale, with data from a large convenience sample of 2,078 students matriculating in various business courses at three AACSB-accredited regional comprehensive universities. In addition, the invariance of the scale's factor structure between male and female students and between undergraduate and Master's of Business Administration students was investigated. Finally, the internal consistency of the items loading on each of the seven AMS subscales was assessed as well as whether the correlations among the subscales supported a continuum of self-determination. Results for the full sample as well as the targeted subpopulations supported the seven factor configuration of the scale with adequate model fit achieved for all but the MBA student group. The data also generated acceptable internal consistency statistics for all of the subscales. However, in line with a number of previous studies, the correlations between subscales failed to fully support the scale's simplex structure as proposed by self-determination theory.

  7. At-line process analytical technology (PAT) for more efficient scale up of biopharmaceutical microfiltration unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Douglas S; Kerchner, Kristi R; Gant, Sean S; Pedersen, Joseph W; Hamburger, James B; Ortigosa, Allison D; Potgieter, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    Tangential flow microfiltration (MF) is a cost-effective and robust bioprocess separation technique, but successful full scale implementation is hindered by the empirical, trial-and-error nature of scale-up. We present an integrated approach leveraging at-line process analytical technology (PAT) and mass balance based modeling to de-risk MF scale-up. Chromatography-based PAT was employed to improve the consistency of an MF step that had been a bottleneck in the process used to manufacture a therapeutic protein. A 10-min reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) assay was developed to provide at-line monitoring of protein concentration. The method was successfully validated and method performance was comparable to previously validated methods. The PAT tool revealed areas of divergence from a mass balance-based model, highlighting specific opportunities for process improvement. Adjustment of appropriate process controls led to improved operability and significantly increased yield, providing a successful example of PAT deployment in the downstream purification of a therapeutic protein. The general approach presented here should be broadly applicable to reduce risk during scale-up of filtration processes and should be suitable for feed-forward and feed-back process control. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  9. Responses of Arthropods to large scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimentalmanipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  10. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: overall and across demographic groups living within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel J; Blais, Mark A; Gansler, David A; Sandberg, Elisabeth; Bistis, Kimberly; LoCicero, Alice

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to evaluate the scaling assumptions and component structure of and present normative data for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) using a sample of US adults (N = 503), both overall and across demographic subgroups and (b) to provide new data regarding the relationship between the two RSES subcomponents of self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), and other demographic and clinical variables. As hypothesized, all psychometric tests supported the underlying structure of the RSES. Overall RSES scores varied significantly across age, racial and ethnic, education, employment status, income, and marital status groups. Furthermore, differences between SC and SL were also found across groups differing in gender, age, employment status, and marital status groups. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, with an emphasis on clinical relevance.

  12. Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks: Miniaturized Phonon Trap Timing Units for PNT of CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina; Altunc, Serhat; Hunter, Roger C.; Petro, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks (CSUSC) project aims to provide a superior alternative to current solutions for low size, weight, and power timing devices. Currently available quartz-based clocks have problems adjusting to the high temperature and extreme acceleration found in space applications, especially when scaled down to match small spacecraft size, weight, and power requirements. The CSUSC project aims to utilize dual-mode resonators on an ovenized platform to achieve the exceptional temperature stability required for these systems. The dual-mode architecture utilizes a temperature sensitive and temperature stable mode simultaneously driven on the same device volume to eliminate ovenization error while maintaining extremely high performance. Using this technology it is possible to achieve parts-per-billion (ppb) levels of temperature stability with multiple orders of magnitude smaller size, weight, and power.

  13. Assessing hydroclimate impacts of a large-scale perennial biofuel crop expansion over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Wagner, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Mahalov, A.; Georgescu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial bioenergy crops are a potential alternative energy source to fossil fuels that could increase U.S. energy independence and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Large-scale conversion of existing lands to perennial bioenergy crops has shown the potential to decrease near-surface temperatures but could cause unintended consequences on water resources via changes in soil moisture/groundwater depletion. Spatiotemporal analysis of long-term and extreme hydrological impacts remains limited but is necessary for examination of large-scale sustainable deployment of this alternative energy pathway. Here, we quantify hydroclimatic impacts associated with perennial bioenergy crop expansion (e.g., miscanthus or switchgrass) and examine simulated effects on magnitude and frequency of extreme events (i.e. heat waves and anomalous precipitation events). We conduct 10-year (2001-2010) U.S. continental scale simulations of baseline and perennial bioenergy crop expansion (based on recent assessments of abandoned and degraded cropland over the conterminous U.S.) using WRF coupled to a land surface model (LEAF-Hydro) at 20 km resolution. Time series analysis and spatial statistical methods are applied to quantify extreme hydroclimate frequency owing to biofuels expansion, investigated through groundwater table depth, soil moisture and energy partitioning change and variability, and consequential impacts on ET, temperature, and precipitation. A further quantification of intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events is made based on extreme value theory. This study demonstrates a framework of feedback assessment between land use/land cover change and water resources, as well as evaluating feasibility and long-term sustainability of large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental U.S.

  14. Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

    2002-11-01

    Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

  15. A comparison of gradual sedation levels using the Comfort-B scale and bispectral index in children on mechanical ventilation in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia da Costa; Alves, Marta Maria Osório; El Halal, Michel Georges dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sabrina dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci

    2013-01-01

    Compare the scores resulting from the Comfort-B scale with the bispectral index in children in an intensive care unit. Eleven children between the ages of 1 month and 16 years requiring mechanical ventilation and sedation were simultaneously classified based on the bispectral index and the Comfort-B scale. Their behavior was recorded using digital photography, and the record was later evaluated by three independent evaluators. Agreement tests (Bland-Altman and Kappa) were then performed. The correlation between the two methods (Pearson correlation) was tested. In total, 35 observations were performed on 11 patients. Based on the Kappa coefficient, the agreement among evaluators ranged from 0.56 to 0.75 (pmechanical ventilation.

  16. Big Sites, Big Questions, Big Data, Big Problems: Scales of Investigation and Changing Perceptions of Archaeological Practice in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Wesson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since at least the 1930s, archaeological investigations in the southeastern United States have placed a priority on expansive, near-complete, excavations of major sites throughout the region. Although there are considerable advantages to such large–scale excavations, projects conducted at this scale are also accompanied by a series of challenges regarding the comparability, integrity, and consistency of data recovery, analysis, and publication. We examine the history of large–scale excavations in the southeast in light of traditional views within the discipline that the region has contributed little to the ‘big questions’ of American archaeology. Recently published analyses of decades old data derived from Southeastern sites reveal both the positive and negative aspects of field research conducted at scales much larger than normally undertaken in archaeology. Furthermore, given the present trend toward the use of big data in the social sciences, we predict an increased use of large pre–existing datasets developed during the New Deal and other earlier periods of archaeological practice throughout the region.

  17. Small gas-turbine units for the power industry: Ways for improving the efficiency and the scale of implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoi, A. S.; Popel', O. S.; Beschastnykh, V. N.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Sinkevich, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Small power units (power generation and smart power supply systems. They are usually used for feeding facilities whose connection to centralized networks involves certain problems of engineering or economical nature. Small power generation is based on a wide range of processes and primary sources, including renewable and local ones, such as nonconventional hydrocarbon fuel comprising associated gas, biogas, coalmine methane, etc. Characteristics of small gas-turbine units (GTU) that are most widely available on the world market are reviewed. The most promising lines for the development of the new generation of small GTUs are examined. Special emphasis is placed on the three lines selected for improving the efficiency of small GTUs: increasing the fuel efficiency, cutting down the maintenance cost, and integration with local or renewable power sources. It is demonstrated that, as to the specific fuel consumption, small GTUs of the new generation can have an efficiency 20-25% higher than those of the previous generation, require no maintenance between overhauls, and can be capable of efficient integration into intelligent electrical networks with power facilities operating on renewable or local power sources.

  18. SECARB Commercial Scale CO2 Injection and Optimization of Storage Capacity in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George J. [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Walsh, Peter [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The Commercial Scale Project is a US DOE/NETL funded initiative aimed at enhancing the knowledge-base and industry’s ability to geologically store vast quantities of anthropogenic carbon. In support of this goal, a large-scale, stacked reservoir geologic model was developed for Gulf Coast sediments centered on the Citronelle Dome in southwest Alabama, the site of the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test. Characterization of regional geology to construct the model consists of an assessment of the entire stratigraphic continuum at Citronelle Dome, from surface to the depth of the Donovan oil-bearing formation. This project utilizes all available geologic data available, which includes: modern geophysical well logs from three new wells drilled for SECARB’s Anthropogenic Test; vintage logs from the Citronelle oilfield wells; porosity and permeability data from whole core and sidewall cores obtained from the injection and observation wells drilled for the Anthropogenic Test; core data obtained from the SECARB Phase II saline aquifer injection test; regional core data for relevant formations from the Geological Survey of Alabama archives. Cross sections, isopach maps, and structure maps were developed to validate the geometry and architecture of the Citronelle Dome for building the model, and assuring that no major structural defects exist in the area. A synthetic neural network approach was used to predict porosity using the available SP and resistivity log data for the storage reservoir formations. These data are validated and applied to extrapolate porosity data over the study area wells, and to interpolate permeability amongst these data points. Geostatistical assessments were conducted over the study area. In addition to geologic characterization of the region, a suite of core analyses was conducted to construct a depositional model and constrain caprock integrity. Petrographic assessment of core was conducted by OSU and analyzed to build a depositional framework

  19. Performance of a Modified Shear Box Apparatus for Full Scale Laboratory Study of Segmental Retaining Wall Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahidul Islam Bhuiyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the performance of a modified large scale shear box apparatus, which is mainly used to execute full scale laboratory study of segmental retaining walls. A typical apparatus has already been adopted by the current ASTM and NCMA test protocols and by literature studying of those test protocols, it is found that protocols recommend a fixed vertical actuator with roller or airbag configuration as a proposed vertical loading assembly. Previous research study demonstrated that vertical loading arrangement greatly influences the interface shear capacity of block systems and fixed vertical actuator with flexible airbag shows better loading arrangement for the blocks which have dilatant behavior. However, airbag arrangement is strenuous and time-consuming loading assembly compared to fixed vertical actuator which increases normal load with shear displacement due to bending of vertical actuator locked with the top block during shear loading. For the drawbacks of fixed vertical loading arrangement, the apparatus used in this study was fully redesigned and modified in terms of normal loading arrangement specially. A moveable vertical loading assembly is used in the modified apparatus which allows the piston movement with the top blocks during shear testing. The results outlined in this paper report that normal load remains constant over the period of shear testing for a wide range of surcharge loading. It could easily be concluded that the modified apparatus might be a better alternative to the existing apparatus used in the test protocols.

  20. Impacts of Array Configuration on Land-Use Requirements for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    Land use is often cited as an important issue for renewable energy technologies. In this paper we examine the relationship between land-use requirements for large-scale photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the U.S. and PV-array configuration. We estimate the per capita land requirements for solar PV and find that array configuration is a stronger driver of energy density than regional variations in solar insolation. When deployed horizontally, the PV land area needed to meet 100% of an average U.S. citizen's electricity demand is about 100 m2. This requirement roughly doubles to about 200 m2 when using 1-axis tracking arrays. By comparing these total land-use requirements with other current per capita land uses, we find that land-use requirements of solar photovoltaics are modest, especially when considering the availability of zero impact 'land' on rooftops. Additional work is need to examine the tradeoffs between array spacing, self-shading losses, and land use, along with possible techniques to mitigate land-use impacts of large-scale PV deployment.

  1. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  2. Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model to estimate utility-scale photovoltaic (UPV) deployment trends from present day through 2030. The analysis seeks to inform the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) planning activities related to UPV development on federal lands in Nevada as part of the Resource Management Plan (RMP) revision for the Las Vegas and Pahrump field offices. These planning activities include assessing the demand for new or expanded additional Solar Energy Zones (SEZ), per the process outlined in BLM's Western Solar Plan process.

  3. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  4. Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Change Impacts on Wind Energy Resources in the Contiguous United States by Using a Limited-Area Model with Scale-Selective Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a limited-area model (LAM in combination with the scale-selective data assimilation (SSDA approach, wind energy resources in the contiguous United States (CONUS were downscaled from IPCC CCSM3 global model projections for both current and future climate conditions. An assessment of climate change impacts on wind energy resources in the CONUS region was then conducted. Based on the downscaling results, when projecting into future climate under IPCC’s A1B scenario, the average annual wind speed experiences an overall shift across the CONUS region. From the current climate to the 2040s, the average annual wind speed is expected to increase from 0.1 to 0.2 m s−1 over the Great Plains, Northern Great Lakes Region, and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rocky Mountains. When projecting into the 2090s from current climate, there is an overall increase in the Great Plains Region and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rockies with a mean wind speed increase between 0 and 0.1 m s−1, while, the Northern Great Lakes Region experiences an even greater increase from current climate to 2090s than over the first few decades with an increase of mean wind speed from 0.1 to 0.4 m s−1.

  5. Incorporating human activities into an earth system model of the Northeastern United States: socio-hydrology at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Ehsani, N.; Shikhmacheva, K.; Yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is one of the most urbanized regions of the world and its 70 million residents will be challenged by climate change as well as competing demands for land and water through the remainder of the 21st Century. The strategic management decisions made in the next few years will have major impacts on the region's future water resources, but planners have had limited quantitative information to support their decision-making. We have developed a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), which allows for the testing of future scenarios of climate change, land use change and infrastructure management to better understand their implications for the region's water resources and ecosystem services. Human features of the water cycle - including thermoelectric power plants, wastewater treatment plants interbasin transfers and changes in impervious cover with different patterns of urban development - are explicitly represented in our modeling. We are currently engaged in a novel, participatory scenario design process with regional stakeholders to ensure the policy relevancy of our modeling experiments. The NE-RESM hydrologic modeling domain. Figure by Stanley Glidden and Rob Stewart

  6. Fast track evaluation of patients with acute chest pain: experience in a large-scale chest pain unit in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigel, Roy; Oieru, Dan; Goitein, Orly; Chouraqui, Pierre; Feinberg, Micha S; Brosh, Sella; Asher, Elad; Konen, Eli; Shamiss, Ari; Eldar, Michael; Hod, Hanoch; Or, Jacob; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2010-06-01

    Many patients present to the emergency department with chest pain. While in most of them chest pain represents a benign complaint, in some patients it underlies a life-threatening illness. To assess the routine evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain by means of a cardiologist-based chest pain unit using different noninvasive imaging modalities. We evaluated the records of 1055 consecutive patients who presented to the ED with complaints of chest pain and were admitted to the CPU. After an observation period and according to the decision of the attending cardiologist, patients underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, multidetector computed tomography, or stress echocardiography. The CPU attending cardiologist did not prescribe non-invasive evaluation for 108 of the 1055 patients, who were either admitted (58 patients) or discharged (50 patients) after an observation period. Of those remaining, 444 patients underwent MDCT, 445 MPS, and 58 stress echocardiography. Altogether, 907 patients (86%) were discharged from the CPU. During an average period of 236 +/- 223 days, 25 patients (3.1%) were readmitted due to chest pain of suspected cardiac origin, and only 8 patients (0.9%) suffered a major adverse cardiovascular event. Utilization of the CPU enabled a rapid and thorough evaluation of the patients' primary complaint, thereby reducing hospitalization costs and occupancy on the one hand and avoiding misdiagnosis in discharged patients on the other.

