WorldWideScience

Sample records for scaling functional patterns

  1. Sub-50 nm Scale to Micrometer Scale Soft Lithographic Patterning of Functional Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis addresses two major issues: 1) Fabricating nanometer-scale patterns of functional materials, 2) Extending the applicability of soft lithographic processes to a wide range of functional materials on conventional silicon substrates and flexible plastic substrates. This thesis describes

  2. Understanding the Functionality of Human Activity Hotspots from Their Scaling Pattern Using Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activity hotspots are the clusters of activity locations in space and time, and a better understanding of their functionality would be useful for urban land use planning and transportation. In this article, using trajectory data, we aim to infer the functionality of human activity hotspots from their scaling pattern in a reliable way. Specifically, a large number of stopping locations are extracted from trajectory data, which are then aggregated into activity hotspots. Activity hotspots are found to display scaling patterns in terms of the sublinear scaling relationships between the number of stopping locations and the number of points of interest (POIs, which indicates economies of scale of human interactions with urban land use. Importantly, this scaling pattern remains stable over time. This finding inspires us to devise an allometric ruler to identify the activity hotspots, whose functionality could be reliably estimated using the stopping locations. Thereafter, a novel Bayesian inference model is proposed to infer their urban functionality, which examines the spatial and temporal information of stopping locations covering 75 days. Experimental results suggest that the functionality of identified activity hotspots are reliably inferred by stopping locations, such as the railway station.

  3. Multivariate Pattern Classification of Facial Expressions Based on Large-Scale Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan

    2018-01-01

    It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA). We employed a block design experiment and collected neural activities while participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise). Both static and dynamic expression stimuli were included in our study. A behavioral experiment after scanning confirmed the validity of the facial stimuli presented during the fMRI experiment with classification accuracies and emotional intensities. We obtained whole-brain FC patterns for each facial expression and found that both static and dynamic facial expressions could be successfully decoded from the FC patterns. Moreover, we identified the expression-discriminative networks for the static and dynamic facial expressions, which span beyond the conventional face-selective areas. Overall, these results reveal that large-scale FC patterns may also contain rich expression information to accurately decode facial expressions, suggesting a novel mechanism, which includes general interactions between distributed brain regions, and that contributes to the human facial expression recognition.

  4. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Chave, Jerome; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, Alvaro; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Castellanos, Hernán; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Vásquez, Rodolfo

    2006-09-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described. Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists. Although forest inventories often lack the species-level identifications favoured by tropical plant ecologists, their consistency of measurement and vast spatial coverage make them ideally suited for numerical analyses at large scales, and a valuable resource to describe the still poorly understood spatial variation of biomass, diversity, community composition and forest functioning across the South American tropics. Here we show, by using the seven forest inventories complemented with trait and inventory data collected elsewhere, two dominant gradients in tree composition and function across the Amazon, one paralleling a major gradient in soil fertility and the other paralleling a gradient in dry season length. The data set also indicates that the dominance of Fabaceae in the Guiana shield is not necessarily the result of root adaptations to poor soils (nodulation or ectomycorrhizal associations) but perhaps also the result of their remarkably high seed mass there as a potential adaptation to low rates of disturbance.

  5. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Steege, H.; Pitman, N.C.A.; Phillips, O.L.; Chave, J.; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, A.; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, R.; Castellanos, H.; Von Hildebrand, P.; Vasquez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described(1-4). Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists(5-8). Although forest inventories often lack the species-level i...

  6. Scaling Patterns of Natural Urban Places as a Rule for Enhancing Their Urban Functionality Using Trajectory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, T.; Yu, X.

    2018-04-01

    With the availability of massive trajectory data, it is highly valuable to reveal their activity information for many domains such as understanding the functionality of urban regions. This article utilizes the scaling patterns of human activities to enhance functional distribution of natural urban places. Specifically, we proposed a temporal city clustering algorithm to aggregate the stopping locations into natural urban places, which are reported to follow remarkable power law distributions of sizes and obey a universal law of economy of scale on human interactions with urban infrastructure. Besides, we proposed a novel Bayesian inference model with damping factor to estimate the most likely POI type associated with a stopping location. Our results suggest that hot natural urban places could be effectively identified from their scaling patterns and their functionality can be very well enhanced. For instance, natural urban places containing airport or railway station can be highly stressed by accumulating the massive types of human activities.

  7. Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Lamas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA and average tendon cross sectional area from emus across three ontogenetic stages (n = 17, body masses from 3.6 to 42 kg. The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine how these biomechanically relevant aspects of morphology scaled with body mass. Muscle mass and PCSA showed a marked trend towards positive allometry (26 and 27 out of 34 muscles respectively and fascicle length showed a more mixed scaling pattern. The long tendons of the main digital flexors scaled with positive allometry for all characteristics whilst other tendons demonstrated a less clear scaling pattern. Finally, the two longer bones of the limb (tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus also exhibited positive allometry for length, and two others (femur and first phalanx of digit III had trends towards isometry. These results indicate that emus experience a relative increase in their muscle force-generating capacities, as well as potentially increasing the force-sustaining capacities of their tendons, as they grow. Furthermore, we have clarified anatomical descriptions and provided illustrations of the pelvic limb muscle–tendon units in emus.

  8. Comparative analysis of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors by metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a very complex process due to the high complexity in diversity and interactions of the microorganisms mediating it, and only limited and diffuse knowledge exists about the variation of taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiomes across different biogas reactors, and their relationships with the metabolic patterns. The present study used metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis to assess the taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors operated under various conditions treating either sludge or manure. The results from metagenomic analysis showed that the dominant methanogenic pathway revealed by radioisotopic analysis was not always correlated with the taxonomic and functional compositions. It was found by radioisotopic experiments that the aceticlastic methanogenic pathway was dominant, while metagenomics analysis showed higher relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Principal coordinates analysis showed the sludge-based samples were clearly distinct from the manure-based samples for both taxonomic and functional patterns, and canonical correspondence analysis showed that the both temperature and free ammonia were crucial environmental variables shaping the taxonomic and functional patterns. The study further the overall patterns of functional genes were strongly correlated with overall patterns of taxonomic composition across different biogas reactors. The discrepancy between the metabolic patterns determined by metagenomic analysis and metabolic pathways determined by radioisotopic analysis was found. Besides, a clear correlation between taxonomic and functional patterns was demonstrated for biogas reactors, and also the environmental factors that shaping both taxonomic and functional genes patterns were identified.

  9. Chromosome-wise Protein Interaction Patterns and Their Impact on Functional Implications of Large-Scale Genomic Aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Isa Kristina; Weinhold, Nils; Belling, Kirstine González-Izarzugaza

    2017-01-01

    Gene copy-number changes influence phenotypes through gene-dosage alteration and subsequent changes of protein complex stoichiometry. Human trisomies where gene copy numbers are increased uniformly over entire chromosomes provide generic cases for studying these relationships. In most trisomies......, gene and protein level alterations have fatal consequences. We used genome-wide protein-protein interaction data to identify chromosome-specific patterns of protein interactions. We found that some chromosomes encode proteins that interact infrequently with each other, chromosome 21 in particular. We...... combined the protein interaction data with transcriptome data from human brain tissue to investigate how this pattern of global interactions may affect cellular function. We identified highly connected proteins that also had coordinated gene expression. These proteins were associated with important...

  10. Multilength Scale Patterning of Functional Layers by Roll-to-Roll Ultraviolet-Light-Assisted Nanoimprint Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Markus; Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Götz, Johannes; Liska, Robert; Belegratis, Maria R; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-05-24

    Top-down fabrication of nanostructures with high throughput is still a challenge. We demonstrate the fast (>10 m/min) and continuous fabrication of multilength scale structures by roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography on a 250 mm wide web. The large-area nanopatterning is enabled by a multicomponent UV-curable resist system (JRcure) with viscous, mechanical, and surface properties that are tunable over a wide range to either allow for usage as polymer stamp material or as imprint resist. The adjustable elasticity and surface chemistry of the resist system enable multistep self-replication of structured resist layers. Decisive for defect-free UV-nanoimprinting in roll-to-roll is the minimization of the surface energies of stamp and resist, and the stepwise reduction of the stiffness from one layer to the next is essential for optimizing the reproduction fidelity especially for nanoscale features. Accordingly, we demonstrate the continuous replication of 3D nanostructures and the high-throughput fabrication of multilength scale resist structures resulting in flexible polyethylenetherephtalate film rolls with superhydrophobic properties. Moreover, a water-soluble UV-imprint resist (JRlift) is introduced that enables residue-free nanoimprinting in roll-to-roll. Thereby we could demonstrate high-throughput fabrication of metallic patterns with only 200 nm line width.

  11. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  12. Statistics for Locally Scaled Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesová, Michaela; Hahn, Ute; Vedel Jensen, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    scale factor. The main emphasis of the present paper is on analysis of such models. Statistical methods are developed for estimation of scaling function and template parameters as well as for model validation. The proposed methods are assessed by simulation and used in the analysis of a vegetation...

  13. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  14. Scaling in patterns produces by cluster deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Oddershede, Lene

    1997-01-01

    Cluster deposition on flat substrates can lead to surprising patterns. This pattern formation can be related either to phenomena taking place at the substrate surface or to dynamics in the cluster beam. We describe the observation of a pattern of particles each being an aggregate of Cu clusters. ...

  15. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Kumbhar, Amar S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  16. Communication Patterns, Contradictions, and Family Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, Janet; Buerkel-Rothfuss, Nancy L.

    Families are rule-governed systems of interdependent individuals whose interaction follows an intricate pattern of behavior. Communication patterns in a family reflect and emerge from contradictions in rules. A function may be defined as something that a system does and must do if it is not to break down. For instance identity and stability…

  17. Functional nanometer-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tsz On Mario

    Nanometer-scale structures have properties that are fundamentally different from their bulk counterparts. Much research effort has been devoted in the past decades to explore new fabrication techniques, model the physical properties of these structures, and construct functional devices. The ability to manipulate and control the structure of matter at the nanoscale has made many new classes of materials available for the study of fundamental physical processes and potential applications. The interplay between fabrication techniques and physical understanding of the nanostructures and processes has revolutionized the physical and material sciences, providing far superior properties in materials for novel applications that benefit society. This thesis consists of two major aspects of my graduate research in nano-scale materials. In the first part (Chapters 3--6), a comprehensive study on the nanostructures based on electrospinning and thermal treatment is presented. Electrospinning is a well-established method for producing high-aspect-ratio fibrous structures, with fiber diameter ranging from 1 nm--1 microm. A polymeric solution is typically used as a precursor in electrospinning. In our study, the functionality of the nanostructure relies on both the nanostructure and material constituents. Metallic ions containing precursors were added to the polymeric precursor following a sol-gel process to prepare the solution suitable for electrospinning. A typical electrospinning process produces as-spun fibers containing both polymer and metallic salt precursors. Subsequent thermal treatments of the as-spun fibers were carried out in various conditions to produce desired structures. In most cases, polymer in the solution and the as-spun fibers acted as a backbone for the structure formation during the subsequent heat treatment, and were thermally removed in the final stage. Polymers were also designed to react with the metallic ion precursors during heat treatment in some

  18. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  19. Selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, E.; Visser, B.; Slingenbergh, W.; Evers, K.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y. T.; Feringa, B. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Cordes, T.; van Dorp, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Tailored writing and specific positioning of molecules on nanostructures is a key step for creating functional materials and nano-optical devices, or interfaces for synthetic machines in various applications. We present a novel approach for the selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

  20. Analyzing animal movement patterns using potential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. K. Preisler; A. A. Ager; M. J. Wisdom

    2013-01-01

    The advent of GPS technology has made it possible to study human-wildlife interactions on large landscapes and quantify behavioral responses to recreation and other anthropogenic disturbances at increasingly fine scales. Of particular interest are the potential impacts on habitat use patterns, energetics, and cascading impacts on fecundity and other life history traits...

  1. Multifractal Scaling of Grayscale Patterns: Lacunarity and Correlation Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Perfect, E.

    2012-12-01

    While fractal models can characterize self-similarity in binary fields, comprised solely of 0's and 1's, the concept of multifractals is needed to quantify scaling behavior in non-binary grayscale fields made up of fractional values. Multifractals are characterized by a spectrum of non-integer dimensions, Dq (-∞ < q < +∞) instead of a single fractal dimension. The gliding-box algorithm is sometimes employed to estimate these different dimensions. This algorithm is also commonly used for computing another parameter, lacunarity, L, which characterizes the distribution of gaps or spaces in patterns, fractals, multifractals or otherwise, as a function of scale (or box-size, x). In the case of 2-dimensional multifractal fields, L has been shown to be theoretically related to the correlation dimension, D2, by dlog(L)/dlog(x) = D2 - 2. Therefore, it is hypothesized that lacunarity analysis can help in delineating multifractal behavior in grayscale patterns. In testing this hypothesis, a set of 2-dimensional multifractal grayscale patterns was generated with known D2 values, and then analyzed for lacunarity by employing the gliding-box algorithm. The D2 values computed using this analysis gave a 1:1 relationship with the known D2 values, thus empirically validating the theoretical relationship between L and D2. Lacunarity analysis was further used to evaluate the multifractal nature of natural grayscale images in the form of soil thin sections that had been previously classified as multifractals based on the standard box counting method. The results indicated that lacunarity analysis is a more sensitive indicator of multifractal behavior in natural grayscale patterns than the box counting approach. A weighted mean of the log-transformed lacunarity values at different scales was employed for differentiating between grayscale patterns with various degrees of scale dependent clustering attributes. This new measure, which expresses lacunarity as a single number, should

  2. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  3. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitters, K.; Wickham, J.; O'Neill, R.; Jones, B.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 ?? 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 ?? 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe - Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types) and Europe - Asia (four types), in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland). The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf. Copyright ?? 2000 by The Resilience Alliance.

  4. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  5. Reptile scale paradigm: Evo-Devo, pattern formation and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Wu, Ping; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is to highlight the merit of the reptile integument as an experimental model. Reptiles represent the first amniotes. From stem reptiles, extant reptiles, birds and mammals have evolved. Mammal hairs and feathers evolved from Therapsid and Sauropsid reptiles, respectively. The early reptilian integument had to adapt to the challenges of terrestrial life, developing a multi-layered stratum corneum capable of barrier function and ultraviolet protection. For better mechanical protection, diverse reptilian scale types have evolved. The evolution of endothermy has driven the convergent evolution of hair and feather follicles: both form multiple localized growth units with stem cells and transient amplifying cells protected in the proximal follicle. This topological arrangement allows them to elongate, molt and regenerate without structural constraints. Another unique feature of reptile skin is the exquisite arrangement of scales and pigment patterns, making them testable models for mechanisms of pattern formation. Since they face the constant threat of damage on land, different strategies were developed to accommodate skin homeostasis and regeneration. Temporally, they can be under continuous renewal or sloughing cycles. Spatially, they can be diffuse or form discrete localized growth units (follicles). To understand how gene regulatory networks evolved to produce increasingly complex ectodermal organs, we have to study how prototypic scale-forming pathways in reptiles are modulated to produce appendage novelties. Despite the fact that there are numerous studies of reptile scales, molecular analyses have lagged behind. Here, we underscore how further development of this novel experimental model will be valuable in filling the gaps of our understanding of the Evo-Devo of amniote integuments. PMID:19557687

  6. Large-Scale Pattern Discovery in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin-Mahieux, Thierry

    This work focuses on extracting patterns in musical data from very large collections. The problem is split in two parts. First, we build such a large collection, the Million Song Dataset, to provide researchers access to commercial-size datasets. Second, we use this collection to study cover song recognition which involves finding harmonic patterns from audio features. Regarding the Million Song Dataset, we detail how we built the original collection from an online API, and how we encouraged other organizations to participate in the project. The result is the largest research dataset with heterogeneous sources of data available to music technology researchers. We demonstrate some of its potential and discuss the impact it already has on the field. On cover song recognition, we must revisit the existing literature since there are no publicly available results on a dataset of more than a few thousand entries. We present two solutions to tackle the problem, one using a hashing method, and one using a higher-level feature computed from the chromagram (dubbed the 2DFTM). We further investigate the 2DFTM since it has potential to be a relevant representation for any task involving audio harmonic content. Finally, we discuss the future of the dataset and the hope of seeing more work making use of the different sources of data that are linked in the Million Song Dataset. Regarding cover songs, we explain how this might be a first step towards defining a harmonic manifold of music, a space where harmonic similarities between songs would be more apparent.

  7. Functional patterned coatings by thin polymer film dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Andrew M; Thickett, Stuart C; Neto, Chiara

    2017-12-01

    An approach for the fabrication of functional polymer surface coatings is introduced, where micro-scale structure and surface functionality are obtained by means of self-assembly mechanisms. We illustrate two main applications of micro-patterned polymer surfaces obtained through dewetting of bilayers of thin polymer films. By tuning the physical and chemical properties of the polymer bilayers, micro-patterned surface coatings could be produced that have applications both for the selective attachment and patterning of proteins and cells, with potential applications as biomaterials, and for the collection of water from the atmosphere. In all cases, the aim is to achieve functional coatings using approaches that are simple to realize, use low cost materials and are potentially scalable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Robert M; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Jocqué, Rudy; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-25

    The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity). Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity): insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced). This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

  9. Temporal self-similar synchronization patterns and scaling in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repulsively coupled oscillators; synchronization patterns; self-similar ... system, one expects multistable behavior in analogy to ..... More about the scaling relation between the long-period ... The third type of representation of phases is via.

  10. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2011-10-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G. rhamni, and Colias croceus, and in two members of the Colotis group, Hebomoia glaucippe and Colotis regina. Imaging scatterometry demonstrated that the pigmentary colouration is diffuse whereas the structural colouration creates a directional, line-shaped far-field radiation pattern. Angle-dependent reflectance measurements demonstrated that the directional iridescence distinctly varies among closely related species. The species-dependent scale curvature determines the spatial properties of the wing iridescence. Narrow beam illumination of flat scales results in a narrow far-field iridescence pattern, but curved scales produce broadened patterns. The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling.

  12. Chemomechanical functionalization and patterning of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Lua, Yit-Yian; Lee, Michael V; Linford, Matthew R

    2005-12-01

    The chemomechanical method has emerged as a straightforward and convenient tool for simultaneously functionalizing and patterning silicon. This technique simply consists of wetting (or exposing) a silicon surface to a reactive chemical and then scribing. Scribing activates the surface and leads to monolayer formation. The properties of the monolayers are dependent on the reactive chemicals used, and mixed monolayers and funtionalized monolayers are easily produced with mixed chemicals or alpha,omega-bifunctional compounds, respectively. Both micrometer and nanometer sized functionalized features have been created. It has been shown that this technique has potential in a variety of applications.

  13. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density. Methods The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572 was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales. Results There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81. Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37

  14. Scaling function, spectral function and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Ivanov, M.V.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.B.; Udias, J.M.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Donnelly, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find a good simultaneous description of the spectral function and the momentum distribution in relation to the realistic scaling function obtained from inclusive electron-nuclei scattering experiments. We start with a modified Hartree-Fock spectral function in which the energy dependent part (δ-function) is replaced by the Gaussian distributions with hole state widths as free parameters. We calculate the scaling function and the nucleon momentum distribution on the basis of the spectral function constructed in this way, trying to find a good description of the experimental data. The obtained scaling function has a weak asymmetry and the momentum distribution has not got a high-momentum tail in the case when harmonic-oscillator single-particle wave functions are used. So, to improve the behavior of the momentum distribution we used the basis of natural orbitals (NO) in which short-range correlations are partly incorporated. The results for the scaling function show again a weak asymmetry, but in this case the momentum distribution has a high-momentum tail. As a next step we include final-state interactions (FSI) in the calculations to reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetry of the scaling function. (author)

  15. Multi-function nuclear weight scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingquan; Sun Jinhua; Jia Changchun; Wang Mingqian; Tang Ke

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces the methods to contrive the hardware and software of a Multi-function Nuclear Weight Scale System based on the communication contract in compliance with RS485 between a master (industrial control computer 386) and a slave (single chip 8098) and its main functions

  16. Linear scaling of density functional algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechel, E.B.; Feibelman, P.J.; Williams, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient density functional algorithm (DFA) that scales linearly with system size will revolutionize electronic structure calculations. Density functional calculations are reliable and accurate in determining many condensed matter and molecular ground-state properties. However, because current DFA's, including methods related to that of Car and Parrinello, scale with the cube of the system size, density functional studies are not routinely applied to large systems. Linear scaling is achieved by constructing functions that are both localized and fully occupied, thereby eliminating the need to calculate global eigenfunctions. It is, however, widely believed that exponential localization requires the existence of an energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied states. Despite this, the authors demonstrate that linear scaling can still be achieved for metals. Using a linear scaling algorithm, they have explicitly constructed localized, almost fully occupied orbitals for the quintessential metallic system, jellium. The algorithm is readily generalizable to any system geometry and Hamiltonian. They will discuss the conceptual issues involved, convergence properties and scaling for their new algorithm

  17. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Pringle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity. Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity: insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced. This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

  18. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterned Electroplating of Micrometer Scale Magnetic Structures on Glass Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  20. Patterned electroplating of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, S.J.; Krenn, G.E.; van Driel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  1. Scaling-Up the Functional Diagnostic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Functional diagnostic systems received a lot of attention in the last decade. They have proven their powerful for diagnosis the new faults of some complex systems. But, they still have some complexity in both the representation and reasoning about the large-scale systems. This paper introduces a new functional diagnostic system that can divide its small functions into main and auxiliary ones. This process enables the diagnostic system to scale -up the representation of the tested system and simplify the diagnostic mechanism tasks. Thus, it can improve both the representation and reasoning complexity. Also,it can decrease the required analysis, cost, and time. Proposed system can be applied for a wide area of the large-scale systems. It has been proven its acceptance to be applied practically for the Complex real-time systems

  2. Coarsening of stripe patterns: variations with quench depth and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashwani K; Kumar, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    The coarsening of stripe patterns when the system is evolved from random initial states is studied by varying the quench depth ε, which is a measure of distance from the transition point of the stripe phase. The dynamics of the growth of stripe order, which is characterized by two length scales, depends on the quench depth. The growth exponents of the two length scales vary continuously with ε. The decay exponents for free energy, stripe curvature, and densities of defects like grain boundaries and dislocations also show similar variation. This implies a breakdown of the standard picture of nonequilibrium dynamical scaling. In order to understand the variations with ε we propose an additional scaling with a length scale dependent on ε. The main contribution to this length scale comes from the "pinning potential," which is unique to systems where the order parameter is spatially periodic. The periodic order parameter gives rise to an ε-dependent potential, which can pin defects like grain boundaries, dislocations, etc. This additional scaling provides a compact description of variations of growth exponents with quench depth in terms of just one exponent for each of the length scales. The relaxation of free energy, stripe curvature, and the defect densities have also been related to these length scales. The study is done at zero temperature using Swift-Hohenberg equation in two dimensions.

  3. Precipitation patterns control the distribution and export of large wood at the catchment scale

    OpenAIRE

    Il Seo, Jung; Nakamura, Futoshi; Chun, Kun Woo; Kim, Suk Woo; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Large wood (LW) plays an important role in river ecosystems, but LW-laden floods may cause serious damage to human lives and property. The relationship between precipitation patterns and variations in LW distribution and export at the watershed scale is poorly understood. To explore these linkages, we examined differences in LW distribution as a function of channel morphologies in six watersheds located in southern and northern Japan and analysed the impacts of different precipitation pattern...

  4. Functional Materials Produced On An Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska Justyna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a wide range of applications of functional materials and a scale of their current industrial production. These are the materials which have specific characteristics, thanks to which they became virtually indispensable in certain constructional solutions. Their basic characteristics, properties, methods of production and use as smart materials were described.

  5. Imaging and Patterning on Nanometer Scale Using Coherent EUV Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachulak, P.W.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Marconi, M.C.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) covers wavelength range from about 5 nm to 50 nm. That is why EUV is especially applicable for imaging and patterning on nanometer scale length. In the paper periodic nanopatterning realized by interference lithography and high resolution holographic nanoimaging performed in a Gabor in-line scheme are presented. In the experiments a compact table top EUV laser was used. Preliminary studies on using a laser plasma EUV source for nanoimaging are presented as well. (author)

  6. Sidewall patterning - A new wafer-scale method for accurate patterning of vertical silicon structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerik, P. J.; Vijselaar, W. J.C.; Berenschot, J. W.; Tas, N. R.; Huskens, J.; Gardeniers, J. G.E.

    2018-01-01

    For the definition of wafer scale micro- and nanostructures, in-plane geometry is usually controlled by optical lithography. However, options for precisely patterning structures in the out-of-plane direction are much more limited. In this paper we present a versatile self-aligned technique that

  7. Time-dependent scaling patterns in high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noemi; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-10-01

    We measure the influence of different time-scales on the intraday dynamics of financial markets. This is obtained by decomposing financial time series into simple oscillations associated with distinct time-scales. We propose two new time-varying measures of complexity: 1) an amplitude scaling exponent and 2) an entropy-like measure. We apply these measures to intraday, 30-second sampled prices of various stock market indices. Our results reveal intraday trends where different time-horizons contribute with variable relative amplitudes over the course of the trading day. Our findings indicate that the time series we analysed have a non-stationary multifractal nature with predominantly persistent behaviour at the middle of the trading session and anti-persistent behaviour at the opening and at the closing of the session. We demonstrate that these patterns are statistically significant, robust, reproducible and characteristic of each stock market. We argue that any modelling, analytics or trading strategy must take into account these non-stationary intraday scaling patterns.

  8. Rotation, scale, and translation invariant pattern recognition using feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Donald; Doucet, Michel; Bergeron, Alain; Veilleux, Luc; Chevrette, Paul C.; Gingras, Denis J.

    1997-03-01

    A rotation, scale and translation invariant pattern recognition technique is proposed.It is based on Fourier- Mellin Descriptors (FMD). Each FMD is taken as an independent feature of the object, and a set of those features forms a signature. FMDs are naturally rotation invariant. Translation invariance is achieved through pre- processing. A proper normalization of the FMDs gives the scale invariance property. This approach offers the double advantage of providing invariant signatures of the objects, and a dramatic reduction of the amount of data to process. The compressed invariant feature signature is next presented to a multi-layered perceptron neural network. This final step provides some robustness to the classification of the signatures, enabling good recognition behavior under anamorphically scaled distortion. We also present an original feature extraction technique, adapted to optical calculation of the FMDs. A prototype optical set-up was built, and experimental results are presented.

  9. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  10. Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Ramette, A.; Saby, N.; Bru, D.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 739 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  11. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  12. Disappearing scales in carps: re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Casas

    Full Text Available The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype, those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here. We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.

  13. Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura; Szűcs, Ré ka; Vij, Shubha; Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Né meth, Sá ndor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsé nyi, Mikló s; Orbá n, Lá szló

    2013-01-01

    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.

  14. Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2013-12-30

    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the \\'S\\' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called \\'N\\' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov\\'s work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.