  7. Re-Validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale for Use with People Living with HIV in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M.; Audet, Carolyn M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Owens, Jared; McGowan, Catherine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    There is little consensus about which of the many validated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma scales should be regularly used, with few being re-validated in different contexts or evaluated for how they compare to other, existing HIV stigma scales. The purpose of this exploratory study was to re-validate the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale, originally validated in Thailand and using a third-person wording structure, for use with people living with HIV in the United States. Adult HIV clinic patients completed a survey including the Berger and Van Rie scales, and measures of social support and depression. Eighty-five of 211 (40%) eligible participants provided data for both stigma scales. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors to the Van Rie scale: Loss of Social Relationships (new subscale), Managing HIV Concealment (new subscale), and Perceived Community Stigma (original subscale). These subscales were moderately inter-related (r = 0.51 to 0.58) with acceptable to excellent reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.69 to 0.90). The Van Rie subscales were also moderately inter-correlated with the Berger subscales (r = 0.44 to 0.76), had similar construct validity, and tended to have higher mean stigma scores when compared with Berger subscales that were conceptually most similar. The revised Van Rie HIV-related Stigma Scale demonstrates good validity and internal consistency, offering a valid measure of HIV stigma with a three-factor structure. The third-person wording may be particularly suitable for measuring stigmatizing attitudes during an individual’s transition from at-risk and undergoing HIV testing to newly diagnosed, a time when experiences of discrimination and processing issues of disclosure have not yet occurred. The stigma mechanisms for individuals making this transition have not been well explored. These scenarios, combined with the observed non-response to the Berger Enacted Stigma subscale items (a surprise finding

  8. A follow-up study of hygiene in catering premises at large-scale events in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C; Elviss, N; McLauchlin, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate food hygiene practices at large events by assessing the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food, drinking water, food preparation surfaces, cleaning cloths and wristbands worn by food handlers for event security purposes. Over a 7-month period, 1662 samples were collected at 153 events and examined for microbiological contamination. Eight per cent of food samples were of an unsatisfactory quality. A further one per cent contained potentially hazardous levels of human pathogenic bacteria. 27% of water samples, 32% of swabs and 56% of cloths were also unsatisfactory. These results represented an improvement in hygiene compared to a previous study carried out 12 months previously. A fifth of food handler wristbands were contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and/or coagulase-positive staphylococci, with those bands made from fabric being more frequently contaminated than those made from plastic or other materials. This study provides evidence that the food hygiene at large-scale events may have improved. However, there is still a need for continued efforts to maintain an ongoing improvement in cleaning regimes and food hygiene management. This study was part of an ongoing focus on large events in the lead-up to the London 2012 Olympics. Lessons learnt here will be important in the planning of future large events. © 2014 Crown copyright. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is Published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  9. Use of naturalized coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactant using various unit processes in lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Mariraj

    2014-04-01

    This lab-scale experiment is aimed at demonstrating a treatment system for purification and reuse of laundry rinsing water generated from households. The main objective of the study is to compare the efficiencies of various natural coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactants and other major pollutants from the laundry rinsing water. The treatment system consists of Coagulation-Flocculation, Sand filtration and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorption. Four experiments were conducted in batch process by varying the coagulants (Nirmali seed and Pectin extracted from pith of Orange peel). Coagulants have been selected due to their local availability at affordable cost and technical feasibility. From the study it is concluded that laundry rinsing water polluted with high turbidity and anionic surfactant treated with Nirmali seeds as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h gives the best results. The treatment system where Orange peel pectin is used as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h is found to be the most efficient one based on the weighted factor. Hence the treatment of laundry rinsing water by aforesaid combination results in better water quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected within which intensive sub-sampling occurs. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among sub-samples. Implementing such an analysis within a classic likelihood framework is computationally prohibitive with species occurrence data when accounting for detection probabilities. Bayesian methods offer an alternative framework to make this analysis feasible. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. Using data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools, we analyzed data using static and dynamic occupancy frameworks. We analyzed observations from 2004-2013collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States . We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area level. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. Much more variation occurred within individual study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. We found some evidence for a latitudinal gradient in trends among protected areas. However, support for this pattern is overestimated when the hierarchical nature of the data collection is not controlled for in the analysis. For both species, occupancy appeared to be declining in the most southern areas, while occupancy was stable or increasing in more northern areas. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of change including among-year and among-site variation in occurrence dynamics, while properly accounting for nested structure of

  11. Historic and projected changes in vapor pressure deficit suggest a continental-scale drying of the United States atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Novick, Kimberly A.

    2017-02-01

    Via air temperature increases and relative humidity changes, climate change will modify vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which is an important determinant of water vapor and CO2 exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. VPD is the difference between the water vapor the air can hold at saturation (es) and the actual amount of water vapor (ea). Here we assess changes in VPD, es, and ea in the United States (U.S.) for the recent past (1979-2013) and the future (2065-2099) using gridded, observed climate data and output from general circulation models. Historically, VPD has increased for all seasons, driven by increases in es and declines in ea. The spring, summer, and fall seasons exhibited the largest areal extent of significant increases in VPD, which was largely concentrated in the western and southern portions of the U.S. The changes in VPD stemmed from recent air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases. Projections indicate similar, amplified patterns into the future. For the summer, the general circulation model ensemble median showed a 51% projected increase (quartile range of 39 and 64%) in summer VPD for the U.S., reflecting temperature-driven increases in es but decreases or minimal changes in relative humidity that promotes negligible changes in ea. Using a simple model for plant hydraulic functioning, we also show that in the absence of stomatal acclimation, future changes in VPD can reduce stomatal conductance by 9-51%, which is a magnitude comparable to the expected decline in stomatal conductance from rising CO2.

  12. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of

  13. Delivering digital health and well-being at scale: lessons learned during the implementation of the dallas program in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Alison M; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Agbakoba, Ruth; O'Connor, Siobhan; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Wyke, Sally; Watson, Nicholas; Browne, Susan; Mair, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    To identify implementation lessons from the United Kingdom Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale (dallas) program-a large-scale, national technology program that aims to deliver a broad range of digital services and products to the public to promote health and well-being. Prospective, longitudinal qualitative research study investigating implementation processes. Qualitative data collected includes semi-structured e-Health Implementation Toolkit-led interviews at baseline/mid-point (n = 38), quarterly evaluation, quarterly technical and barrier and solutions reports, observational logs, quarterly evaluation alignment interviews with project leads, observational data collected during meetings, and ethnographic data from dallas events (n > 200 distinct pieces of qualitative data). Data analysis was guided by Normalization Process Theory, a sociological theory that aids conceptualization of implementation issues in complex healthcare settings. Five key challenges were identified: 1) The challenge of establishing and maintaining large heterogeneous, multi-agency partnerships to deliver new models of healthcare; 2) The need for resilience in the face of barriers and set-backs including the backdrop of continually changing external environments; 3) The inherent tension between embracing innovative co-design and achieving delivery at pace and at scale; 4) The effects of branding and marketing issues in consumer healthcare settings; and 5) The challenge of interoperability and information governance, when commercial proprietary models are dominant. The magnitude and ambition of the dallas program provides a unique opportunity to investigate the macro level implementation challenges faced when designing and delivering digital health and wellness services at scale. Flexibility, adaptability, and resilience are key implementation facilitators when shifting to new digitally enabled models of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  15. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  16. Simulating stream transport of nutrients in the eastern United States, 2002, using a spatially-referenced regression model and 1:100,000-scale hydrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; Moore, Richard B.; Garcia, Ana Maria; Noe, Gregory B.; Terziotti, Silvia E.; Johnston, Craig M.; Dennis, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) nutrient models for the northeastern and southeastern regions of the United States were recalibrated to achieve a hydrographically consistent model with which to assess nutrient sources and stream transport and investigate specific management questions about the effects of wetlands and atmospheric deposition on nutrient transport. Recalibrated nitrogen models for the northeast and southeast were sufficiently similar to be merged into a single nitrogen model for the eastern United States. The atmospheric deposition source in the nitrogen model has been improved to account for individual components of atmospheric input, derived from emissions from agricultural manure, agricultural livestock, vehicles, power plants, other industry, and background sources. This accounting makes it possible to simulate the effects of altering an individual component of atmospheric deposition, such as nitrate emissions from vehicles or power plants. Regional differences in transport of phosphorus through wetlands and reservoirs were investigated and resulted in two distinct phosphorus models for the northeast and southeast. The recalibrated nitrogen and phosphorus models account explicitly for the influence of wetlands on regional-scale land-phase and aqueous-phase transport of nutrients and therefore allow comparison of the water-quality functions of different wetland systems over large spatial scales. Seven wetland systems were associated with enhanced transport of either nitrogen or phosphorus in streams, probably because of the export of dissolved organic nitrogen and bank erosion. Six wetland systems were associated with mitigating the delivery of either nitrogen or phosphorus to streams, probably because of sedimentation, phosphate sorption, and ground water infiltration.

  17. Geographic Information for Analysis of Highway Runoff-Quality Data on a National or Regional Scale in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieszek, Tomas W.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Spatial data are important for interpretation of water-quality information on a regional or national scale. Geographic information systems (GIS) facilitate interpretation and integration of spatial data. The geographic information and data compiled for the conterminous United States during the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis project is described in this document, which also includes information on the structure, file types, and the geographic information in the data files. This 'geodata' directory contains two subdirectories, labeled 'gisdata' and 'gisimage.' The 'gisdata' directory contains ArcInfo coverages, ArcInfo export files, shapefiles (used in ArcView), Spatial Data Transfer Standard Topological Vector Profile format files, and meta files in subdirectories organized by file type. The 'gisimage' directory contains the GIS data in common image-file formats. The spatial geodata includes two rain-zone region maps and a map of national ecosystems originally published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; regional estimates of mean annual streamflow, and water hardness published by the Federal Highway Administration; and mean monthly temperature, mean annual precipitation, and mean monthly snowfall modified from data published by the National Climatic Data Center and made available to the public by the Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University. These GIS files were compiled for qualitative spatial analysis of available data on a national and(or) regional scale and therefore should be considered as qualitative representations, not precise geographic location information.

  18. Effects of soil data and simulation unit resolution on quantifying changes of soil organic carbon at regional scale with a biogeochemical process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC models were often applied to regions with high heterogeneity, but limited spatially differentiated soil information and simulation unit resolution. This study, carried out in the Tai-Lake region of China, defined the uncertainty derived from application of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC biogeochemical model in an area with heterogeneous soil properties and different simulation units. Three different resolution soil attribute databases, a polygonal capture of mapping units at 1:50,000 (P5, a county-based database of 1:50,000 (C5 and county-based database of 1:14,000,000 (C14, were used as inputs for regional DNDC simulation. The P5 and C5 databases were combined with the 1:50,000 digital soil map, which is the most detailed soil database for the Tai-Lake region. The C14 database was combined with 1:14,000,000 digital soil map, which is a coarse database and is often used for modeling at a national or regional scale in China. The soil polygons of P5 database and county boundaries of C5 and C14 databases were used as basic simulation units. Results project that from 1982 to 2000, total SOC change in the top layer (0-30 cm of the 2.3 M ha of paddy soil in the Tai-Lake region was +1.48 Tg C, -3.99 Tg C and -15.38 Tg C based on P5, C5 and C14 databases, respectively. With the total SOC change as modeled with P5 inputs as the baseline, which is the advantages of using detailed, polygon-based soil dataset, the relative deviation of C5 and C14 were 368% and 1126%, respectively. The comparison illustrates that DNDC simulation is strongly influenced by choice of fundamental geographic resolution as well as input soil attribute detail. The results also indicate that improving the framework of DNDC is essential in creating accurate models of the soil carbon cycle.

  19. Effects of soil data and simulation unit resolution on quantifying changes of soil organic carbon at regional scale with a biogeochemical process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Yu, Dongsheng; Shi, Xuezheng; Xu, Shengxiang; Xing, Shihe; Zhao, Yongcong

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) models were often applied to regions with high heterogeneity, but limited spatially differentiated soil information and simulation unit resolution. This study, carried out in the Tai-Lake region of China, defined the uncertainty derived from application of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) biogeochemical model in an area with heterogeneous soil properties and different simulation units. Three different resolution soil attribute databases, a polygonal capture of mapping units at 1:50,000 (P5), a county-based database of 1:50,000 (C5) and county-based database of 1:14,000,000 (C14), were used as inputs for regional DNDC simulation. The P5 and C5 databases were combined with the 1:50,000 digital soil map, which is the most detailed soil database for the Tai-Lake region. The C14 database was combined with 1:14,000,000 digital soil map, which is a coarse database and is often used for modeling at a national or regional scale in China. The soil polygons of P5 database and county boundaries of C5 and C14 databases were used as basic simulation units. Results project that from 1982 to 2000, total SOC change in the top layer (0-30 cm) of the 2.3 M ha of paddy soil in the Tai-Lake region was +1.48 Tg C, -3.99 Tg C and -15.38 Tg C based on P5, C5 and C14 databases, respectively. With the total SOC change as modeled with P5 inputs as the baseline, which is the advantages of using detailed, polygon-based soil dataset, the relative deviation of C5 and C14 were 368% and 1126%, respectively. The comparison illustrates that DNDC simulation is strongly influenced by choice of fundamental geographic resolution as well as input soil attribute detail. The results also indicate that improving the framework of DNDC is essential in creating accurate models of the soil carbon cycle.

  20. Adaptação cultural e validação para a língua portuguesa da Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Adaptación cultural y validación al idioma português del Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Cultural adaptation and validation for the portuguese language of the Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, realizar a adaptação cultural e validar a escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o método descritivo de validação de instrumentos de medida, baseado nas etapas propostas por Guillemin et al. A análise da confiabilidade foi realizada por meio dos testes e retestes e da consistência interna. Na validação clínica, participaram 163 pais de recém-nascidos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse ficaram em torno de 0,70 mostrando boa estabilidade entre as duas avaliações. A análise fatorial pelo método de componentes principais utilizou os mesmos critérios da escala original, com rotação Varimax, com grau de variância adequado de 57,9%. Os maiores níveis de estresse dos pais foram obtidos na subescala "alteração do papel de pais". CONCLUSÃO: A PSS:NICU na versão em português é uma ferramenta válida e confiável para avaliação do estresse de pais com filho internado na UTIN.OBJETIVO: Traducir, realizar la adaptación cultural y validar la escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU al idioma portugués. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el método descriptivo de validación de instrumentos de medida, basado en las etapas propuestas por Guillemin et al. El análisis de la confiabilidad fue realizado por medio de los tests y retests y de la consistencia interna. En la validación clínica, participaron 163 padres de recién nacidos internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN. RESULTADOS: Los coeficientes de correlación intraclase quedaron alrededor de 0,70 mostrando buena estabilidad entre las dos evaluaciones El análisis factorial por el método de componentes principales utilizó los mismos criterios de la escala original, con rotación Varimax, con grado de varianza adecuado de 57,9%. Los mayores niveles de estrés de

  1. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  2. Genome-scale multilocus microsatellite typing of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit I reveals phylogeographic structure and specific genotypes linked to human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Llewellyn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America and is also genetically highly diverse, with at least six discrete typing units (DTUs reported: Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, and IIe. However, the current six-genotype classification is likely to be a poor reflection of the total genetic diversity present in this undeniably ancient parasite. To determine whether epidemiologically important information is "hidden" at the sub-DTU level, we developed a 48-marker panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate population structure among 135 samples from across the geographic distribution of TcI. This DTU is the major cause of resurgent human disease in northern South America but also occurs in silvatic triatomine vectors and mammalian reservoir hosts throughout the continent. Based on a total dataset of 12,329 alleles, we demonstrate that silvatic TcI populations are extraordinarily genetically diverse, show spatial structuring on a continental scale, and have undergone recent biogeographic expansion into the southern United States of America. Conversely, the majority of human strains sampled are restricted to two distinct groups characterised by a considerable reduction in genetic diversity with respect to isolates from silvatic sources. In Venezuela, most human isolates showed little identity with known local silvatic strains, despite frequent invasion of the domestic setting by infected adult vectors. Multilocus linkage indices indicate predominantly clonal parasite propagation among all populations. However, excess homozygosity among silvatic strains and raised heterozygosity among domestic populations suggest that some level of genetic recombination cannot be ruled out. The epidemiological significance of these findings is discussed.

  3. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C. [State Univ. of Maringa (UEM), Chemical Engineering Dept., Lab. of Catalysis, Maringa (Brazil); Schmal, M. [PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ Cidade Univ., Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil); Cantao, M.P. [LACTEC, Dept. of Materials, Inst. of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55%) or Cu{sup II} (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m{sup 2}/g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu, at 245{sup o}C and 306{sup o}C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO{sub 2} as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300{sup o}C to 400{sup o}C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  4. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  5. Methods of pain assessment in adult intensive care unit patients - Polish version of the CPOT (Critical Care Pain Observation Tool) and BPS (Behavioral Pain Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotfis, Katarzyna; Zegan-Barańska, Małgorzata; Szydłowski, Łukasz; Żukowski, Maciej; Ely, Wes E

    2017-01-01

    Many patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience pain that is a source of suffering and leaves a longterm imprint (chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder). Nearly 30% of patients experience pain at rest, while the percentage increases to 50% during nursing procedures. Pain in ICU patients can be divided into four categories: continuous ICU treatment-related pain/discomfort, acute illness-related pain, intermittent procedural pain and pre-existing chronic pain present before ICU admission. As daily nursing procedures and interventions performed in the ICU may be a potential source of pain, it is crucial to use simple pain monitoring tools. The assessment of pain intensity in ICU patients remains an everyday challenge for clinicians, especially in sedated, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Regular assessment of pain intensity leads to improved outcome and better quality of life of patients in the ICU and after discharge from ICU. The gold standard in pain evaluation is patient self-reporting, which is not always possible. Current research shows that the two tools best validated for patients unable to self-report pain are the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) and the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT). Although international guidelines recommend the use of validated tools for pain evaluation, they underline the need for translation into a given language. The authors of this publication obtained an official agreement from the authors of the two behavioral scales - CPOT and BPS - for translation into Polish. Validation of these tools in the Polish population will aid their wider use in pain assessment in ICUs in Poland.

  6. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  7. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  8. Adaptation of the Psychological-Behavioral Acculturation Scale to a Community of Urban-based Mexican Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Mariño, Rodrigo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette M; Ohmit, Anita; Dai, Siqi

    2015-11-05

    To report the psychometric properties of the Psychological-Behavioral Acculturation Scale (P-BAS), a tool gauging behavioral and psychological acculturation after adapting it through formative research to people of Mexican origin in the United States. We analyzed data from adapted P-BAS questionnaires in the TalaSurvey study, using standard methods to establish internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha), construct validity, and ascertain if the value orientation profile differed by ethnic group. In 2012-13, 505 respondents (mean age 45.2 ± 14.1, 56% female) participated: 250 European Americans (EA) and 255 people of Mexican origin (MA). Although internal consistencies of 15 value orientation measures were occasionally low, overall results were encouraging. A weighted combination of value orientation scores strongly discriminated between EA and MA. Additionally, the pattern of relationships among MAs identified between acculturation scores and the validity contrasts supported the construct validity of the proposed dual framework. The trend was particularly evident for most behavioral variables.

  9. Salinity and streamflow variability in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Justin A.; Najjar, Raymond G.; Lee, Sukyoung

    2017-07-01

    The historical variability of streamflow and salinity was examined for three large estuaries of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States (US) in order to determine how they are influenced by large-scale circulation patterns. New wavelet methods identified 2- and 4-year periodicities from the streamflow time series. A composite analysis of meteorological data revealed that the anomalously high daily streamflow events coincided with Rossby waves emanating from the tropical Pacific and an eastern mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) dipole pattern in which negative MSLP anomalies were situated over the southeast US and positive MSLP anomalies were situated over the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Based on this pattern, a new Eastern North American (ENA) index was constructed that could explain more daily streamflow variance than existing climate indices. A wavelet coherence analysis identified ENA index relationships with streamflow and salinity at periods of 2-4 years, suggesting that the ENA index may offer predictability beyond the weather forecasting timescale. The ENA index was also found to be phase-locked to the Gulf Stream index at a period of 74 months. Because the MSLP dipole pattern is linked to the upstream Rossby wave train, salinity variability at that timescale may have resulted from MSLP dipole-related changes in precipitation.

  10. Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Griffith, Glenn E.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Auch, Roger F.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Prisley, Stephen; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental change scenarios have typically provided projections of land use and land cover for a relatively small number of regions or using a relatively coarse resolution spatial grid, and for only a few major sectors. The coarseness of global projections, in both spatial and thematic dimensions, often limits their direct utility at scales useful for environmental management. This paper describes methods to downscale projections of land-use and land-cover change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios to ecological regions of the conterminous United States, using an integrated assessment model, land-use histories, and expert knowledge. Downscaled projections span a wide range of future potential conditions across sixteen land use/land cover sectors and 84 ecological regions, and are logically consistent with both historical measurements and SRES characteristics. Results appear to provide a credible solution for connecting regionalized projections of land use and land cover with existing downscaled climate scenarios, under a common set of scenario-based socioeconomic assumptions.

  11. Realtime cerebellum: a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum that runs in realtime using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Igarashi, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in adaptive motor control. Once we are able to build a cerebellar model that runs in realtime, which means that a computer simulation of 1 s in the simulated world completes within 1 s in the real world, the cerebellar model could be used as a realtime adaptive neural controller for physical hardware such as humanoid robots. In this paper, we introduce "Realtime Cerebellum (RC)", a new implementation of our large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum, which was originally built to study cerebellar mechanisms for simultaneous gain and timing control and acted as a general-purpose supervised learning machine of spatiotemporal information known as reservoir computing, on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Owing to the massive parallel computing capability of a GPU, RC runs in realtime, while reproducing qualitatively the same simulation results of the Pavlovian delay eyeblink conditioning with the previous version. RC is adopted as a realtime adaptive controller of a humanoid robot, which is instructed to learn a proper timing to swing a bat to hit a flying ball online. These results suggest that RC provides a means to apply the computational power of the cerebellum as a versatile supervised learning machine towards engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Allocation of thermoelectric units in short term in large scale electric power systems; Asignacion de unidades termoelectricas a corto plazo en sistemas electricos de potencia de gran escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Moya, Isaias

    1987-08-01

    A method is presented to solve the problem of allocation of thermoelectric units in large scale electric power systems. The problem consists in determining which generating units have to be programmed to enter or to leave the operation during the intervals of the planning horizon in such a way that are satisfied at a minimum cost, and in a reliable form, the foretold demand of electric power and the physical and operative restrictions of the power system components. The method is made up of two stages: the first stage finds a feasible initial solution of thermoelectrical units by means of heuristic methods. The second stage produces a solution from a state of feasible initial allocation. The operation cost is reduced applying dynamic programming in subsequent approaches, in such a way that the product of each interaction constitutes the state of allocation of least cost found until that stage. The of search range for the optimal solution is reduced by applying technical of lagrangean relaxation to select solely the units that have the greater potential to reduce the operation cost. The algorithm is validated using a representative system of the Interconnected National System, that consists of 108 thermoelectrical units grouped in 7 groups of generation, for a planning horizon of one week divided into hourly intervals, containing 18,144 discreet variables, 18,144 continuous variables and 39,024 restrictions. In a VAX 11/780 computer the problem is solved in 55 of CPU minutes with an estimation of the 1.02% of sub-optimality that indicates how close it is of the optimal solution. The main contributions of this thesis are within the short term operation planning of the electric power systems which are: (1) The development of a heuristic-mathematical algorithm to solve the problem of allocation of thermoelectric units in large scale electric power systems, in relatively short execution time. The algorithm efficiently conjugates of lagrangean relaxation technical

  13. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  14. Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale -- A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains a digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It...

  15. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueri Dang; Chun-Ta Lai; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew J. Schauer; Jingfeng Xiao; J. William Munger; Clenton Owensby; James R. Ehleringer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling...

  16. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54% of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44% was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90 and reliability ( > 0.90 in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively. The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001. Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

  17. Observed and CMIP5 modeled influence of large-scale circulation on summer precipitation and drought in the South-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jung-Hee; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2017-12-01

    Annual precipitation in the largely agricultural South-Central United States is characterized by a primary wet season in May and June, a mid-summer dry period in July and August, and a second precipitation peak in September and October. Of the 22 CMIP5 global climate models with sufficient output available, 16 are able to reproduce this bimodal distribution (we refer to these as "BM" models), while 6 have trouble simulating the mid-summer dry period, instead producing an extended wet season ("EW" models). In BM models, the timing and amplitude of the mid-summer westward extension of the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH) are realistic, while the magnitude of the Great Plains Lower Level Jet (GPLLJ) tends to be overestimated, particularly in July. In EW models, temporal variations and geophysical locations of the NASH and GPLLJ appear reasonable compared to reanalysis but their magnitudes are too weak to suppress mid-summer precipitation. During warm-season droughts, however, both groups of models reproduce the observed tendency towards a stronger NASH that remains over the region through September, and an intensification and northward extension of the GPLLJ. Similarly, future simulations from both model groups under a +1 to +3 °C transient increase in global mean temperature show decreases in summer precipitation concurrent with an enhanced NASH and an intensified GPLLJ, though models differ regarding the months in which these decreases are projected to occur: early summer in the BM models, and late summer in the EW models. Overall, these results suggest that projected future decreases in summer precipitation over the South-Central region appear to be closely related to anomalous patterns of large-scale circulation already observed and modeled during historical dry years, patterns that are consistently reproduced by CMIP5 models.

  18. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  19. Multiple regression and inverse moments improve the characterization of the spatial scaling behavior of daily streamflows in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, William H.; Over, Thomas M.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial structure of daily streamflow is essential for managing freshwater resources, especially in poorly-gaged regions. Spatial scaling assumptions are common in flood frequency prediction (e.g., index-flood method) and the prediction of continuous streamflow at ungaged sites (e.g. drainage-area ratio), with simple scaling by drainage area being the most common assumption. In this study, scaling analyses of daily streamflow from 173 streamgages in the southeastern US resulted in three important findings. First, the use of only positive integer moment orders, as has been done in most previous studies, captures only the probabilistic and spatial scaling behavior of flows above an exceedance probability near the median; negative moment orders (inverse moments) are needed for lower streamflows. Second, assessing scaling by using drainage area alone is shown to result in a high degree of omitted-variable bias, masking the true spatial scaling behavior. Multiple regression is shown to mitigate this bias, controlling for regional heterogeneity of basin attributes, especially those correlated with drainage area. Previous univariate scaling analyses have neglected the scaling of low-flow events and may have produced biased estimates of the spatial scaling exponent. Third, the multiple regression results show that mean flows scale with an exponent of one, low flows scale with spatial scaling exponents greater than one, and high flows scale with exponents less than one. The relationship between scaling exponents and exceedance probabilities may be a fundamental signature of regional streamflow. This signature may improve our understanding of the physical processes generating streamflow at different exceedance probabilities. 

  20. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90) and reliability ( > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (-0.048 ± 0.350 and -0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from -0.73 to 0.64 and -1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p composta por 103 pacientes, sendo a maioria homens (n = 56; 54%), com média de idade = 52 ± 18 anos. O principal motivo de internação nas UTIs foi insuficiência respiratória (em 44%). Os dois instrumentos apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador (> 0,90) e confiabilidade ( > 0,90) em todos os domínios. Constatou-se um baixo viés interobservador na EMU e no Perme Escore (-0,048 ± 0,350 e -0,06 ± 0,73, respectivamente). Os IC95% para os mesmos instrumentos variaram

  1. Reconstructing Century-Scale Changes in Nitrogen Cycling in Forests Throughout the United States using Tree-Ring δ15N Chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart-Barley, L.; McLauchlan, K. K.; Battles, J. J.; Craine, J. M.; Higuera, P. E.; Mack, M. C.; McNeil, B. E.; Nelson, D. M.; Pederson, N.; Perakis, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, human perturbation of the global nitrogen (N) cycle has been immense with reactive nitrogen supply to ecosystems from anthropogenic sources now exceeding that of natural fixation. The impact of these perturbations on ecosystem nutrient cycling and plant communities is limited by the lack of long-term `baseline' assessments of N cycling prior to anthropogenic influences. Stable N isotope analysis (δ15N) of dendrochronological records have the potential to provide this baseline data, but to date have focused on short term, regional assessments. Here, we address this question with a data set incorporating 311 individual trees and 7,661 δ15N measurements from 50 sites throughout the contiguous United States. These sites represent the diversity of US forest types, climate conditions, N deposition, soil types, and disturbance histories. The chronologies span, on average, the last 162 calendar years, with the oldest chronology dating back to 1572 C.E. Consequently, this study is the first century- and continental-scale assessment of ecosystem N cycling using tree-ring chronologies. When aggregated, the chronologies show a consistent decline from 1825 C.E. to present, indicating declining N availability in US forests, despite global increases in N supply. Environmental factors such as mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), and mean annual nitrogen deposition (Ndep) did not contribute to average site δ15N values; however, MAP and MAT significantly affected temporal trajectories in tree-ring δ15N, with more negative slopes toward present occurring in regions with low MAT and high MAP. Quantity of atmospheric N deposition had no discernible impact on mean δ15N values or on the temporal slope. This lack of response is either because levels of N deposition are too low to produce a discernible response in any meaningful aspects of the N cycle, and/or the δ15N signature of depositional N is similar enough to ecosystem N pools that

  2. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  3. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units; Indice de complejidad en resonancia magnetica: estudio basado en una escala de unidades relativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Cities and Towns of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  5. Desciphering the Temporal and Spatial Relationships of Stratigraphic Units within the Claritas Region; Mars Through a New Preliminary 1:1,000,000-Scale Geological Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Siwabessy, A.; Fewell, N.

    2017-06-01

    The formation of the Tharsis has dominated the tectonic and geologic histories of the western hemisphere of Mars. For this project, we have created a new, preliminary geologic map quadrangle for the Claritas region at 1:1M-scale.

  6. Preparative-scale fractionation by isoelectric trapping under nondenaturing conditions: separation of egg white protein isoforms on a modified Gradiflow unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clemens C; Thomas, Denise; Van Dyk, Derek; Rylatt, Dennis; Sheehan, Marian

    2005-01-01

    pH-biased isoelectric trapping was used to separate proteins from egg white at the preparative level (80 mg), into discrete protein fractions based on isoelectric point. The problems of isoelectric precipitation that are common for the separation of complex protein mixtures under isoelectric conditions were mitigated by using single-component isoelectric buffers within the sample separation compartments. This combined with the mild process conditions of the Gradiflow unit that was modified for binary isoelectric trapping separations, ensured that biological activity was maintained. This was verified by measurement of the trypsin protease inhibitory activity of the extract and separated fractions. Furthermore, the high resolving power of this system under preparative conditions was demonstrated by separation of three protein isoforms using isoelectric membranes with differences of 0.025 pH units from each other.

  7. Experience With A Small Scale All Digital CT And MRI Clinical Service Unit: Present Status Of Kyoto University Hospital Image Database And Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, K.; Komori, M.; Nakano, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Kyoto University Hospital is currently developing a prototype PAC system named KIDS (Kyoto univ. hosp. Image Database and communication System). The present goal of the system is to achieve the totally digital CT and MRI unit in the radiological department. Because KIDS is designed as a first step of a long-range plan towards a hospital wide system, it includes all of the basic functions required in realizing the PAC system, such as communication networks, a long term archiving unit, a laser film printer and image workstations. The system concept, architecture and current status are described in this paper. Our early experience and evaluations with the system in a clinical environment are also mentioned.

  8. Description of chronostratigraphic units preserved as channel deposits and geomorphic processes following a basin-scale disturbance by a wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2017-10-11

    The consequence of a 1996 wildfire disturbance and a subsequent high-intensity summer convective rain storm (about 110 millimeters per hour) was the deposition of a sediment superslug in the Spring Creek basin (26.8 square kilometers) of the Front Range Mountains in Colorado. Spring Creek is a tributary to the South Platte River upstream from Strontia Springs Reservoir, which supplies domestic water for the cities of Denver and Aurora. Changes in a superslug were monitored over the course of 18 years (1996–2014) by repeat surveys at 18 channel cross sections spaced at nearly equal intervals along a 1,500-meter study reach and by a time series of photographs of each cross section. Surveys were not repeated at regular time intervals but after major changes caused by different geomorphic processes. The focus of this long-term study was to understand the evolution and internal alluvial architecture of chronostratigraphic units (defined as the volume of sediment deposited between two successive surveys), and the preservation or storage of these units in the superslug. The data are presented as a series of 18 narratives (one for each cross section) that summarize the changes, illustrate these changes with photographs, and provide a preservation plot showing the amount of each chronostratigraphic unit still remaining in June 2014.The most significant hydrologic change after the wildfire was an exponential decrease in peak discharge of flash floods caused by summer convective rain storms. In response to these hydrologic changes, all 18 locations went through an aggradation phase, an incision phase, and finally a stabilization phase. However, the architecture of the chronostratigraphic units differs from cross section to cross section, and units are characterized by either a laminar, fragmented, or hybrid alluvial architecture. In response to the decrease in peak-flood discharge and the increase in hillslope and riparian vegetation, Spring Creek abandoned many of the

  9. Development of a Cause Analysis Scale (CAS to Determine the Possible Causes of Performance Factors: The Case of Crime Scene Investigation and Identification Units (CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker YAKIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study described the process of developing and validating the cause analysis scale (CAS that can be utilized by governmental organizations to determine possible causes of performance factors. In the first phase of the study, data collected from 315 CSI officers provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale. After exploratory factor analysis, three factors emerged: the workplace, competency, and job value. To confirm the factorial structure of the 25-item CAS, in the second phase, data collected from 1176 CSI officers. The confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the three-factor model was confirmed a good fit with high indices. Followed by the further validation studies, the CAS will be used as a diagnostic tool for researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders to determine performance factors from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  10. Alternative projections of the impacts of private investment on southern forests: a comparison of two large-scale forest sector models of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph Alig; Darius Adams; John Mills; Richard Haynes; Peter Ince; Robert. Moulton

    2001-01-01

    The TAMM/NAPAP/ATLAS/AREACHANGE(TNAA) system and the Forest and Agriculture Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) are two large-scale forestry sector modeling systems that have been employed to analyze the U.S. forest resource situation. The TNAA system of static, spatial equilibrium models has been applied to make SO-year projections of the U.S. forest sector for more...

  11. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  12. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    addition on deposit formation during wood suspension-firing at AVV2 was evaluated. It was revealed that the addition of coal fly ash could significantly influence the ash deposition/shedding behaviors and the deposit properties. The effect was evident at both measurement locations. At the location......The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...