  15. Patterns of functional improvement after revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Kane, Robert L; Eberly, Lynn E; Bershadsky, Boris; Saleh, Khaled J

    2009-12-01

    Despite the increase in the number of total knee arthroplasty revisions, outcomes of such surgery and their correlates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of functional improvement after revision total knee arthroplasty over a two-year period and to investigate factors that affect such improvement patterns. Three hundred and eight patients in need of revision surgery were enrolled into the study, conducted at seventeen centers, and 221 (71.8%) were followed for two years. Short Form-36 (SF-36), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lower-Extremity Activity Scale (LEAS) scores were collected at baseline and every six months for two years postoperatively. A piecewise general linear mixed model, which models correlation between repeated measures and estimates separate slopes for different follow-up time periods, was employed to examine functional improvement patterns. Separate regression slopes were estimated for the zero to twelve-month and the twelve to twenty-four-month periods. The slopes for zero to twelve months showed significant improvement in all measures in the first year. The slopes for twelve to twenty-four months showed deterioration in the scores of the WOMAC pain subscale (slope = 0.67 +/- 0.21, p coefficient = -5.46 +/- 1.91, p coefficient = 5.41 +/- 2.35, p coefficient = 1.42 +/- 0.69, p < 0.05]). Factors related to the surgical technique did not predict outcomes. The onset of worsening pain and knee-specific function in the second year following revision total knee arthroplasty indicates the need to closely monitor patients, irrespective of the mode of failure of the primary procedure or the surgical technique for the revision. This information may be especially important for patients with multiple comorbidities.

  16. Considerations of scale in the analysis of spatial pattern of plant disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; McRoberts, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scale is an important but somewhat neglected subject in plant pathology. Scale serves as an abstract concept, providing a framework for organizing observations and theoretical models, and plays a functional role in the organization of ecological communities and physical processes. Rich methodological resources are available to plant pathologists interested in considering either or both aspects of scale in their research. We summarize important concepts in both areas of the literature, particularly as they apply to the spatial pattern of plant disease, and highlight some new results that emphasize the importance of scaling on the emergence of different types of probability distribution in empirical observation. We also highlight the important links between heterogeneity and scale, which are of central importance in plant disease epidemiology and the analysis of spatial pattern. We consider statistical approaches that are available, where actual physical scale is known, and for more conceptual research on hierarchies, where scale plays a more abstract role, particularly for field-based research. For the latter, we highlight methods that plant pathologists could consider to account for the effect of scale in the design of field studies.

  17. Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep

    2014-05-01

    Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) cause negative impacts socially, economically, and environmentally. Considering these facts, forecasting EWEs is crucial work. Indonesia has been identified as being among the countries most vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters, such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. Current forecasting of extreme events in Indonesia is carried out by interpreting synoptic maps for several fields without taking into account the link between the observed events in the 'target' area with remote conditions. This situation may cause misidentification of the event leading to an inaccurate prediction. Grotjahn and Faure (2008) compute composite maps from extreme events (including heat waves and intense rainfall) to help forecasters identify such events in model output. The composite maps show large scale meteorological patterns (LSMP) that occurred during historical EWEs. Some vital information about the EWEs can be acquired from studying such maps, in addition to providing forecaster guidance. Such maps have robust mid-latitude meteorological patterns (for Sacramento and California Central Valley, USA EWEs). We study the performance of the composite approach for tropical weather condition such as Indonesia. Initially, the composite maps are developed to identify and forecast the extreme weather events in Indramayu district- West Java, the main producer of rice in Indonesia and contributes to about 60% of the national total rice production. Studying extreme weather events happening in Indramayu is important since EWEs there affect national agricultural and fisheries activities. During a recent EWE more than a thousand houses in Indramayu suffered from serious flooding with each home more than one meter underwater. The flood also destroyed a thousand hectares of rice plantings in 5 regencies. Identifying the dates of extreme events is one of the most important steps and has to be carried out carefully. An approach has been applied to identify the

  18. Surface-immobilized hydrogel patterns on length scales from micrometer to nanometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Assaf

    The present work concentrates on the study of pattern generation and transfer processes of monolayer covered surfaces, deriving from the basic working concept of Constructive Lithography. As an advancement of constructive lithography, we developed a direct, one-step printing (contact electrochemical printing, CEP) and replication (contact electrochemical replication, CER) of hydrophilic organic monolayer patterns surrounded by a hydrophobic monolayer background. In addition, we present a process of transfer of metal between two contacting solid surfaces to predefined monolayer template pattern sites (contact electrochemical transfer, CET). This thesis shows that CEP, CER, and CET may be implemented under a variety of different experimental conditions, regardless of whether the initial "master" pattern was created by a parallel (fast) or serial (slow) patterning process. CEP and CER also posses the unique attractive property that each replica may equally function as master stamp in the fabrication of additional replicas. Moreover, due to a mechanism of selfcorrection patterned surfaces produced these process are often free of defects that the initial "master" stamp may had. We finally show that the electrochemical patterning of OTS monolayers on silicon can be further extended to flexible polymeric substrate materials as well as to a variety of chemical manipulations, allowing the fabrication of tridimensional (3D) composite structures made on the basis of readily available OTS compound. The results obtained suggest that such contact electrochemical processes could be used to rapidly generate multiple copies of surface patterns spanning variable length scales, this basic approach being applicable to rigid as well as flexible substrate materials.

  19. Patterns of family management of childhood chronic conditions and their relationship to child and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Deatrick, Janet A; Knafl, George J; Gallo, Agatha M; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Understanding patterns of family response to childhood chronic conditions provides a more comprehensive understanding of their influence on family and child functioning. In this paper, we report the results of a cluster analysis based on the six scales comprising the Family Management Measure (FaMM) and the resulting typology of family management. The sample of 575 parents (414 families) of children with diverse chronic conditions fell into four patterns of response (Family Focused, Somewhat Family Focused, Somewhat Condition Focused, Condition Focused) that differed in the extent family life was focused on usual family routines or the demands of condition management. Most (57%) families were in either the Family Focused or Somewhat Family Focused pattern. Patterns of family management were related significantly to family and child functioning, with families in the Family Focused and Somewhat Family Focused patterns demonstrating significantly better family and child functioning than families in the other two patterns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Almost Automorphic Functions on the Quantum Time Scale and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We first propose two types of concepts of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Secondly, we study some basic properties of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Then, we introduce a transformation between functions defined on the quantum time scale and functions defined on the set of generalized integer numbers; by using this transformation we give equivalent definitions of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale; following the idea of the transformation, we also give a concept of almost automorphic functions on more general time scales that can unify the concepts of almost automorphic functions on almost periodic time scales and on the quantum time scale. Finally, as an application of our results, we establish the existence of almost automorphic solutions of linear and semilinear dynamic equations on the quantum time scale.

  1. Large-Scale Patterns in a Minimal Cognitive Flocking Model: Incidental Leaders, Nematic Patterns, and Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Lucas; Peruani, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    We study a minimal cognitive flocking model, which assumes that the moving entities navigate using the available instantaneous visual information exclusively. The model consists of active particles, with no memory, that interact by a short-ranged, position-based, attractive force, which acts inside a vision cone (VC), and lack velocity-velocity alignment. We show that this active system can exhibit—due to the VC that breaks Newton's third law—various complex, large-scale, self-organized patterns. Depending on parameter values, we observe the emergence of aggregates or millinglike patterns, the formation of moving—locally polar—files with particles at the front of these structures acting as effective leaders, and the self-organization of particles into macroscopic nematic structures leading to long-ranged nematic order. Combining simulations and nonlinear field equations, we show that position-based active models, as the one analyzed here, represent a new class of active systems fundamentally different from other active systems, including velocity-alignment-based flocking systems. The reported results are of prime importance in the study, interpretation, and modeling of collective motion patterns in living and nonliving active systems.

  2. Teaching Functional Patterns through Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boender

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present our approach to teaching functional programming to First Year Computer Science students at Middlesex University through projects in robotics. A holistic approach is taken to the curriculum, emphasising the connections between different subject areas. A key part of the students' learning is through practical projects that draw upon and integrate the taught material. To support these, we developed the Middlesex Robotic plaTfOrm (MIRTO, an open-source platform built using Raspberry Pi, Arduino, HUB-ee wheels and running Racket (a LISP dialect. In this paper we present the motivations for our choices and explain how a number of concepts of functional programming may be employed when programming robotic applications. We present some students' work with robotics projects: we consider the use of robotics projects to have been a success, both for their value in reinforcing students' understanding of programming concepts and for their value in motivating the students.

  3. Large-Scale Constraint-Based Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feida

    2009-01-01

    We studied the problem of constraint-based pattern mining for three different data formats, item-set, sequence and graph, and focused on mining patterns of large sizes. Colossal patterns in each data formats are studied to discover pruning properties that are useful for direct mining of these patterns. For item-set data, we observed robustness of…

  4. Paradigmatic List Constructions. Patterns and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Benigni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with listing as a useful conceptual tool for categorization and offers an overview of the different types of lists in Russian, highlighting both universal and language-specific characteristics of this kind of construction. The data-driven approach adopted in this study allows you to identify the main criteria according to which lists can be classified (exhaustiveness of the enumeration, conjunction, types of constituents, compositionality, and so on. Particular attention is paid to paradigmatic lists, i.e. lists whose items are in a paradigmatic relationship with each other as either synonyms, co-hyponyms or co-meronyms. The features of this family of lists are dealt with in the framework of Construction Grammar, which accounts for both similarities in structure and meaning and differences in pragmatic and communicative functions.

  5. Broad-scale recombination patterns underlying proper disjunction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Fledel-Alon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although recombination is essential to the successful completion of human meiosis, it remains unclear how tightly the process is regulated and over what scale. To assess the nature and stringency of constraints on human recombination, we examined crossover patterns in transmissions to viable, non-trisomic offspring, using dense genotyping data collected in a large set of pedigrees. Our analysis supports a requirement for one chiasma per chromosome rather than per arm to ensure proper disjunction, with additional chiasmata occurring in proportion to physical length. The requirement is not absolute, however, as chromosome 21 seems to be frequently transmitted properly in the absence of a chiasma in females, a finding that raises the possibility of a back-up mechanism aiding in its correct segregation. We also found a set of double crossovers in surprisingly close proximity, as expected from a second pathway that is not subject to crossover interference. These findings point to multiple mechanisms that shape the distribution of crossovers, influencing proper disjunction in humans.

  6. Assessing elders using the functional health pattern assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, S; Matzo, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of older Americans on the health care system requires we increase our students' awareness of their unique needs. The authors discuss strategies to develop skills using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment for assessing older clients.

  7. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eLehoucq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii is as general as possible; (iii is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit.It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable.Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions.It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform.Easy to understand and implement,it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging.We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials, to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  8. Multi-Scale Pattern Recognition for Image Classification and Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Scale is an important parameter of images. Different objects or image structures (e.g. edges and corners) can appear at different scales and each is meaningful only over a limited range of scales. Multi-scale analysis has been widely used in image processing and computer vision, serving as the basis

  9. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: arnocat@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: maloufi@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: david.mouillot@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: troussel@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: cbernard@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R{sup 2} = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  10. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherine, Arnaud; Selma, Maloufi; Mouillot, David; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R"2 = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  11. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Christopher R; Grossman, Ari

    2010-09-03

    There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of ecosystem convergence. The proportion of different ecomorphs, which

  12. Scale Economies and Industry Agglomeration Externalities: A Dynamic Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Siegel; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    Scale economies and agglomeration externalities are alleged to be important determinants of economic growth. To assess these effects, the authors outline and estimate a microfoundations model based on a dynamic cost function specification. This model provides for the separate identification of the impacts of externalities and cyclical utilization on short- and long-run scale economies and input substitution patterns. The authors find that scale economies are prevalent in U.S manufacturing; co...

  13. Multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates via laser-assisted transfer-printing process

    KAUST Repository

    Park, J. B.; Yoo, J.-H.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    A laser-assisted transfer-printing process is developed for multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates using femtosecond laser scanning on a graphene/metal substrate and transfer techniques without using multi-step patterning processes

  14. Patterning functional materials using channel diffused plasma-etched self-assembled monolayer templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective methodology for large-area micrometer-scale patterning of a wide range of metallic and oxidic functional materials is presented. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkyl thiols on Au were micropatterned by channel-diffused oxygen plasma etching, a method in which selected

  15. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  16. Frame scaling function sets and frame wavelet sets in Rd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanwei; Hu Guoen; Wu Guochang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we classify frame wavelet sets and frame scaling function sets in higher dimensions. Firstly, we obtain a necessary condition for a set to be the frame wavelet sets. Then, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be a frame scaling function set. We give a property of frame scaling function sets, too. Some corresponding examples are given to prove our theory in each section.

  17. Spatial-temporal-spectral EEG patterns of BOLD functional network connectivity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoš, Martin; Mareček, Radek; Slavíček, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity. Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by parallel factor analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity. The simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI data were decomposed by independent component analysis. Dynamic functional connectivity was computed on the component’s time series using a sliding window correlation, and between-network connectivity states were then defined based on the values of the correlation coefficients. ANOVA tests were performed to assess the relationships between the dynamics of between-network connectivity states and the fluctuations of EEG spectral patterns. Main results. We found three patterns related to the dynamics of between-network connectivity states. The first pattern has dominant peaks in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands and is related to the dynamics between the auditory, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. The second pattern, with dominant peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the visual and default mode network. The third pattern, also with peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the auditory and frontal network. Significance. Our previous findings revealed a relationship between EEG spectral pattern fluctuations and the hemodynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, we suggest that the relationship also exists at the level of functional connectivity dynamics among large-scale brain networks when no standard spatial and spectral

  18. orthogonal and scaling transformations of quadratic functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    functions of sub-problems of various nonlinear programming problems that employ methods such as sequential quadratic programming and trust-region methods (Sorensen, 1982; Eldersveld,. 1991; Nocedal and Wright, 1999). Various problems in Algebra, Functional Analysis,. Analytic Geometry and Computational Mathe-.

  19. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  20. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  1. Multiscale functions, scale dynamics, and applications to partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Modeling phenomena from experimental data always begins with a choice of hypothesis on the observed dynamics such as determinism, randomness, and differentiability. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following: "With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature? From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of multi-scale functions, scale calculus, and scale dynamics based on the time scale calculus [see Bohner, M. and Peterson, A., Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2001)] which is used to introduce the notion of scale equations. These definitions will be illustrated on the multi-scale Okamoto's functions. Scale equations are analysed using scale regimes and the notion of asymptotic model for a scale equation under a particular scale regime. The introduced formalism explains why a single scale equation can produce distinct continuous models even if the equation is scale invariant. Typical examples of such equations are given by the scale Euler-Lagrange equation. We illustrate our results using the scale Newton's equation which gives rise to a non-linear diffusion equation or a non-linear Schrödinger equation as asymptotic continuous models depending on the particular fractional scale regime which is considered.

  2. Functional cortical mapping of scale illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-qun; Kuriki, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We have studied cortical activation using 1.5 T fMRI during 'Scale Illusion', a kind of auditory illusion, in which subjects perceive smooth melodies while listening to dichotic irregular pitch sequences consisting of scale tones, in repeated phrases composed of eight tones. Four male and four female subjects listened to different stimuli, that including illusion-inducing tone sequence, monaural tone sequence and perceived pitch sequence with a control of white noises delivered to the right and left ears in random order. 32 scans with a repetition time (TR) 3 s Between 3 s interval for each type of the four stimuli were performed. In BOLD signals, activation was observed in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, parietal lobule and occipital areas by first-level group analysis. However, there existed large intersubject variability such that systematic tendency of the activation was not clear. The study will be continued to obtain larger number of subjects for group analysis. (author)

  3. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  4. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale...... and reflective functioning will be described and implications for psychotherapy discussed. Keywords: Adult attachment, reflective functioning, refugee traumatisation....

  5. Use of Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale in differentiating high and low functioning autism and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS), although it is widely used. This study of 199 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder, 195 with low functioning autism, and 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed high classification accuracy (autism vs. ADHD) for clinicians' GADS Quotients (92%), and somewhat lower accuracy (77%) for parents' Quotients. Both children with high and low functioning autism had clinicians' Quotients (M=99 and 101, respectively) similar to the Asperger's Disorder mean of 100 for the GADS normative sample. Children with high functioning autism scored significantly higher on the cognitive patterns subscale than children with low functioning autism, and the latter had higher scores on the remaining subscales: social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior, and pragmatic skills. Using the clinicians' Quotient and Cognitive Patterns score, 70% of children were correctly identified as having high or low functioning autism or ADHD.

  6. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Towards the planning and design of disturbance patterns across scales to counter biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Irene Petrosillo; Kenneth Bruce Jones; Bai-Lian Li; Kurt Hans Riitters; Pietro Medagli; Silvano Marchiori; Nicola Zaccarelli

    2013-01-01

    The way in which disturbances from human land use are patterned in space across scales can have important consequences for efforts to govern human/environment with regard to, but not only, invasive spread-dispersal processes. In this context, we explore the potential of disturbance patterns along a continuum of scales as proxies for identifying the geographical regions...

  8. Patterns of disturbance at multiple scales in real and simulated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Kurt H. Riitters; Nicola Zaccarelli; Irene Petrosoillo

    2007-01-01

    We describe a framework to characterize and interpret the spatial patterns of disturbances at multiple scales in socio-ecological systems. Domains of scale are defined in pattern metric space and mapped in geographic space, which can help to understand how anthropogenic disturbances might impact biodiversity through habitat modification. The approach identifies typical...

  9. Developing knowledge level scale of functional foods: Validity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop a scale to determine the knowledge levels of University students on functional foods and to investigate the validity and reliability of the scale. The research was conducted on 417 (209 girls and 208 boys) undergraduate students in Selcuk University regarding functional foods.

  10. Image Correlation Pattern Optimization for Micro-Scale In-Situ Strain Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Cannon, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is a function of three primary ingredients: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Development of the first two (i.e. image acquisition techniques and image correlation algorithms) has led to widespread use of DIC; however, fewer developments have been focused on the third ingredient. Typically, subjects of DIC images are mechanical specimens with either a natural surface pattern or a pattern applied to the surface. Research in the area of DIC patterns has primarily been aimed at identifying which surface patterns are best suited for DIC, by comparing patterns to each other. Because the easiest and most widespread methods of applying patterns have a high degree of randomness associated with them (e.g., airbrush, spray paint, particle decoration, etc.), less effort has been spent on exact construction of ideal patterns. With the development of patterning techniques such as microstamping and lithography, patterns can be applied to a specimen pixel by pixel from a patterned image. In these cases, especially because the patterns are reused many times, an optimal pattern is sought such that error introduced into DIC from the pattern is minimized. DIC consists of tracking the motion of an array of nodes from a reference image to a deformed image. Every pixel in the images has an associated intensity (grayscale) value, with discretization depending on the bit depth of the image. Because individual pixel matching by intensity value yields a non-unique scale-dependent problem, subsets around each node are used for identification. A correlation criteria is used to find the best match of a particular subset of a reference image within a deformed image. The reader is referred to references for enumerations of typical correlation criteria. As illustrated by Schreier and Sutton and Lu and Cary systematic errors can be introduced by representing the underlying deformation with under

  11. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  12. A probabilistic approach to quantifying spatial patterns of flow regimes and network-scale connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Silvia; Alessi Celegon, Elisa; Fanton, Pietro; Botter, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The temporal variability of river flow regime is a key feature structuring and controlling fluvial ecological communities and ecosystem processes. In particular, streamflow variability induced by climate/landscape heterogeneities or other anthropogenic factors significantly affects the connectivity between streams with notable implication for river fragmentation. Hydrologic connectivity is a fundamental property that guarantees species persistence and ecosystem integrity in riverine systems. In riverine landscapes, most ecological transitions are flow-dependent and the structure of flow regimes may affect ecological functions of endemic biota (i.e., fish spawning or grazing of invertebrate species). Therefore, minimum flow thresholds must be guaranteed to support specific ecosystem services, like fish migration, aquatic biodiversity and habitat suitability. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially-explicit, quantitative assessment of hydrologic connectivity at the network-scale as derived from river flow variability. Dynamics of daily streamflows are estimated based on catchment-scale climatic and morphological features, integrating a stochastic, physically based approach that accounts for the stochasticity of rainfall with a water balance model and a geomorphic recession flow model. The non-exceedance probability of ecologically meaningful flow thresholds is used to evaluate the fragmentation of individual stream reaches, and the ensuing network-scale connectivity metrics. A multi-dimensional Poisson Process for the stochastic generation of rainfall is used to evaluate the impact of climate signature on reach-scale and catchment-scale connectivity. The analysis shows that streamflow patterns and network-scale connectivity are influenced by the topology of the river network and the spatial variability of climatic properties (rainfall, evapotranspiration). The framework offers a robust basis for the prediction of the impact of

  13. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  14. Pattern recognition invariant under changes of scale and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Henri H.; Parent, Sebastien; Moisan, Sylvain

    1997-08-01

    We have used a modified method proposed by neiberg and Casasent to successfully classify five kinds of military vehicles. The method uses a wedge filter to achieve scale invariance, and lines in a multi-dimensional feature space correspond to each target with out-of-plane orientations over 360 degrees around a vertical axis. The images were not binarized, but were filtered in a preprocessing step to reduce aliasing. The feature vectors were normalized and orthogonalized by means of a neural network. Out-of-plane rotations of 360 degrees and scale changes of a factor of four were considered. Error-free classification was achieved.

  15. Large-scale hydrology in Europe : observed patterns and model performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas

    2011-06-15

    In a changing climate, terrestrial water storages are of great interest as water availability impacts key aspects of ecosystem functioning. Thus, a better understanding of the variations of wet and dry periods will contribute to fully grasp processes of the earth system such as nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamics. Currently, river runoff from small, nearly natural, catchments is one of the few variables of the terrestrial water balance that is regularly monitored with detailed spatial and temporal coverage on large scales. River runoff, therefore, provides a foundation to approach European hydrology with respect to observed patterns on large scales, with regard to the ability of models to capture these.The analysis of observed river flow from small catchments, focused on the identification and description of spatial patterns of simultaneous temporal variations of runoff. These are dominated by large-scale variations of climatic variables but also altered by catchment processes. It was shown that time series of annual low, mean and high flows follow the same atmospheric drivers. The observation that high flows are more closely coupled to large scale atmospheric drivers than low flows, indicates the increasing influence of catchment properties on runoff under dry conditions. Further, it was shown that the low-frequency variability of European runoff is dominated by two opposing centres of simultaneous variations, such that dry years in the north are accompanied by wet years in the south.Large-scale hydrological models are simplified representations of our current perception of the terrestrial water balance on large scales. Quantification of the models strengths and weaknesses is the prerequisite for a reliable interpretation of simulation results. Model evaluations may also enable to detect shortcomings with model assumptions and thus enable a refinement of the current perception of hydrological systems. The ability of a multi model ensemble of nine large-scale

  16. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study......Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...

  17. Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-12-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures enable nanometre-precise patterning that can be used to create programmable molecular machines and arrays of functional materials. DNA origami is particularly versatile in this context because each DNA strand in the origami nanostructure occupies a unique position and can serve as a uniquely addressable pixel. However, the scale of such structures has been limited to about 0.05 square micrometres, hindering applications that demand a larger layout and integration with more conventional patterning methods. Hierarchical multistage assembly of simple sets of tiles can in principle overcome this limitation, but so far has not been sufficiently robust to enable successful implementation of larger structures using DNA origami tiles. Here we show that by using simple local assembly rules that are modified and applied recursively throughout a hierarchical, multistage assembly process, a small and constant set of unique DNA strands can be used to create DNA origami arrays of increasing size and with arbitrary patterns. We illustrate this method, which we term ‘fractal assembly’, by producing DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with up to 8,704 pixels, allowing us to render images such as the Mona Lisa and a rooster. We find that self-assembly of the tiles into arrays is unaffected by changes in surface patterns on the tiles, and that the yield of the fractal assembly process corresponds to about 0.95m - 1 for arrays containing m tiles. When used in conjunction with a software tool that we developed that converts an arbitrary pattern into DNA sequences and experimental protocols, our assembly method is readily accessible and will facilitate the construction of sophisticated materials and devices with sizes similar to that of a bacterium using DNA nanostructures.

  18. Uniform functional structure across spatial scales in an intertidal benthic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R S K; Hamylton, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the causes of the remarkable similarity of emergent assemblage properties that has been demonstrated across disparate intertidal seagrass sites and assemblages, this study examined whether their emergent functional-group metrics are scale related by testing the null hypothesis that functional diversity and the suite of dominant functional groups in seagrass-associated macrofauna are robust structural features of such assemblages and do not vary spatially across nested scales within a 0.4 ha area. This was carried out via a lattice of 64 spatially referenced stations. Although densities of individual components were patchily dispersed across the locality, rank orders of importance of the 14 functional groups present, their overall functional diversity and evenness, and the proportions of the total individuals contained within each showed, in contrast, statistically significant spatial uniformity, even at areal scales functional groups in their geospatial context also revealed weaker than expected levels of spatial autocorrelation, and then only at the smaller scales and amongst the most dominant groups, and only a small number of negative correlations occurred between the proportional importances of the individual groups. In effect, such patterning was a surface veneer overlying remarkable stability of assemblage functional composition across all spatial scales. Although assemblage species composition is known to be homogeneous in some soft-sediment marine systems over equivalent scales, this combination of patchy individual components yet basically constant functional-group structure seems as yet unreported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Taiwan’s Rainfall Patterns with Large-Scale Oceanic and Atmospheric Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year (1960–2009 monthly rainfall gridded dataset produced by the Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform Project was presented in this study. The gridded data (5 × 5 km displayed influence of topography on spatial variability of rainfall, and the results of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs analysis revealed the patterns associated with the large-scale sea surface temperature variability over Pacific. The first mode (65% revealed the annual peaks of large rainfall in the southwestern mountainous area, which is associated with southwest monsoons and typhoons during summertime. The second temporal EOF mode (16% revealed the rainfall variance associated with the monsoon and its interaction with the slopes of the mountain range. This pattern is the major contributor to spatial variance of rainfall in Taiwan, as indicated by the first mode (40% of spatial variance EOF analysis. The second temporal EOF mode correlated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. In particular, during the autumn of the La Niña years following the strong El Niño years, the time-varying amplitude was substantially greater than that of normal years. The third temporal EOF mode (7% revealed a north-south out-of-phase rainfall pattern, the slowly evolving variations of which were in phase with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Because of Taiwan’s geographic location and the effect of local terrestrial structures, climate variability related to ENSO differed markedly from other regions in East Asia.

  20. An antisymmetric psychometric function on a logarithmic scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This very brief report introduces a psychometric function, very suitable for psychophysical data that displays Weber-like behaviour, because it is antisymmetric on a logarithmic scale. © 2011 a Pion publication.

  1. PATTERN CLASSIFICATION APPROACHES TO MATCHING BUILDING POLYGONS AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching of building polygons with different levels of detail is crucial in the maintenance and quality assessment of multi-representation databases. Two general problems need to be addressed in the matching process: (1 Which criteria are suitable? (2 How to effectively combine different criteria to make decisions? This paper mainly focuses on the second issue and views data matching as a supervised pattern classification. Several classifiers (i.e. decision trees, Naive Bayes and support vector machines are evaluated for the matching task. Four criteria (i.e. position, size, shape and orientation are used to extract information for these classifiers. Evidence shows that these classifiers outperformed the weighted average approach.