  13. Medical support at a large-scale motorsports mass-gathering event: the inaugural Formula One United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, John P; Cabañas, José G; Bedolla, John; Borgmann, Shirley; Hawley, James; Craven, Kevin; Brown, Carlos; Ziebell, Chris; Olvey, Steve

    2014-08-01

    Formula One returned to the United States on November 16-18, 2012, with the inaugural United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas. Medical preparedness for motorsports events represents a unique challenge due to the potential for a high number of spectators seeking medical attention, and the possibility for a mass-casualty situation. Adequate preparation requires close collaboration across public safety agencies and hospital networks to minimize impact on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) resources. To report the details of preparation for an inaugural mass-gathering motorsports event, and to describe the details of the medical care rendered during the 3-day event. A retrospective analysis was completed utilizing postevent summaries, provided by the medical planning committee, by the Federation Internationale de L'Automobile (FIA), and Austin Travis County Emergency Medical Services (ATCEMS). Patient data were collected from standardized patient care records for descriptive analysis. Medical usage rates (MURs) are reported as a rate of patients per 10,000 (PPTT) participants. A total of 566 patients received medical care over the 3-day period with the on-site care rate of 95%. Overall, MUR was 21.3 PPTT attendees. Most patients had minor problems, and there were no driver injuries or deaths. This mass-gathering motorsport event had a moderate number of patients requiring medical attention. The preparedness plan was implemented successfully with minimal impact on EMS resources and local medical facilities. This medical preparedness plan may serve as a model to other cities preparing for an inaugural motorsports event.

  14. A SPATIAL ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AS SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AT THE NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT SCALE IN SUPPORTING CHILD-FRIENDLY SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufia Andisetyana Putri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem complexity and interest diversity often cause a city not able to accommodate its population’s needs, among which are the children's needs. It has initiated the idea of the child-friendly city, which got a positive response from the Indonesian government, proven by the policy of child-friendly city/ regency. Surakarta is one of the cities having a strong commitment to being a child-friendly city; however, the implementation has not been comprehensive to the level of neighborhood unit. Elementary school is an essential social infrastructure for children that should be available at a neighborhood unit. However, problems are still there, such as the capacity of elementary schools that is below the national standard and also the children's less safety and comfort in accessing the schools. This paper assesses the suitability of elementary school as a social infrastructure in supporting a child-friendly Surakarta based on four criteria, namely, (a the serving capacity of the education facility, (b the safe and comfortable access, (c the completeness of the elementary schools, and (d the prevalent access including for disabled children. The suitability measurement was done by using scoring analysis from the results of the field observation as well as the citizens’ and the children's perceptions. The scoring results have shown that most of the elementary schools in Surakarta are still not suitable with the criteria so that they have not been able to support Surakarta as a child-friendly city.

  15. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally; Mair, Frances S

    2017-02-16

    Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015. The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Although there is receptiveness to digital health

  16. Determining fine-scale use and movement patterns of diving bird species in federal waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb; Berlin, Alicia; Gilbert, Andrew; Gray, Carrie E.; Montevecchi, William; Stenhouse, Iain; Ford, Scott; Olsen, Glenn H.; Fiely, Jonathan; Savoy, Lucas; Goodale, M. Wing; Burke, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development in the United States is projected to expand in the upcoming decades to meet growing energy demands and reduce fossil fuel emissions. There is particular interest in commercial offshore wind development within Federal waters (i.e., > 3 nautical miles from shore) of the mid-Atlantic. In order to understand the potential for adverse effects on marine birds in this area, information on distribution and behavior (e.g., flight pathways, timing, etc.) is required for a broad suite of species. In areas where offshore wind development is likely to occur, such information can be used to identify high use areas during critical life stages, which can inform the siting of offshore facilities. It can also be used to provide baseline data for understanding broad changes in distributions that occur after offshore wind developments are constructed in a specific area.

  17. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  18. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge and Skills Regarding Use of Glasgow Coma Scale in Neurological Assessment of Patients among Nurses Working in Critical Care Units of KLE Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Madhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The brain is the central unit that controls all the functions of our body. The brain cannot function all by its self without the neurons. The proper functioning of the brain and its relationship with the world is known as consciousness. The level of consciousness is the sensitive and reliable indicator of the patient’s neurological status. The alteration in the consciousness helps to determine if there is any damage in the nervous system that can occur even without visible damage to the head. There are numerous tools used to determine level of consciousness. The most common tool used to determine level of consciousness is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS. It was used with ease and helped to standardize clinical observations of the patients with impaired consciousness. A proper neurological assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale is the essential part of nursing care. It is very essential for the nurse to have knowledge and skills about neurological assessment and the Glasgow Coma Scale.Hence the present study to evaluate the effectiveness of Self Instructional Module (SIM on knowledge and skill regarding Glasgow Coma Scale was undertaken. Aim and Objectives: 1]To assess the knowledge and skills regarding the use of Glasgow Coma Scale in neurological assessment of patients among the staff nurses. 2] To determine the effectiveness of the Self Instructional Module on knowledge and skills regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. 3] To find association between the pre test knowledge and skills scores and demographic variables. 4] To find the correlation between the knowledge score sand the skills scores regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. Material and Methods: The study was evaluative in nature. A purposive sampling technique was used for the study. A total of 55 staff nurses working in Critical Care Units of KLES Hospital and MRC,Belgaum were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire and an

  19. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  20. Low-frequency modulation of large-scale weather regimes and impacts on extreme flooding over the Midwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Kushnir, Y.; Lall, U.; Nakamura, J.

    2011-12-01

    The April 2011 flood event in Ohio River Basin and related lower Mississippi River floods was the latest of a set of major such flooding events recorded over the twentieth century (defined in terms of a 10-year return maximum in streamflow). Composite analysis of these events reveals an anomalous northward moisture transport in a "moist conveyor belt" from the Gulf of Mexico and the tropical Atlantic, focused by convergence associated with the "Bermuda High" and the synoptic events impinging on it. The questions of whether the recent 2011 event presages more frequent extreme floods in the future, and the degree of potential climate predictability of such events both require a better understanding of how the frequency and intensity of the synoptic events responsible for the floods vary on interannual to interdecadal timescales, and are thus potentially influenced by large-scale modes of low frequency climate variability. Here we present an analysis of daily weather regimes derived from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis wind data using a K-means analysis for the March-May season, 1961-2011, together with a complementary analysis of daily rainfall station data over the Ohio River Basin for the same period using a hidden Markov model (HMM). Flooding weather regimes will be identified and interpreted, both synoptically in terms of isentropic potential vorticity diagnostics, as well as in terms of low-frequency modulation over time associated with teleconnection patterns such as ENSO, PDO, and the NAO.

  1. Working Fluid Stability in Large-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle-Units Using Siloxanes—Long-Term Experiences and Fluid Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G. Erhart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results in this work show the influence of long-term operation on the decomposition of working fluids in eight different organic rankine cycle (ORC power plants (both heat-led and electricity-led in a range of 900 kW el to 2 MW el . All case study plants are using octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM as a working fluid; the facilities are between six to 12 years old. Detailed analyses, including the fluid distribution throughout the cycle, are conducted on one system. All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS. Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants (and their components, is examined. In most cases, the original working fluid degrades to fractions of siloxanes with a lower boiling point (low boilers and fractions with a higher boiling point (high boilers. As a consequence of the analyses, a new fluid recycling and management system was designed and tested in one case study plant (Case Study #8. Pre-post comparisons of fluid samples prove the effectiveness of the applied methods. The results show that the recovery of used working fluid offers an alternative to the purchase of fresh fluid, since operating costs can be significantly reduced. For large facilities, the prices for new fluid range from € 15 per liter (in 2006 to € 22 per liter (in 2013, which is a large reinvestment, especially in light of filling volumes of 4000 liters to 7000 liters per unit. Using the aforementioned method, a price of € 8 per liter of recovered MDM can be achieved.

  2. Quantifying Flow and Pollutant Loading at Nested-Scales in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed of the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of land use on flow and pollutant loading regimes are poorly understood in mixed-land-use watersheds. Stream water quantity and quality was monitored using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design in a rapidly urbanizing mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Agricultural land use decreased by 18.4% and urban land use increased by 21.6% from the headwaters toward the watershed outlet. Four years of grab samples were collected at each site (n=836 samples per site) and analyzed for suspended sediment, total phosphorus, and inorganic nitrogen species during the study period (2010 - 2013). Daily flow and load duration curves were generated to quantify daily flow and pollutant yields at multiple flow intervals [high flow (0-10%), moist conditions (10-40%), mid-range flows (40-60%), dry conditions (60-90%), and low flow (90-100%)]. Greater than 92.1% of the total pollutant loads were transported during the high flow interval. Less than 0.1% suspended sediments and less than 1.0% TP-P were transported during mid-range conditions. Concentrations of NO3-N exceeding 5.0 mg L-1 were observed during moist conditions when median daily flow was 0.06 m3 s-1 in the headwaters where agricultural land use dominated 57% of the total drainage area (78.9 km2). The eutro-mesotrophic boundary was exceeded by a range of 37.8% (NO3-N in the agricultural headwaters) to 182.2% [(suspended sediment near the watershed outlet where urban land use accounted for 26% of the total drainage area (207.5 km2)] during the high flow interval. The eutro-mesotrophic boundary was exceeded by 56.3% for suspended sediment near the watershed outlet during moist conditions. However, the observed median daily pollutant loading did not exceed the load duration curve below the mid-range flow interval. Results highlight a critical need for pollutant monitoring at multiple flow intervals to capture the variability of pollutant loading in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  3. Large-scale anomalies in sea-surface temperature and air-sea fluxes during wind relaxation events off the United States West Coast in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kayla R.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Gotschalk, Christopher; Lombardo, Kelly

    2017-03-01

    In summertime along the U.S. West Coast, the winds exhibit a three-stage cycle spanning ˜12 days. The prevailing upwelling-favorable winds weaken (relax) or reverse off the Pacific Northwest, then reintensify, then weaken off central California. We study the sea-surface temperature (SST) response to these "northern" and "southern" wind relaxations. (1) Satellite data indicate northern wind relaxations result in SST anomalies O(+1°C) extending ˜2000 km offshore. Surface heat flux reanalyses indicate the warm anomaly is mainly from decreased latent cooling. (2) After the winds reintensify, SST becomes anomalously cold along central and southern California. (3) During the southern wind relaxations, the cold SST anomaly persists but the SST warms with time. This warming is not driven by surface heat flux. The latent cooling is reduced, yet unlike during the northern relaxation, this change is canceled by a decrease in solar radiation due to increased cloudiness. In the region south of Point Conception, reduced southward advection of cold water and increased northward advection of warm water by the coastal countercurrent could explain the warming. Reduced Ekman pumping likely contributes to the warming trend during the southern relaxations, and reduced wind-driven entrainment at the base of the mixed layer likely contributes to the warming during both relaxations. Whether the net surface heat flux is the main driver of SST anomalies during wind relaxation depends on the regional response of clouds. Southern wind relaxations follow episodes of enhanced surface cooling, which may contribute to greater cloudiness during southern than northern wind relaxations.Plain Language SummaryIn summertime along the United States West Coast, the winds exhibit a 3-stage cycle spanning ˜12 days. The prevailing southward winds weaken (relax) or reverse off the Pacific Northwest, then reintensify, then weaken off central and southern California. This leads to variability in the

  4. Methyl tert-butyl ether in ground and surface water of the United States: National-scale relations between MTBE occurrence in surface and ground water and MTBE use in gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground and surface water of the United States is positively related to the content of MTBE in gasoline in various metropolitan areas of the U.S. The frequency of detection of MTBE is generally higher in areas that use larger amounts of MTBE in gasoline. Sampling of surface and ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program between 1993 and 1998 revealed a frequent detection of low concentrations of MTBE. In this analysis, data from several national-scale gasoline surveys are examined and data from one survey that is most extensive in geographic and temporal coverage is used to relate the detection of MTBE in ground and surface water to the volumetric content of MTBE in gasoline.

  5. Large Scale Emergencies: proposing a supportive mobile unit for the management of patients with disabling pain as well for palliation of distressing symptoms related to life-threatening diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Cerbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor, in the year 2009, a series of disasters have occurred. Abruzzi: 293 fatalities and 1500 wounded people. Viareggio: 29 fatalities and 30 wounded people. Messina: 35 fatalities and 40 wounded people. Samoa Island: more than 1000 dead and more than 700 wounded people. These are just some of the tragic events that have occurred in 2009 over a period of eight months. Catastrophes can cause a high number of victims. During large scale emergencies caused by either natural disasters (earthquakes, avalanches, floods, tornados or human acts (conflagrations, terroristic acts, etc the first aid philosophy is to recognize the need for triage so to help foremost the individuals with more severe injuries. In Italy, the so called advanced medical structure (Postazione Medica Avanzata , PMA is assigned to triage and stabilize patients’ vital signs, and then coordinate the transfer of these patients to operational tertiary care centers. The PMA staff includes physicians and nurses. There are two types of PMAs. The PMA level I is a motorized agile health care delivery unit that has the ability to assist at least 10 patients, and operate thanks to one or more vehicles or a transportation system that will allow the PMA unit to travel and move to where it is most needed. The PMA level II is a more complex hospital camp-like structure that is able to provide assistance for 50 patients over a period of 72 hours.

  6. Lithofacies and Diagenetic Controls on Formation-scale Mechanical, Transport, and Sealing Behavior of Caprocks: A Case Study of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, N. A.; Heath, J. E.; Mozley, P.; Dewers, T. A.; Cather, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of caprock sealing behavior for secure CO2 storage is a multiscale endeavor. Sealing behavior arises from the nano-scale capillarity of pore throats, but sealing lithologies alone do not guarantee an effective seal since bypass systems, such as connected, conductive fractures can compromise the integrity of the seal. We apply pore-to-formation-scale data to characterize the multiscale caprock sealing behavior of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration's Phase III project at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. The caprock formations overlie the Morrow sandstone, the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of over one million metric tons of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. Methods include: focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; electron and optical petrography; multi-stress path mechanical testing and constitutive modeling; core examinations of sedimentary structures and fractures; and a noble gas profile for formation-scale transport of the sealing lihologies and the reservoir. We develop relationships between diagenetic characteristics of lithofacies to mechanical and petrophysical measurements of the caprocks. The results are applied as part of a caprock sealing behavior performance assessment. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. The "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a 1:50,000 scale, a new tool for land use planning in Sardinia (Italy) - The pilot area of Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Andrea; Marrone, Vittorio Alessandro; Loddo, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) of Sardinia (Italy), approved in 2006, establishes the directions for any land use planning in Sardinia and requires that pre-existing plans have to be changed to comply with these directives. In the RLP, the soil is specifically considered one of the main landscape components and in the RLP guidelines a soil survey of the whole communal territory is required. Moreover, Land Unit and Land Capability maps are explicitly required, and the adoption of a single regional reference legend for these maps is strongly recommended. The Planning Department of the Regional Administration of Sardinia (RAS) has recently realized the need for specific knowledge and tools to support land use planning according to the RLP rules. Consequently, a new project for the creation of a "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia", at a scale of 1:50,000, was recently initiated in four pilot areas. Two Universities (Cagliari and Sassari) and two regional Agencies (AGRIS and LAORE) are involved in the project, each of them being responsible for one pilot area. In this work we present the map of the pilot area Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia, 46,040 ha). A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution based on landscape features. The work was divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on topography, geology and land cover were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. Digital thematic maps of soil-forming factors (landform, parent material, land cover) were produced to build the first draft of the Land Unit Map. The dataset was developed in a GIS environment, exploiting its potential to produce derived maps by intersections, reclassifications and summarizing themes using GIS functions. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized

  8. Common intensive care scoring systems do not outperform age and glasgow coma scale score in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage treated in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul

    2017-10-25

    Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.

  9. Effectiveness of a laboratory-scale vertical tower static chamber steam pasteurization unit against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria innocua on prerigor beef tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, Deanna; Phebus, Randall; Nutsch, Abbey; Riemann, James; Kastner, Curtis; Marsden, James

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory-scale vertical tower steam pasteurization unit was evaluated to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of different exposure times (0, 3, 6, 12, and 15 s) and steam chamber temperatures (82.2, 87.8, 93.3, and 98.9 degrees C) against pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua) inoculated onto prerigor beef tissue. Samples were collected and microbiologically analyzed immediately before and after steam treatment to quantify the effectiveness of each time-temperature combination. The 0-s exposure at all chamber temperatures (cold water spray only, no steam treatment) was the experimental control and provided 0.05) at all exposure times. At 93.3 degrees C, significant reductions (> 1.0 log CFU/cm2) were observed at exposure times of > or = 6 s, with 15 s providing approximately 1 log cycle greater reductions than 12 s of exposure. The 98.9 degrees C treatment was consistently the most effective, with exposure times of > or = 9 s resulting in >3.5 log CFU/cm2 reductions for all pathogens.

  10. Concepts of scale and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianguo Wu; Harbin Li

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between pattern and process is of great interest in all natural and social sciences, and scale is an integral part of this relationship. It is now well documented that biophysical and socioeconomic patterns and processes operate on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the scale multiplicity and scale dependence of pattern,...