  2. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  3. A scaling study of the step scaling function of quenched QCD with improved gauge actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Aoki, S.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kaneko, T.; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the scaling behavior of the step scaling function for SU(3) gauge theory, employing the Iwasaki gauge action and the Luescher-Weisz gauge action. In particular, we test the choice of boundary counter terms and apply a perturbative procedure for removal of lattice artifacts for the simulation results in the extrapolation procedure. We confirm the universality of the step scaling functions at both weak and strong coupling regions. We also measure the low energy scale ratio with the Iwasaki action, and confirm its universality

  4. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI.

  5. Multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates via laser-assisted transfer-printing process

    KAUST Repository

    Park, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    A laser-assisted transfer-printing process is developed for multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates using femtosecond laser scanning on a graphene/metal substrate and transfer techniques without using multi-step patterning processes. The short pulse nature of a femtosecond laser on a graphene/copper sheet enables fabrication of high-resolution graphene patterns. Thanks to the scale up, fast, direct writing, multi-scale with high resolution, and reliable process characteristics, it can be an alternative pathway to the multi-step photolithography methods for printing arbitrary graphene patterns on desired substrates. We also demonstrate transparent strain devices without expensive photomasks and multi-step patterning process. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  7. Test Review: Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee-Smith, Paula J.; Winters, Rebecca R.; Drake, Amanda; Joslin, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), authored by Russell A. Barkley and published by Guilford in 2011, is an individually administered assessment tool that may be used to evaluate adults ages 18 to 81. The purpose of this measure is to screen those who may be experiencing executive functioning (EF) deficits in…

  8. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  9. Modified scaling function projective synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yu-Hua; Zhou Wu-Neng; Fang Jian-An

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates a kind of modified scaling function projective synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using an adaptive controller. The given scaling function in the new method can be an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or even a chaotic attractor in the phase space. Based on LaSalle's invariance set principle, the adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two chaotic systems function projective synchronized. Some numerical examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (general)

  10. Auditory Multi-Stability: Idiosyncratic Perceptual Switching Patterns, Executive Functions and Personality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Farkas

    Full Text Available Multi-stability refers to the phenomenon of perception stochastically switching between possible interpretations of an unchanging stimulus. Despite considerable variability, individuals show stable idiosyncratic patterns of switching between alternative perceptions in the auditory streaming paradigm. We explored correlates of the individual switching patterns with executive functions, personality traits, and creativity. The main dimensions on which individual switching patterns differed from each other were identified using multidimensional scaling. Individuals with high scores on the dimension explaining the largest portion of the inter-individual variance switched more often between the alternative perceptions than those with low scores. They also perceived the most unusual interpretation more often, and experienced all perceptual alternatives with a shorter delay from stimulus onset. The ego-resiliency personality trait, which reflects a tendency for adaptive flexibility and experience seeking, was significantly positively related to this dimension. Taking these results together we suggest that this dimension may reflect the individual's tendency for exploring the auditory environment. Executive functions were significantly related to some of the variables describing global properties of the switching patterns, such as the average number of switches. Thus individual patterns of perceptual switching in the auditory streaming paradigm are related to some personality traits and executive functions.

  11. Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Chen, B.; Abades, S.; Reino, L.; Teng, S.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Huang, Z.Y.X.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist

  12. Estimating local scaling properties for the classification of interstitial lung disease patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismueller, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Local scaling properties of texture regions were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honeycombing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and the estimation of local scaling properties with Scaling Index Method (SIM). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions including the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the set of SIM features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p < 0.005) for both classifiers with the highest accuracy (94.1%, 93.7%; for the k-NN and RBFN classifier, respectively). The best standard texture features were the GLCM features 'homogeneity' (91.8%, 87.2%) and 'absolute value' (90.2%, 88.5%). The results indicate that advanced texture features using local scaling properties can provide superior classification performance in computer-assisted diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  13. Development of bilingual tools to assess functional health patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krozy, R E; McCarthy, N C

    1999-01-01

    The theory and process of developing bilingual assessment tools based on Gordon's 11 functional health patterns. To facilitate assessing the individual, family, and community in a student clinical practicum in a Spanish-speaking country. Multiple family and community health promotion theories; translation theories, Gordon's Manual of Nursing Diagnosis (1982); translation/back-translation involving Ecuadorian faculty and students; student community assessments; faculty and staff workshops in Ecuador. Bilingual, culturally sensitive health assessment tools facilitate history taking, establish nursing diagnoses and interventions, and promote mutual learning. These outcomes demonstrate potential application to other systems in the international nursing community.

  14. Deep-UV patterning of commercial grade PMMA for low-cost, large-scale microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiducu, M; Rahbar, M; Foulds, I G; Johnstone, R W; Sameoto, D; Parameswaran, M

    2008-01-01

    Although PMMA can be exposed using a variety of exposure sources, deep-UV at 254 nm is of interest because it is relatively inexpensive. Additionally, deep-UV sources can be readily scaled to large area exposures. Moreover, this paper will show that depths of over 100µm can be created in commercial grade PMMA using an uncollimated source. These depths are sufficient for creating microfluidic channels. This paper will provide measurements of the dissolution depth of commercial grade PMMA as a function of the exposure dose and etch time, using an IPA:H 2 O developer. Additionally, experiments were run to characterize the dependence of the dissolution rate on temperature and agitation. The patterned substrates were thermally bonded to blank PMMA pieces to enclose the channels and ports were drilled into the reservoirs. The resulting fluidic systems were then tested for leakage. The work herein presents the patterning, development and system behaviour of a complete microfluidics system based on commercial grade PMMA

  15. The family receiving home care: functional health pattern assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J I

    1996-01-01

    The winds of change in health care make assessment of the family more important than ever as a tool for health care providers seeking to assist the family move themselves toward high-level wellness. Limited medical care and imposed self-responsibility for health promotion and illness prevention, which are natural consequences of these changes, move the locus of control for health management back to the family. The family's teachings, modeling, and interactions are greater influences than ever on the health of the patient. Gordon's functional health patterns provide a holistic model for assessment of the family because assessment data are classified under 11 headings: health perception and health management, nutritional-metabolic, elimination, activity and exercise, sleep and rest, cognition and perception, self-perception and self-concept, roles and relationships, sexuality and reproduction, coping and stress tolerance, and values and beliefs. Questions posed under each of the health patterns can be varied to reflect the uniqueness of the individual family as well as to inquire about family strengths and weaknesses in all patterns. Data using this model provide a comprehensive base for including the family in designing a plan of care.

  16. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  17. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Emma; Sandin, Leonard; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  18. Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-01-01

    Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.

  19. Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-07-01

    Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.

  20. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  1. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Dickens, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen-oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data...... and a reduction in calculational uncertainty is obtained. For adsorbates, we find that the systematic error largely cancels the vdW interaction missing in the original determination of the scaling relation. An improved scaling relation, which is fully independent of the applied exchange-correlation functional...

  2. Large-scale Meteorological Patterns Associated with Extreme Precipitation Events over Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, C.; Loikith, P. C.; Lintner, B. R.; Pike, M.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events can have profound impacts on human life and infrastructure, with broad implications across a range of stakeholders. Changes to extreme precipitation events are a projected outcome of climate change that warrants further study, especially at regional- to local-scales. While global climate models are generally capable of simulating mean climate at global-to-regional scales with reasonable skill, resiliency and adaptation decisions are made at local-scales where most state-of-the-art climate models are limited by coarse resolution. Characterization of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events at local-scales can provide climatic information without this scale limitation, thus facilitating stakeholder decision-making. This research will use synoptic climatology as a tool by which to characterize the key large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events in the Portland, Oregon metro region. Composite analysis of meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation days, and associated watershed-specific flooding, is employed to enhance understanding of the climatic drivers behind such events. The self-organizing maps approach is then used to characterize the within-composite variability of the large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events, allowing us to better understand the different types of meteorological conditions that lead to high-impact precipitation events and associated hydrologic impacts. A more comprehensive understanding of the meteorological drivers of extremes will aid in evaluation of the ability of climate models to capture key patterns associated with extreme precipitation over Portland and to better interpret projections of future climate at impact-relevant scales.

  3. Conservation patterns in different functional sequence categoriesof divergent Drosophila species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Kislyuk, Andrey; Levine, Michael; Dubchak, Inna

    2005-10-01

    We have explored the distributions of fully conservedungapped blocks in genome-wide pairwise alignments of recently completedspecies of Drosophila: D.yakuba, D.ananassae, D.pseudoobscura, D.virilisand D.mojavensis. Based on these distributions we have found that nearlyevery functional sequence category possesses its own distinctiveconservation pattern, sometimes independent of the overall sequenceconservation level. In the coding and regulatory regions, the ungappedblocks were longer than in introns, UTRs and non-functional sequences. Atthe same time, the blocks in the coding regions carried 3N+2 signaturecharacteristic to synonymic substitutions in the 3rd codon positions.Larger block sizes in transcription regulatory regions can be explainedby the presence of conserved arrays of binding sites for transcriptionfactors. We also have shown that the longest ungapped blocks, or'ultraconserved' sequences, are associated with specific gene groups,including those encoding ion channels and components of the cytoskeleton.We discussed how restrained conservation patterns may help in mappingfunctional sequence categories and improving genomeannotation.

  4. Protein functional features are reflected in the patterns of mRNA translation speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-09

    The degeneracy of the genetic code makes it possible for the same amino acid string to be coded by different messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. These "synonymous mRNAs" may differ largely in a number of aspects related to their overall translational efficiency, such as secondary structure content and availability of the encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Consequently, they may render different yields of the translated polypeptides. These mRNA features related to translation efficiency are also playing a role locally, resulting in a non-uniform translation speed along the mRNA, which has been previously related to some protein structural features and also used to explain some dramatic effects of "silent" single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work we perform the first large scale analysis of the relationship between three experimental proxies of mRNA local translation efficiency and the local features of the corresponding encoded proteins. We found that a number of protein functional and structural features are reflected in the patterns of ribosome occupancy, secondary structure and tRNA availability along the mRNA. One or more of these proxies of translation speed have distinctive patterns around the mRNA regions coding for certain protein local features. In some cases the three patterns follow a similar trend. We also show specific examples where these patterns of translation speed point to the protein's important structural and functional features. This support the idea that the genome not only codes the protein functional features as sequences of amino acids, but also as subtle patterns of mRNA properties which, probably through local effects on the translation speed, have some consequence on the final polypeptide. These results open the possibility of predicting a protein's functional regions based on a single genomic sequence, and have implications for heterologous protein expression and fine-tuning protein function.

  5. Development of a scale of executive functioning for the RBANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert J; Kitchen Andren, Katherine A; Tolle, Kathryn A

    2018-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test. Participants included Veterans referred for outpatient neuropsychological testing. Items were initially selected based on theoretical literature and were retained based on item-total correlations. The RBANS EE (a percentage calculated by dividing the number of dysexecutive errors by the total number of responses) was moderately related to each of seven established measures of executive functioning and was strongly predictive of dichotomous classification of executive impairment. Thus, the scale had solid concurrent validity, justifying its use as a supplementary scale. The RBANS EE requires no additional administration time and can provide a quantified measure of otherwise unmeasured aspects of executive functioning.

  6. Identification of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation in the US northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Laurie; Barlow, Mathew; Feldstein, Steven B.; Gutowski, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Patterns of daily large-scale circulation associated with Northeast US extreme precipitation are identified using both k-means clustering (KMC) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) applied to tropopause height. The tropopause height provides a compact representation of the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity, which is closely related to the overall evolution and intensity of weather systems. Extreme precipitation is defined as the top 1% of daily wet-day observations at 35 Northeast stations, 1979-2008. KMC is applied on extreme precipitation days only, while the SOM algorithm is applied to all days in order to place the extreme results into the overall context of patterns for all days. Six tropopause patterns are identified through KMC for extreme day precipitation: a summertime tropopause ridge, a summertime shallow trough/ridge, a summertime shallow eastern US trough, a deeper wintertime eastern US trough, and two versions of a deep cold-weather trough located across the east-central US. Thirty SOM patterns for all days are identified. Results for all days show that 6 SOM patterns account for almost half of the extreme days, although extreme precipitation occurs in all SOM patterns. The same SOM patterns associated with extreme precipitation also routinely produce non-extreme precipitation; however, on extreme precipitation days the troughs, on average, are deeper and the downstream ridges more pronounced. Analysis of other fields associated with the large-scale patterns show various degrees of anomalously strong moisture transport preceding, and upward motion during, extreme precipitation events.

  7. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL) independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  8. Exploring Multi-Scale Spatiotemporal Twitter User Mobility Patterns with a Visual-Analytics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns is of great importance for urban planning, traffic management, and even marketing campaign. However, the capability of capturing detailed human movements with fine-grained spatial and temporal granularity is still limited. In this study, we extracted high-resolution mobility data from a collection of over 1.3 billion geo-located Twitter messages. Regarding the concerns of infringement on individual privacy, such as the mobile phone call records with restricted access, the dataset is collected from publicly accessible Twitter data streams. In this paper, we employed a visual-analytics approach to studying multi-scale spatiotemporal Twitter user mobility patterns in the contiguous United States during the year 2014. Our approach included a scalable visual-analytics framework to deliver efficiency and scalability in filtering large volume of geo-located tweets, modeling and extracting Twitter user movements, generating space-time user trajectories, and summarizing multi-scale spatiotemporal user mobility patterns. We performed a set of statistical analysis to understand Twitter user mobility patterns across multi-level spatial scales and temporal ranges. In particular, Twitter user mobility patterns measured by the displacements and radius of gyrations of individuals revealed multi-scale or multi-modal Twitter user mobility patterns. By further studying such mobility patterns in different temporal ranges, we identified both consistency and seasonal fluctuations regarding the distance decay effects in the corresponding mobility patterns. At the same time, our approach provides a geo-visualization unit with an interactive 3D virtual globe web mapping interface for exploratory geo-visual analytics of the multi-level spatiotemporal Twitter user movements.

  9. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Modeling urbanization patterns at a global scale with generative adversarial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A. T.; Strano, E.; Gonzalez, M.

    2017-12-01

    Current demographic projections show that, in the next 30 years, global population growth will mostly take place in developing countries. Coupled with a decrease in density, such population growth could potentially double the land occupied by settlements by 2050. The lack of reliable and globally consistent socio-demographic data, coupled with the limited predictive performance underlying traditional urban spatial explicit models, call for developing better predictive methods, calibrated using a globally-consistent dataset. Thus, richer models of the spatial interplay between the urban built-up land, population distribution and energy use are central to the discussion around the expansion and development of cities, and their impact on the environment in the context of a changing climate. In this talk we discuss methods for, and present an analysis of, urban form, defined as the spatial distribution of macroeconomic quantities that characterize a city, using modern machine learning methods and best-available remote-sensing data for the world's largest 25,000 cities. We first show that these cities may be described by a small set of patterns in radial building density, nighttime luminosity, and population density, which highlight, to first order, differences in development and land use across the world. We observe significant, spatially-dependent variance around these typical patterns, which would be difficult to model using traditional statistical methods. We take a first step in addressing this challenge by developing CityGAN, a conditional generative adversarial network model for simulating realistic urban forms. To guide learning and measure the quality of the simulated synthetic cities, we develop a specialized loss function for GAN optimization that incorporates standard spatial statistics used by urban analysis experts. Our framework is a stark departure from both the standard physics-based approaches in the literature (that view urban forms as fractals with a

  12. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  13. Interspecific scaling patterns of talar articular surfaces within primates and their closest living relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M

    2014-01-01

    The articular facets of interosseous joints must transmit forces while maintaining relatively low stresses. To prevent overloading, joints that transmit higher forces should therefore have larger facet areas. The relative contributions of body mass and muscle-induced forces to joint stress are unclear, but generate opposing hypotheses. If mass-induced forces dominate, facet area should scale with positive allometry to body mass. Alternatively, muscle-induced forces should cause facets to scale isometrically with body mass. Within primates, both scaling patterns have been reported for articular surfaces of the femoral and humeral heads, but more distal elements are less well studied. Additionally, examination of complex articular surfaces has largely been limited to linear measurements, so that ‘true area' remains poorly assessed. To re-assess these scaling relationships, we examine the relationship between body size and articular surface areas of the talus. Area measurements were taken from microCT scan-generated surfaces of all talar facets from a comprehensive sample of extant euarchontan taxa (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Log-transformed data were regressed on literature-derived log-body mass using reduced major axis and phylogenetic least squares regressions. We examine the scaling patterns of muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) to body mass, as these relationships may complicate each model. Finally, we examine the scaling pattern of hindlimb muscle PCSA to talar articular surface area, a direct test of the effect of mass-induced forces on joint surfaces. Among most groups, there is an overall trend toward positive allometry for articular surfaces. The ectal (= posterior calcaneal) facet scales with positive allometry among all groups except ‘sundatherians', strepsirrhines, galagids, and lorisids. The medial tibial facet scales isometrically among all groups except lemuroids. Scaling coefficients are not correlated with sample

  14. Hybrid approaches to nanometer-scale patterning: Exploiting tailored intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Thomas J.; Srinivasan, Charan; Shuster, Mitchell J.; Horn, Mark W.; Andrews, Anne M.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    In this perspective, we explore hybrid approaches to nanometer-scale patterning, where the precision of molecular self-assembly is combined with the sophistication and fidelity of lithography. Two areas - improving existing lithographic techniques through self-assembly and fabricating chemically patterned surfaces - will be discussed in terms of their advantages, limitations, applications, and future outlook. The creation of such chemical patterns enables new capabilities, including the assembly of biospecific surfaces to be recognized by, and to capture analytes from, complex mixtures. Finally, we speculate on the potential impact and upcoming challenges of these hybrid strategies.

  15. An Examination of Psychometric Properties of Positive Functional Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saide Umut ZEYBEK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community sample’s PFAS score. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS’ life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66

  16. Properties of the Magnitude Terms of Orthogonal Scaling Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Peter C; Havlicek, Joseph P; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

    2010-09-01

    The spectrum of the convolution of two continuous functions can be determined as the continuous Fourier transform of the cross-correlation function. The same can be said about the spectrum of the convolution of two infinite discrete sequences, which can be determined as the discrete time Fourier transform of the cross-correlation function of the two sequences. In current digital signal processing, the spectrum of the contiuous Fourier transform and the discrete time Fourier transform are approximately determined by numerical integration or by densely taking the discrete Fourier transform. It has been shown that all three transforms share many analogous properties. In this paper we will show another useful property of determining the spectrum terms of the convolution of two finite length sequences by determining the discrete Fourier transform of the modified cross-correlation function. In addition, two properties of the magnitude terms of orthogonal wavelet scaling functions are developed. These properties are used as constraints for an exhaustive search to determine an robust lower bound on conjoint localization of orthogonal scaling functions.

  17. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  18. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-07-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  19. [Scale effect of Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern and connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya Ping; Yin, Hai Wei; Kong, Fan Hua; Wang, Jing Jing; Xu, Wen Bin

    2016-07-01

    Based on ArcGIS, Erdas, GuidosToolbox, Conefor and other software platforms, using morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis methods, this paper quantitatively analysed the scale effect, edge effect and distance effect of the Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern in 2013 by setting different pixel sizes (P) and edge widths in MSPA analysis, and setting different dispersal distance thresholds in landscape connectivity analysis. The results showed that the type of landscape acquired based on the MSPA had a clear scale effect and edge effect, and scale effects only slightly affected landscape types, whereas edge effects were more obvious. Different dispersal distances had a great impact on the landscape connectivity, 2 km or 2.5 km dispersal distance was a critical threshold for Nanjing. When selecting the pixel size 30 m of the input data and the edge wide 30 m used in the morphological model, we could get more detailed landscape information of Nanjing UGI network. Based on MSPA and landscape connectivity, analysis of the scale effect, edge effect, and distance effect on the landscape types of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) network was helpful for selecting the appropriate size, edge width, and dispersal distance when developing these networks, and for better understanding the spatial pattern of UGI networks and the effects of scale and distance on the ecology of a UGI network. This would facilitate a more scientifically valid set of design parameters for UGI network spatiotemporal pattern analysis. The results of this study provided an important reference for Nanjing UGI networks and a basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of medium-scale UGI landscape networks in other regions.

  20. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies : Curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G.

  1. CNNs flag recognition preprocessing scheme based on gray scale stretching and local binary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Qu, Zhiyi; Hao, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Flag is a rather special recognition target in image recognition because of its non-rigid features with the location, scale and rotation characteristics. The location change can be handled well by the depth learning algorithm Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), but the scale and rotation changes are quite a challenge for CNNs. Since it has good rotation and gray scale invariance, the local binary pattern (LBP) is combined with grayscale stretching and CNNs to make LBP and grayscale stretching as CNNs pretreatment, which can not only significantly improve the efficiency of flag recognition, but can also evaluate the recognition effect through ROC, accuracy, MSE and quality factor.

  2. Predicting the effect of fire on large-scale vegetation patterns in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Ernesto. Alvarado

    1996-01-01

    Changes in fire regimes are expected across North America in response to anticipated global climatic changes. Potential changes in large-scale vegetation patterns are predicted as a result of altered fire frequencies. A new vegetation classification was developed by condensing Kuchler potential natural vegetation types into aggregated types that are relatively...

  3. Landscape-scale patterns of fire and drought on the high plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette Ford; Charles Jackson; Matthew Reeves; Benjamin Bird; Dave Turner

    2015-01-01

    We examine 31 years (1982-2012) of temperature, precipitation and natural wildfire occurrence data for Federal and Tribal lands to determine landscape-scale patterns of drought and fire on the southern and central High Plains of the western United States. The High Plains states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and...

  4. Biogeographical and anthropogenic determinants of landscape-scale patterns of raptors in West African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Komdeur, Jan

    Strong raptor population declines have recently been reported in sub-Saharan West Africa, where the pressure on wildlife and their supporting habitats is particularly high. This makes it imperative to understand the role of land-use on landscape-scale patterns of raptors and to define priority areas

  5. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  6. Density Functional Theory and Materials Modeling at Atomistic Length Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Ghosh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We discuss the basic concepts of density functional theory (DFT as applied to materials modeling in the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales. The picture that emerges is that of a single unified framework for the study of both quantum and classical systems. While for quantum DFT, the central equation is a one-particle Schrodinger-like Kohn-Sham equation, the classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential, the exact functional form of which is unknown. One therefore approximates the exchange-correlation potential for quantum systems and the excess free energy density functional or the direct correlation functions for classical systems. Illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of molecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are highlighted.

  7. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Yue, Weisheng; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  8. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin

    2015-01-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  9. Measuring floodplain spatial patterns using continuous surface metrics at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Murray W.; Thoms, Martin C.; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fluvial processes and floodplain ecosystems occur upon a floodplain surface that is often physically complex. Spatial patterns in floodplain topography have only recently been quantified over multiple scales, and discrepancies exist in how floodplain surfaces are perceived to be spatially organised. We measured spatial patterns in floodplain topography for pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, using moving window analyses of eight surface metrics applied to a 1 × 1 m2 DEM over multiple scales. The metrics used were Range, SD, Skewness, Kurtosis, CV, SDCURV,Rugosity, and Vol:Area, and window sizes ranged from 10 to 1000 m in radius. Surface metric values were highly variable across the floodplain and revealed a high degree of spatial organisation in floodplain topography. Moran's I correlograms fit to the landscape of each metric at each window size revealed that patchiness existed at nearly all window sizes, but the strength and scale of patchiness changed within window size, suggesting that multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure exist in the topography of this floodplain. Scale thresholds in the spatial patterns were observed, particularly between the 50 and 100 m window sizes for all surface metrics and between the 500 and 750 m window sizes for most metrics. These threshold scales are ~ 15–20% and 150% of the main channel width (1–2% and 10–15% of the floodplain width), respectively. These thresholds may be related to structuring processes operating across distinct scale ranges. By coupling surface metrics, multi-scale analyses, and correlograms, quantifying floodplain topographic complexity is possible in ways that should assist in clarifying how floodplain ecosystems are structured.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  11. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  12. The Minimum Data Set 3.0 Cognitive Function Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Dosa, David; Wysocki, Andrea; Mor, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 introduced the Brief Interview for Mental Status (BIMS), a short performance-based cognitive screener for nursing home (NH) residents. Not all residents are able to complete the BIMS and are consequently assessed by staff. We designed a Cognitive Function Scale (CFS) integrating self-report and staff-report data and present evidence of the scale's construct validity. A retrospective cohort study. The subjects consisted of 3 cohorts: (1) long-stay NH residents (N=941,077) and (2) new admissions (N=2,066,580) during 2011-2012, and (3) residents with the older MDS 2.0 assessment in 2010 and the newer MDS 3.0 assessment (n=688,511). MDS 3.0 items were used to create a single, integrated 4-category hierarchical CFS that was compared with residents' prior MDS 2.0 Cognitive Performance Scale scores and other concurrent MDS 3.0 measures of construct validity. The new CFS suggests that 28% of the long-stay cohort in 2011-2012 were cognitively intact, 22% were mildly impaired, 33% were moderately impaired, and 17% were severely impaired. For the admission cohort, the CFS noted 56% as cognitively intact, 23% as mildly impaired, 17% as moderately impaired, and 4% as severely impaired. The CFS corresponded closely with residents' prior MDS 2.0 Cognitive Performance Scale scores and with performance of Activities of Daily Living, and nurses' judgments of function and behavior in both the admission and long-stay cohorts. The new CFS is valuable to researchers as it provides a single, integrated measure of NH residents' cognitive function, regardless of the mode of assessment.

  13. multi scale analysis of a function by neural networks elementary derivatives functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikhi, A.; Gougam, A.; Chafa, F.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the wavelet network has been introduced as a special neural network supported by the wavelet theory . Such networks constitute a tool for function approximation problems as it has been already proved in reference . Our present work deals with this model, treating a multi scale analysis of a function. We have then used a linear expansion of a given function in wavelets, neglecting the usual translation parameters. We investigate two training operations. The first one consists on an optimization of the output synaptic layer, the second one, optimizing the output function with respect to scale parameters. We notice a temporary merging of the scale parameters leading to some interesting results : new elementary derivatives units emerge, representing a new elementary task, which is the derivative of the output task

  14. [Spatial scale effect of urban land use landscape pattern in Shanghai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hua; Yue, Wen Ze; Cao, Yu

    2007-12-01

    Based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques, the landscape classes of urban land use in Shanghai City were extracted from SPOT images with 5 m spatial resolution in 2002, and then, the classified data were applied to quantitatively explore the change patterns of several basic landscape metrics at different scales. The results indicated that landscape metrics were sensitive to grain- and extent variance. Urban landscape pattern was spatially dependent. In other words, different landscape metrics showed different responses to scale. The resolution of 40 m was an intrinsic observing scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City since landscape metrics showed random characteristics while the grain was less than 40 m. The extent of 24 km was a symbol scale in a series of extents, which was consistent with the boundary between urban built-up area and suburban area in Shanghai City. As a result, the extent of 12 km away from urban center would be an intrinsic handle scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City. However, due to the complexity of urban structure and asymmetry of urban spatial expansion, the intrinsic handle scale was not regular extent, and the square with size of 24 km was just an approximate intrinsic extent for Shanghai City.