  11. A case study of aerosol data assimilation with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model over the contiguous United States using 3D-Var and optimal interpolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youhua; Pagowski, Mariusz; Chai, Tianfeng; Pan, Li; Lee, Pius; Baker, Barry; Kumar, Rajesh; Delle Monache, Luca; Tong, Daniel; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2017-12-01

    This study applies the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3D-Var assimilation tool originally developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), to improve surface PM2.5 predictions over the contiguous United States (CONUS) by assimilating aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface PM2.5 in version 5.1 of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. An optimal interpolation (OI) method implemented earlier (Tang et al., 2015) for the CMAQ modeling system is also tested for the same period (July 2011) over the same CONUS. Both GSI and OI methods assimilate surface PM2.5 observations at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC, and MODIS AOD at 18:00 UTC. The assimilations of observations using both GSI and OI generally help reduce the prediction biases and improve correlation between model predictions and observations. In the GSI experiments, assimilation of surface PM2.5 (particle matter with diameter assimilation at the 550 nm wavelength. In contrast, we find a stronger OI impact of the MODIS AOD on surface aerosols at 18:00 UTC compared to the surface PM2.5 OI method. GSI produces smoother result and yields overall better correlation coefficient and root mean squared error (RMSE). It should be noted that the 3D-Var and OI methods used here have several big differences besides the data assimilation schemes. For instance, the OI uses relatively big model uncertainties, which helps yield smaller mean biases, but sometimes causes the RMSE to increase. We also examine and discuss the sensitivity of the assimilation experiments' results to the AOD forward operators.

  12. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  13. Sedimentary facies analysis of a high-frequency, small-scale, peritidal carbonate sequence in the Lower Jurassic of the Tripolis carbonate unit (central western Crete, Greece: Long-lasting emergence and fossil laminar dolocretes horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a Lower Jurassic (late Liassic cyclic lagoonal–peritidal stratigraphic unit outcropping in central western Crete (Tripolis unit, which corresponds to the eastern (internal part of the mainland Gavrovo-Tripolis platform, the most significant external platform of the Hellenides. The studied Tripolis carbonate sequence consists of meter-scale, shallowing-upward successions of restricted inner-carbonate platform facies, including cyclically repeated subtidal, intertidal and supratidal facies, that are separated by erosion surfaces (elementary cycles. Each cycle starts with relatively open-marine facies, which are overlain by shallower, more restricted facies (tidal flat progradation. The lithofacies association includes dolomitic intraclastic–peloidal–bioclastic wackestones–packstones/floatstones and grainstones/rudstones dominated by a restricted shallow-marine fauna (bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and seldom benthic foraminifers, representing a shallow subtidal to intertidal, moderately high-energy environment within an inner-platform setting (peritidal environment to restricted lagoon. This lithofacies association has been intermittently subaerially exposed and has undergone diagenetic processes in an inter- or supratidal environment, exhibiting features of vadose diagenesis and pedogenesis due to long-lasting exposure along certain horizons. The peritidal facies are capped by dolocretes controlled by root-activities (laminar dolocretes, peloidal–pisoid dolocretes and massive dolocretes, marking the end of each depositional cycle, and, thus, distinguishing the successive episodes of a prolonged subaerial exposure period and birth of paleosol horizons. Dolocretes consist a diagenetic facies, characterized by several vadose and pedogenic fabrics, including fenestral cavities with geopetal structures, “flower spar” to blocky sparry cement in primary pores, micritic coatings, crudely pelleted walls, alveolar

  14. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  15. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  16. Helicity scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plunian, F [ISTerre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lessinnes, T; Carati, D [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Stepanov, R, E-mail: Franck.Plunian@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-22

    Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen and Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

  17. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  18. Electrosurgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Electrosurgical units (ESUs) have been used for decades for surgical cutting and hemostasis. In this study, we evaluate eight full-featured, high-power, solid-state ESUs from four suppliers. We examined these units--all of which can be used for the vast majority of electrosurgical applications--for performance and safety, human factors design, and maintenance and durability. We found that all the evaluated units performed well in our testing and met our safety requirements; thus, we rated them all Acceptable. We did, however, identify a few noteworthy differences that separated some of the evaluated units from each other, as well as from the majority of units that have been in use for a decade or more. The most important of these factors were (i) the availability of new types of output modes (e.g., non-power-controlled modes, low-voltage modes) that produce differences in surgical effect and (2) the presence of certain characteristics and features (e.g., cutting modes with a broad power curve, programmable settings-memory features) that users indicated were helpful. Although we considered these distinguishing factors to be significant, we recognize that the full clinical impact of these developments has not yet been realized. And the ability of an institution to take advantage of any benefits such developments could offer will depend to a large degree on user technique. In this Evaluation, we also present a comprehensive overview of ESU technology; a Technology Management Guide, in which we offer strategies for managing the risks associated with electrosurgery; and an ESU Purchasing Guide, in which we offer guidance for determining the type and model of ESU that will best meet an institution's needs. In a future issue of Health Devices (scheduled for early 1998), we will be publishing an Evaluation of several moderate-power ESUs. These devices can be used for most of the same applications as the high-power units, but they cost much less.

  19. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  20. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted fro, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  1. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  2. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  3. Scaling Rules!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Scaling is a fundamental issue in any spatially or temporally hierarchical system. Defining domains and identifying the boundaries of the hierarchical levels may be a challenging task. Hierarchical systems may be broadly classified to two categories: compartmental and continuous ones. Examples of compartmental systems include: governments, companies, computerized networks, biological taxonomy and others. In such systems the compartments, and hence the various levels and their constituents are easily delineated. In contrast, in continuous systems, such as geomorphological, ecological or climatological ones, detecting the boundaries of the various levels may be difficult. We propose that in continuous hierarchical systems a transition from one functional scale to another is associated with increased system variance. Crossing from a domain of one scale to the domain of another is associated with a transition or substitution of the dominant drivers operating in the system. Accordingly we suggest that crossing this boundary is characterized by increased variance, or a "variance leap", which stabilizes, until crossing to the next domain or hierarchy level. To assess this we compiled sediment yield data from studies conducted at various spatial scales and from different environments. The studies were partitioned to ones conducted in undisturbed environments, and those conducted in disturbed environments, specifically by wildfires. The studies were conducted in plots as small as 1 m2, and watersheds larger than 555000 ha. Regressing sediment yield against plot size, and incrementally calculating the variance in the systems, enabled us to detect domains where variance values were exceedingly high. We propose that at these domains scale-crossing occurs, and the systems transition from one hierarchical level to another. Moreover, the degree of the "variance leaps" characterizes the degree of connectivity among the scales.

  4. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  5. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  6. Scale problems in reporting landscape pattern at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. O' Neill; C.T. Hunsaker; S.P. Timmins; B.L. Jackson; K.B. Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    1996-01-01

    Remotely sensed data for Southeastern United States (Standard Federal Region 4) are used to examine the scale problems involved in reporting landscape pattern for a large, heterogeneous region. Frequency distribu-tions of landscape indices illustrate problems associated with the grain or resolution of the data. Grain should be 2 to 5 times smaller than the...

  7. Millennial- and orbital-scale climate variability in southeastern United States and in the subtropical Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage 5: evidence from pollen and isotopes in ODP Site 1059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L.; Oppo, D.

    2003-09-01

    We present directly correlative, high-resolution pollen and isotopic data from marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 from a marine core taken on the continental margin off the southeastern United States (31°40'N, 75°24'W, 2985 m). These data provide the first chronostratigraphically controlled pollen data for the last interglacial from this region. Comparison of the pollen- and benthic isotope stratigraphies demonstrate that vegetation and climate development in southeastern United States did not always coincide with global ice volume changes. Deglacial terrestrial climate amelioration, which was nearly synchronous with ice decay, peaked slightly before the ice volume minimum in MIS 5e. Cooling in the latter part of the last interglacial began at C27, prior to ice growth. Vegetation and climate were not stable during MIS 5e. Suborbital climate oscillations persisted throughout MIS 5 both onshore and in the subtropical Atlantic offshore. The largest correlative suborbital oscillations in the Pinus (pine) and Quercus (oak) forests of coastal Georgia and South Carolina and sea surface variability correspond to stadial/interstadials documented in Greenland ice cores; however, coupled oscillations also occur more frequently.

  8. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gemma; Fistein, Elizabeth; Holland, Anthony; Barclay, Matthew; Theimann, Pia; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life. Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016). Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life. There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610). Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%). Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, polder age (OR = 1.09 per decade, ppeople with dementia concerning either the inviolability of life or personal autonomy, whilst protecting those without decision-making capacity.

  9. United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This summary of the people, geography, history, economy, government, defense and foreign affairs of the United Kingdom includes England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The area contains 56.4 million inhabitants, with a negligible growth rate, one of the most densely populated regions in Europe, especially so in the southeast portion of England. The history of British unification, colonial expansion and industrialization is presented. Currently the British colonies are becoming independent members of the Commonwealth, retaining many British institutions, such as the parliamentary system of government. Slower economic growth recently has prompted privatization of previously nationalized industries by the conservative government in power. Britain's only natural resources are coal and North Sea oil and gas; her economy depends on manufacturing. Britain donates significant funds to developing countries, 70% of that going to Commonwealth nations. Her present military emphasis is on Europe and NATO commitments.

  10. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  11. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Clarke

    Full Text Available There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life.Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016. Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life.There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610. Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%. Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, p<0.010, and older age (OR = 1.09 per decade, p<0.010. Negative predictors: living with children (OR = 0.72, p<0.010 and being of "black" race/ethnicity (OR = 0.45, p<0.001.Public opinion was uniform between GB and USA, but markedly heterogeneous. Despite contemporaneous capacitous consent providing an essential legal safeguard in most jurisdictions, there was a high prevalence of preference for "measures to end my life peacefully" when

  12. Impact of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depth and AirNow PM2.5 assimilation on Community Multi-scale Air Quality aerosol predictions over the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Li; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and AirNow PM2.5 measurements are assimilated into the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using an optimal interpolation (OI) method. Over a 30 day test period in July 2011, three assimilation configurations were used in which MODIS AOD and AirNow PM2.5 measurements were first assimilated separately before being assimilated simultaneously. The background error covariance is estimated using both the National Meteorological Center approach and the Hollingsworth-Lönnberg method. The AOD observations from Terra are assimilated at 17Z and the Aqua AOD observations are assimilated at 20Z each day. AirNow PM2.5 measurements are assimilated 4 times a day at 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. Model performances are measured by the daily averaged and domain-averaged biases and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) obtained by comparing the predictions with the AirNow PM2.5 observations that were not assimilated. Either assimilating the MODIS AOD or assimilating the AirNow PM2.5 alone helps PM2.5 predictions over the entire 30 days. The case that assimilates the observations from both sources has the best performance. While the CMAQ PM2.5 results exhibit exaggerated diurnal variations compared to the AirNow measurements, this is not as severe at rural sites as at urban or suburban sites. It was also found that assimilating the total AOD observations is more beneficial for correcting the PM2.5 underestimations than directly assimilating the AirNow PM2.5 measurements every 6 h. While the simple approach of applying the AOD scaling factors uniformly throughout the vertical columns proved effective, it is liable to produce substantial errors. This is demonstrated by a high-AOD event.

  13. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or

  14. FRAGMENTATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITES STATES FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2....

  15. Psychometric Validation of Stress and Compliance Scale for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indonesia, 4Unit of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Practice, Dubai Pharmacy College, Dubai ... Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Malaysia stress scale, Stress and compliance scale for diabetes, ..... counselors working with university students will.

  16. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  17. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  18. The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of the unit in physics in order to clarify the role of the unit in psychometrics. Based on this examination, metrological conventions are used to formulate the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a scale in item response theory. Seminal literature in two lines of item response…

  19. School Size and Unit Costs: International Evidence and Its Usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies of unit costs among schools of differing size in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, and Sudan. Concludes that studies suggest economies of scale in larger schools, but extent of economies and point where schools encounter diseconomies vary widely. Notes that control for quality is problematic. (DHP)

  20. Dual Decomposition for Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Dual decomposition is applied to power balancing of exible thermal storage units. The centralized large-scale problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems and solved locallyby each unit in the Smart Grid. Convergence is achieved by coordinating the units consumption through a negotiation...

  1. A numerical exercise in musical scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, George C.

    1987-03-01

    This paper investigates why the 12-note scale, having equal intervals, seems to be the best representation of scales constructed from purely harmonic intervals. Is it possible that other equal temperament scales with more or less than 12 notes would serve just as well? The investigation is done by displaying the difference between a set of harmonic notes and scales with equal intervals having n notes per octave. The difference is small when n is equal to 12, but also when n equals 19 and 29. The number density of notes per unit frequency intervals is also investigated.

  2. Macro-scale complexity of nano-to micro-scale architecture of olivine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of olivine crystals through an iodine vapour transport mechanism ... Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom; Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, ...

  3. On the Effects of Frequency Scaling over Capacity Scaling in Underwater Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Won-Yong; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    This is the second in a two-part series of papers on information-theoretic capacity scaling laws for an underwater acoustic network. Part II focuses on a dense network scenario, where nodes are deployed in a unit area. By deriving a cut-set upper bound on the capacity scaling, we first show...

  4. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  5. DEVELOPMEMT OF PILOT SCALE DEALUMINATION UNIT OF 2.5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, 2, 3, 4, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA,KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA. ... internally with glass to withstand the corrosive environment of the concentrated sulphuric acid at the reaction temperature ... The purity level of the silica obtained from the reaction was above 95%.

  6. DEVELOPMEMT OF PILOT SCALE DEALUMINATION UNIT OF 2.5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sulphuric acid at the reaction temperature > 140°C. The capacity of the componentsare; acid holding tank 5 liters;metakaolin slurry mixing tank 20 liters, with 70 W capacity motor and the dealuminator 50 liters, which had pressure relief valve, pressure gauge (0-10 bars) and temperature gauge (0 - 300°C) on the cover.

  7. Patient stress in intensive care: comparison between a coronary care unit and a general postoperative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "being bored". For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "not being able to communicate". The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. "Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed" was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, "hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises" and "hearing people talk about you" were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units.

  8. Learner Autonomy Scale: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakci, Senol; Gelisli, Yücel

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a scale named "Learner Autonomy Scale" (LAS) for determining the learner autonomy of the students toward English lesson. The proposal scale, composed of 29 items, was applied to two study groups in Turkey. The group of Exploratory Factor Analysis that aims to determine the psychometric properties…

  9. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  10. Profiles of Loneliness in the Caregiving Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated profiles (a typology) of loneliness within the caregiving unit, which was composed of an older care recipient with functional impairment, a family member, and a home care worker. Overall, 223 complete caregiving units completed the 3-item Revised-University of California San Francisco Loneliness scale. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles of loneliness within the caregiving unit. Subsequently, latent profile membership was used as a between-subject variable to examine correlates of the latent profiles. A 2-profile solution was deemed most plausible. This classification consisted of a large (174 caregiving units; 78%) more favorable profile in terms of loneliness and a smaller (49 caregiving units; 22%) lonelier profile. Profile classification was associated with a variety of quality of life, well-being, social relations, and sociodemographic indicators of the 3 members of the caregiving unit. The study provides a needed recognition of the potential interdependence among members of the caregiving unit and calls for research and practice that go beyond the individual level. The assessment of loneliness at the caregiving unit can provide valuable information about at-risk units as well as about the potential effectiveness of interventions that target the entire caregiving unit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Algebraic Framework for Linear and Morphological Scale-Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.; van den Boomgaard, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a general algebraic construction technique for image scale-spaces. The basic idea is to first downscale the image by some factor using an invertible scaling, then apply an image operator (linear or morphological) at a unit scale, and finally resize the image to its original

  12. Algebraic framework for linear and morphological scale-spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk); R. van den Boomgaard

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a general algebraic construction technique for image scale-spaces. The basic idea is to first downscale the image by some factor using an invertible scaling, then apply an image operator (linear or morphological) at a unit scale, and finally resize the image to its

  13. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  14. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...

  15. Paradoxical Interpretations of Urban Scaling Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scaling laws are powerful summaries of the variations of urban attributes with city size. However, the validity of their universal meaning for cities is hampered by the observation that different scaling regimes can be encountered for the same territory, time and attribute, depending on the criteria used to delineate cities. The aim of this paper is to present new insights concerning this variation, coupled with a sensitivity analysis of urban scaling in France, for several socio-economic and infrastructural attributes from data collected exhaustively at the local level. The sensitivity analysis considers different aggregations of local units for which data are given by the Population Census. We produce a large variety of definitions of cities (approximatively 5000) by aggregating local Census units corresponding to the systematic combination of three definitional criteria: density, commuting flows and population cutoffs. We then measure the magnitude of scaling estimations and their sensitivity to city defin...

  16. Topology optimization of inertia driven dosing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for optimizing inertia driven dosing units, sometimes referred to as eductors, for use in small scale flow applications. The unit is assumed to operate at low to moderate Reynolds numbers and under steady state conditions. By applying topology optimization...... to the Brinkman penalized Navier-Stokes equation the design of the dosing units can be optimized with respect to dosing capability without initial design assumptions. The influence of flow resistance and speed is investigated to assess design performance under varying operating conditions....