  15. Linking the spatial patterns of organisms and abiotic factors to ecosystem function and management: insights from semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Maestre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and modeling studies have demonstrated the ecological significance of the spatial patterning of organisms on ecosystem functioning and dynamics. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that quantitatively shows how changes in the spatial patterns of the organisms forming biotic communities are directly related to ecosystem structure and functioning. In this article, I review a series of experiments and observational studies conducted in semi-arid environments from Spain (degraded calcareous shrubland, steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima, and gypsum shrublands to: 1 evaluate whether the spatial patterns of the dominant biotic elements in the community are linked to ecosystem structure and functioning, and 2 test if these patterns, and those of abiotic factors, can be used to improve ecosystem restoration. In the semiarid steppes we found a significant positive relationship between the spatial pattern of the perennial plant community and: i the water status of S. tenacissima and ii perennial species richness and diversity. Experimental plantings conducted in these steppes showed that S. tenacissima facilitated the establishment of shrub seedlings, albeit the magnitude and direction of this effect was dependent on rainfall conditions during the first yr after planting. In the gypsum shrubland, a significant, direct relationship between the spatial pattern of the biological soil crusts and surrogates of ecosystem functioning (soil bulk density and respiration was found. In a degraded shrubland with very low vegetation cover, the survival of an introduced population of the shrub Pistacia lentiscus showed marked spatial patterns, which were related to the spatial patterns of soil properties such as soil compaction and sand content. These results provide empirical evidence on the importance of spatial patterns for maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in semi-arid ecosystems

  16. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Qiu

    Full Text Available Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  17. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  18. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad; Ramette, Alban; Kü hl, Michael; Hamza, Waleed; Klatt, Judith M.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  19. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad

    2014-08-06

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats\\' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  20. Patterns of coordinated cortical remodeling during adolescence and their associations with functional specialization and evolutionary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Toledo, Jon B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-03-28

    During adolescence, the human cortex undergoes substantial remodeling to support a rapid expansion of behavioral repertoire. Accurately quantifying these changes is a prerequisite for understanding normal brain development, as well as the neuropsychiatric disorders that emerge in this vulnerable period. Past accounts have demonstrated substantial regional heterogeneity in patterns of brain development, but frequently have been limited by small samples and analytics that do not evaluate complex multivariate imaging patterns. Capitalizing on recent advances in multivariate analysis methods, we used nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to uncover coordinated patterns of cortical development in a sample of 934 youths ages 8-20, who completed structural neuroimaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Patterns of structural covariance (PSCs) derived by NMF were highly reproducible over a range of resolutions, and differed markedly from common gyral-based structural atlases. Moreover, PSCs were largely symmetric and showed correspondence to specific large-scale functional networks. The level of correspondence was ordered according to their functional role and position in the evolutionary hierarchy, being high in lower-order visual and somatomotor networks and diminishing in higher-order association cortex. Furthermore, PSCs showed divergent developmental associations, with PSCs in higher-order association cortex networks showing greater changes with age than primary somatomotor and visual networks. Critically, such developmental changes within PSCs were significantly associated with the degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Together, our findings delineate a set of structural brain networks that undergo coordinated cortical thinning during adolescence, which is in part governed by evolutionary novelty and functional specialization.

  1. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  2. Molecular-Scale Electronics: From Concept to Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Wang, Xiaolong; Jia, Chuancheng; Lee, Takhee; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-04-13

    Creating functional electrical circuits using individual or ensemble molecules, often termed as "molecular-scale electronics", not only meets the increasing technical demands of the miniaturization of traditional Si-based electronic devices, but also provides an ideal window of exploring the intrinsic properties of materials at the molecular level. This Review covers the major advances with the most general applicability and emphasizes new insights into the development of efficient platform methodologies for building reliable molecular electronic devices with desired functionalities through the combination of programmed bottom-up self-assembly and sophisticated top-down device fabrication. First, we summarize a number of different approaches of forming molecular-scale junctions and discuss various experimental techniques for examining these nanoscale circuits in details. We then give a full introduction of characterization techniques and theoretical simulations for molecular electronics. Third, we highlight the major contributions and new concepts of integrating molecular functionalities into electrical circuits. Finally, we provide a critical discussion of limitations and main challenges that still exist for the development of molecular electronics. These analyses should be valuable for deeply understanding charge transport through molecular junctions, the device fabrication process, and the roadmap for future practical molecular electronics.

  3. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wesolowski

    Full Text Available Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  4. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Pindolia, Deepa K; Eagle, Nathan; Smith, David L; Garcia, Andres J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  5. Chip-scale pattern modification method for equalizing residual layer thickness in nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sung-Won; Suzuki, Kenta; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    A software program for modifying a mold design to obtain a uniform residual layer thickness (RLT) distribution has been developed and its validity was verified by UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) simulation. First, the effects of granularity (G) on both residual layer uniformity and filling characteristics were characterized. For a constant complementary pattern depth and a granularity that was sufficiently larger than the minimum pattern width, filling time decreased with the decrease in granularity. For a pattern design with a wide density range and an irregular distribution, the choice of a small granularity was not always a good strategy since the etching depth required for a complementary pattern occasionally exceptionally increased with the decrease in granularity. On basis of the results obtained, the automated method was applied to a chip-scale pattern modification. Simulation results showed a marked improvement in residual layer thickness uniformity for a capacity-equalized (CE) mold. For the given conditions, the standard deviation of RLT decreased in the range from 1/3 to 1/5 in accordance with pattern designs.

  6. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  7. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  8. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    }E4, these kinases regulate one of the E1{sup ∧}E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. - Highlights: • E4 gene products have a modular structure, and are expressed from the E1{sup ∧}E4 spliced mRNA. • E4 proteins are modified during epithelial differentiation by phosphorylation and proteolysis. • The E4 proteins contribute to genome amplification-efficiency and virus synthesis. • E4 proteins are abundantly expressed and may facilitate efficient virus release and transmission. • High-risk E4 proteins are deposited as amyloid fibres and can be used as infection biomarkers.

  9. Musculoskeletal determinants of pelvic sucker function in Hawaiian stream gobiid fishes: interspecific comparisons and allometric scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Gobiid fishes possess a distinctive ventral sucker, formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. This sucker is used to adhere to a wide range of substrates including, in some species, the vertical cliffs of waterfalls that are climbed during upstream migrations. Previous studies of waterfall-climbing goby species have found that pressure differentials and adhesive forces generated by the sucker increase with positive allometry as fish grow in size, despite isometry or negative allometry of sucker area. To produce such scaling patterns for pressure differential and adhesive force, waterfall-climbing gobies might exhibit allometry for other muscular or skeletal components of the pelvic sucker that contribute to its adhesive function. In this study, we used anatomical dissections and modeling to evaluate the potential for allometric growth in the cross-sectional area, effective mechanical advantage (EMA), and force generating capacity of major protractor and retractor muscles of the pelvic sucker (m. protractor ischii and m. retractor ischii) that help to expand the sealed volume of the sucker to produce pressure differentials and adhesive force. We compared patterns for three Hawaiian gobiid species: a nonclimber (Stenogobius hawaiiensis), an ontogenetically limited climber (Awaous guamensis), and a proficient climber (Sicyopterus stimpsoni). Scaling patterns were relatively similar for all three species, typically exhibiting isometric or negatively allometric scaling for the muscles and lever systems examined. Although these scaling patterns do not help to explain the positive allometry of pressure differentials and adhesive force as climbing gobies grow, the best climber among the species we compared, S. stimpsoni, does exhibit the highest calculated estimates of EMA, muscular input force, and output force for pelvic sucker retraction at any body size, potentially facilitating its adhesive ability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Large-scale diversity of slope fishes: pattern inconsistency between multiple diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mérigot, Bastien; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3'- 45°7' N; 5°3'W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness.

  11. Variants of synoptic-scale patterns inducing heavy rains in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, 9-12 (2010), s. 477-483 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420701; GA AV ČR KJB300420802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Widespread heavy rain * synoptic-scale pattern * moisture flux * classification Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2010

  12. Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreangsak Tamee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail.

  13. Nuclear emulsions for the detection of micrometric-scale fringe patterns: an application to positron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Ariga, A.; Bollani, M.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Giammarchi, M.; Lodari, M.; Pistillo, C.; Sala, S.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nuclear emulsions are capable of very high position resolution in the detection of ionizing particles. This feature can be exploited to directly resolve the micrometric-scale fringe pattern produced by a matter-wave interferometer for low energy positrons (in the 10–20 keV range). We have tested the performance of emulsion films in this specific scenario. Exploiting silicon nitride diffraction gratings as absorption masks, we produced periodic patterns with features comparable to the expected interferometer signal. Test samples with periodicities of 6, 7 and 20 μ m were exposed to the positron beam, and the patterns clearly reconstructed. Our results support the feasibility of matter-wave interferometry experiments with positrons.

  14. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R; Paine, C E Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-08-22

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies.

  15. Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, O J; Vekemans, X

    2001-05-01

    The extent and spatial patterns of genetic variation at allozyme markers were investigated within and between diploid and autotetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea L. sensu lato, Asteraceae) at contrasted geographic scales: (1) among populations sampled from a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in the northeastern part of the Belgian Ardennes, and (2) within mixed populations from that zone where diploids and tetraploids coexist. Our data were also compared with a published dataset by Sommer (1990) describing allozyme variation in separate diploid and tetraploid knapweeds populations collected throughout Europe. Genetic diversity was higher in tetraploids. In the Belgian Ardennes and within the mixed populations, both cytotypes had similar levels of spatial genetic structure, they were genetically differentiated, and their distributions of allele frequencies were not spatially correlated. In contrast, at the European scale, diploids and tetraploids did not show differentiated gene pools and presented a strong correlation between their patterns of spatial genetic variation. Numerical simulations showed that the striking difference in patterns observed at small and large geographic scales could be accounted for by a combination of (1) isolation by distance within cytotypes; and (2) partial reproductive barriers between cytotypes and/or recurrent formation of tetraploids. We suggest that this may explain the difficulty of the taxonomic treatment of knapweeds and of polyploid complexes in general.

  16. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Large-scale distribution patterns of mangrove nematodes: A global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, Marco C; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Fonseca, Gustavo

    2018-05-01

    Mangroves harbor diverse invertebrate communities, suggesting that macroecological distribution patterns of habitat-forming foundation species drive the associated faunal distribution. Whether these are driven by mangrove biogeography is still ambiguous. For small-bodied taxa, local factors and landscape metrics might be as important as macroecology. We performed a meta-analysis to address the following questions: (1) can richness of mangrove trees explain macroecological patterns of nematode richness? and (2) do local landscape attributes have equal or higher importance than biogeography in structuring nematode richness? Mangrove areas of Caribbean-Southwest Atlantic, Western Indian, Central Indo-Pacific, and Southwest Pacific biogeographic regions. We used random-effects meta-analyses based on natural logarithm of the response ratio (lnRR) to assess the importance of macroecology (i.e., biogeographic regions, latitude, longitude), local factors (i.e., aboveground mangrove biomass and tree richness), and landscape metrics (forest area and shape) in structuring nematode richness from 34 mangroves sites around the world. Latitude, mangrove forest area, and forest shape index explained 19% of the heterogeneity across studies. Richness was higher at low latitudes, closer to the equator. At local scales, richness increased slightly with landscape complexity and decreased with forest shape index. Our results contrast with biogeographic diversity patterns of mangrove-associated taxa. Global-scale nematode diversity may have evolved independently of mangrove tree richness, and diversity of small-bodied metazoans is probably more closely driven by latitude and associated climates, rather than local, landscape, or global biogeographic patterns.

  18. Source/sink patterns of disturbance and cross-scale mismatches in a panarchy of social-ecological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola Zaccarelli; Irene Petrosillo; Giovanni Zurlini; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental change and represents a primary human effect on natural systems. Taking into account the scales and patterns of human land uses as source/sink disturbance systems, we describe a framework to characterize and interpret the spatial patterns of disturbances along a continuum of scales in a panarchy...

  19. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-08-03

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees.

  20. Characterizing Temperature Variability and Associated Large Scale Meteorological Patterns Across South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzer, J.; Loikith, P. C.; Mechoso, C. R.; Barkhordarian, A.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    South America's climate varies considerably owing to its large geographic range and diverse topographical features. Spanning the tropics to the mid-latitudes and from high peaks to tropical rainforest, the continent experiences an array of climate and weather patterns. Due to this considerable spatial extent, assessing temperature variability at the continent scale is particularly challenging. It is well documented in the literature that temperatures have been increasing across portions of South America in recent decades, and while there have been many studies that have focused on precipitation variability and change, temperature has received less scientific attention. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the drivers of temperature variability is critical for interpreting future change. First, k-means cluster analysis is used to identify four primary modes of temperature variability across the continent, stratified by season. Next, composites of large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) are calculated for months assigned to each cluster. Initial results suggest that LSMPs, defined using meteorological variables such as sea level pressure (SLP), geopotential height, and wind, are able to identify synoptic scale mechanisms important for driving temperature variability at the monthly scale. Some LSMPs indicate a relationship with known recurrent modes of climate variability. For example, composites of geopotential height suggest that the Southern Annular Mode is an important, but not necessarily dominant, component of temperature variability over southern South America. This work will be extended to assess the drivers of temperature extremes across South America.

  1. The importance of scaling for detecting community patterns: success and failure in assemblages of introduced species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Moulton, Michael P.; Holling, Crawford S.

    2015-01-01

    Community saturation can help to explain why biological invasions fail. However, previous research has documented inconsistent relationships between failed invasions (i.e., an invasive species colonizes but goes extinct) and the number of species present in the invaded community. We use data from bird communities of the Hawaiian island of Oahu, which supports a community of 38 successfully established introduced birds and where 37 species were introduced but went extinct (failed invasions). We develop a modified approach to evaluate the effects of community saturation on invasion failure. Our method accounts (1) for the number of species present (NSP) when the species goes extinct rather than during its introduction; and (2) scaling patterns in bird body mass distributions that accounts for the hierarchical organization of ecosystems and the fact that interaction strength amongst species varies with scale. We found that when using NSP at the time of extinction, NSP was higher for failed introductions as compared to successful introductions, supporting the idea that increasing species richness and putative community saturation mediate invasion resistance. Accounting for scale-specific patterns in body size distributions further improved the relationship between NSP and introduction failure. Results show that a better understanding of invasion outcomes can be obtained when scale-specific community structure is accounted for in the analysis.

  2. New routes to the functionalization patterning and manufacture of graphene-based materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, A; Russo, S; Craciun, M F; Alexeev, A; Barnes, M D; Nagareddy, V K; Wright, C D

    2018-06-06

    Graphene-based materials are being widely explored for a range of biomedical applications, from targeted drug delivery to biosensing, bioimaging and use for antibacterial treatments, to name but a few. In many such applications, it is not graphene itself that is used as the active agent, but one of its chemically functionalized forms. The type of chemical species used for functionalization will play a key role in determining the utility of any graphene-based device in any particular biomedical application, because this determines to a large part its physical, chemical, electrical and optical interactions. However, other factors will also be important in determining the eventual uptake of graphene-based biomedical technologies, in particular the ease and cost of manufacture of proposed device and system designs. In this work, we describe three novel routes for the chemical functionalization of graphene using oxygen, iron chloride and fluorine. We also introduce novel in situ methods for controlling and patterning such functionalization on the micro- and nanoscales. Our approaches are readily transferable to large-scale manufacturing, potentially paving the way for the eventual cost-effective production of functionalized graphene-based materials, devices and systems for a range of important biomedical applications.

  3. Large-scale double-patterning compliant layouts for DP engine and design rule development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Lucas, Kevin; Hapli, John; Raffard, Herve; Barnes, Levi

    2009-03-01

    Double Patterning is seen as the prime technology to keep Moore's law on path while EUV technology is still maturing into production worthiness. As previously seen for alternating-Phase Shift Mask technology[1], layout compliance of double patterning is not trivial [2,3] and blind shrinks of anything but the most simplistic existing layouts, will not be directly suitable for double patterning. Evaluating a production worthy double patterning engine with highly non-compliant layouts would put unrealistic expectations on that engine and provide metrics with poor applicability for eventual large designs. The true production use-case would be for designs that have at least some significant double patterning compliance already enforced at the design stage. With this in mind a set of ASIC design blocks of different sizes and complexities were created that were double patterning compliant. To achieve this, a set of standard cells were generated, which individually and in isolation were double patterning compliant, for multiple layers simultaneously. This was done using the automated Standard Cell creation tool CadabraTM [4]. To create a full ASIC, however, additional constraints were added to make sure compliance would not be broken across the boundaries between standard cells when placed next to each other [5]. These standard cells were then used to create a variety of double patterning compliant ASICs using iCCompilerTM to place the cells correctly. Now with a compliant layout, checks were made to see if the constraints made at the micro level really do ensure a fully compliant layout on the whole chip and if the coloring engine could cope with such large datasets. A production worthy double patterning engine is ideally distributable over multiple processors [6,7] so that fast turn-around time can be achievable on even the largest designs. We demonstrate the degree of linearity of scaling achievable with our double patterning engine. These results can be understood

  4. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  5. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  6. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Demirel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the

  7. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Samaniego, Luis; Stisen, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the shuffled complex

  8. Butterfly effects: novel functional materials inspired from the wings scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wang; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Su, Huilan; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-10-07

    Through millions of years of evolutionary selection, nature has created biological materials with various functional properties for survival. Many complex natural architectures, such as shells, bones, and honeycombs, have been studied and imitated in the design and fabrication of materials with enhanced hardness and stiffness. Recently, more and more researchers have started to research the wings of butterflies, mostly because of their dazzling colors. It was found that most of these iridescent colors are caused by periodic photonic structures on the scales that make up the surfaces of these wings. These materials have recently become a focus of multidiscipline research because of their promising applications in the display of structural colors, and in advanced sensors, photonic crystals, and solar cells. This paper review aims to provide a perspective overview of the research inspired by these wing structures in recent years.

  9. Ecological hierarchies and self-organisation - Pattern analysis, modelling and process integration across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, H.; Jopp, F.; Blanco-Moreno, J. M.; Damgaard, C.; Matsinos, Y.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    A continuing discussion in applied and theoretical ecology focuses on the relationship of different organisational levels and on how ecological systems interact across scales. We address principal approaches to cope with complex across-level issues in ecology by applying elements of hierarchy theory and the theory of complex adaptive systems. A top-down approach, often characterised by the use of statistical techniques, can be applied to analyse large-scale dynamics and identify constraints exerted on lower levels. Current developments are illustrated with examples from the analysis of within-community spatial patterns and large-scale vegetation patterns. A bottom-up approach allows one to elucidate how interactions of individuals shape dynamics at higher levels in a self-organisation process; e.g., population development and community composition. This may be facilitated by various modelling tools, which provide the distinction between focal levels and resulting properties. For instance, resilience in grassland communities has been analysed with a cellular automaton approach, and the driving forces in rodent population oscillations have been identified with an agent-based model. Both modelling tools illustrate the principles of analysing higher level processes by representing the interactions of basic components.The focus of most ecological investigations on either top-down or bottom-up approaches may not be appropriate, if strong cross-scale relationships predominate. Here, we propose an 'across-scale-approach', closely interweaving the inherent potentials of both approaches. This combination of analytical and synthesising approaches will enable ecologists to establish a more coherent access to cross-level interactions in ecological systems. ?? 2010 Gesellschaft f??r ??kologie.

  10. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale structure surveys have the potential to become the leading probe for precision cosmology in the next decade. To extract valuable information on the cosmological evolution of the Universe from the observational data, it is of major importance to derive accurate theoretical predictions for the statistical large-scale structure observables, such as the power spectrum and the bispectrum of (dark) matter density perturbations. Hence, one of the greatest challenges of modern cosmology is to theoretically understand the non-linear dynamics of large-scale structure formation in the Universe from first principles. While analytic approaches to describe the large-scale structure formation are usually based on the framework of non-relativistic cosmological perturbation theory, we pursue another road in this thesis and develop methods to derive generic, non-perturbative statements about large-scale structure correlation functions. We study unequal- and equal-time correlation functions of density and velocity perturbations in the limit where one of their wavenumbers becomes small, that is, in the soft limit. In the soft limit, it is possible to link (N+1)-point and N-point correlation functions to non-perturbative 'consistency conditions'. These provide in turn a powerful tool to test fundamental aspects of the underlying theory at hand. In this work, we first rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times by using the so-called eikonal approximation. The main appeal of the unequal-time consistency conditions is that they are solely based on symmetry arguments and thus are universal. Proceeding from this, we direct our attention to consistency conditions at equal times, which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We explore the existence and validity of equal-time consistency conditions within and beyond perturbation theory. For this purpose, we investigate the predictions for the soft limit of the

  11. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Large-scale structure surveys have the potential to become the leading probe for precision cosmology in the next decade. To extract valuable information on the cosmological evolution of the Universe from the observational data, it is of major importance to derive accurate theoretical predictions for the statistical large-scale structure observables, such as the power spectrum and the bispectrum of (dark) matter density perturbations. Hence, one of the greatest challenges of modern cosmology is to theoretically understand the non-linear dynamics of large-scale structure formation in the Universe from first principles. While analytic approaches to describe the large-scale structure formation are usually based on the framework of non-relativistic cosmological perturbation theory, we pursue another road in this thesis and develop methods to derive generic, non-perturbative statements about large-scale structure correlation functions. We study unequal- and equal-time correlation functions of density and velocity perturbations in the limit where one of their wavenumbers becomes small, that is, in the soft limit. In the soft limit, it is possible to link (N+1)-point and N-point correlation functions to non-perturbative 'consistency conditions'. These provide in turn a powerful tool to test fundamental aspects of the underlying theory at hand. In this work, we first rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times by using the so-called eikonal approximation. The main appeal of the unequal-time consistency conditions is that they are solely based on symmetry arguments and thus are universal. Proceeding from this, we direct our attention to consistency conditions at equal times, which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We explore the existence and validity of equal-time consistency conditions within and beyond perturbation theory. For this purpose, we investigate the predictions for the soft limit of the

  12. Scale-up of nature’s tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanna L.; Knothe, Lillian E.; Whan, Renee M.; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L. Knothe

    2017-01-01

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently “smart” material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues’ biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  13. A Theoretical Basis for Entropy-Scaling Effects in Human Mobility Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Nathaniel D; Paul, Tuhin; Stanley, Kevin G; Qian, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing how people move through space has been an important component of many disciplines. With the advent of automated data collection through GPS and other location sensing systems, researchers have the opportunity to examine human mobility at spatio-temporal resolution heretofore impossible. However, the copious and complex data collected through these logging systems can be difficult for humans to fully exploit, leading many researchers to propose novel metrics for encapsulating movement patterns in succinct and useful ways. A particularly salient proposed metric is the mobility entropy rate of the string representing the sequence of locations visited by an individual. However, mobility entropy rate is not scale invariant: entropy rate calculations based on measurements of the same trajectory at varying spatial or temporal granularity do not yield the same value, limiting the utility of mobility entropy rate as a metric by confounding inter-experimental comparisons. In this paper, we derive a scaling relationship for mobility entropy rate of non-repeating straight line paths from the definition of Lempel-Ziv compression. We show that the resulting formulation predicts the scaling behavior of simulated mobility traces, and provides an upper bound on mobility entropy rate under certain assumptions. We further show that this formulation has a maximum value for a particular sampling rate, implying that optimal sampling rates for particular movement patterns exist.

  14. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Tun; Li, Chia-Wei; Vértes, Petra E; Wu, Changwei Wesley; Achard, Sophie; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Liou, Chien-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-02-01

    Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness.

  15. Pattern of executive functioning in adolescents with epilepsy: A multimethod measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Vannest, Jennifer; Combs, Angela; Turnier, Luke; Wade, Shari L

    2018-03-01

    Youth with epilepsy demonstrate deficits in executive functioning (EF), the skills necessary for goal-directed behavior (e.g., problem-solving, initiating, monitoring, organization, planning, and working memory). Despite 30-50% of youth with epilepsy demonstrating EF deficits, no extant studies have utilized both performance and questionnaire-based measures to examine the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy. Study aims were to 1) identify the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy and 2) identify which assessment tools are most sensitive to EF deficits in this population (adolescents, ages 13-17, with epilepsy). An exploratory aim was to examine group differences on measures of EF by epilepsy type. Standard performance-based neuropsychological measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Version V or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Working Memory Index-Version IV, Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning System, NIH Toolbox, Test of Everyday Attention for Children) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) comprised the multimethod assessment battery. Depending on the measure, 30% of adolescents with epilepsy had deficits in working memory, 17% in cognitive flexibility/problem solving, 6% in inhibition, and 18% in planning/organization. Attention was a significant problem for 15% of adolescents with epilepsy. Correlations among the various EF measures were quite poor. Across various EF domains, results indicated that adolescents with localization-related epilepsy demonstrated better EF skills compared to adolescents with unclassified epilepsy. Overall, our findings suggest that executive functioning deficits are selective and different from those observed in other neurological populations (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injury) where problems with self-regulation (i.e., inhibition, planning/organization) are more pronounced. These findings support utilizing multiple

  16. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  17. Polymer density functional theory approach based on scaling second-order direct correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2006-06-01

    A second-order direct correlation function (DCF) from solving the polymer-RISM integral equation is scaled up or down by an equation of state for bulk polymer, the resultant scaling second-order DCF is in better agreement with corresponding simulation results than the un-scaling second-order DCF. When the scaling second-order DCF is imported into a recently proposed LTDFA-based polymer DFT approach, an originally associated adjustable but mathematically meaningless parameter now becomes mathematically meaningful, i.e., the numerical value lies now between 0 and 1. When the adjustable parameter-free version of the LTDFA is used instead of the LTDFA, i.e., the adjustable parameter is fixed at 0.5, the resultant parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is also in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data for density profiles. The parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is employed to investigate the density profiles of a freely jointed tangent hard sphere chain near a variable sized central hard sphere, again the predictions reproduce accurately the simulational results. Importance of the present adjustable parameter-free version lies in its combination with a recently proposed universal theoretical way, in the resultant formalism, the contact theorem is still met by the adjustable parameter associated with the theoretical way.

  18. Geographical Pattern and Environmental Correlates of Regional-Scale General Flowering in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shinya; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo O.; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine D.; Hashim, Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF. PMID:24260159

  19. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  20. Coating and Patterning Functional Materials for Large Area Electrofluidic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching. Materials, interfacial chemistry, and processing all contribute to the provision of the required engineered substrate properties. Coating homogeneity as characterized by metrology and device performance data are used to validate the methodology, which is well-suited for transfer to high volume production in existing LCD cell-making facilities.

  1. A Scale Elasticity Measure for Directional Distance Function and its Dual: Theory and DEA Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Zelenyuk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on scale elasticity measure based on directional distance function for multi-output-multi-input technologies, explore its fundamental properties and show its equivalence with the input oriented and output oriented scale elasticity measures. We also establish duality relationship between the scale elasticity measure based on the directional distance function with scale elasticity measure based on the profit function. Finally, we discuss the estimation issues of the scale...

  2. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  3. Bridging scales of crustal stress patterns using the new World Stress Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbach, O.; Rajabi, M.; Cui, X.; Fuchs, K. W.; Mueller, B.; Reinecker, J.; Reiter, K.; Tingay, M. R. P.; Wenzel, F.; Xie, F.; Ziegler, M.; Zoback, M. D.; Zoback, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the contemporary crustal stress field is a key parameter for the understanding of geodynamic processes such as global plate tectonics and the earthquake cycle. It is also an essential parameter for our sustainable and safe usage of Earth's resources, which is a major challenge for energy security in the 21st century. Since 1986, the World Stress Map (WSM) project has systematically compiled present-day stress information and provides a unique public domain global database. It is a long-term project based on an international network of partners from academia and industry. All data are public and available on the project website at world-stress-map.org. For the 30th anniversary of the project a new database has been compiled, containing double the amount of data records (n=42,870) including new data records from almost 4,000 deep boreholes. The new compilation focused on areas with previously sparse data coverage in order to resolve the stress pattern on different spatial scales. The significantly higher data density can now be used to resolve stress pattern heterogeneities on regional and local scales, as well as with depth in some regions. We present three results derived from the new WSM compilation: 1.) The global comparison between absolute plate motion and the mean of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid shows that there is still a correlation for the North and South America plate, but deviations from this general trend are now also clearly resolved. 2.) The variability of the crustal stress pattern changes when zooming in from plate-wide scale down to basin scale at 100 km. We show examples for Eastern Australia, Oklahoma and Central Europe. This regional and local variability of the stress pattern can be used as a proxy to identify and quantify regional and local stress sources by means of geomechanical-numerical models of the 3D stress tensor. 3.) Finally we present briefly the general concept of a multi-stage 3D

  4. Nanometer-scale patterning of high-Tc superconductors for Josephson junction-based digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Corless, R.F.; Martens, J.S.; Berkowitz, S.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A straightforward method for nanometer-scale patterning of high-T c superconductor thin films is discussed. The technique combines direct-write electron beam lithography with well-controlled aqueous etches and is applied to the fabrication of Josephson junction nanobridges in high-quality, epitaxial thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . We present the results of our studies of the dimensions, yield, uniformity, and mechanism of the junctions along with the performance of a representative digital circuit based on these junctions. Direct current junction parameter statistics measured at 77 K show critical currents of 27.5 μA±13% for a sample set of 220 junctions. The Josephson behavior of the nanobridge is believed to arise from the aggregation of oxygen vacancies in the nanometer-scale bridge

  5. Simultaneous growth of self-patterned carbon nanotube forests with dual height scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Ebru Devrim; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Baykal, Beril; Dalkilic, Zeynep; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf.In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1; AFM image of the Co-O layer which was first dried at 40 °C and then oxidized at 200 °C. Fig. S2; graph relative to the area of CNT islands for different

  6. Short communication: Multi-scale topographic anisotropy patterns on a Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Bishop, Michael; Wernette, Phil

    2017-11-01

    Barrier islands exhibit a range of landforms that reflect the complex and varied combination of coastal and aeolian processes realized over the evolution of the island. A detailed analysis of the topography can be used to describe the evolution of a barrier island and provide insight on how it may be affected by a change in sea level, storm activity and wind exposure patterns. Topographic anisotropy, or the directional dependence of relief of landforms, can be used to determine the relative importance of different processes to island evolution at a range of scales. This short communication describes the use of scale-dependent topographic anisotropy to characterize the structure of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida. Scale-dependent topographic relief and asymmetry were assessed from a LiDAR-derived DEM from May 2004, a few months before the island experienced widespread erosion and overwash during Hurricane Ivan. This application demonstrates how anisotropy can be used to identify unique scale-dependent structures that can be used to interpret the evolution of this barrier island. Results of this preliminary study further highlight the potential of using topographic anisotropy to controls on barrier island response and recovery to storms as well as island resiliency with sea level rise and storm activity.

  7. Urban scaling and the production function for cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Strumsky, Deborah; West, Geoffrey B

    2013-01-01

    The factors that account for the differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult to measure and identify unambiguously. Here we show that a microscopic derivation of urban scaling relations for economic quantities vs. population, obtained from the consideration of social and infrastructural properties common to all cities, implies an effective model of economic output in the form of a Cobb-Douglas type production function. As a result we derive a new expression for the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of urban areas, which is the standard measure of economic productivity per unit of aggregate production factors (labor and capital). Using these results we empirically demonstrate that there is a systematic dependence of urban productivity on city population size, resulting from the mismatch between the size dependence of wages and labor, so that in contemporary US cities productivity increases by about 11% with each doubling of their population. Moreover, deviations from the average scale dependence of economic output, capturing the effect of local factors, including history and other local contingencies, also manifest surprising regularities. Although, productivity is maximized by the combination of high wages and low labor input, high productivity cities show invariably high wages and high levels of employment relative to their size expectation. Conversely, low productivity cities show both low wages and employment. These results shed new light on the microscopic processes that underlie urban economic productivity, explain the emergence of effective aggregate urban economic output models in terms of labor and capital inputs and may inform the development of economic theory related to growth.

  8. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-28

    Jul 28, 2016 ... Pituitary adenomas are almost always benign (>99.9%), arise from the anterior pituitary and ... Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA) are the most ... pituitary gland, most likely due to alterations in perfusion.

  9. An efficient and novel computation method for simulating diffraction patterns from large-scale coded apertures on large-scale focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrekenhamer, Abraham; Gottesman, Stephen R.

    2012-10-01

    A novel and memory efficient method for computing diffraction patterns produced on large-scale focal planes by largescale Coded Apertures at wavelengths where diffraction effects are significant has been developed and tested. The scheme, readily implementable on portable computers, overcomes the memory limitations of present state-of-the-art simulation codes such as Zemax. The method consists of first calculating a set of reference complex field (amplitude and phase) patterns on the focal plane produced by a single (reference) central hole, extending to twice the focal plane array size, with one such pattern for each Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction and wavelength in the scene, and with the pattern amplitude corresponding to the square-root of the spectral irradiance from each such LOS direction in the scene at selected wavelengths. Next the set of reference patterns is transformed to generate pattern sets for other holes. The transformation consists of a translational pattern shift corresponding to each hole's position offset and an electrical phase shift corresponding to each hole's position offset and incoming radiance's direction and wavelength. The set of complex patterns for each direction and wavelength is then summed coherently and squared for each detector to yield a set of power patterns unique for each direction and wavelength. Finally the set of power patterns is summed to produce the full waveband diffraction pattern from the scene. With this tool researchers can now efficiently simulate diffraction patterns produced from scenes by large-scale Coded Apertures onto large-scale focal plane arrays to support the development and optimization of coded aperture masks and image reconstruction algorithms.

  10. Surface functionalization by fine ultraviolet-patterning of nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Renguo; Zhang, Hedong; Komada, Suguru; Mitsuya, Yasunaga; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present fine UV-patterning of nm-thick liquid films for surface functionalization. • The patterned films exhibit both a morphological pattern and a functional pattern of different surface properties. • The finest pattern linewidth was 0.5 μm. • Fine patterning is crucial for improving surface and tribological properties. - Abstract: For micro/nanoscale devices, surface functionalization is essential to achieve function and performance superior to those that originate from the inherent bulk material properties. As a method of surface functionalization, we dip-coated nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films onto solid surfaces and then patterned the lubricant films with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation through a photomask. Surface topography, adhesion, and friction measurements demonstrated that the patterned films feature a concave–convex thickness distribution with thicker lubricant in the irradiated regions and a functional distribution with lower adhesion and friction in the irradiated convex regions. The pattern linewidth ranged from 100 to as fine as 0.5 μm. The surface functionalization effect of UV-patterning was investigated by measuring the water contact angles, surface energies, friction forces, and depletion of the patterned, as-dipped, and full UV-irradiated lubricant films. The full UV-irradiated lubricant film was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 102.1°, and had lower surface energy, friction, and depletion than the as-dipped film, which was hydrophilic with a water contact angle of 80.7°. This demonstrates that UV irradiation substantially improves the surface and tribological properties of the nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films. The UV-patterned lubricant films exhibited superior surface and tribological properties than the as-dipped film. The water contact angle increased and the surface energy, friction, and depletion decreased as the pattern linewidth decreased. In particular, the 0.5-μm patterned lubricant

  11. Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Nicole L; Nelson, Peter; Abelson, Avigdor; Precoda, Kristin; Rulmal, John; Bernardi, Giacomo; Paddack, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water) and uninhabited (low human impact); cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact); and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon) and inhabited (highest human impact). Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure. Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll (Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia) and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an 'opportunistic' scleractinian coral (Montipora sp.) is associated with more highly impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that small human populations (subsistence fishing) can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends. Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities.

  12. Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Crane

    Full Text Available The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water and uninhabited (low human impact; cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact; and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon and inhabited (highest human impact. Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure. Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll (Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an 'opportunistic' scleractinian coral (Montipora sp. is associated with more highly impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that small human populations (subsistence fishing can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends. Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities.

  13. Ecosystem-scale fluxes in seminatural Pyrenean grasslands: role of annual dynamics of plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimir, Nuria; Ibañez, Mercedes; Elbers, Jan; Rota, Cristina; Arias, Claudia; Carrara, Arnaud; Nogues, Salvador; Sebastia, Maria-Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and the annual C balance of a site are in general modulated by light, temperature and availability of water and other resources to the plants. In grasslands, NEE is expected to depend strongly on the vegetation with a relationship that can be summarized by the above-ground biomass, its amount and dynamics. Any factor controlling the amount of green biomass is expected to have a strong impact on the short-term NEE, such as amount of solar radiation, water availability and grazing pressure. These controls are modulated differently depending on the plant functional type enduring them. Furthermore, as different guilds follow different functional strategies for optimization of the resources, they also present different patterns of change in their capacities such as photosynthetic fixation, belowground C allocation, and C loss via respiration. We examined these relationships at several semi-natural pastures to determine how the seasonal distribution of plant functional types is detected in the short-term ecosystem exchange and what role it plays. We have looked into these patterns to determine the general variation of key processes and whether different temporal patterns arise between different guilds. The study sites are in the Pyrenees, on the mountain pastures of La Bertolina, Alinyà, and Castellar at 1300, 1700, 1900 m a.s.l. respectively. We performed ecosystem-scale flux measurements by means of micrometeorologial stations combined with a thorough description of the vegetation including below- and above-ground biomass and leaf area as well as monitoring of natural abundance of C isotopes, discriminated by plant functional types. We present here the results of the study.

  14. New technologies for large-scale micropatterning of functional nanocomposite polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, A.; Gray, B. L.

    2012-04-01

    We present a review of different micropatterning technologies for flexible elastomeric functional nanocomposites with a particular emphasis on mold material and processes for production of large size substrates. The functional polymers include electrically conducting and magnetic materials developed at the Micro-instrumentation Laboratory at Simon Fraser University, Canada. We present a chart that compares many of these different conductive and magnetic functional nanocomposites and their measured characteristics. Furthermore, we have previously reported hybrid processes for nanocomposite polymers micromolded against SU-8 photoepoxy masters. However, SU-8 is typically limited to substrate sizes that are compatible with microelectronics processing as a microelectronics uv-patterning step is typically involved, and de-molding problems are observed. Recently, we have developed new processes that address the problems faced with SU-8 molds. These new technologies for micropatterning nanocomposites involve new substrate materials. A low cost Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfabrication technology has been developed, which involves fabrication of micromold via either CO2 laser ablation or deep UV. We have previously reported this large-scale patterning technique using laser ablation. Finally, we compare the two processes for PMMA producing micromolds for nanocomposites.

  15. Nano-scale pattern formation on the surface of HgCdTe produced by ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.B.; Gudymenko, A.I.; Kladko, V.P.; Korchevyi, A.A.; Savkina, R.K.; Sizov, F.F.; Udovitska, R.S. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-08-15

    Presented in this work are the results concerning formation of nano-scale patterns on the surface of a ternary compound Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∝ 0.223). Modification of this ternary chalcogenide semiconductor compound was performed using the method of oblique-incidence ion bombardment with silver ions, which was followed by low-temperature treatment. The energy and dose of implanted ions were 140 keV and 4.8 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively. Atomic force microscopy methods were used for the surface topography characterization. The structural properties of MCT-based structure was analyzed using double and triple crystal X-ray diffraction to monitor the disorder and strain of the implanted region as a function of processing conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Sub-micrometer-scale patterning on Zr-based metallic glass using focused ion beam irradiation and chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasegi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Morita, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Shigeru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Takano, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oyama, Tatsuo [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ashida, Kiwamu [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Momota, Sadao [Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Tosayamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Taniguchi, Jun [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ofune, Hitoshi [YKK Corporation, 200 Yoshida, Kurobe, Toyama 938-8601 (Japan)

    2007-09-19

    This report describes a method of sub-micrometer-scale rapid patterning on a Zr-based metallic glass surface using a combination of focused ion beam irradiation and wet chemical etching. We found that a Zr-based metallic glass surface irradiated with Ga{sup +} ions could be selectively etched; a concave structure with a width and depth of several tens to hundreds of nanometers rapidly formed in the irradiated area. Moreover, we determined that the etching was enhanced by the presence of Ga{sup +} ions rather than a change in the crystal structure, and the structure could be fabricated while the substrate remained amorphous. The shape of the structure was principally a function of the dose and the etch time.

  17. The effect of butterfly-scale inspired patterning on leading-edge vortex growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jacob Aaron

    Leading edge vortices (LEVs) are important for generating thrust and lift in flapping flight, and the surface patterning (scales) on butterfly wings is hypothesized to play a role in the vortex formation of the LEV. To simplify this complex flow problem, an experiment was designed to focus on the alteration of 2-D vortex development with a variation in surface patterning. Specifically, the secondary vorticity generated by the LEV interacting at the patterned surface was studied, as well as the subsequent effect on the LEV's growth rate and peak circulation. For this experiment, rapid-prototyped grooves based on the scale geometry of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) were created using additive manufacturing and were attached to a flat plate with a chordwise orientation, thus increasing plate surface area. The vortex generated by the grooved plate was then compared to a smooth plate case in an experiment where the plate translated vertically through a 2 x 3 x 5 cubic foot tow tank. The plate was impulsively started in quiescent water and flow fields at Rec = 1416, 2833, and 5667 are examined using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The maximum vortex formation number is 2.8 and is based on the flat plate travel length and chord length. Flow fields from each case show the generation of a secondary vortex whose interaction with the shear layer and LEV caused different behaviors depending upon the surface type. The vortex development process varied for each Reynolds number and it was found that for the lowest Reynolds number case a significant difference does not exist between surface types, however, for the other two cases the grooves affected the secondary vortex's behavior and the LEV's ability to grow at a rate similar to the smooth plate case.

  18. Global patterns of guild composition and functional diversity of spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work are: (1 to define spider guilds for all extant families worldwide; (2 test if guilds defined at family level are good surrogates of species guilds; (3 compare the taxonomic and guild composition of spider assemblages from different parts of the world; (4 compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of spider assemblages and; (5 relate functional diversity with habitat structure. Data on foraging strategy, prey range, vertical stratification and circadian activity was collected for 108 families. Spider guilds were defined by hierarchical clustering. We searched for inconsistencies between family guild placement and the known guild of each species. Richness and abundance per guild before and after correcting guild placement were compared, as were the proportions of each guild and family between all possible pairs of sites. Functional diversity per site was calculated based on hierarchical clustering. Eight guilds were discriminated: (1 sensing, (2 sheet, (3 space, and (4 orb web weavers; (5 specialists; (6 ambush, (7 ground, and (8 other hunters. Sixteen percent of the species richness corresponding to 11% of all captured individuals was incorrectly attributed to a guild by family surrogacy; however, the correlation of uncorrected vs. corrected guilds was invariably high. The correlation of guild richness or abundances was generally higher than the correlation of family richness or abundances. Functional diversity was not always higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. Families may potentially serve as ecological surrogates for species. Different families may present similar roles in the ecosystems, with replacement of some taxa by other within the same guild. Spiders in tropical regions seem to have higher redundancy of functional roles and/or finer resource partitioning than in temperate regions. Although species and family diversity were higher in the tropics, functional diversity seems to be also

  19. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Konstandin, Thomas; Porto, Rafael A.; Sagunski, Laura

    2014-11-01

    We study soft limits of correlation functions for the density and velocity fields in the theory of structure formation. First, we rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times using the eikonal approximation. These are solely based on symmetry arguments and are therefore universal. Then, we explore the existence of equal-time relations in the soft limit which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We scrutinize two approaches in the literature: The time-flow formalism, and a background method where the soft mode is absorbed into a locally curved cosmology. The latter has been recently used to set up (angular averaged) 'equal-time consistency relations'. We explicitly demonstrate that the time-flow relations and 'equal-time consistency conditions' are only fulfilled at the linear level, and fail at next-to-leading order for an Einstein de-Sitter universe. While applied to the velocities both proposals break down beyond leading order, we find that the 'equal-time consistency conditions' quantitatively approximates the perturbative results for the density contrast. Thus, we generalize the background method to properly incorporate the effect of curvature in the density and velocity fluctuations on short scales, and discuss the reasons behind this discrepancy. We conclude with a few comments on practical implementations and future directions.

  20. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, C.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neotropical migrant birds may be undergoing widespread declines due to land use activities on the breeding grounds has been examined primarily by synthesizing results from local studies. Growing concern for the cumulative influence of land use activities on ecological systems has heightened the need for large-scale studies to complement what has been observed at local scales. We investigated possible landscape effects on Neotropical migrant bird populations for the eastern United States by linking two large-scale inventories designed to monitor breeding-bird abundances and land use patterns. The null hypothesis of no relation between landscape structure and Neotropical migrant abundance was tested by correlating measures of landscape structure with bird abundance, while controlling for the geographic distance among samples. Neotropical migrants as a group were more 'sensitive' to landscape structure than either temperate migrants or permanent residents. Neotropical migrants tended to be more abundant in landscapes with a greater proportion of forest and wetland habitats, fewer edge habitats, large forest patches, and with forest habitats well dispersed throughout the scene. Permanent residents showed few correlations with landscape structure and temperate migrants were associated with habitat diversity and edge attributes rather than with the amount, size, and dispersion of forest habitats. The association between Neotropical migrant abundance and forest fragmentation differed among physiographic strata, suggesting that land-scape context affects observed relations between bird abundance and landscape structure. Finally, associations between landscape structure and temporal trends in Neotropical migrant abundance were negatively correlated with forest habitats. These results suggest that extrapolation of patterns observed in some landscapes is not likely to hold regionally, and that conservation policies must consider the variation in landscape

  1. Patterns of value: Systemic Functional Grammar and evaluation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two recent articles in this journal (Kilpert, 2001a;b) I argued that 'method of development', a concept from Systemic Functional Grammar (sfg, associated with M.A.K. Halliday), is useful for teaching tertiary students to write coherent paragraphs. This follow-up article develops a related topic, explaining how the management ...

  2. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E Alex; Arola, D

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E. Alex; Arola, D.

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior.

  4. Scaling functions for the O(4) model in d=3 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Jens; Klein, Bertram

    2008-01-01

    A nonperturbative renormalization group approach is used to calculate scaling functions for an O(4) model in d=3 dimensions in the presence of an external symmetry-breaking field. These scaling functions are important for the analysis of critical behavior in the O(4) universality class. For example, the finite-temperature phase transition in QCD with two flavors is expected to fall into this class. Critical exponents are calculated in local-potential approximation. Parametrizations of the scaling functions for the order parameter and for the longitudinal susceptibility are given. Relations from universal scaling arguments between these scaling functions are investigated and confirmed. The expected asymptotic behavior of the scaling functions predicted by Griffiths is observed. Corrections to the scaling behavior at large values of the external field are studied qualitatively. These scaling corrections can become large, which might have implications for the scaling analysis of lattice QCD results.

  5. Large-scale functional networks connect differently for processing words and symbol strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Mia; Vartiainen, Johanna; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-01-01

    Reconfigurations of synchronized large-scale networks are thought to be central neural mechanisms that support cognition and behavior in the human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings together with recent advances in network analysis now allow for sub-second snapshots of such networks. In the present study, we compared frequency-resolved functional connectivity patterns underlying reading of single words and visual recognition of symbol strings. Word reading emphasized coherence in a left-lateralized network with nodes in classical perisylvian language regions, whereas symbol processing recruited a bilateral network, including connections between frontal and parietal regions previously associated with spatial attention and visual working memory. Our results illustrate the flexible nature of functional networks, whereby processing of different form categories, written words vs. symbol strings, leads to the formation of large-scale functional networks that operate at distinct oscillatory frequencies and incorporate task-relevant regions. These results suggest that category-specific processing should be viewed not so much as a local process but as a distributed neural process implemented in signature networks. For words, increased coherence was detected particularly in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and high gamma (60-90 Hz) frequency bands, whereas increased coherence for symbol strings was observed in the high beta (21-29 Hz) and low gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency range. These findings attest to the role of coherence in specific frequency bands as a general mechanism for integrating stimulus-dependent information across brain regions.

  6. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford C. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  7. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. The impact of large-scale circulation patterns on summer crop yields in IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale circulations patterns (ENSO, NAO) have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather, and therefore on crop yield over many parts of the world(Garnett and Khandekar, 1992; Aasa et al., 2004; Rozas and Garcia-Gonzalez, 2012). In this study, we analyze the influence of large-scale circulation patterns and regional climate on the principal components of maize yield variability in Iberian Peninsula (IP) using reanalysis datasets. Additionally, we investigate the modulation of these relationships by multidecadal patterns. This study is performed analyzing long time series of maize yield, only climate dependent, computed with the crop model CERES-maize (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5). To simulate yields, reanalysis daily data of radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation were used. The reanalysis climate data were obtained from National Center for Environmental Prediction (20th Century and NCEP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data server (ERA 40 and ERA Interim). Simulations were run at five locations: Lugo (northwestern), Lerida (NE), Madrid (central), Albacete (southeastern) and Córdoba (S IP) (Gabaldón et al., 2013). From these time series standardized anomalies were calculated. Afterwards, time series were time filtered to focus on the interannual-to-multiannual variability, splitting up in two components: low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) time scales. The principal components of HF yield anomalies in IP were compared with a set of documented patterns. These relationships were compared with multidecadal patterns, as Atlanctic Multidecadal Oscillations (AMO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillations (IPO). The results of this study have important implications in crop forecasting. In this way, it may have a positive impact on both public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance

  9. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; ...

  10. Analysis of spatiotemporal soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale using a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogena, Heye R.; Huisman, Johan A.; Rosenbaum, Ulrike; Weuthen, Ansgar; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    Soil water content plays a key role in partitioning water and energy fluxes and controlling the pattern of groundwater recharge. Despite the importance of soil water content, it is not yet measured in an operational way at larger scales. The aim of this paper is to present the potential of real-time monitoring for the analysis of soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale using the recently developed wireless sensor network SoilNet [1], [2]. SoilNet is designed to measure soil moisture, salinity and temperature in several depths (e.g. 5, 20 and 50 cm). Recently, a small forest catchment Wüstebach (~27 ha) has been instrumented with 150 sensor nodes and more than 1200 soil sensors in the framework of the Transregio32 and the Helmholtz initiative TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). From August to November 2009, more than 6 million soil moisture measurements have been performed. We will present first results from a statistical and geostatistical analysis of the data. The observed spatial variability of soil moisture corresponds well with the 800-m scale variability described in [3]. The very low scattering of the standard deviation versus mean soil moisture plots indicates that sensor network data shows less artificial soil moisture variations than soil moisture data originated from measurement campaigns. The variograms showed more or less the same nugget effect, which indicates that the sum of the sub-scale variability and the measurement error is rather time-invariant. Wet situations showed smaller spatial variability, which is attributed to saturated soil water content, which poses an upper limit and is typically not strongly variable in headwater catchments with relatively homogeneous soil. The spatiotemporal variability in soil moisture at 50 cm depth was significantly lower than at 5 and 20 cm. This finding indicates that the considerable variability of the top soil is buffered deeper in the soil due to lateral and vertical water fluxes

  11. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  12. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  13. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  14. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Adherence and Prescription Patterns Using Large-Scale Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadóttir, Margrét V; Malik, Sana; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Gooden, Tanisha; Plaisant, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Advanced computing capabilities and novel visual analytics tools now allow us to move beyond the traditional cross-sectional summaries to analyze longitudinal prescription patterns and the impact of study design decisions. For example, design decisions regarding gaps and overlaps in prescription fill data are necessary for measuring adherence using prescription claims data. However, little is known regarding the impact of these decisions on measures of medication possession (e.g., medication possession ratio). The goal of the study was to demonstrate the use of visualization tools for pattern discovery, hypothesis generation, and study design. We utilized EventFlow, a novel discrete event sequence visualization software, to investigate patterns of prescription fills, including gaps and overlaps, utilizing large-scale healthcare claims data. The study analyzes data of individuals who had at least two prescriptions for one of five hypertension medication classes: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. We focused on those members initiating therapy with diuretics (19.2%) who may have concurrently or subsequently take drugs in other classes as well. We identified longitudinal patterns in prescription fills for antihypertensive medications, investigated the implications of decisions regarding gap length and overlaps, and examined the impact on the average cost and adherence of the initial treatment episode. A total of 790,609 individuals are included in the study sample, 19.2% (N = 151,566) of whom started on diuretics first during the study period. The average age was 52.4 years and 53.1% of the population was female. When the allowable gap was zero, 34% of the population had continuous coverage and the average length of continuous coverage was 2 months. In contrast, when the allowable gap was 30 days, 69% of the population showed a single continuous prescription period with an average length of 5

  16. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  17. Nano-scale patterns of polymers and their structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Yushu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics

    1998-03-01

    Nano-scale patterns formed by polymers and their related soft materials were investigated by measuring neutron scattering from them. Two apparatuses installed at cold neutron guides in JRR-3M, a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) apparatus and a neutron reflectometer, which give out elastic scattering intensities, were used. Chain dimensions of polystyrenes diluted with low molecular weight homologous polystyrenes, orientation behaviour of microphase-separated block copolymer in concentrated solutions under shear, shrinkage and recovery of polyvinylalcohol gel with temperature and structural phase transition of microemulsion under high-pressure and so on were measured by SANS, while microphase-separated polystyrene(S)/poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P) interfaces of a PSP triblock copolymer was observed by specular neutron reflectivity measurements. (author)

  18. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  19. Sub-50 nm patterning of functional oxides by soft lithographic edge printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fast, versatile and reproducible method to make arbitrary nanoscale patterns of functional metal oxides by edge transfer printing of aqueous metal-loaded water-soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA) solutions on silicon. Patterns of ZnO, CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 with lateral dimensions below 50 nm

  20. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

  1. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant.