  17. Conference on Large Scale Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, D; Pardalos, P

    1994-01-01

    On February 15-17, 1993, a conference on Large Scale Optimization, hosted by the Center for Applied Optimization, was held at the University of Florida. The con­ ference was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Army Research Office, and the University of Florida, with endorsements from SIAM, MPS, ORSA and IMACS. Forty one invited speakers presented papers on mathematical program­ ming and optimal control topics with an emphasis on algorithm development, real world applications and numerical results. Participants from Canada, Japan, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark gave the meeting an important international component. At­ tendees also included representatives from IBM, American Airlines, US Air, United Parcel Serice, AT & T Bell Labs, Thinking Machines, Army High Performance Com­ puting Research Center, and Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the NSF sponsored attendance of thirteen graduate students from universities in the United States and abro...

  18. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  19. Black Pineleaf Scale (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine A. Sheehan; Mario A. Melendez; Shana Westfall

    1998-01-01

    The black pineleaf scale (Nuculaspis californica (Coleman)) belongs to a group of sucking insects called armored scales. Concealed under their protective shells, these scales insert their mouthparts into their hosts, removing sap and, possibly, injecting toxic enzymes secreted in the saliva. Armored scales are important pests of agricultural and ornamental plants;...

  20. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  1. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  2. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  3. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  4. Scale invariance in road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  5. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  6. "Misunderstanding China" Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Area China Education Project, Stanford, CA.

    The short unit, designed around the use of the film "Misunderstanding China", is a secondary level study of American stereotypes of China. The major objective of the unit is to help students understand the origins and causes of stereotypes. While the case in point is China, the unit can be used in any context where stereotyping is…

  7. 1:250,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) was developed in the mid 70s to put into digital form a number of data layers which were of interest...

  8. A Matter of Scale: Multi-Scale Ethnographic Research on Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, cultural anthropologists conducting educational ethnographies in the US have pursued some new methodological approaches. These new approaches can be attributed to advances in cultural theory, evolving norms of research practice, and the affordances of new technologies. In this article, I review three such approaches under the…

  9. Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Dolosse to Destruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1981-01-01

    . The set up and the procedure of the tests, which simulate the impact from rocking of the units and from concrete pieces that are thrown against the units, are designed to make a comparison between the behaviour of units of different sizes possible. The test method is described and proposed as a standard......It is well known that the relative dynamic strength of unreinforced slender concrete units decreases as the size increases. Big units can resist relatively smaller movements than small units. When model tests of cover layer stability are performed the determination of the damage criterion...... that should be adopted must therefore be based on knowledge of the dynamic strength of the corresponding prototype units. With the purpose of establishing a relationship between the size and the dynamic strength of unreinforced units, some full-scale tests to destruction of 1.5 and 5.4 t units were performed...

  10. Economies of scale in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillrank, Paul; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Torkki, Paulus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of scale of surgical units on the productivity of patient processes. Methods: The context, intervention, mechanism, output (CIMO) model of Evaluation research is used. The scale–performance mechanisms are examined through resource...

  11. Lessons Learned on "Scaling Up" of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Having developed a technology-based teaching unit on weather that appeared to work well for middle school students, Nancy Butler Songer and her colleagues at the University of Michigan decided in the late 1990s to take the next logical step in their research program: They scaled up. This article discusses lessons learned by several faculty…

  12. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert V. O' Neill; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Paul M. Schwartz; Iris A. Goodman; Barbara L. Jackson; William S. Baillargeon

    1997-01-01

    Over the past century, technological advances have greatly improved the standard of living in the United States. But these same advances have caused sweeping environmental changes, often unforeseen and potentially irreparable. Ethical stewardship of the environment requires that society monitor and assess environmental changes at the national scale with a view toward...

  13. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  14. Implantação da Escala de Braden em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário Implementación de la Escala de Braden en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital universitario Introduction of the Braden Scale in an intensive care unit of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taline Bavaresco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo, longitudinal, que teve por objetivos implantar a Escala de Braden (EB como instrumento de predição de risco para úlcera por pressão (UP e analisar os resultados do seu uso em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. A amostra foi de 74 pacientes, os dados coletados por instrumento contendo a EB, analisados pela estatística descritiva simples. Encontrou-se 58 (78,37% pacientes com escore Estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, con el objetivo poner en ejecución la Escala de Braden (EB como instrumento de predicción del riesgo de úlceras por presión (UP y analizar los resultados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. La muestra fue de 74 pacientes, los datos recogidos por el instrumento con la EB, analizados por estadística descriptiva simple. Encontramos 58 (78,37% pacientes con una puntuación This is a prospective and longitudinal study which aimed to introduce the Braden Scale (BS as an instrument to predict the risk of pressure ulcer (PU, and to analyze the results of its use in an intensive care unit. The sample was of 74 patients and the data were obtained by an instrument containing BS. Such data were analyzed by a simple descriptive statistic. 58 patients (78.37% had a score < 13 and PU incidence of 25.67%. In 45 patients (60.80%, BS was daily filled in. From these patients, 5 (11.10% developed PU. In 29 patients (39.10%, BS was not daily filled in. From these patients, 14 (48.20% showed PU. Results showed the efficiency of BS, which allowed identifying patients with PU risk. The difficulties of using BS refer to the periodic filling, which shows the need to educate and prepare nurses to use BS in the care of patients.

  15. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Wachtel, Sherry; Mallampalli, Antara; Surani, Salim

    2014-03-01

    Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT). A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses 151 (71%) and RT 62 (29%). On the emotional exhaustion (EE) scale, 54% scored "Moderate" to "High" and 40% scored "Moderate" to "High" on the depersonalization (DP) scale. Notably 40.6% scored "Low" on personal accomplishment (PA) scale. High level of EE, DP and lower PAs were seen among two groups of health care providers in the ICUs.

  16. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  17. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension...

  18. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kellison, R. C.; Russ Lea; Paul Marsh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation t...

  19. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal...

  20. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  1. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  2. Hospital Magnet Status, Unit Work Environment, and Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chenjuan; Park, Shin Hye

    2015-11-01

    To identify how organizational nursing factors at different structural levels (i.e., unit-level work environment and hospital Magnet status) are associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in U.S. acute care hospitals. A cross-sectional observational study used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®. Responses from 33,845 registered nurses (RNs) were used to measure unit work environments. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and there were 1,381 units in 373 hospitals in the United States. Unit work environment was measured by the Practice Environment Scale of Nurse Working Index (PES-NWI). Multilevel logistic regressions were used to estimate the effects of unit work environment and hospital Magnet status on HAPUs. All models were controlled for hospital and unit characteristics when considering clustering of units within hospitals. Magnet hospital units had 21% lower odds of having an HAPU than non-Magnet hospital units (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.98). With one unit increase of the PES-NWI score, units had 29% lower odds of having an HAPU (95% CI, 0.55-0.91). When including both hospital Magnet status and unit work environment in the model, hospital Magnet status no longer had a significant effect on HAPUs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02), whereas the significant effect of unit work environment persisted (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.93). Both hospital and unit environments were significantly associated with HAPUs, and the unit-level work environment can be more influential in reducing HAPUs. Investment in the nurse work environments at both the hospital level and unit level has the potential to reduce HAPUs; and additional to hospital-level initiatives (e.g., Magnet recognition program), efforts targeting on-unit work environments deserve more attention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Madewell; E. Ponce-Garcia; S.E. Martin

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled ?Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF)? (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016) [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The dat...

  4. Scale Space Hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arjan; Florack, L.M.J.; Viergever, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the deep structure of a scale space image. We concentrate on scale space critical points - points with vanishing gradient with respect to both spatial and scale direction. We show that these points are always saddle points. They turn out to be extremely useful, since the

  5. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  6. Visual unit analysis: a descriptive approach to landscape assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....

  7. Why PUB needs scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Hubert, P.; Mouchel, J. M.; Benjoudhi, H.; Tchigurinskaya, Y.; Gaume, E.; Vesseire, J.-M.

    2003-04-01

    Hydrological fields display an extreme variability over a wide range of space-time scales. This variability is beyond the scope of classical mathematical and modeling methods which are forced to combine homogeneity assumptions with scale truncations and subgrid parameterizations. These ad hoc procedures nevertheless lead to complex numerical codes: they are difficult to transfer from one basin to another one, or even to verify with data at a different scale. Tuning the model parameters is hazardous: “predictions” are often reduced to fitting existing observations and are in any case essentially limited to the narrow range of space-time scales over which the parameters have been estimated. In contrast, in recent scaling approaches heterogeneity and uncertainty at all scales are no longer obstacles. The variability is viewed as a consequence of a scale symmetry which must first be elucidated and then exploited: small scale homogeneity assumptions are replaced by small scale heterogeneity assumptions which are verified from data covering wide ranges of scale. PUB provides an unprecedented opportunity not only to test scaling concepts and techniques, but also to development them further. Indeed, PUB can be restated in the following manner: given a partial knowledge on the input (atmospheric states, dynamics and fluxes) and of the media (basin) over a given range of scales, what can we predict for the output (steamflow and water quality) and over which range of scales? We illustrate this state of the art with examples taken from various projects involving precipitation and stream flow collectively spanning the range of scales from centimeters to planetary scales in space, from seconds to tens of years in time.

  8. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, A N; Ponce-Garcia, E; Martin, S E

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF)" (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016) [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25), Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10), Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24), and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R).

  9. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Madewell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF” (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016 [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25, Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10, Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24, and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R.

  10. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  11. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  12. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  13. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  14. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  15. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  16. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  17. Developing a Modular Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jill

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop presentation that attempted to combine the theory and philosophy behind the production of modular units with the practical considerations faced by a teacher or material developer engaged in creating such a unit for himself. The workshop grew out of a project which developed materials for adult ESL. (Author/MES)

  18. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...... likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third...

  19. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  20. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  1. Unit-based incident reporting and root cause analysis: variation at three hospital unit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Merten, H.; Zwaan, L.; Lubberding, S.; Timmermans, D.; Smits, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To minimise adverse events in healthcare, various large-scale incident reporting and learning systems have been developed worldwide. Nevertheless, learning from patient safety incidents is going slowly. Local, unit-based reporting systems can help to get faster and more detailed insight

  2. Unit-based incident reporting and root cause analysis: variation at three hospital unit types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Merten, H.; Lubberding, S.; Zwaan, L.; Timmermans, D.; Smits, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To minimise adverse events in healthcare, various large-scale incident reporting and learning systems have been developed worldwide. Nevertheless, learning from patient safety incidents is going slowly. Local, unit-based reporting systems can help to get faster and more

  3. Cranfield situation awareness scale :

    OpenAIRE

    Dennehy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Training to enhance situation awareness depends upon having satisfactory quantitative methods for measuring situation awareness. Until the development of the Cranfield-SAS, there was no direct subjective rating scale to measure the situation awareness of student (ab initio) civil pilots (see appendix 4 for an overview of the measurement guidelines for an overview of the measurement guidelines for scale development). The development of the scale was part requirement for a Ph.D. at Cranfield Un...

  4. Considering Time-Scale Requirements for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    geocentric reference frame with the SI second realized on the rotating geoid as the scale unit. It is a continuous atomic time scale that was...of dating in a specific reference system and is to be used as the time basis in the theory of motion in the system. In metrology it can be argued...the B8lycentric and Geocentric Celestial Reference Systems, two time scales, Barycentric Coor- dinate Time (TCB) and Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG

  5. The Unit of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Boeck, William L.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    For the past century, scientists have made quantitative measurements of lightning discharges. In the process, they refined the definition of a lightning unit, or basic quantum of lightning, in order to base it on observable parameters. Although many components of a lightning discharge have been identified, lightning usually occur in groups of discharges or pulses that, although complex, can be organized into units of flashes. This unit definition is based mainly on measurements of lightning from electric field, video, and ground flash lightning locating networks. More recent instrumentation with various combinations of high sensitivity, high temporal, or high spatial resolution often measure signals produced by lightning that do not cleanly divide into flashes. The data from these systems indicate the need or a more fundamental unit for lightning. Such a unit would be of benefit for both basic understanding of lightning and comparing lightning information between instruments. Without a common lightning unit definition, intercomparisons are difficult. For an example, the Lightning Detection And Ranging system (LDAR) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have detected ,flash' rates as high as 600 per minute while analysis based on the Advanced Ground Based Field Mill network (AGBFM) detect only 33 "flashes" per minute in the same area and time periods. The satellite based Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) sometimes see single "flashes" that last longer than 10 seconds. Such long duration flashes are not found in electric field records or ground strike location system data sets. The unit of lightning should be based on the fundamental components of the lightning discharge. This should make the unit as generally applicable as possible. For example, studies of NO(x) production by lightning depend on parameters of the individual lightning channels and not the summary flash characteristics. For such studies, the best unit of lightning may be

  6. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  7. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  8. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  9. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  10. The sense and non-sense of plot-scale, catchment-scale, continental-scale and global-scale hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Heistermann, Maik; Francke, Till

    2017-04-01

    each other for all hydrological and associated processes; (-) the model domain and its results are not representative regions for which water resources management decisions are to be taken. (-) both state condition and boundary flux data are hardly available for the whole model domain. Water management data and discharge data from remote regions are particular incomplete / unavailable for this scale. This undermines the model's verifiability; (-) since process formulation and resulting modelling reliability at this scale is very limited, such models can hardly show any explanatory skills or prognostic power; (-) since both the entire model domain and the spatial sub-units cover large areas, model results represent values averaged over at least the spatial sub-unit's extent. In many cases, the applied time scale implies a long-term averaging in time, too. We emphasize the importance to be aware of the above mentioned strengths and weaknesses of those scale-specific models. (Many of the) results of the current global model studies do not reflect such limitations. In particular, we consider the averaging over large model entities in space and/or time inadequate. Many hydrological processes are of a non-linear nature, including threshold-type behaviour. Such features cannot be reflected by such large scale entities. The model results therefore can be of little or no use for water resources decisions and/or even misleading for public debates or decision making. Some rather newly developed sustainability concepts, e.g. "Planetary Boundaries" in which humanity may "continue to develop and thrive for generations to come" are based on such global-scale approaches and models. However, many of the major problems regarding sustainability on Earth, e.g. water scarcity, do not exhibit on a global but on a regional scale. While on a global scale water might look like being available in sufficient quantity and quality, there are many regions where water problems already have very

  11. The Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    Observable quantities in cosmology are dimensionless, and therefore independent of the units in which they are measured. This is true of all physical quantities associated with the primordial perturbations that source cosmic microwave background anisotropies such as their amplitude and spectral properties. However, if one were to try and infer an absolute energy scale for inflation-- a priori, one of the more immediate corollaries of detecting primordial tensor modes-- one necessarily makes reference to a particular choice of units, the natural choice for which is Planck units. In this note, we discuss various aspects of how inferring the energy scale of inflation is complicated by the fact that the effective strength of gravity as seen by inflationary quanta necessarily differs from that seen by gravitational experiments at presently accessible scales. The uncertainty in the former relative to the latter has to do with the unknown spectrum of universally coupled particles between laboratory scales and the pu...

  12. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  13. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  14. UnitedHealth Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  15. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  16. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J [Virginia Beach, VA

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  17. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  18. Graphics Processor Units (GPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will include information about Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) technology, NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) tasks, The test setup, test parameter considerations, lessons learned, collaborations, a roadmap, NEPP partners, results to date, and future plans.

  19. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  20. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and...

  1. Novel Reading Maturity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol

    Designed to assess the maturity level of the novels which students read, the Novel Reading Maturity Scale (NRMS) is based on the notion that fiction of high quality is characterized by a number of themes or topics. The list of 22 topics in NRMS came from a survey of several guides on books for teenagers. To explore the reliability of the scale,…

  2. The career distress scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creed, Peter; Hood, Michelle; Praskova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Career distress is a common and painful outcome of many negative career experiences, such as career indecision, career compromise, and discovering career barriers. However, there are very few scales devised to assess career distress, and the two existing scales identified have psychometric weakne...

  3. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kleiber scaling in the previous paragraph has the growth in Q kept smaller in spite of the high power dependence on R in eq. (1). 4. Conclusions. The arguments that have been advanced so far by pre- vious authors swing to extremes at either end. Thus, the rich variety and diversity in biology, including of scaling exponents ...

  4. The RRR Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K. Eleanor

    The School Readiness Rating Scale was developed to help teachers organize their suggestions to parents about how parents can help their children prepare for beginning reading experiences. The scale surveys five important aspects of readiness for beginning reading: visual perception, visual motor perception, auditory perception and discrimination,…

  5. Genome-Scale Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Machado, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An introduction to genome-scale models, how to build and use them, will be given in this chapter. Genome-scale models have become an important part of systems biology and metabolic engineering, and are increasingly used in research, both in academica and in industry, both for modeling chemical...