  2. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  3. Correlation of pulmonary function and usual interstitial pneumonia computed tomography patterns in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadu, Antonella; Byrne, Suzanne C; Pirina, Pietro; Hartman, Thomas E; Bartholmai, Brian J; Moua, Teng

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about presenting 'inconsistent' or 'possible' usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) computed tomography (CT) patterns advancing to 'consistent' UIP as disease progresses in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that if 'consistent' UIP represented more advanced disease, such a pattern on presentation should also correlate with more severe pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. Consecutive IPF patients (2005-2013) diagnosed by international criteria with baseline PFT and CT were included. Presenting CTs were assessed by three expert radiologists for consensus UIP pattern ('consistent', 'possible', and 'inconsistent'). Approximation of individual and combined interstitial abnormalities was also performed with correlation of interstitial abnormalities and UIP CT pattern made with PFT findings and survival. Three-hundred and fifty patients (70% male) were included with a mean age of 68.3 years. Mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) and diffusion capacity (DLCO%) was 64% and 45.5% respectively. Older age and male gender correlated more with 'consistent' UIP CT pattern. FVC% was not associated with any UIP pattern but did correlate with total volume of radiologist assessed interstitial abnormalities. DLCO% was lower in those with 'consistent' UIP pattern. A 'consistent' UIP CT pattern was also not independently predictive of survival after correction for age, gender, FVC%, and DLCO%. PFT findings appear to correlate with extent of radiologic disease but not specific morphologic patterns. Whether such UIP patterns represent different stages of disease severity or radiologic progression is not supported by coinciding pulmonary function decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94. The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  5. Patterns of subnet usage reveal distinct scales of regulation in the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Marr

    Full Text Available The set of regulatory interactions between genes, mediated by transcription factors, forms a species' transcriptional regulatory network (TRN. By comparing this network with measured gene expression data, one can identify functional properties of the TRN and gain general insight into transcriptional control. We define the subnet of a node as the subgraph consisting of all nodes topologically downstream of the node, including itself. Using a large set of microarray expression data of the bacterium Escherichia coli, we find that the gene expression in different subnets exhibits a structured pattern in response to environmental changes and genotypic mutation. Subnets with fewer changes in their expression pattern have a higher fraction of feed-forward loop motifs and a lower fraction of small RNA targets within them. Our study implies that the TRN consists of several scales of regulatory organization: (1 subnets with more varying gene expression controlled by both transcription factors and post-transcriptional RNA regulation and (2 subnets with less varying gene expression having more feed-forward loops and less post-transcriptional RNA regulation.

  6. GaAs/Ge crystals grown on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, A. G.; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von; Meduňa, M.; Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L.; Isa, F.; Barthazy Meier, E.; Müller, E.; Isella, G.

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic integration of III-V compounds into high density Si integrated circuits is a key technological challenge for the next generation of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we report on the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of strain-free GaAs crystals on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale. The differences in thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter are adapted by a 2-μm-thick intermediate Ge layer grown by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaAs crystals evolve during growth towards a pyramidal shape, with lateral facets composed of (111) planes and an apex formed by (137) and (001) surfaces. The influence of the anisotropic GaAs growth kinetics on the final morphology is highlighted by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The effect of the Si pattern geometry, substrate orientation, and crystal aspect ratio on the GaAs structural properties was investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. The thermal strain relaxation process of GaAs crystals with different aspect ratio is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations based on realistic geometries extracted from cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images

  7. Spatio-temporal scaling effects on longshore sediment transport pattern along the nearshore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa

    2018-03-01

    A measure of uncertainties, entropy has been employed in such different applications as coastal engineering probability inferences. Entropy sediment transport integration theories present novel visions in coastal analyses/modeling the application and development of which are still far-reaching. Effort has been made in the present paper to propose a method that needs an entropy-power index for spatio-temporal patterns analyses. Results have shown that the index is suitable for marine/hydrological ecosystem components analyses based on a beach area case study. The method makes use of six Makran Coastal monthly data (1970-2015) and studies variables such as spatio-temporal patterns, LSTR (long-shore sediment transport rate), wind speed, and wave height all of which are time-dependent and play considerable roles in terrestrial coastal investigations; the mentioned variables show meaningful spatio-temporal variability most of the time, but explanation of their combined performance is not easy. Accordingly, the use of an entropy-power index can show considerable signals that facilitate the evaluation of water resources and will provide an insight regarding hydrological parameters' interactions at scales as large as beach areas. Results have revealed that an STDDPI (entropy based spatio-temporal disorder dynamics power index) can simulate wave, long-shore sediment transport rate, and wind when granulometry, concentration, and flow conditions vary.

  8. Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

    2014-08-01

    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  9. Directed formation of micro- and nanoscale patterns of functional light-harvesting LH2 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nicholas P; Janusz, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Timney, John; Ducker, Robert E; Olsen, John D; Otto, Cees; Subramaniam, Vinod; Leggett, Graham J; Hunter, C Neil

    2007-11-28

    The precision placement of the desired protein components on a suitable substrate is an essential prelude to any hybrid "biochip" device, but a second and equally important condition must also be met: the retention of full biological activity. Here we demonstrate the selective binding of an optically active membrane protein, the light-harvesting LH2 complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, to patterned self-assembled monolayers at the micron scale and the fabrication of nanometer-scale patterns of these molecules using near-field photolithographic methods. In contrast to plasma proteins, which are reversibly adsorbed on many surfaces, the LH2 complex is readily patterned simply by spatial control of surface polarity. Near-field photolithography has yielded rows of light-harvesting complexes only 98 nm wide. Retention of the native optical properties of patterned LH2 molecules was demonstrated using in situ fluorescence emission spectroscopy.

  10. Comparative and developmental patterns of amphibious auditory function in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-12-01

    Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp., and Plethodon glutinosus) and tested whether metamorphosis and terrestrial niche were linked to aerial sensitivity. Threshold differences between media varied between species. A. means' relative aerial sensitivity was greatest at 100 Hz and decreased with increasing frequency. In contrast, all other salamanders retained greater sensitivity up to 500 Hz, and in A. talpoideum and Eurycea, relative sensitivity at 500 Hz was higher than at 100 Hz. Aerial thresholds of terrestrial P. glutinosus above 200 Hz were similar to A. talpoideum and Eurycea, but lower than N. viridescens and A. means. Metamorphosis did not affect aerial sensitivity in N. viridescens or A. talpoideum. These results fail to support a hypothesis of terrestrial hearing specialization across ontogeny or phylogeny. We discuss methodological limitations to our amphibious comparisons and factors affecting variation in amphibious performance.

  11. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conformationally constrained D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp (wFw) core of the prototype inverse agonist [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]substance P, a series of novel, small, peptide-mimetic agonists for the ghrelin receptor were generated. By using various simple, ring-constrained spacers...... connecting the D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp motif with the important C-terminal carboxyamide group, 40 nm agonism potency was obtained and also in one case (wFw-Isn-NH(2), where Isn is isonipecotic acid) ~80% efficacy. However, in contrast to all previously reported ghrelin receptor agonists, the piperidine-constrained w......Fw-Isn-NH(2) was found to be a functionally biased agonist. Thus, wFw-Isn-NH(2) mediated potent and efficacious signaling through the Ga(q) and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, but in contrast to all previous ghrelin receptor agonists it did not signal through the serum response element, conceivably the Ga(12...

  12. Large-scale functional MRI analysis to accumulate knowledge on brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    How can we accumulate knowledge on brain functions? How can we leverage years of research in functional MRI to analyse finer-grained psychological constructs, and build a comprehensive model of the brain? Researchers usually rely on single studies to delineate brain regions recruited by mental processes. They relate their findings to previous works in an informal way by defining regions of interest from the literature. Meta-analysis approaches provide a more principled way to build upon the literature. This thesis investigates three ways to assemble knowledge using activation maps from a large amount of studies. First, we present an approach that uses jointly two similar fMRI experiments, to better condition an analysis from a statistical standpoint. We show that it is a valuable data-driven alternative to traditional regions of interest analyses, but fails to provide a systematic way to relate studies, and thus does not permit to integrate knowledge on a large scale. Because of the difficulty to associate multiple studies, we resort to using a single dataset sampling a large number of stimuli for our second contribution. This method estimates functional networks associated with functional profiles, where the functional networks are interacting brain regions and the functional profiles are a weighted set of cognitive descriptors. This work successfully yields known brain networks and automatically associates meaningful descriptions. Its limitations lie in the unsupervised nature of this method, which is more difficult to validate, and the use of a single dataset. It however brings the notion of cognitive labels, which is central to our last contribution. Our last contribution presents a method that learns functional atlases by combining several datasets. [Henson 2006] shows that forward inference, i.e. the probability of an activation given a cognitive process, is often not sufficient to conclude on the engagement of brain regions for a cognitive process

  13. Transport on intermediate time scales in flows with cat's eye patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Zaks, Michael A.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the advection-diffusion transport of tracers in a one-parameter family of plane periodic flows where the patterns of streamlines feature regions of confined circulation in the shape of "cat's eyes," separated by meandering jets with ballistic motion inside them. By varying the parameter, we proceed from the regular two-dimensional lattice of eddies without jets to the sinusoidally modulated shear flow without eddies. When a weak thermal noise is added, i.e., at large Péclet numbers, several intermediate time scales arise, with qualitatively and quantitatively different transport properties: depending on the parameter of the flow, the initial position of a tracer, and the aging time, motion of the tracers ranges from subdiffusive to superballistic. We report on results of extensive numerical simulations of the mean-squared displacement for different initial conditions in ordinary and aged situations. These results are compared with a theory based on a Lévy walk that describes the intermediate-time ballistic regime and gives a reasonable description of the behavior for a certain class of initial conditions. The interplay of the walk process with internal circulation dynamics in the trapped state results at intermediate time scales in nonmonotonic characteristics of aging not captured by the Lévy walk model.

  14. Coupled climate model simulations of Mediterranean winter cyclones and large-scale flow patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ziv

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the ability of global, coupled climate models to reproduce the synoptic regime of the Mediterranean Basin. The output of simulations of the 9 models included in the IPCC CMIP3 effort is compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalyzed data for the period 1961–1990. The study examined the spatial distribution of cyclone occurrence, the mean Mediterranean upper- and lower-level troughs, the inter-annual variation and trend in the occurrence of the Mediterranean cyclones, and the main large-scale circulation patterns, represented by rotated EOFs of 500 hPa and sea level pressure. The models reproduce successfully the two maxima in cyclone density in the Mediterranean and their locations, the location of the average upper- and lower-level troughs, the relative inter-annual variation in cyclone occurrences and the structure of the four leading large scale EOFs. The main discrepancy is the models' underestimation of the cyclone density in the Mediterranean, especially in its western part. The models' skill in reproducing the cyclone distribution is found correlated with their spatial resolution, especially in the vertical. The current improvement in model spatial resolution suggests that their ability to reproduce the Mediterranean cyclones would be improved as well.

  15. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  16. Tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrin Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle, and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions as well as for improving the parameterisation and evaluation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. For individual trees, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status control sap flow amounts of individual trees. Within forest stands, properties such as species composition, basal area or stand density additionally affect sap flow, for example via competition mechanisms. Finally, sap flow patterns might also be influenced by landscape-scale characteristics such as geology and soils, slope position or aspect because they affect water and energy availability; however, little is known about the dynamic interplay of these controls.We studied the relative importance of various tree-, stand- and site-specific characteristics with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites across a 290 km2 catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we modelled the daily sap velocity and derived sap flow patterns of these 61 trees, and we determined the importance of the different controls.Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in the landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow we included only the stand- and site-specific predictors in the models to ensure variable independence. Of those, geology and aspect were most important. Compared to these predictors, spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explains only a small fraction of the variability in the daily datasets. However, the temporal

  17. Orthogonal and Scaling Transformations of Quadratic Functions with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we present a non-singular transformation that can reduce a given quadratic function defined on Rn to another simpler quadratic function and study the impact of the transformation in relation to the problem of minimization of the function. In particular, we construct a non-singular transformation that can reduce a ...

  18. Traits Without Borders:Integrating Functional Diversity Across Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carmona, C. P.; de Bello, Francesco; Mason, N. W. H.; Lepš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2016), s. 382-394 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : functional trait * functional diversity * functional niche Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 15.268, year: 2016

  19. Characteristic functions of scale mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the characteristic function of scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions both in the univariate and multivariate cases. The derivation uses the simple stochastic relationship between skew-normal distributions and scale mixtures of skew

  20. From Patterns to Function in Living Systems: Dryland Ecosystems as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Ehud

    2018-03-01

    Spatial patterns are ubiquitous in animate matter. Besides their intricate structure and beauty they generally play functional roles. The capacity of living systems to remain functional in changing environments is a question of utmost importance, but its intimate relationship to pattern formation is largely unexplored. Here, we address this relationship using dryland vegetation as a case study. Following a brief introduction to pattern-formation theory, we describe a mathematical model that captures several mechanisms of vegetation pattern formation and discuss ecological contexts that showcase different mechanisms. Using this model, we unravel the different vegetation patterns that keep dryland ecosystems viable along the rainfall gradient, identify multistability ranges where fronts separating domains of alternative stable states exist, and highlight the roles of front dynamics in mitigating or reversing desertification. The utility of satellite images in testing model predictions is discussed. An outlook on outstanding open problems concludes this paper.

  1. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromosome conformation capture studies suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structures called topologically associating domains. The borders of these domains are highly enriched for architectural proteins with characterized roles in insulator function. However, a majority of architectural protein binding sites localize within topological domains, suggesting sites associated with domain borders represent a functionally different subclass of these regulatory elements. How topologically associating domains are established and what differentiates border-associated from non-border architectural protein binding sites remain unanswered questions. Results By mapping the genome-wide target sites for several Drosophila architectural proteins, including previously uncharacterized profiles for TFIIIC and SMC-containing condensin complexes, we uncover an extensive pattern of colocalization in which architectural proteins establish dense clusters at the borders of topological domains. Reporter-based enhancer-blocking insulator activity as well as endogenous domain border strength scale with the occupancy level of architectural protein binding sites, suggesting co-binding by architectural proteins underlies the functional potential of these loci. Analyses in mouse and human stem cells suggest that clustering of architectural proteins is a general feature of genome organization, and conserved architectural protein binding sites may underlie the tissue-invariant nature of topologically associating domains observed in mammals. Conclusions We identify a spectrum of architectural protein occupancy that scales with the topological structure of chromosomes and the regulatory potential of these elements. Whereas high occupancy architectural protein binding sites associate with robust partitioning of topologically associating domains and robust insulator function, low occupancy sites appear reserved for gene-specific regulation within topological domains. PMID

  2. A Scale Elasticity Measure for Directional Distance Function and its Dual

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Zelenyuk

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a scale elasticity measure based on directional distance function for multi-output-multi-input technologies and explore its fundamental properties. Specifically, we derive necessary and sufficient condition for equivalence of the scale elasticity measure based on the directional distance function with the input oriented and output oriented scale elasticity measures. We also establish duality relationship between the scale elasticity measure based on the directional ...

  3. Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Lizhu; Yuan, Xinru; Zhang, Lu; He, Yini; Yao, Shuqiao; Wang, Jiaojian; Xiao, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  5. Signatures of non-universal large scales in conditional structure functions from various turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Daniel B; Voth, Greg A; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gibert, Mathieu; Xu Haitao; Gylfason, Ármann; Mydlarski, Laurent; Yeung, P K

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic comparison of conditional structure functions in nine turbulent flows. The flows studied include forced isotropic turbulence simulated on a periodic domain, passive grid wind tunnel turbulence in air and in pressurized SF 6 , active grid wind tunnel turbulence (in both synchronous and random driving modes), the flow between counter-rotating discs, oscillating grid turbulence and the flow in the Lagrangian exploration module (in both constant and random driving modes). We compare longitudinal Eulerian second-order structure functions conditioned on the instantaneous large-scale velocity in each flow to assess the ways in which the large scales affect the small scales in a variety of turbulent flows. Structure functions are shown to have larger values when the large-scale velocity significantly deviates from the mean in most flows, suggesting that dependence on the large scales is typical in many turbulent flows. The effects of the large-scale velocity on the structure functions can be quite strong, with the structure function varying by up to a factor of 2 when the large-scale velocity deviates from the mean by ±2 standard deviations. In several flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are similar at all the length scales we measured, indicating that the large-scale effects are scale independent. In a few flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are larger on the smallest length scales. (paper)

  6. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  7. Large-Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Mediterranean Cephalopod Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Keller

    Full Text Available Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems' functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200-400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity.

  8. Modelling aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in spatial point pattern datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavancier, Frédéric; Møller, Jesper

    We consider a dependent thinning of a regular point process with the aim of obtaining aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in the resulting target point process of retained points. Various parametric models for the underlying processes are suggested and the properties...

  9. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  10. Local-scale analysis of temperature patterns over Poland during heatwave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżewska, Agnieszka; Dyer, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in the future, including over Central Europe where populations are sensitive to extreme temperature. This paper studies six recent major heatwave events over Poland from 2006 through 2015 using regional-scale simulations (10-km grid spacing, hourly frequency) from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to define local-scale 2-m temperature patterns. For this purpose, a heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with maximum 2-m air temperature exceeding 30 °C. The WRF simulations were validated using maximum daily 2-m temperature observations from 12 meteorological stations in select Polish cities, which were selected to have even spatial coverage across the study area. Synoptic analysis of the six study events shows that the inflow of tropical air masses from the south is the primary driver of heatwave onset and maintenance, the highest temperatures (and most vulnerable areas) occur over arable land and artificial surfaces in central and western Poland, while coastal areas in the north, mountain areas in the south, and forested and mosaic areas of smaller fields and pastures of the northwest, northeast, and southeast are less affected by prolonged periods of elevated temperatures. In general, regional differences in 2-m temperature between the hottest and coolest areas is about 2-4 °C. Large urban areas like Warsaw, or the large complex of artificial areas in the conurbation of Silesian cities, are also generally warmer than surrounding areas by roughly 2-4 °C, and even up to 6 °C, especially during the night. Additionally, hot air from the south of Poland flows through a low-lying area between two mountain ranges (Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains)—the so-called Moravian Gate—hitting densely populated urban areas (Silesian cities) and Cracow. These patterns occur only during high-pressure synoptic conditions with low cloudiness and wind and without any active fronts

  11. The intertidal community in West Greenland: Large-scale patterns and small-scale variation on ecosystem dynamics along a climate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    are largely unknown. The West Greenland coast is north - south orientated. This provides an ideal setting to study the impact of climate change on marine species population dynamics and distribution. We investigated the latitudinal changes in the rocky intertidal community along 18° latitudes (59-77°N......) in West Greenland. Using cleared quadrats we quantified patterns in abundance, biomass and species richness in the intertidal zone. We use this data to disentangle patterns in Arctic intertidal communities at different scales. We describe the effects of different environmental drivers and species...... interactions on distribution and dynamics of intertidal species. Our results indicate that changes in distribution and abundance of foundation species can have large effects on the ecosystem. We also show that the importance of small-scale variation may be of same magnitude as large- scale variation. Only...

  12. On locally uniformly linearizable high breakdown location and scale functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives two constructions of a weighted mean which has a large domain, is affinely equivariant, has a locally high breakdown point and is locally uniformly linearizable. One construction is based on $M$-functionals with smooth defining $\\psi$- and $\\chi$ -functions which are used to

  13. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-07-01

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the relationship between large-scale climate modes and regional synoptic patterns that drive Victorian rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Verdon-Kidd; A. S. Kiem

    2009-01-01

    In this paper regional (synoptic) and large-scale climate drivers of rainfall are investigated for Victoria, Australia. A non-linear classification methodology known as self-organizing maps (SOM) is used to identify 20 key regional synoptic patterns, which are shown to capture a range of significant synoptic features known to influence the climate of the region. Rainfall distributions are assigned to each of the 20 patterns for nine rainfall stations located across Victoria, resulting in a cl...

  15. Quality of Life Scale: A Measure of Function for People with Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Of Life Scale A Measure Of Function For People With Pain 0 Non-functioning 1 2 3 4 ... the week Active on weekends 9 10 Normal Quality of Life Work/volunteer/be active eight hours daily Take ...

  16. Deep inelastic singlet structure functions and scaling violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-zhu, Li; Bing-xun, Hu

    1984-02-01

    The flavour singlet structure functions of deep inelastic scattering processes can yield more decisive tests of QCD than the non-singlet. We give analytical expression for flavour singlet structure functions through analysing the lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering processes by means of QCD and using Jacobi polynomials. This expression contains 4 to 5 parameters and shows the changes of the singlet structure functions with x and Q/sup 2/ very well. In QCD leading order, the conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  17. Comparing rainfall patterns between regions in Peninsular Malaysia via a functional data analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Hamdan, Muhammad Fauzee; Wan Zin, Wan Zawiah

    2011-12-01

    SummaryNormally, rainfall data is collected on a daily, monthly or annual basis in the form of discrete observations. The aim of this study is to convert these rainfall values into a smooth curve or function which could be used to represent the continuous rainfall process at each region via a technique known as functional data analysis. Since rainfall data shows a periodic pattern in each region, the Fourier basis is introduced to capture these variations. Eleven basis functions with five harmonics are used to describe the unimodal rainfall pattern for stations in the East while five basis functions which represent two harmonics are needed to describe the rainfall pattern in the West. Based on the fitted smooth curve, the wet and dry periods as well as the maximum and minimum rainfall values could be determined. Different rainfall patterns are observed among the studied regions based on the smooth curve. Using the functional analysis of variance, the test results indicated that there exist significant differences in the functional means between each region. The largest differences in the functional means are found between the East and Northwest regions and these differences may probably be due to the effect of topography and, geographical location and are mostly influenced by the monsoons. Therefore, the same inputs or approaches might not be useful in modeling the hydrological process for different regions.

  18. Scale-free animal movement patterns: Levy walks outperform fractional Brownian motions and fractional Levy motions in random search scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A M

    2009-01-01

    The movement patterns of a diverse range of animals have scale-free characteristics. These characteristics provide necessary but not sufficient conditions for the presence of movement patterns that can be approximated by Levy walks. Nevertheless, it has been widely assumed that the occurrence of scale-free animal movements can indeed be attributed to the presence of Levy walks. This is, in part, because it is known that the super-diffusive properties of Levy walks can be advantageous in random search scenarios when searchers have little or no prior knowledge of target locations. However, fractional Brownian motions (fBms) and fractional Levy motions (fLms) are both scale-free and super-diffusive, and so it is possible that these motions rather than Levy walks underlie some or all occurrences of scale-free animal movement patterns. Here this possibility is examined in numerical simulations through a determination of the searching efficiencies of fBm and fLm searches. It is shown that these searches are less efficient than Levy walk searches. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some animals with scale-free movement patterns are executing fBm and fLm searches, but it does make Levy walk searches the more likely possibility.

  19. Hurricane Activity and the Large-Scale Pattern of Spread of an Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P.; Cronin, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances are a primary facilitator of the growth and spread of invasive species. However, the effects of large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, on the broad geographic patterns of invasive species growth and spread have not been investigated. We used historical aerial imagery to determine the growth rate of invasive Phragmites australis patches in wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These were relatively undisturbed wetlands where P. australis had room for unrestricted growth. Over the past several decades, invasive P. australis stands expanded in size by 6–35% per year. Based on tropical storm and hurricane activity over that same time period, we found that the frequency of hurricane-force winds explained 81% of the variation in P. australis growth over this broad geographic range. The expansion of P. australis stands was strongly and positively correlated with hurricane frequency. In light of the many climatic models that predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the next century, these results suggest a strong link between climate change and species invasion and a challenging future ahead for the management of invasive species. PMID:24878928

  20. Large Scale Frequent Pattern Mining using MPI One-Sided Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a work-stealing runtime --- Library for Work Stealing LibWS --- using MPI one-sided model for designing scalable FP-Growth --- {\\em de facto} frequent pattern mining algorithm --- on large scale systems. LibWS provides locality efficient and highly scalable work-stealing techniques for load balancing on a variety of data distributions. We also propose a novel communication algorithm for FP-growth data exchange phase, which reduces the communication complexity from state-of-the-art O(p) to O(f + p/f) for p processes and f frequent attributed-ids. FP-Growth is implemented using LibWS and evaluated on several work distributions and support counts. An experimental evaluation of the FP-Growth on LibWS using 4096 processes on an InfiniBand Cluster demonstrates excellent efficiency for several work distributions (87\\% efficiency for Power-law and 91% for Poisson). The proposed distributed FP-Tree merging algorithm provides 38x communication speedup on 4096 cores.

  1. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  2. Self-assembled large scale metal alloy grid patterns as flexible transparent conductive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Melinda; Dombovari, Aron; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kordas, Krisztian

    2015-09-01

    The development of scalable synthesis techniques for optically transparent, electrically conductive coatings is in great demand due to the constantly increasing market price and limited resources of indium for indium tin oxide (ITO) materials currently applied in most of the optoelectronic devices. This work pioneers the scalable synthesis of transparent conductive films (TCFs) by exploiting the coffee-ring effect deposition coupled with reactive inkjet printing and subsequent chemical copper plating. Here we report two different promising alternatives to replace ITO, palladium-copper (PdCu) grid patterns and silver-copper (AgCu) fish scale like structures printed on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, achieving sheet resistance values as low as 8.1 and 4.9 Ω/sq, with corresponding optical transmittance of 79% and 65% at 500 nm, respectively. Both films show excellent adhesion and also preserve their structural integrity and good contact with the substrate for severe bending showing less than 4% decrease of conductivity even after 105 cycles. Transparent conductive films for capacitive touch screens and pixels of microscopic resistive electrodes are demonstrated.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics study on the influence of airflow patterns on carbon dioxide distribution in a scaled livestock building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, P V; Tong, G

    2008-01-01

    building with slatted floor. Contaminant sources are assumed to be modelled as a constant concentration on the manure surface. Three different ventilation rates and two different deflector degrees are studied, in which the deflector is applied to change the airflow patterns. A CFD commercial software code......Airflow patterns and airflow rate have an important influence on contaminant distribution in livestock buildings. The objective of this paper is to model and evaluate the effect of airflow rates and airflow patterns effect on CO2 concentration distribution and emission rates in a scaled livestock...

  4. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Delrieu, J.; Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B.; Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S.; Hitzel, A.; Tafani, M.; Verbizier, D. de; Darcourt, J.; Fernandez, P.; Monteil, J.; Carrie, I.; Pontecorvo, M.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had 18 F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  5. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payoux, P. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); INSERM U825, CHU Purpan, Toulouse Cedex (France); Delrieu, J. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Hitzel, A. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Tafani, M. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Verbizier, D. de [Montpellier University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montpellier (France); Darcourt, J. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nice (France); University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Fernandez, P. [Pellegrin University Hospital Bordeaux, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bordeaux (France); University Bordeaux II, CNRS UMR 5287 - INCIA, Victor Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Monteil, J. [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Limoges (France); University of Limoges, Limoges (France); Carrie, I. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Pontecorvo, M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andrieu, S. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had {sup 18}F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  6. Use of soil moisture dynamics and patterns at different spatio-temporal scales for the investigation of subsurface flow processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Blume

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns as well as temporal dynamics of soil moisture have a major influence on runoff generation. The investigation of these dynamics and patterns can thus yield valuable information on hydrological processes, especially in data scarce or previously ungauged catchments. The combination of spatially scarce but temporally high resolution soil moisture profiles with episodic and thus temporally scarce moisture profiles at additional locations provides information on spatial as well as temporal patterns of soil moisture at the hillslope transect scale. This approach is better suited to difficult terrain (dense forest, steep slopes than geophysical techniques and at the same time less cost-intensive than a high resolution grid of continuously measuring sensors. Rainfall simulation experiments with dye tracers while continuously monitoring soil moisture response allows for visualization of flow processes in the unsaturated zone at these locations. Data was analyzed at different spacio-temporal scales using various graphical methods, such as space-time colour maps (for the event and plot scale and binary indicator maps (for the long-term and hillslope scale. Annual dynamics of soil moisture and decimeter-scale variability were also investigated. The proposed approach proved to be successful in the investigation of flow processes in the unsaturated zone and showed the importance of preferential flow in the Malalcahuello Catchment, a data-scarce catchment in the Andes of Southern Chile. Fast response times of stream flow indicate that preferential flow observed at the plot scale might also be of importance at the hillslope or catchment scale. Flow patterns were highly variable in space but persistent in time. The most likely explanation for preferential flow in this catchment is a combination of hydrophobicity, small scale heterogeneity in rainfall due to redistribution in the canopy and strong gradients in unsaturated conductivities leading to

  7. Attribution of Large-Scale Climate Patterns to Seasonal Peak-Flow and Prospects for Prediction Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ward, Philip; Block, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Flood-related fatalities and impacts on society surpass those from all other natural disasters globally. While the inclusion of large-scale climate drivers in streamflow (or high-flow) prediction has been widely studied, an explicit link to global-scale long-lead prediction is lacking, which can lead to an improved understanding of potential flood propensity. Here we attribute seasonal peak-flow to large-scale climate patterns, including the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), using streamflow station observations and simulations from PCR-GLOBWB, a global-scale hydrologic model. Statistically significantly correlated climate patterns and streamflow autocorrelation are subsequently applied as predictors to build a global-scale season-ahead prediction model, with prediction performance evaluated by the mean squared error skill score (MSESS) and the categorical Gerrity skill score (GSS). Globally, fair-to-good prediction skill (20% ≤ MSESS and 0.2 ≤ GSS) is evident for a number of locations (28% of stations and 29% of land area), most notably in data-poor regions (e.g., West and Central Africa). The persistence of such relevant climate patterns can improve understanding of the propensity for floods at the seasonal scale. The prediction approach developed here lays the groundwork for further improving local-scale seasonal peak-flow prediction by identifying relevant global-scale climate patterns. This is especially attractive for regions with limited observations and or little capacity to develop flood early warning systems.

  8. Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with Temperature Extremes as a Basis for Model Evaluation: Methodological Overview and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Broccoli, A. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomalous large-scale circulation patterns often play a key role in the occurrence of temperature extremes. For example, large-scale circulation can drive horizontal temperature advection or influence local processes that lead to extreme temperatures, such as by inhibiting moderating sea breezes, promoting downslope adiabatic warming, and affecting the development of cloud cover. Additionally, large-scale circulation can influence the shape of temperature distribution tails, with important implications for the magnitude of future changes in extremes. As a result of the prominent role these patterns play in the occurrence and character of extremes, the way in which temperature extremes change in the future will be highly influenced by if and how these patterns change. It is therefore critical to identify and understand the key patterns associated with extremes at local to regional scales in the current climate and to use this foundation as a target for climate model validation. This presentation provides an overview of recent and ongoing work aimed at developing and applying novel approaches to identifying and describing the large-scale circulation patterns associated with temperature extremes in observations and using this foundation to evaluate state-of-the-art global and regional climate models. Emphasis is given to anomalies in sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height over North America using several methods to identify circulation patterns, including self-organizing maps and composite analysis. Overall, evaluation results suggest that models are able to reproduce observed patterns associated with temperature extremes with reasonable fidelity in many cases. Model skill is often highest when and where synoptic-scale processes are the dominant mechanisms for extremes, and lower where sub-grid scale processes (such as those related to topography) are important. Where model skill in reproducing these patterns is high, it can be inferred that extremes are

  9. Characteristic functions of scale mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon

    2011-08-01

    We obtain the characteristic function of scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions both in the univariate and multivariate cases. The derivation uses the simple stochastic relationship between skew-normal distributions and scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions. In particular, we describe the characteristic function of skew-normal, skew-t, and other related distributions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. TKA patients with unsatisfying knee function show changes in neuromotor synergy pattern but not joint biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Malloy, Philip; Nam, Denis; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report persistent poor knee function. This study explores the idea that, despite similar knee joint biomechanics, the neuro-motor synergies may be different between high-functional and low-functional TKA patients. We hypothesized that (1) high-functional TKA recruit a more complex neuro-motor synergy pattern compared to low-functional TKA and (2) high-functional TKA patients demonstrate more stride-to-stride variability (flexibility) in their synergies. Gait and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during level walking for three groups of participants: (i) high-functional TKA patients (n=13); (ii) low-functional TKA patients (n=13) and (iii) non-operative controls (n=18). Synergies were extracted from EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate between-group differences in gait and neuro-motor synergies. Results showed that synergy patterns were different among the three groups. Control subjects used 5-6 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. High functional TKA patients used 4-5 independent neural commands while low-functional TKA patients relied on only 2-3 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. Furthermore, stride-to-stride variability of muscles' response to the neural commands was reduced up to 15% in low-functional TKAs compared to the other two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Allometric scaling of kidney function in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-07-01

    Numerous physiological parameters, such as metabolic rate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), are allometrically related to body mass. Whereas the interspecific relationships between metabolic rate and body mass have been extensively studied in vertebrates, intraspecific studies of renal function have been limited. Therefore, kidney function was studied in 16 green iguanas, (Iguana iguana; 322-4764 g), by using nuclear scintigraphy to measure the renal uptake of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA), following either intravenous or intraosseous administration. Route of 99mTc-DTPA administration did not affect the percentage of the dose that accumulated in the kidney (P > 0.05). Renal uptake of 99mTc-DTPA was related to body mass (W, g) as: %Dose Kidney (min-1) = 11.09W(-0.235). Although not directly measured, the apparent renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA could be described as: Renal CL 99mTc-DTPA (ml.min-1) = 0.005W(0.759), and the mass exponent did not differ from either the 2/3 or 3/4 values (P > 0.05). The similarity of the mass exponents relating both renal function and metabolic rate to body mass suggests a common mechanism underlying these allometric relationships. As this study also demonstrated that renal scintigraphy can be used to quantify kidney function in iguanas, this technique may be a useful research and diagnostic tool.

  12. A scale purification procedure for evaluation of differential item functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, Muhammad Naveed; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test

  13. A large-scale evaluation of computational protein function prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radivojac, P.; Clark, W.T.; Oron, T.R.; Schnoes, A.M.; Wittkop, T.; Kourmpetis, Y.A.I.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Friedberg, I.

    2013-01-01

    Automated annotation of protein function is challenging. As the number of sequenced genomes rapidly grows, the overwhelming majority of protein products can only be annotated computationally. If computational predictions are to be relied upon, it is crucial that the accuracy of these methods be

  14. Fabrication of high-resolution reflective scale grating for an optical encoder using a patterned self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shanjin; Jiang, Weitao; Li, Xuan; Yu, Haoyu; Lei, Biao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Chen, Bangdao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Steel tape scale grating of a reflective incremental linear encoder has a key impact on the measurement accuracy of the optical encoder. However, it is difficult for conventional manufacturing processes to fabricate scale grating with high-resolution grating strips, due to process and material problems. In this paper, self-assembly technology was employed to fabricate high-resolution steel tape scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were adopted to form anti-reflective grating strips of steel tape scale grating. They were deposited in the tape, which had a hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern when the dispersion of the nanoparticles evaporated. A standard lift-off process was employed to fabricate the hydrophobic grating strips on the steel tape. Simultaneously, the steel tape itself presents a hydrophilic property. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern was thus obtained. In this study, octafluorocyclobutane was used to prepare the hydrophobic grating strips, due to its hydrophobic property. High-resolution graphene oxide steel tape scale grating with a pitch of 20 μ m was obtained through the self-assembly process. The photoelectric signals of the optical encoder containing the graphene oxide scale grating and conventional scale grating were tested under the same conditions. Comparison test results showed that the graphene oxide scale grating has a better performance in its amplitude and harmonic components than that of the conventional steel tape scale. A comparison experiment of position errors was also conducted, demonstrating an improvement in the positioning error of the graphene oxide scale grating. The comparison results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed self-assembly process to fabricate high-resolution graphene oxide scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. (paper)

  15. Tidal-induced large-scale regular bed form patterns in a three-dimensional shallow water model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional model presented in this paper is used to study how tidal currents form wave-like bottom patterns. Inclusion of vertical flow structure turns out to be necessary to describe the formation, or absence, of all known large-scale regular bottom features. The tide and topography are

  16. Pattern-Driven Architectural Partitioning. Balancing Functional and Non-functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil; Avgeriou, Paris

    2007-01-01

    One of the vexing challenges of software architecture is the problem of satisfying the functional specifications of the system to be created while at the same time meeting its non-functional needs. In this work we focus on the early stages of the software architecture process, when initial

  17. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  18. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Sajad; Ghasempoor, Khodayar; Rahnama, Nader; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2018-02-06

    Pre-participation examinations are the standard approach for assessing poor movement quality that would increase musculoskeletal injury risk. However, little is known about how core stability influences functional movement patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week core stability program on functional movement patterns in collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to determine if the core stability training program would be more effective in those with worse movement quality (i.e. ≤14 baseline FMS score). Quasi-experimental design. Athletic Training Facility. One-hundred collegiate athletes. Functional movement patterns included the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Lateral step down (LSD) and Y balance test (YBT) and were assessed before and after the 8-week program. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control. The intervention group was required to complete a core stability training program that met 3 times per week for 8-week. Significant group x time interactions demonstrated improvements in FMS, LSD and YBT scores in the experimental group relative to the control group (pcore stability training program enhances functional movement patterns and dynamic postural control in collegiate athletes. The benefits are more pronounced in collegiate athletes with poor movement quality.

  19. On Soft Limits of Large-Scale Structure Correlation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Konstandin, Thomas; Porto, Rafael A.; Sagunski, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We study soft limits of correlation functions for the density and velocity fields in the theory of structure formation. First, we re-derive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times using the eikonal approximation. These are solely based on symmetry arguments and are therefore universal. Then, we explore the existence of equal-time relations in the soft limit which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We scrutinize two approaches in the literat...

  20. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of global scale climate-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T. P.; Moosdorf, N.; Schneider, A. C.; Hartmann, J.; Befus, K. M.; Lehner, B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between groundwater and climate are important to resolve in both space and time as they influence mass and energy transfers at Earth's land surface. Despite the significance of these processes, little is known about the spatio-temporal distribution of such interactions globally, and many large-scale climate, hydrological and land surface models oversimplify groundwater or exclude it completely. In this study we bring together diverse global geomatic data sets to map spatial patterns in the sensitivity and degree of connectedness between the water table and the land surface, and use the output from a global groundwater model to assess the locations where the lateral import or export of groundwater is significant. We also quantify the groundwater response time, the characteristic time for groundwater systems to respond to a change in boundary conditions, and map its distribution globally to assess the likely dynamics of groundwater's interaction with climate. We find that more than half of the global land surface significantly exports or imports groundwater laterally. Nearly 40% of Earth's landmass has water tables that are strongly coupled to topography with water tables shallow enough to enable a bi-directional exchange of moisture with the climate system. However, only a small proportion (around 12%) of such regions have groundwater response times of 100 years or less and have groundwater fluxes that would significantly respond to rapid environmental changes over this timescale. We last explore fundamental relationships between aridity, groundwater response times and groundwater turnover times. Our results have wide ranging implications for understanding and modelling changes in Earth's water and energy balance and for informing robust future water management and security decisions.

  1. Continental scale patterns and predictors of fern richness and phylogenetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eNagalingum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because ferns have a wide range of habitat preferences and are widely distributed, they are an ideal group for understanding how diversity is distributed. Here we examine fern diversity on a broad-scale using standard and corrected richness measures as well as phylogenetic indices; in addition we determine the environmental predictors of each diversity metric. Using the combined records of Australian herbaria, a dataset of over 60,000 records was obtained for 89 genera to infer richness. A phylogenetic tree of all the genera was constructed and combined with the herbarium records to obtain phylogenetic diversity patterns. A hotspot of both taxic and phylogenetic diversity occurs in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. Although considerable diversity is distributed along the eastern coast, some important regions of diversity are identified only after sample-standardization of richness and through the phylogenetic metric. Of all of the metrics, annual precipitation was identified as the most explanatory variable, in part, in agreement with global and regional fern studies. Precipitation was combined with a different variable for each different metric. For corrected richness, precipitation is combined with temperature seasonality, while correlation of phylogenetic diversity to precipitation plus radiation indicates support for the species-energy hypothesis. Significantly high and significantly low phylogenetic diversity were found in geographically separate areas. These areas are correlated with different climatic conditions such as seasonality in precipitation. The use of phylogenetic metrics identifies additional areas of significant diversity, some of which have not been revealed using traditional taxonomic analyses, suggesting that different ecological and evolutionary processes have operated over the continent. Our study demonstrates that it is possible and vital to incorporate evolutionary metrics when inferring biodiversity hotspots

  2. Empirically Defined Patterns of Executive Function Deficits in Schizophrenia and Their Relation to Everyday Functioning: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iampietro, Mary; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Kessler, Rachel K.

    2013-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are well documented, although much less is known about patterns of EF deficits and their association to differential impairments in everyday functioning. The present study empirically defined SZ groups based on measures of various EF abilities and then compared these EF groups on everyday action errors. Participants (n=45) completed various subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action that yields scores reflecting total errors and a range of different error types (e.g., omission, perseveration). Results of a latent class analysis revealed three distinct EF groups, characterized by (a) multiple EF deficits, (b) relatively spared EF, and (c) perseverative responding. Follow-up analyses revealed that the classes differed significantly on NAT total errors, total commission errors, and total perseveration errors; the two classes with EF impairment performed comparably on the NAT but performed worse than the class with relatively spared EF. In sum, people with SZ demonstrate variable patterns of EF deficits, and distinct aspects of these EF deficit patterns (i.e., poor mental control abilities) may be associated with everyday functioning capabilities. PMID:23035705

  3. Examining the Functional Specification of Two-Parameter Model under Location and Scale Parameter Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    The functional specification of mean-standard deviation approach is examined under location and scale parameter condition. Firstly, the full set of restrictions imposed on the mean-standard deviation function under the location and scale parameter condition are made clear. Secondly, the examination based on the restrictions mentioned in the previous sentence derives the new properties of the mean-standard deviation function on the applicability of additive separability and the curvature of ex...

  4. Visual Scanning Patterns and Executive Function in Relation to Facial Emotion Recognition in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circelli, Karishma S.; Clark, Uraina S.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to perceive facial emotion varies with age. Relative to younger adults (YA), older adults (OA) are less accurate at identifying fear, anger, and sadness, and more accurate at identifying disgust. Because different emotions are conveyed by different parts of the face, changes in visual scanning patterns may account for age-related variability. We investigated the relation between scanning patterns and recognition of facial emotions. Additionally, as frontal-lobe changes with age may affect scanning patterns and emotion recognition, we examined correlations between scanning parameters and performance on executive function tests. Methods We recorded eye movements from 16 OA (mean age 68.9) and 16 YA (mean age 19.2) while they categorized facial expressions and non-face control images (landscapes), and administered standard tests of executive function. Results OA were less accurate than YA at identifying fear (precognition of sad expressions and with scanning patterns for fearful, sad, and surprised expressions. Conclusion We report significant age-related differences in visual scanning that are specific to faces. The observed relation between scanning patterns and executive function supports the hypothesis that frontal-lobe changes with age may underlie some changes in emotion recognition. PMID:22616800

  5. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A; McFarland, Jack W; Anderson, Frank E; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhouse gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities

  6. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  7. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (frequency characteristics of brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  9. Functional importance of different patterns of correlation between adjacent cassette exons in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Xue, Chenghai; Bi, Jianning; Li, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowo; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Yanda

    2008-04-26

    Alternative splicing expands transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Previous studies focus on the regulation of a single cassette exon, but recent experiments indicate that multiple cassette exons within a gene may interact with each other. This interaction can increase the potential to generate various transcripts and adds an extra layer of complexity to gene regulation. Several cases of exon interaction have been discovered. However, the extent to which the cassette exons coordinate with each other remains unknown. Based on EST data, we employed a metric of correlation coefficients to describe the interaction between two adjacent cassette exons and then categorized these exon pairs into three different groups by their interaction (correlation) patterns. Sequence analysis demonstrates that strongly-correlated groups are more conserved and contain a higher proportion of pairs with reading frame preservation in a combinatorial manner. Multiple genome comparison further indicates that different groups of correlated pairs have different evolutionary courses: (1) The vast majority of positively-correlated pairs are old, (2) most of the weakly-correlated pairs are relatively young, and (3) negatively-correlated pairs are a mixture of old and young events. We performed a large-scale analysis of interactions between adjacent cassette exons. Compared with weakly-correlated pairs, the strongly-correlated pairs, including both the positively and negatively correlated ones, show more evidence that they are under delicate splicing control and tend to be functionally important. Additionally, the positively-correlated pairs bear strong resemblance to constitutive exons, which suggests that they may evolve from ancient constitutive exons, while negatively and weakly correlated pairs are more likely to contain newly emerging exons.

  10. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  11. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio; Antonini, Andrea; Bovetti, Serena; Liberale, Carlo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  12. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O

    1992-01-01

    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  13. A Comparison between Standard and Functional Clustering Methodologies: Application to Agricultural Fields for Yield Pattern Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of spatial patterns within agricultural fields, presenting similar yield potential areas, stable through time, is very important for optimizing agricultural practices. This study proposes the evaluation of different clustering methodologies applied to multispectral satellite time series for retrieving temporally stable (constant patterns in agricultural fields, related to within-field yield spatial distribution. The ability of different clustering procedures for the recognition and mapping of constant patterns in fields of cereal crops was assessed. Crop vigor patterns, considered to be related to soils characteristics, and possibly indicative of yield potential, were derived by applying the different clustering algorithms to time series of Landsat images acquired on 94 agricultural fields near Rome (Italy. Two different approaches were applied and validated using Landsat 7 and 8 archived imagery. The first approach automatically extracts and calculates for each field of interest (FOI the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, then exploits the standard K-means clustering algorithm to derive constant patterns at the field level. The second approach applies novel clustering procedures directly to spectral reflectance time series, in particular: (1 standard K-means; (2 functional K-means; (3 multivariate functional principal components clustering analysis; (4 hierarchical clustering. The different approaches were validated through cluster accuracy estimates on a reference set of FOIs for which yield maps were available for some years. Results show that multivariate functional principal components clustering, with an a priori determination of the optimal number of classes for each FOI, provides a better accuracy than those of standard clustering algorithms. The proposed novel functional clustering methodologies are effective and efficient for constant pattern retrieval and can be used for a sustainable management of

  14. Local-scaling density-functional method: Intraorbit and interorbit density optimizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ludena, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The recently proposed local-scaling density-functional theory provides us with a practical method for the direct variational determination of the electron density function ρ(r). The structure of ''orbits,'' which ensures the one-to-one correspondence between the electron density ρ(r) and the N-electron wave function Ψ({r k }), is studied in detail. For the realization of the local-scaling density-functional calculations, procedures for intraorbit and interorbit optimizations of the electron density function are proposed. These procedures are numerically illustrated for the helium atom in its ground state at the beyond-Hartree-Fock level

  15. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  16. Fabrication of Self-Cleaning, Reusable Titania Templates for Nanometer and Micrometer Scale Protein Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxey, Mark; Johnson, Alexander; El-Zubir, Osama; Cartron, Michael; Dinachali, Saman Safari; Hunter, C Neil; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Chong, Karen S L; Leggett, Graham J

    2015-06-23

    The photocatalytic self-cleaning characteristics of titania facilitate the fabrication of reuseable templates for protein nanopatterning. Titania nanostructures were fabricated over square centimeter areas by interferometric lithography (IL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). With the use of a Lloyd's mirror two-beam interferometer, self-assembled monolayers of alkylphosphonates adsorbed on the native oxide of a Ti film were patterned by photocatalytic nanolithography. In regions exposed to a maximum in the interferogram, the monolayer was removed by photocatalytic oxidation. In regions exposed to an intensity minimum, the monolayer remained intact. After exposure, the sample was etched in piranha solution to yield Ti nanostructures with widths as small as 30 nm. NIL was performed by using a silicon stamp to imprint a spin-cast film of titanium dioxide resin; after calcination and reactive ion etching, TiO2 nanopillars were formed. For both fabrication techniques, subsequent adsorption of an oligo(ethylene glycol) functionalized trichlorosilane yielded an entirely passive, protein-resistant surface. Near-UV exposure caused removal of this protein-resistant film from the titania regions by photocatalytic degradation, leaving the passivating silane film intact on the silicon dioxide regions. Proteins labeled with fluorescent dyes were adsorbed to the titanium dioxide regions, yielding nanopatterns with bright fluorescence. Subsequent near-UV irradiation of the samples removed the protein from the titanium dioxide nanostructures by photocatalytic degradation facilitating the adsorption of a different protein. The process was repeated multiple times. These simple methods appear to yield durable, reuseable samples that may be of value to laboratories that require nanostructured biological interfaces but do not have access to the infrastructure required for nanofabrication.

  17. Spatial Pattern and Scale Influence Invader Demographic Response to Simulated Precipitation Change in an Annual Grassland Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan J Skaer Thomason

    Full Text Available It is important to predict which invasive species will benefit from future changes in climate, and thereby identify those invaders that need particular attention and prioritization of management efforts. Because establishment, persistence, and spread determine invasion success, this prediction requires detailed demographic information. Explicit study of the impact of pattern on demographic response is particularly important for species that are naturally patchy, such as the invasive grass, Aegilops triuncialis. In the northern California Coast Range, where climate change may increase or decrease mean annual rainfall, we conducted a field experiment to understand the interaction of climate change and local-scale patterning on the demography of A. triuncialis. We manipulated precipitation (reduced, ambient, or augmented, seed density, and seeding pattern. Demographic and environmental data were collected for three years following initial seeding. Pattern and scale figure prominently in the demographic response of A. triuncialis to precipitation manipulation. Pattern interacts with precipitation and seeding density in its influence on per-plant seed output. Although per-plot seed production was highest when seeds were not aggregated, per-plant seed output was higher in aggregated patches. Results suggest aggregation of invasive A. triuncialis reduces the detrimental impact of interspecific competition in its invaded community, and that interspecific competition per se has a stronger impact than intraspecific competition.

  18. On the relationship between large-scale climate modes and regional synoptic patterns that drive Victorian rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper regional (synoptic) and large-scale climate drivers of rainfall are investigated for Victoria, Australia. A non-linear classification methodology known as self-organizing maps (SOM) is used to identify 20 key regional synoptic patterns, which are shown to capture a range of significant synoptic features known to influence the climate of the region. Rainfall distributions are assigned to each of the 20 patterns for nine rainfall stations located across Victoria, resulting in a clear distinction between wet and dry synoptic types at each station. The influence of large-scale climate modes on the frequency and timing of the regional synoptic patterns is also investigated. This analysis revealed that phase changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and/or the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are associated with a shift in the relative frequency of wet and dry synoptic types on an annual to inter-annual timescale. In addition, the relative frequency of synoptic types is shown to vary on a multi-decadal timescale, associated with changes in the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Importantly, these results highlight the potential to utilise the link between the regional synoptic patterns derived in this study and large-scale climate modes to improve rainfall forecasting for Victoria, both in the short- (i.e. seasonal) and long-term (i.e. decadal/multi-decadal scale). In addition, the regional and large-scale climate drivers identified in this study provide a benchmark by which the performance of Global Climate Models (GCMs) may be assessed.

  19. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  20. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Diseases Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV{sub 1}, FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  1. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M.; Sverzellati, Nicola; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV 1 , FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  2. Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Amar; Wilson, Donald A; Hen, René

    2011-05-26

    While adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus have fundamentally different properties, they may have more in common than meets the eye. Here, we propose that new granule cells in the OB and DG may function as modulators of principal neurons to influence pattern separation and that adult neurogenesis constitutes an adaptive mechanism to optimally encode contextual or olfactory information. See the related Perspective from Aimone, Deng, and Gage, "Resolving New Memories: A Critical Look at the Dentate Gyrus, Adult Neurogenesis, and Pattern Separation," in this issue of Neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spanish adaptation of the internal functioning of the Work Teams Scale (QFI-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Boada-Grau, Joan; Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to develop the Spanish adaptation of the internal functioning of Work Teams Scale (QFI-22). The scale was adapted from the French version, and was applied to a sample of 1,055 employees working for firms operating in Spain. The article analyses the internal structure (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and internal consistency, and provides convergent validity evidence of the scale. The QFI-22 scale shows the same internal structure as the original. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two factors: interpersonal support and team work management, with good internal consistency coefficients (α1 = .93, α2 = .92). Regarding validity evidence, the QFI-22 scale has significant correlations with other correlates and alternative scales used for comparison purposes. The two factors correlated positively with team vision, participation safety, task orientation and support for innovation (Team Climate Inventory, TCI scale), with progressive culture (Organisational Culture, X-Y scale), and with creating change, customer focus and organisational learning (Denison Organizational Culture Survey, DOCS scale). In contrast, the two factors correlated negatively with traditional culture (X-Y scale). The QFI-22 scale is a useful instrument for assessing the internal functioning of work teams.

  4. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  5. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  6. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chiari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46 and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66 and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63. The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity.

  7. Development of a Diagnostic Inventory for Mental Health Pattern (MHP) : Reliability and Validity of the MHP Scale.

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 公雄; 徳永, 幹雄

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Mental Health Pattern (MHP), a scale that classifies state of mental health as it pertains to stress and quality of life (QOL), and to confirm the reliability and validity of this scale. To achieve these ends, a 70-item questionnaire was administered to student (n=256) and adult (n=172) samples consisting of males and females. Factor analysis revealed that stress and QOL consisted of 13 factors. Based on these factors, the MHP was designed with...