  6. The Fatherhood Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the initial validation of the Fatherhood Scale (FS), a 64-item instrument designed to measure the type of relationship a male adult had with his father while growing up. The FS was validated using a convenience sample of 311 males. The assessment packet contained a demographic form, the Conflict Tactics Scale (2),…

  7. PLSS Townships and Sections, The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey System for Louisiana as depicted on the USGS 1:24,000 DRGs., Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2004. The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey...

  8. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dong-shan; Gao, Yu-ping; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2017-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observations are not evenly sampled, and the internals between two data points range from several hours to more than half a month. Further more, these data sets are sparse. All this makes it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, a cubic spline interpolation is used to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points uniform. Then, the Vondrak filter is employed to smooth the data set, and get rid of the high-frequency noises, and finally the weighted average method is adopted to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The newly released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set is used to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set includes the 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars observed by the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and the 305-meter Arecibo telescope. It is found that the algorithm used in this paper can reduce effectively the influence caused by the noises in pulsar timing residuals, and improve the long-term stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale. Results indicate that the long-term (> 1 yr) stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale is better than 3.4 × 10-15.

  9. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  10. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  11. A framework for scaling up health interventions: lessons from large-scale improvement initiatives in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Pierre M; Reid, Amy; Schall, Marie W

    2016-01-29

    introduction and testing of the intervention that will be taken to full scale; (2) Develop the Scalable Unit, which is an early testing phase; (3) Test of Scale-up, which then tests the intervention in a variety of settings that are likely to represent different contexts that will be encountered at full scale; and (4) Go to Full Scale, which unfolds rapidly to enable a larger number of sites or divisions to adopt and/or replicate the intervention. Our framework echoes, amplifies, and systematizes the three dominant themes that occur to varying extents in a number of existing scale-up frameworks. We call out the crucial importance of defining a scalable unit of organization. If a scalable unit can be defined, and successful results achieved by implementing an intervention in this unit without major addition of resources, it is more likely that the intervention can be fully and rapidly scaled. When tying this framework to quality improvement (QI) methods, we describe a range of methodological options that can be applied to each of the four steps in the framework's sequence.

  12. Large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    White, S D M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. Recent observational surveys have made substantial progress in quantifying the structure of the Universe on large scales. Galaxy density and galaxy velocity fields show deviations from the predictions of a homogeneous and isotropic world model on scales approaching one percent of the current hori— zon scale. A comparison of the amplitudes in density and in velocity provides the first direct dynamical evidence in favour of a high mean density similar to that required for closure. The fluctuations observed on these scales have the amplitude predicted by the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model when this model is normalised to agree with the microwave background fluc- tuations measured on much larger scales by the COBE satellite. However, a CDM model with this amplitude appears inconsistent with observational data on smaller scales. In addition it predicts a scale dependence of fluctua— tion amplitude which disagrees with that observed for galaxies in the APM survey of two million faint galaxi...

  13. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  14. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Small-scale Biorefining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Ree, van R.

    2016-01-01

    One promising way to accelerate the market implementation of integrated biorefineries is to promote small (regional) biorefinery initiatives. Small-scale biorefineries require relatively low initial investments, and therefore are often lacking the financing problems that larger facilities face. They

  16. Studie-Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koustrup, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Denne artikel sætter fokus på tilrettelæggelse af klinisk undervisning og læring, hvor et nyere begreb - studie-units er opstået inden for de sidste par år. Studie-unit er en organisationsform, som sygeplejen helt sikkert vil se en del mere til de næste par år frem i tiden. Artiklen inddrager den...... tyske didaktiker og filosof Wolfgang Klafki i diskussionen om indføring af studie-units. Klafki er valgt, fordi han indgående forholder sig til social læring, og finder læring i fællesskab med ligestillede nødvendigt for at dannelsen i et fag skal kunne lykkes...

  17. Scaling and Hierarchy in Urban Economies

    CERN Document Server

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2011-01-01

    In several recent publications, Bettencourt, West and collaborators claim that properties of cities such as gross economic production, personal income, numbers of patents filed, number of crimes committed, etc., show super-linear power-scaling with total population, while measures of resource use show sub-linear power-law scaling. Re-analysis of the gross economic production and personal income for cities in the United States, however, shows that the data cannot distinguish between power laws and other functional forms, including logarithmic growth, and that size predicts relatively little of the variation between cities. The striking appearance of scaling in previous work is largely artifact of using extensive quantities (city-wide totals) rather than intensive ones (per-capita rates). The remaining dependence of productivity on city size is explained by concentration of specialist service industries, with high value-added per worker, in larger cities, in accordance with the long-standing economic notion of ...

  18. Coma scales: a historical review

    OpenAIRE

    Bordini, Ana Luisa; Luiz, Thiago F.; Fernandes, Maurício; Arruda, Walter O.; Teive, Hélio A.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Out...

  19. Meteorite Unit Models for Structural Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Carlozzi, Alexander A.; Karajeh, Zaid S.; Bryson, Kathryn L.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the threat posed by an asteroid entering Earth’s atmosphere, one must predict if, when, and how it fragments during entry. A comprehensive understanding of the asteroid material properties is needed to achieve this objective. At present, the meteorite material found on earth are the only objects from an entering asteroid that can be used as representative material and be tested inside a laboratory. Due to complex composition, it is challenging and expensive to obtain reliable material properties by means of laboratory test for a family of meteorites. In order to circumvent this challenge, meteorite unit models are developed to determine the effective material properties including Young’s modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and Poisson’s ratio, that in turn would help deduce the properties of asteroids. The meteorite unit model is a representative volume that accounts for diverse minerals, porosity, cracks and matrix composition.The Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio in the meteorite units are calculated by performing several hundreds of Monte Carlo simulations by randomly distributing the various phases inside these units. Once these values are obtained, cracks are introduced in these units. The size, orientation and distribution of cracks are derived by CT-scans and visual scans of various meteorites. Subsequently, simulations are performed to attain stress-strain relations, strength and effective modulus values in the presence of these cracks. The meteorite unit models are presented for H, L and LL ordinary chondrites, as well as for terrestrial basalt. In the case of the latter, data from the simulations is compared with experimental data to validate the methodology. These meteorite unit models will be subsequently used in fragmentation modeling of full scale asteroids.

  20. Mechanical catalysis on the centimetre scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Audretsch, Christof; Nagy, Zoltán; Füchslin, Rudolf M; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2015-03-06

    Enzymes play important roles in catalysing biochemical transaction paths, acting as logical machines through the morphology of the processes. A key challenge in elucidating the nature of these systems, and for engineering manufacturing methods inspired by biochemical reactions, is to attain a comprehensive understanding of the stereochemical ground rules of enzymatic reactions. Here, we present a model of catalysis that can be performed magnetically by centimetre-sized passive floating units. The designed system, which is equipped with permanent magnets only, passively obeys the local causalities imposed by magnetic interactions, albeit it shows a spatial behaviour and an energy profile analogous to those of biochemical enzymes. In this process, the enzyme units trigger physical conformation changes of the target by levelling out the magnetic potential barrier (activation potential) to a funnel type and, thus, induce cascading conformation changes of the targeted substrate units reacting in parallel. The inhibitor units, conversely, suppress such changes by increasing the potential. Because the model is purely mechanical and established on a physics basis in the absence of turbulence, each performance can be explained by the morphology of the unit, extending the definition of catalysis to systems of alternative scales.

  1. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  2. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  3. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  4. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  5. A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP. This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

  6. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  7. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  8. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...

  9. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  10. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  11. Urban Scaling in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  12. Differences in Pediatric Pain Management by Unit Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Kelsea; Olds, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in pediatric pain management by unit type in hospitals across the United States. The aims were to (a) compare unit-type rates of assessment, intervention, and reassessment (AIR), and (b) describe differences in assessment tools and intervention use by unit type. The study used a cross-sectional design. A secondary analysis of 2013 data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI®) pain AIR cycle indicator was conducted. The sample included 984 pediatric units in 390 hospitals. Data were gathered via retrospective chart review on the pain assessment tool used, presence of pain, interventions, and reassessment. Descriptive statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test were conducted. Post-hoc analyses included the Wilcoxon-rank sum test with Bonferroni correction. Across all units the mean unit-level percentage of patients assessed for pain was 99.6%. Of those patients assessed, surgical units had the highest average unit-level percentage of patients with pain, while Level 4 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) had the lowest. The most commonly used assessment tool among all units was the Faces, Legs, Activity, Crying, and Consolability (FLACC) Scale. The Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) specifically developed for infants were more commonly used across NICU unit types. The mean unit-level percentage of patients with pain receiving an intervention was 89.4%, and reassessment was 83.6%. Overall, pharmacologic methods were the most common pain intervention, while music was the least common. Assessments were performed routinely, yet interventions and reassessments were not. Pain AIR cycle completion varied by unit type. Pain was also widely present across many unit types, and pharmacologic methods were most frequently used. Frontline nurses are instrumental to pain management and have the ability to improve patient

  13. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  14. Motivations for Choosing Teaching as a Career: An International Comparison Using the FIT-Choice Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.; Klusmann, Uta; Kunter, Mareike; Beyer, Beate; Trautwein, Ulrich; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Motivations for preservice teachers' choice of teaching as a career were investigated using the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale (FIT-Choice scale; Watt & Richardson, 2007). This scale was initially developed and validated in the Australian context; our study applied it across international samples from Australia, the United States,…

  15. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  16. SI - Small Scale Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Marie; Kallin Westin, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Not being part of a larger SI-organisation has both advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we try to illustrate the advantages of doing SI small scale. In a large scale SI-organisation the supervisors are often not teachers themselves and/or not familiar with the practices of a specific course. To have teaching staff supervising a SIproject completely focused on one course is favourable in many ways. The decision to introduce SI was taken by the department of Computing Science to support...

  17. Inertial Measurement Units IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Analog Devices, Motorola Japan: Denso Gyroscopes Gyroscopes are inertial sensors used to measure the rate of rotation (measured in degree/s) of a...include: Europe: Bosch, BAE SYSTEMS USA: Systron Donner Japan: Denso , Sumitomo, Panasonic, Murata RTO-EN-AVT-105 4 - 9 Inertial Measurement Units...processing) • Micromachines: Japanese for miniaturised factories / robots • Also: MOEMS / MEMtronics / ASIMS and µSystems 4(A)-13 Microelectronics

  18. Some unit square integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Sampedro, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In this article we prove some identities which allow us to evaluate some multiple unit square integrals. In our examples we will give the value of some double and triple integrals. Then, we prove several classical integral formulas with the help of these identities and we present others that seems to be new. Finally we get double integrals for classical constants and different expression for two Ramanujan's integral formulas.

  19. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icabone, Dona G.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a general assessment of personal and social sufficiency of individuals from birth through adulthood to determine areas of strength and weakness. The instrument assesses communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  20. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  1. Build an Interplanetary Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students use a bathroom scale and a long board to see how their weight changes on other planets and the moon. Materials list, procedures, tables of planet radii, comparative values, and gravitational ratios are provided. (DDR)

  2. An Estimated Income Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Everard

    The decision to develop an estimated income scale arose from a wish to prove or disprove the statement that colleges like Brown University may be headed toward a situation where the student body will consist of the rich and the poor, the traditional group of middle class having been eliminated. As the research proceeded, it became evident that an…

  3. Sawtooth Period Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Hastie, R J; Zocco, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the role of neoclassical resistivity and local magnetic shear in the prediction of the sawtooth period in tokamaks. When collisional detrapping of electrons is considered the value of the safety factor on axis, $q(t,0)$, evolves on a new time scale, $\\tau_{*}=\\tau_{\\eta}\

  4. Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.

    1977-01-01

    A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.

  5. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  6. Cross-flow Ultrafiltration Scaling Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M

    2006-04-10

    One legacy of the nuclear age is radioactive waste and it must be stabilized to be stored in a safe manner. An important part of the stabilization process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. The performance of this technology with the wastes to be treated was unknown and, therefore, had to be obtained. However, before beginning a filter study the question of experimental scale had to be addressed. Of course, carrying out experiments using full-size equipment is always ideal, but rarely practical when dealing with plant size processes. Flow loops that will handle millions of liters of slurries, which are either highly caustic or acidic, with flow rates of 10,000 lpm make full-scale tests prohibitively expensive. Moreover, when the slurries happen to be radioactive such work is also very dangerous. All of these considerations lend themselves to investigations at smaller scales and in many situations can be treated with computational analyses. Unfortunately, as scale is reduced it becomes harder to provide prototypic results and the two and three phase multi-component mixtures challenge accurate computational results. To obtain accurate and representative filter results the use of two scales were chosen: (1) Small-scale--would allow the testing with actual radioactive waste samples and compare results with simulated wastes that were not radioactive. For this scale the feed tank held 6 liters of waste and it had a single cross-flow filter tube 0.61 m long. (2) Pilot-scale--would be restricted to use simulated non-radioactive wastes. At this larger scale the feed tank held 120 liters of waste and the filter unit was prototypic to the planned plant facility in pore size (0.1 micron), length (2.29 m), diameter (0.0127 m inside and 0.0159 m outside diameter), and being multi-tubed. The small-scale apparatus is convenient, easy to use, and can test both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes; therefore, there is a

  7. Constant Returns to Scale: Can the Neoclassical Economy Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M. Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Constant returns to scale (CRS) is one of the corner-stones of the competitive general equilibrium paradigm of neoclassical economics. This note argues that the equilibrium solutions of this paradigm are not compatible with CRS. CRS implies that all producers (whatever their scale of production) can produce goods at the same unit costs: and this makes self-production a feasible alternative to market production. In the event, an infinite number of equilibria become possible with a mix of marke...

  8. Characterising physical habitat at the reach scale: River Tern, Shropshire

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Characterisation of the complex geomorphological and ecological structure of river channels into workable units of instream habitat is a key step in enabling the assessment of habitat for river management purposes. The research presented in this thesis uses a range of methodological approaches at a variety of spatial scales in order to improve the conceptual basis of habitat characterisation at the reach and sub-reach scale. An appraisal of published works is used in conjunction with an ext...

  9. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit...... - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  10. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  11. Beta-diversity of ectoparasites at two spatial scales: nested hierarchy, geography and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; van der Mescht, Luther; Stanko, Michal; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-06-01

    Beta-diversity of biological communities can be decomposed into (a) dissimilarity of communities among units of finer scale within units of broader scale and (b) dissimilarity of communities among units of broader scale. We investigated compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of compound communities of fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small Palearctic mammals in a nested hierarchy at two spatial scales: (a) continental scale (across the Palearctic) and (b) regional scale (across sites within Slovakia). At each scale, we analyzed beta-diversity among smaller units within larger units and among larger units with partitioning based on either geography or ecology. We asked (a) whether compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of flea and mite assemblages are scale dependent; (b) how geographical (partitioning of sites according to geographic position) or ecological (partitioning of sites according to habitat type) characteristics affect phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional components of dissimilarity of ectoparasite assemblages and (c) whether assemblages of fleas and gamasid mites differ in their degree of dissimilarity, all else being equal. We found that compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic, or functional beta-diversity was greater on a continental rather than a regional scale. Compositional and phylogenetic/taxonomic components of beta-diversity were greater among larger units than among smaller units within larger units, whereas functional beta-diversity did not exhibit any consistent trend regarding site partitioning. Geographic partitioning resulted in higher values of beta-diversity of ectoparasites than ecological partitioning. Compositional and phylogenetic components of beta-diversity were higher in fleas than mites but the opposite was true for functional beta-diversity in some, but not all, traits.

  12. Scaling biodiversity responses to hydrological regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Heino, Jani; Ryder, Darren S; Chessman, Bruce C; Growns, Ivor O; Thompson, Ross M; Gido, Keith B

    2017-11-08

    Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity. However, a major gap remains in conceptualising how the hydrological regime determines patterns in biodiversity's multiple spatial components and facets (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic). We synthesised primary evidence of freshwater biodiversity responses to natural hydrological regimes to determine how distinct ecohydrological mechanisms affect freshwater biodiversity at local, landscape and regional spatial scales. Hydrological connectivity influences local and landscape biodiversity, yet responses vary depending on spatial scale. Biodiversity at local scales is generally positively associated with increasing connectivity whereas landscape-scale biodiversity is greater with increasing fragmentation among locations. The effects of hydrological disturbance on freshwater biodiversity are variable at separate spatial scales and depend on disturbance frequency and history and organism characteristics. The role of hydrology in determining habitat for freshwater biodiversity also depends on spatial scaling. At local scales, persistence, stability and size of habitat each contribute to patterns of freshwater biodiversity yet the responses are variable across the organism groups that constitute overall freshwater biodiversity. We present a conceptual model to unite the effects of different ecohydrological mechanisms on freshwater biodiversity across spatial scales, and develop four principles for applying a multi-scaled understanding of

  13. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  14. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well......-established that gradient effects play a role at the micron scale, and the objective of this study is to demonstrate how strain gradient hardening affects the rolling process. Specifically, the paper addresses how the applied roll torque, roll forces, and the contact conditions are modified by strain gradient plasticity...... the power input to the process. The contact traction is also affected, particularly for sheet thicknesses on the order of 10 μm and below. The influences of the length parameter and the friction coefficient are emphasized, and the results are presented for multiple sheet reductions and roll sizes....

  15. Dynamo Scaling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Kyle; Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides a brief look at dynamo scaling relationships for the degree of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies. Two simple models are examined, where one that assumes magnetostrophy and another that includes the effects of inertia. These models are then compared to a suite of convective dynamo simulations of the convective core of a main-sequence B-type star and applied to its later evolutionary stages.

  16. SCALE FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sujitha Mary; Alaguraj, V.; Krishnaswamy, S

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is an inherent property of proteins. Both ordered and disordered proteins have a tendency to aggregate. Protein folding itself starts from the partially folded intermediates. The formation of native structures from these intermediates may be called as constructive aggregation. We describe the design of an intrinsic aggregation scale and its efficiency in finding hot-spots for constructive aggregation. In this paper, we are proposing a new aspect of aggregation, wherein...

  17. Indian scales and inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

  18. Off the scale: a new species of fish-scale gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae:Geckolepis) with exceptionally large scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Mark D; Daza, Juan D; Köhler, Jörn; Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The gecko genus Geckolepis , endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepis sp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. The new species has the largest known body scales of any gecko (both relatively and absolutely), which come off with exceptional ease. We provide a detailed description of the skeleton of the genus Geckolepis based on micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) analysis of the new species, the holotype of G. maculata , the recently resurrected G. humbloti , and a specimen belonging to an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) recently suggested to represent G. maculata . Geckolepis is characterized by highly mineralized, imbricated scales, paired frontals, and unfused subolfactory processes of the frontals, among other features. We identify diagnostic characters in the osteology of these geckos that help define our new species and show that the OTU assigned to G. maculata is probably not conspecific with it, leaving the taxonomic identity of this species unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the extremely enlarged scales of G. megalepis in the context of an anti-predator defence mechanism, and the future of Geckolepis taxonomy.

  19. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  20. Scale effects in necking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacGillivray H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically similar specimens spanning a scale range of 100:1 are tested quasi-statically to failure. Images of neck development are acquired using optical means for large specimens, and in-situ scanning electron microscope testing for small specimens, to examine the dependence of neck geometry on a broad range of specimen sizes. Size effects typically arise when the smallest specimen dimension is on the order of a microstructural length (e.g. grain size, dislocation mean free path, etc., or in the presence of significant plastic strain gradients, which increase the density of geometrically necessary dislocations. This study was carried out for the purpose of investigating scale dependence in models used for predicting dynamic deformation and damage to very high strains for ballistic impact applications, such as the Goldthorpe path-dependent failure model, which includes temperature and strain-rate dependence but does not account for specimen size or a dependence on microstructural lengths. Although the experiments show that neck geometry does not exhibit a clear dependence on specimen size across the range of length scales tested, the statistical variation due to microstructural variations was found to increase monotonically with decreasing size, becoming significant for the smallest (0.35 mm diameter size, allowing a limit to be identified for reliable model calibration.

  1. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  2. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  3. Colloquium: Large scale simulations on GPU clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Bisson, Mauro; Fatica, Massimiliano

    2015-06-01

    Graphics processing units (GPU) are currently used as a cost-effective platform for computer simulations and big-data processing. Large scale applications require that multiple GPUs work together but the efficiency obtained with cluster of GPUs is, at times, sub-optimal because the GPU features are not exploited at their best. We describe how it is possible to achieve an excellent efficiency for applications in statistical mechanics, particle dynamics and networks analysis by using suitable memory access patterns and mechanisms like CUDA streams, profiling tools, etc. Similar concepts and techniques may be applied also to other problems like the solution of Partial Differential Equations.

  4. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry... Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive Impact...

  5. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  6. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  7. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  8. Air handling units for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  9. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  10. Scale Effects in Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Reactors for Trickle-Flow Processes Les conséquences de l'extrapolation appliquée aux procédés à écoulement ruisselant réalisés en laboratoire et dans les réacteurs des unités-pilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie S. T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and development studies in a laboratory are necessarily conducted on a scale which is orders of magnitude smaller than that in commercial practice. In the case of the development and commercialization of an unprecedented novel process technology, available laboratory results have to be translated into envisaged technology on a commercial scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-up. However, in many circumstances the commercial technology is more or less defined as far as type of reactor is concerned and laboratory studies are concerned with the generation of predictive information on the behaviour of new catalysts, alternative feedstocks, etc. , in such a reactor. In many cases the complexity of feed composition and reaction kinetics preclude the prediction to be made on the basis of a combination of fundamental kinetic data and computer models, so that there is no other option than to simulate the commercial reactor on a laboratory scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-down. From the point of view of R & D Defficiency, the scale of the laboratory experiments should be as small as possible without detracting from the meaningfulness of the results. In the present paper some problems in the scaling-down of a trickle-flow reactor as applied in hydrotreating processes to kinetically equivalent laboratory reactors of different sizes will be discussed. Two main aspects relating to inequalities in fluid dynamics resulting from the differences in scale will be treated in more detail, viz. deviations from ideal plug flow and non ideal wetting or irrigation of the catalyst particles. Although a laboratory reactor can never be a true small-scale replica of a commercial trickle-flow reactor in all respects, it can nevertheless be made to provide representative data as far as the catalytic conversion aspects are concerned. By ressorting to measures such as catalyst bed dilution with fine catalytically inert material it proves possible to

  11. Formulation of scale transformation in a stochastic data assimilation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the errors caused by spatial-scale transformation in Earth observations and simulations requires a rigorous definition of scale. These errors are also an important component of representativeness errors in data assimilation. Several relevant studies have been conducted, but the theory of the scale associated with representativeness errors is still not well developed. We addressed these problems by reformulating the data assimilation framework using measure theory and stochastic calculus. First, measure theory is used to propose that the spatial scale is a Lebesgue measure with respect to the observation footprint or model unit, and the Lebesgue integration by substitution is used to describe the scale transformation. Second, a scale-dependent geophysical variable is defined to consider the heterogeneities and dynamic processes. Finally, the structures of the scale-dependent errors are studied in the Bayesian framework of data assimilation based on stochastic calculus. All the results were presented on the condition that the scale is one-dimensional, and the variations in these errors depend on the differences between scales. This new formulation provides a more general framework to understand the representativeness error in a non-linear and stochastic sense and is a promising way to address the spatial-scale issue.

  12. Using the braden and glasgow scales to predict pressure ulcer risk in patients hospitalized at intensive care units Uso de la escala de braden y de glasgow para identificar el riesgo de úlceras de presión en pacientes internados en un centro de terapia intensiva Uso da escala de braden e de glasgow para identificação do risco para úlceras de pressão em pacientes internados em centro de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Magnani Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers remain a major health issue for critical patients. The purpose of this descriptive and exploratory study was to analyze the risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized at an intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients were assessed through the Braden scale to determine the risk for the development of pressure ulcers and to identify individual risks, and the Glasgow scale was used to assess their consciousness. It was found that the risks associated with pressure ulcer development were: low scores on the Braden Scale on the first hospitalization day and low scores on the Glasgow scale. The results showed that these tools can help nurses to identify patients at risk, with a view to nursing care planning.Las ulceras de presión todavía representan un gran problema de salud en pacientes críticos. Este estudio, descriptivo y exploratorio, tuvo como objetivo evaluar los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la úlcera de presión presentes en pacientes internados en un centro de terapia intensiva de un hospital universitario. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando la escala de Braden para determinar el riesgo de desarrollo de úlceras de presión e identificación de factores de riesgo individuales y con la escala de Glasgow para evaluar el nivel de conciencia. Se encontró que los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de úlcera de presión fueron: las bajas puntuaciones de la Escala de Braden en el primer día de internación y las bajas puntuaciones de la escala de Glasgow. Los resultados confirmaron que estos instrumentos pueden ayudar al enfermero a identificar pacientes en riesgo y a planificar la asistencia.Úlceras de pressão ainda representam grande problema de saúde em pacientes críticos. Este estudo, descritivo e exploratório, objetivou avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de úlcera de pressão presentes em pacientes internados em um centro de

  13. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  14. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Dobšáková, Lenka; Štefan, David

    2016-03-01

    This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  16. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  17. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  18. Economies of scale: The physics basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Almerbati, A.; Lorente, S.

    2017-01-01

    Why is size so important? Why are "economies of scale" a universal feature of all flow systems, animate, inanimate, and human made? The empirical evidence is clear: the bigger are more efficient carriers (per unit) than the smaller. This natural tendency is observed across the board, from animal design to technology, logistics, and economics. In this paper, we rely on physics (thermodynamics) to determine the relation between the efficiency and size. Here, the objective is to predict a natural phenomenon, which is universal. It is not to model a particular type of device. The objective is to demonstrate based on physics that the efficiencies of diverse power plants should increase with size. The analysis is performed in two ways. First is the tradeoff between the "external" irreversibilities due to the temperature differences that exist above and below the temperature range occupied by the circuit executed by the working fluid. Second is the allocation of the fluid flow irreversibility between the hot and cold portions of the fluid flow circuit. The implications of this report in economics and design science (scaling up, scaling down) and the necessity of multi-scale design with hierarchy are discussed.

  19. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  20. Simulating the rubble mound underlying armour units protecting a breakwater

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of concrete armour units laid on top of rubble mounds are used to protect breakwaters and other harbour infrastructure. Coastal engineers build three-dimensional physical scale models to understand the dynamic processes caused by seas...

  1. Means for Transferring Knowledge in the Relocation of Manufacturing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov; Liangsiri, Jirapha

    2009-01-01

    The global spread of production makes companies relocating their manufacturing units to achieve economies of scale, enjoy low-cost labor, or access to new markets. For the relocation, not only equipments, systems and facilities, need to be moved, but also operational knowledge and experience. Based...

  2. Is the western United States running out of trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Shaw; J. Long

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the forests of the Interior West of the United States have been impacted by drought, insects, disease, and fire. When considered over periods of 5-10 years, many forest types have experienced periods of negative net growth, meaning that mortality exceeded gross growth at the population scale. While many of these changes have been attributed...

  3. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  4. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  5. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic polymer to evaluate the effect of pre-chlorination on motile. Ceratium hirundinella cells during conventional water treatment. H Ewerts1, 2, S Barnard1* and A Swanepoel2. 1Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag ...

  6. Taking Workforce Initiatives to Scale: Workforce Initiatives Discussion Paper #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The System-wide Collaborative Action for Livelihoods and Environment, or SCALE process, has become one of the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) and the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID's) most utilized and replicated models, with applications in education, health, natural resources management, tourism,…

  7. Modeling nano-scale grain growth of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The Monte Carlo simulation is utilized to model the nano-scale grain growth of two nano- crystalline materials, Pd81Zr19 and RuAl. In this regard, the relationship between the real time and the time unit of simulation, i.e. Monte Carlo step (MCS), is determined. The results of modeling show that with increasing time ...

  8. Scaling properties of Wilson loops pierced by P-vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Patrick; Greensite, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    these ratios are plotted versus loop area in physical units, for a range of lattice couplings, it is found that the points fall approximately on a single curve, consistent with scaling. We also find that the ratios are rather insensitive to the point where the minimal area of the loop is pierced by the P-vortex....

  9. Factors Influencing Uptake of a Large Scale Curriculum Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Philip S.

    Educational research has all too often failed to be implemented on a large-scale basis. This paper describes the multiplier effect of a professional development program for teachers and for trainers in the United Kingdom, and how that program was developed, monitored, and evaluated. Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) is a…

  10. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  11. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  12. Scaling CouchDB

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    This practical guide offers a short course on scaling CouchDB to meet the capacity needs of your distributed application. Through a series of scenario-based examples, this book lets you explore several methods for creating a system that can accommodate growth and meet expected demand. In the process, you learn about several tools that can help you with replication, load balancing, clustering, and load testing and monitoring. Apply performance tips for tuning your databaseReplicate data, using Futon and CouchDB's RESTful interfaceDistribute CouchDB's workload through load balancingLearn option

  13. Scales on the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old boy presented with a six-week history of scales, flaking and crusting of the scalp. He had mild pruritus but no pain. He did not have a history of atopy and there were no pets at home. Examination of the scalp showed thick, yellowish dry crusts on the vertex and parietal areas and the hair was adhered to the scalp in clumps. There was non-scarring alopecia and mild erythema (Figure 1 & 2. There was no cervical or occipital lymphadenopathy. The patient’s nails and skin in other parts of the body were normal.

  14. The Standard Joint Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajuana Kögel, Cristina; Balcells-Olivero, María Mercedes; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Teixidó, Lídia; Colom, Joan; Nutt, David John; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015-June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in the last 60 days, without cognitive impairment or language barriers, answered a questionnaire on cannabis use and were asked to donate a joint to further determine their 9-THC and Cannabidiol (CBD) content. 492 participants donated 315 valid joints. Donators were on average 29 years old, mostly men (77%), single (75%), with at least secondary studies (73%) and in active employment (63%). Marijuana joints (N=232) contained a median of 6.56mg of 9-THC (Interquartile range-IQR=10,22) and 0.02mg of CBD (IQR=0.02); hashish joints (N=83) a median of 7.94mg of 9-THC (IQR=10,61) and 3.24mg of CBD (IQR=3.21). Participants rolled 4 joints per gram of cannabis and paid 5€ per gram (median values). Consistent 9-THC-content in joints lead to a SJU of 7mg of 9-THC, the integer number closest to the median values shared by both cannabis types. Independently if marijuana or hashish, 1 SJU = 1 joint = 0.25 g of cannabis = 7 mg of 9-THC. For CBD, only hashish SJU contained relevant levels. Similarly to the Standard Drink Unit for alcohol, the SJU is useful for clinical, epidemiological and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Clinical assessment of pain in Spanish Neonatal Intensive Care Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Carbajal, Ricardo; Courtois, Emilie; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Muñiz-Garcia, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Clinical scales are currently the best method to assess pain in the neonate, given the impossibility of self-report in this age group. A study is designed with the aim of determining the current practices as regards the clinical assessment of pain in Spanish Neonatal Units and the factors associated with the use of clinical scales. A prospective longitudinal observational study was conducted. A total of 30 Units participated and 468 neonates were included. Only 13 Units (43.3%) had pain assessment protocols. Pain was evaluated with a scale in 78 neonates (16.7%, 95% CI; 13.1-20.1) and the mean number of pain assessments per patient and per day was 2.3 (Standard Deviation; 4.8), with a median of 0.75. Of the total number of 7,189 patient-days studied, there was at least one pain assessment in 654 (9.1%). No pain assessment was performed with a clinical scale on any patient in 20 (66.7%) Units. Among those that did, a wide variation was observed in the percentage of patients in whom pain was assessed, as well as in the scales used. The CRIES (C-Crying; R-Requires increased oxygen administration; I-Increased vital signs; E-Expression; S-Sleeplessness) scale was that used in most Units. In the multivariate analysis, only invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with receiving a pain assessment with a scale (OR 1.46, P=.042). The majority of neonates admitted into Intensive Care in Spain do not receive a pain assessment. Many units still do not routinely use clinical scales, and there is a wide variation between those that do use them. These results could serve as a basis for preparing national guidelines as regards pain in the neonate. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor…

  17. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  18. The birth satisfaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caroline Hollins; Fleming, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a psychometric scale--the birth satisfaction scale (BSS)--for assessing women's birth perceptions. Literature review and transcribed research-based perceived birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction expression statements were converted into a scored questionnaire. Three overarching themes were identified: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, long labour and baby's health). Women construct their birth experience differently. Views are directed by personal beliefs, reactions, emotions and reflections, which alter in relation to mood, humour, disposition, frame of mind and company kept. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals can use BSS to assess women's birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Scores measure their service quality experiences. Scores provide a global measure of care that women perceived they received during labour. Finding out more about what causes birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction helps maternity care professionals improve intra-natal care standards and allocate resources effectively. An attempt has been made to capture birth satisfaction's generalised meaning and incorporate it into an evidence-based measuring tool.

  19. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  20. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and general procrastination. In Study 1, a community sample of 139 participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of several items pertaining to unintentional procrastination that had been derived from theory, previous research, and clinical experience. Responses were subjected to a principle components analysis and assessment of internal consistency. In Study 2, a community sample of 155 participants completed the newly developed scale, along with measures of general and intentional procrastination, metacognitions about procrastination, and negative affect. Data from the UPS were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and revised accordingly. The UPS was then validated using correlation and regression analyses. The six-item UPS possesses construct and divergent validity and good internal consistency. The UPS appears to be a stronger marker of psychopathology than the pre-existing measures of procrastination used in this study. Results from the regression models suggest that both negative affect and metacognitions about procrastination differentiate between general, intentional, and unintentional procrastination. The UPS is brief, has good psychometric properties, and has strong associations with negative affect, suggesting it has value as a research and clinical tool.