  8. Discovering Multi-scale Co-occurrence Patterns of Asthma and Influenza with the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eRamanathan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a data-driven unsupervised machine learning approach to extract geo-temporal co-occurrence patterns of asthma and the flu from large-scale electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (eHRC datasets. Specifically, we examine the eHRC data from the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 influenza season and analyze whether different geographic regions within the United States (US showed an increase in co-occurrence patterns of the flu and asthma. Our analyses reveal that the temporal patterns extracted from the eHRC data show a distinct lag time between the peak incidence of the asthma and the flu. While the increased occurrence of asthma contributed to increased flu incidence during the pandemic, this co-occurrence is predominant for female patients. The geo-temporal patterns reveal that the co-occurrence of the flu and asthma are typically concentrated within the south-east US. Further, in agreement with previous studies, large urban areas (such as New York, Miami and Los Angeles exhibit co-occurrence patterns that suggest a peak incidence of asthma and flu significantly early in the spring and winter seasons. Together, our data-analytic approach, integrated within the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit platform, demonstrates how eHRC data can provide novel insights into co-occurring disease patterns.

  9. Reliability of the EK scale, a functional test for non-ambulatory persons with Duchenne dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Birgit F.; Hyde, Sylvia A.; Attermann, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The EK {Egen Klassifikation} scale was developed to assess overall functional ability in the non-ambulatory stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the EK scale. Six subjects with DMD, selected as representative of the entire range...

  10. The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2009-01-01

    This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

  11. Effects of wave function correlations on scaling violation in quasi-free electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, V.; Drechsel, D.; Orlandini, G.; Traini, M.

    1981-01-01

    The scaling law in quasi-free electron scattering is broken due to the existence of exchange forces, leading to a finite mean value of the scaling variable anti y. This effect is considerably increased by wave function correlations, in particular by tensor correlations, similar to the case of the photonuclear enhancement factor k. (orig.)

  12. Measuring Functional Creativity: Non-Expert Raters and the Creative Solution Diagnosis Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, David H.; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The Creative Solution Diagnosis Scale (CSDS) is a 30-item scale based on a core of four criteria: Relevance & Effectiveness, Novelty, Elegance, and Genesis. The CSDS offers potential for the consensual assessment of functional product creativity. This article describes an empirical study in which non-expert judges rated a series of mousetrap…

  13. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  14. Smoothed Conditional Scale Function Estimation in AR(1-ARCH(1 Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lema Logamou Seknewna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the Smoothed Conditional Scale Function for time series was taken out under the conditional heteroscedastic innovations by imitating the kernel smoothing in nonparametric QAR-QARCH scheme. The estimation was taken out based on the quantile regression methodology proposed by Koenker and Bassett. And the proof of the asymptotic properties of the Conditional Scale Function estimator for this type of process was given and its consistency was shown.

  15. Creation and Initial Validation of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Namasivayam-MacDonald, Ashwini M; Guida, Brittany T; Cichero, Julie A; Duivestein, Janice; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Riquelme, Luis F

    2018-05-01

    To assess consensual validity, interrater reliability, and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale, a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. Participants assigned International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel. Interrater reliability was measured overall and across quartile subsets of the dataset. Criterion validity was evaluated versus Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores assigned by survey respondents to the same case scenarios. Feedback was requested regarding ease and likelihood of use. Web-based survey. Respondents (N=170) from 29 countries. Not applicable. Consensual validity (percent agreement and Kendall τ), criterion validity (Spearman rank correlation), and interrater reliability (Kendall concordance and intraclass coefficients). The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed strong consensual validity, criterion validity, and interrater reliability. Scenarios involving liquid-only diets, transition from nonoral feeding, or trial diet advances in therapy showed the poorest consensus, indicating a need for clear instructions on how to score these situations. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed greater sensitivity than the FOIS to specific changes in diet. Most (>70%) respondents indicated enthusiasm for implementing the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale. This initial validation study suggests that the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale has strong consensual and criterion validity and can be used reliably by clinicians

  16. Exploring connectivity with large-scale Granger causality on resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M; Abidin, Anas Z; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale Granger causality (lsGC) is a recently developed, resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity analysis approach that estimates multivariate voxel-resolution connectivity. Unlike most commonly used multivariate approaches, which establish coarse-resolution connectivity by aggregating voxel time-series avoiding an underdetermined problem, lsGC estimates voxel-resolution, fine-grained connectivity by incorporating an embedded dimension reduction. We investigate application of lsGC on realistic fMRI simulations, modeling smoothing of neuronal activity by the hemodynamic response function and repetition time (TR), and empirical resting-state fMRI data. Subsequently, functional subnetworks are extracted from lsGC connectivity measures for both datasets and validated quantitatively. We also provide guidelines to select lsGC free parameters. Results indicate that lsGC reliably recovers underlying network structure with area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.93 at TR=1.5s for a 10-min session of fMRI simulations. Furthermore, subnetworks of closely interacting modules are recovered from the aforementioned lsGC networks. Results on empirical resting-state fMRI data demonstrate recovery of visual and motor cortex in close agreement with spatial maps obtained from (i) visuo-motor fMRI stimulation task-sequence (Accuracy=0.76) and (ii) independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state fMRI (Accuracy=0.86). Compared with conventional Granger causality approach (AUC=0.75), lsGC produces better network recovery on fMRI simulations. Furthermore, it cannot recover functional subnetworks from empirical fMRI data, since quantifying voxel-resolution connectivity is not possible as consequence of encountering an underdetermined problem. Functional network recovery from fMRI data suggests that lsGC gives useful insight into connectivity patterns from resting-state fMRI at a multivariate voxel-resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Working irregular shift patterns is associated with functional constipation among healthy trainee nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system has a role in regulating gastrointestinal physiology. Perturbation of this system is associated with gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Shiftwork and poor sleep quality are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders among many professional groups. This study compared bowel habits between trainee nurses with regular and irregular patterns of shiftwork. Male and female nursing students, enrolled on the first year (regular shifts; n=49 and the fourth year (irregular shifts, n=48 of a nursing degree course were surveyed. Questionnaires were used to assess functional diarrhea and constipation over a three month period. The prevalence of functional constipation among regular shift workers was lower than that found among irregular shift workers; 31.3% and 61.2%, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the prevalence of diarrhea. This suggests an association between shiftwork and functional constipation, but not with functional diarrhea.

  18. Identifying patterns of motor performance, executive functioning, and verbal ability in preschool children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Kamphorst, Erica; van der Veer, Gerda; Cantell, Marja

    2018-04-30

    A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%). The home based assessments consisted of a standardized motor test (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2), five performance-based EF tasks measuring inhibition and working memory, and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition. Parents filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to delineate profiles of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Chi-square statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to examine whether profile membership was predicted by age, gender, risk of motor coordination difficulties, ADHD symptomatology, language problems, and socioeconomic status (SES). LPA yielded three profiles with qualitatively distinct response patterns of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Quantitatively, the profiles showed most pronounced differences with regard to parent ratings and performance-based tests of EF, as well as verbal ability. Risk of motor coordination difficulties and ADHD symptomatology were associated with profile membership, whereas age, gender, language problems, and SES were not. Our results indicate that there are distinct subpopulations of children who show differential relations with regard to motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. The fact that we found both quantitative as well as qualitative differences between the three patterns of profiles underscores

  19. Association Between Nonparenting Adult’s Attachment Patterns and Brain Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lyn Letourneau RN, PhD, FCAHS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has a long history of attending to the importance of early attachment experiences to later development. Attachment strategies formed in infancy and early childhood can have lifelong effects on an individual’s behavior and health. Advances in neuroimaging technology allow us to understand how these early experiences map onto the structure and function of the brain and ultimately behavior and health. Previous reviews have discussed the findings of studies observing correlations between attachment strategy and neural function and structure in romantic partners and parents, but far less has been said about nonparenting adults. This article reviews the relationship between attachment strategies developed in childhood and brain structure and function in nonparenting adults. A total of 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Results showed adult attachment patterns of nonparenting adults are pervasively correlated with brain structure and function, with most associations observed in executive regions, followed by affective and reward processing. Notably, no studies found associations between attachment pattern and stress response, in contrast with studies of mothers. These brain regions are linked to the many behavioral, mood and substance abuse disorders observed in adults with insecure attachment patterns. Nurses can use these findings to help prevent, assess and address these health risks in nonparenting adults, as well as provide the brain-based evidence to support the utility of nursing interventions designed to further promote healthy parent–child relationships and secure parent–child attachment.

  20. Dietary Patterns Associated with Cognitive Function among the Older People in Underdeveloped Regions: Finding from the NCDFaC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Zeping; Dong, Kui; Kraus, Virginia B; Wang, Zhuoqun; Zhang, Mei; Zhai, Yi; Song, Pengkun; Zhao, Yanfang; Pang, Shaojie; Mi, Shengquan; Zhao, Wenhua

    2018-04-09

    Although dietary patterns are crucial to cognitive function, associations of dietary patterns with cognitive function have not yet been fully understood. This cross-sectional study explored dietary patterns associated with cognitive function among the older adults in underdeveloped regions, using 1504 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. Factor analysis was used to extract dietary patterns. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Two dietary patterns, a "mushroom, vegetable, and fruits" (MVF) pattern and a "meat and soybean products" (MS) pattern, were identified. The MVF pattern, characterized by high consumption of mushrooms, vegetables, and fruits was significantly positively associated with cognitive function ( p cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.15 (0.02, 0.29) for -log (31-MMSE score). The MS pattern, characterized by high consumption of soybean products and meat, was also associated with better cognitive function, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CIs 0.30, 0.74) for cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.34 (0.21, 0.47) for -log (31-MMSE score). Our results suggested that both the MVF and MS patterns were positively associated with better cognitive function among older adults in underdeveloped regions.

  1. Environmental factors at different spatial scales governing soil fauna community patterns in fragmented forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Silva, P.; Berg, M.P.; Serrano, A.R.M.; Dubs, F.; Sousa, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in community structure of soil organisms may result from a myriad of processes operating at a hierarchy of spatial scales, from small-scale habitat conditions to species movements among patches and large-sale landscape features. To disentangle the relative importance of

  2. The influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in Czech river basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2013), s. 278-285 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300600901 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : macro-scale climatic patterns * cidlina river * Blanice river * hydrometeorology Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.231, year: 2013 http://147.213.145.2/vc/vc1.asp

  3. Hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region and its relationships with large-scale climate anomaly patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Swierczynski, Tina; Brauer, Achim; Kämpf, Lucas; Czymzik, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Flood triggered detrital layers in varved sediments of Lake Mondsee, located at the northern fringe of the European Alps (47°48'N,13°23'E), provide an important archive of regional hydroclimatic variability during the mid- to late Holocene. To improve the interpretation of the flood layer record in terms of large-scale climate variability, we investigate the relationships between observational hydrological records from the region, like the Mondsee lake level, the runoff of the lake's main inflow Griesler Ache, with observed precipitation and global climate patterns. The lake level shows a strong positive linear trend during the observational period in all seasons. Additionally, lake level presents important interannual to multidecadal variations. These variations are associated with distinct seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns. A pronounced anomalous anticyclonic center over the Iberian Peninsula is associated with high lake levels values during winter. This center moves southwestward during spring, summer and autumn. In the same time, a cyclonic anomaly center is recorded over central and western Europe. This anomalous circulation extends southwestward from winter to autumn. Similar atmospheric circulation patterns are associated with river runoff and precipitation variability from the region. High lake levels are associated with positive local precipitation anomalies in all seasons as well as with negative local temperature anomalies during spring, summer and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals that lake level, runoff and precipitation variability is related to large-scale sea surface temperature anomaly patterns in all seasons suggesting a possible impact of large-scale climatic modes, like the North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region. The results presented in this study can be used for a more robust interpretation of the long flood layer record from Lake Mondsee sediments

  4. Nano-scale patterning on sulfur terminated GaAs (0 0 1) surface by scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Yuki; Toda, Yusuke; Hirai, Masakazu; Fujishiro, Hiroki Inomata

    2004-01-01

    We perform nano-scale patterning on a sulfur (S) terminated GaAs (0 0 1) surface by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). A multi-layer of S deposited by using (NH 4 ) 2 S x solution is changed to a mono-layer after annealing at 560 deg. C for 15 h, which terminates the GaAs (0 0 1) surface. Groove structures with about 0.23 nm in depth and about 5 nm in width are patterned successfully on the S-terminated surface. We investigate dependences of both depth and width of the patterned groove on the tunneling current and the scanning speed of tip. It is observed that topmost S atoms are extracted together with first-layer Ga atoms, because of the larger binding energy of S-Ga bond

  5. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive...... potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011...... to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits...

  6. Assessment of Multi-frequency Electromagnetic Induction for Determining Soil Moisture Patterns at the Hillslope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp-van Meerveld, I.; McDonnell, J.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of electromagnetic induction (EM) as a potential rapid and non-invasive method to map soil moisture patterns at the Panola (GA, USA) hillslope. We address the following questions regarding the applicability of EM measurements for hillslope hydrological investigations: (1) Can EM be used for soil moisture measurements in areas with shallow soils?; (2) Can EM represent the temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture throughout the year?; and (3) can multiple frequencies be used to extract additional information content from the EM approach and explain the depth profile of soil moisture? We found that the apparent conductivity measured with the multi-frequency GEM-300 was linearly related to soil moisture measured with an Aqua-pro capacitance sensor below a threshold conductivity and represented the temporal patterns in soil moisture well. During spring rainfall events that wetted only the surface soil layers the apparent conductivity measurements explained the soil moisture dynamics at depth better than the surface soil moisture dynamics. All four EM frequencies (7290, 9090, 11250, and 14010 Hz) were highly correlated and linearly related to each other and could be used to predict soil moisture. This limited our ability to use the four different EM frequencies to obtain a soil moisture profile with depth. The apparent conductivity patterns represented the observed spatial soil moisture patterns well when the individually fitted relationships between measured soil moisture and apparent conductivity were used for each measurement point. However, when the same (master) relationship was used for all measurement locations, the soil moisture patterns were smoothed and did not resemble the observed soil moisture patterns very well. In addition, the range in calculated soil moisture values was reduced compared to observed soil moisture. Part of the smoothing was likely due to the much larger measurement area of the GEM-300 compared to the Aqua

  7. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. PMID:26977068

  8. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S A; Schmitz, L

    2016-04-05

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Development and Psychometric Properties of the OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Hu, Yu-Pei; Hezel, Dianne M.; Proujansky, Rachel; Lamstein, Abby; Walsh, Casey; Ben-Joseph, Elana Pearl; Gironda, Christina; Jenike, Michael; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) influences not only patients but also family members. Although the construct of family accommodation has received attention in OCD literature, no measures of overall family functioning are currently available. The OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale was developed to explore the context, extent, and perspectives of functional impairment in families affected by OCD. It is a three-part, self-report measure capturing independent perspectives of patients and relatives. A total of 400 subjects were enrolled between 2008 and 2010 from specialized OCD clinics and OCD research studies. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined including internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and exploratory factor analyses. Both patient and relative versions of the OFF Scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.96). The test–retest reliability was also adequate (ICC = 0.80). Factor analyses determined that the OFF Scale comprises a family functioning impairment factor and four OCD symptom factors that were consistent with previously reported OCD symptom dimension studies. The OFF Scale demonstrated excellent convergent validity with the Family Accommodation Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Information gathered regarding emotional impact and family role-specific impairment was novel and not captured by other examined scales. The OFF Scale is a reliable and valid instrument for the clinical and research assessment of family functioning in pediatric and adult OCD. This will facilitate the exploration of family functioning impairment as a potential risk factor, as a moderator and as a treatment outcome measure in OCD. PMID:21553962

  10. Understanding the Patterns and Drivers of Air Pollution on Multiple Time Scales: The Case of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Wu, Jianguo; Yu, Deyong; Hao, Ruifang

    2018-06-01

    China's rapid economic growth during the past three decades has resulted in a number of environmental problems, including the deterioration of air quality. It is necessary to better understand how the spatial pattern of air pollutants varies with time scales and what drive these changes. To address these questions, this study focused on one of the most heavily air-polluted areas in North China. We first quantified the spatial pattern of air pollution, and then systematically examined the relationships of air pollution to several socioeconomic and climatic factors using the constraint line method, correlation analysis, and stepwise regression on decadal, annual, and seasonal scales. Our results indicate that PM2.5 was the dominant air pollutant in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, while PM2.5 and PM10 were both important pollutants in the Agro-pastoral Transitional Zone (APTZ) region. Our statistical analyses suggest that energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in the industry were the most important factors for air pollution on the decadal scale, but the impacts of climatic factors could also be significant. On the annual and seasonal scales, high wind speed, low relative humidity, and long sunshine duration constrained PM2.5 accumulation; low wind speed and high relative humidity constrained PM10 accumulation; and short sunshine duration and high wind speed constrained O3 accumulation. Our study showed that analyses on multiple temporal scales are not only necessary to determine key drivers of air pollution, but also insightful for understanding the spatial patterns of air pollution, which was important for urban planning and air pollution control.

  11. Prediction of monthly rainfall on homogeneous monsoon regions of India based on large scale circulation patterns using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashid, Satishkumar S.; Maity, Rajib

    2012-08-01

    SummaryPrediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is of vital importance for Indian economy, and it has been remained a great challenge for hydro-meteorologists due to inherent complexities in the climatic systems. The Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns from tropical Pacific Ocean (ENSO) and those from tropical Indian Ocean (EQUINOO) are established to influence the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall. The information of these two large scale atmospheric circulation patterns in terms of their indices is used to model the complex relationship between Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall and the ENSO as well as EQUINOO indices. However, extracting the signal from such large-scale indices for modeling such complex systems is significantly difficult. Rainfall predictions have been done for 'All India' as one unit, as well as for five 'homogeneous monsoon regions of India', defined by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. Recent 'Artificial Intelligence' tool 'Genetic Programming' (GP) has been employed for modeling such problem. The Genetic Programming approach is found to capture the complex relationship between the monthly Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall and large scale atmospheric circulation pattern indices - ENSO and EQUINOO. Research findings of this study indicate that GP-derived monthly rainfall forecasting models, that use large-scale atmospheric circulation information are successful in prediction of All India Summer Monsoon Rainfall with correlation coefficient as good as 0.866, which may appears attractive for such a complex system. A separate analysis is carried out for All India Summer Monsoon rainfall for India as one unit, and five homogeneous monsoon regions, based on ENSO and EQUINOO indices of months of March, April and May only, performed at end of month of May. In this case, All India Summer Monsoon Rainfall could be predicted with 0.70 as correlation coefficient with somewhat lesser Correlation Coefficient (C.C.) values for different

  12. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  13. The function of communities in protein interaction networks at multiple scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Nick S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If biology is modular then clusters, or communities, of proteins derived using only protein interaction network structure should define protein modules with similar biological roles. We investigate the link between biological modules and network communities in yeast and its relationship to the scale at which we probe the network. Results Our results demonstrate that the functional homogeneity of communities depends on the scale selected, and that almost all proteins lie in a functionally homogeneous community at some scale. We judge functional homogeneity using a novel test and three independent characterizations of protein function, and find a high degree of overlap between these measures. We show that a high mean clustering coefficient of a community can be used to identify those that are functionally homogeneous. By tracing the community membership of a protein through multiple scales we demonstrate how our approach could be useful to biologists focusing on a particular protein. Conclusions We show that there is no one scale of interest in the community structure of the yeast protein interaction network, but we can identify the range of resolution parameters that yield the most functionally coherent communities, and predict which communities are most likely to be functionally homogeneous.

  14. Bayesian Estimation of the Scale Parameter of Inverse Weibull Distribution under the Asymmetric Loss Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Yahgmaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes different methods of estimating the scale parameter in the inverse Weibull distribution (IWD. Specifically, the maximum likelihood estimator of the scale parameter in IWD is introduced. We then derived the Bayes estimators for the scale parameter in IWD by considering quasi, gamma, and uniform priors distributions under the square error, entropy, and precautionary loss functions. Finally, the different proposed estimators have been compared by the extensive simulation studies in corresponding the mean square errors and the evolution of risk functions.

  15. Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genua, A; AlduncIn, J A; Pomposo, J A; Grande, H; Kehagias, N; Reboud, V; Sotomayor, C; Mondragon, I; Mecerreyes, D

    2007-01-01

    In this work the growth of polymer brushes was combined with nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in order to obtain new functional nanopatterns. First, a functional thermoplastic methacrylic copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-bromoisobutyryl-oxy-ethyl methacrylate) was synthesized. This copolymer was successfully patterned by NIL using a silicon stamp at 160 deg. C and 60 bar. Next, hydrophilic polymer brushes based on poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) and hydrophobic polymer brushes based on a poly(fluorinated methacrylate) were grown on the imprinted surfaces. The surface properties of the patterned polymer were accordingly modified and, as a consequence, the water contact angle was modified from 80.3 deg. to 32.5 deg. in the case of the hydrophilic brushes and to 118.1 deg. in the case of the hydrophobic brushes. As an application we demonstrated the use of hydrophobic polymer brushes in order to modify the surface of polymeric stamps for NIL with self-demoulding properties

  16. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2013-01-01

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. An important component of control is monitoring, detection, and processing of errors when auditory feedback does not correspond to the intended motor gesture. Here we show, using fMRI and converging operations...... within a multivoxel pattern analysis framework, that this sensorimotor process is supported by functionally differentiated brain networks. During scanning, a real-time speech-tracking system was used to deliver two acoustically different types of distorted auditory feedback or unaltered feedback while...... human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...

  17. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Wilson

    Full Text Available Community respiration (CR of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3 d(-1±8.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3 d(-1±7.32 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 10°N and 10°S and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3 d(-1±45.6 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1±13.9 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 156°E and the Australian coast. We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  18. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L W

    2015-01-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries. (paper)

  19. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  20. Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt

  1. Interrater reliability of the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale in assessing the neurological patterns of healthy preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ismirna Santos Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess the interrater reliability of the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale in assessing neurological patterns of healthy preterm newborns. Methods: twenty preterm newborns met the inclusion criteria for participation in this prospective study. The neurologic examination was performed using the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale, showing normal serial cranial ultrasound examination. In order to test the reliability, the study was structured as follows: group I (rater 1/physiotherapist; rater 2/neonatologist; group II (rater 3/physiotherapist; rater 4/child neurologist and the gold standard (expert and professor in pediatric neurology. Results: high interrater agreement was observed between groups I - II compared with the gold standard in assessing postural pattern (p<0.01. Regarding the assessment ofprimitive reflexes, greater agreement was observed in the evaluation of palmar grasp reflex and Moro reflex (p< 0.01 for group I compared with the gold standard. An analysis of tone demonstrated heterogeneous agreement, without compromising the reliability of the scale. The probability of equality between measurements of head circumference in the two groups, compared with the gold standard, was observed. Conclusions: the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale demonstrated high reliability and homogeneity with significant power of reproducibility and may be capable to identify preterm newborns suspected of having neurological deficits.

  2. x- and xi-scaling of the Nuclear Structure Function at Large x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, J.; Armstrong, C. S.; Averett, T.; Baker, O. K.; Bever, L. de; Bochna, C. W.; Boeglin, W.; Bray, B.; Carlini, R. D.; Collins, G.; Cothran, C.; Crabb, D.; Day, D.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Ent, R.; Filippone, B. W.; Honegger, A.; Hughes, E. W.; Jensen, J.; Jourdan, J.; Keppel, C. E.; Koltenuk, D. M.; Lindgren, R.; Lung, A.; Mack, D. J.; McCarthy, J.; McKeown, R. D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J. H.; Mkrtchyan, H. G.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Petitjean, T.; Rondon, O.; Sick, I.; Smith, C.; Terburg, B.; Vulcan, W. F.; Wood, S. A.; Yan, C.; Zhao, J.; Zihlmann, B.

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive electron scattering data are presented for 2 H and Fe targets at an incident electron energy of 4.045 GeV for a range of momentum transfers from Q 2 = 1 to 7 (GeV/c) 2 . Data were taken at Jefferson Laboratory for low values of energy loss, corresponding to values of Bjorken x greater than or near 1. The structure functions do not show scaling in x in this range, where inelastic scattering is not expected to dominate the cross section. The data do show scaling, however, in the Nachtmann variable ξ. This scaling may be the result of Bloom Gilman duality in the nucleon structure function combined with the Fermi motion of the nucleons in the nucleus. The resulting extension of scaling to larger values of ξ opens up the possibility of accessing nuclear structure functions in the high-x region at lower values of Q 2 than previously believed

  3. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats.......Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...

  4. The role of species functional traits for distribuitional patterns in lowland stream vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Giulia; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and service to human society and invasion is a major threat to them. Plant invasion affect community dynamics, threatens biodiversity and promote biological homogenization. In this study we explore functional traits in three groups of species e.g. invasive...... species, disturbance-tolerant species and rare species in lowland streams. In order to investigate the role of functional traits for species distributional patterns we investigate relationships between a range of species features and species abundance in app. 1,200 stream sites in Denmark covering...

  5. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3′ UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3′ UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired.

  6. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyu; Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3' UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3' UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired.

  7. Reliability of the EK scale, a functional test for non-ambulatory persons with Duchenne dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Birgit F.; Hyde, Sylvia A.; Attermann, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    of functional ability seen in the nonambulatory phase of the disease, were video recorded and assessed using the EK scale. The assessment required both interview and performance of functional activities. The video records were shown to 17 healthcare professionals comprising seven three physiotherapy students...

  8. New parametrization for the scale dependent growth function in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, James B.; Dutta, Sourish; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2009-01-01

    We study the scale-dependent evolution of the growth function δ(a,k) of cosmological perturbations in dark energy models based on general relativity. This scale dependence is more prominent on cosmological scales of 100h -1 Mpc or larger. We derive a new scale-dependent parametrization which generalizes the well-known Newtonian approximation result f 0 (a)≡(dlnδ 0 /dlna)=Ω(a) γ (γ=(6/11) for ΛCDM) which is a good approximation on scales less than 50h -1 Mpc. Our generalized parametrization is of the form f(a)=(f 0 (a)/1+ξ(a,k)), where ξ(a,k)=(3H 0 2 Ω 0m )/(ak 2 ). We demonstrate that this parametrization fits the exact result of a full general relativistic evaluation of the growth function up to horizon scales for both ΛCDM and dynamical dark energy. In contrast, the scale independent parametrization does not provide a good fit on scales beyond 5% of the horizon scale (k≅0.01h -1 Mpc).

  9. The three-point function as a probe of models for large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, J.A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyze the consequences of models of structure formation for higher-order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions in the mildly non-linear regime. Several variations of the standard Ω = 1 cold dark matter model with scale-invariant primordial perturbations have recently been introduced to obtain more power on large scales, R p ∼20 h -1 Mpc, e.g., low-matter-density (non-zero cosmological constant) models, open-quote tilted close-quote primordial spectra, and scenarios with a mixture of cold and hot dark matter. They also include models with an effective scale-dependent bias, such as the cooperative galaxy formation scenario of Bower, et al. The authors show that higher-order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions can provide a useful test of such models and can discriminate between models with true large-scale power in the density field and those where the galaxy power arises from scale-dependent bias: a bias with rapid scale-dependence leads to a dramatic decrease of the hierarchical amplitudes Q J at large scales, r approx-gt R p . Current observational constraints on the three-point amplitudes Q 3 and S 3 can place limits on the bias parameter(s) and appear to disfavor, but not yet rule out, the hypothesis that scale-dependent bias is responsible for the extra power observed on large scales

  10. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  11. Patterns of coexistence of two species of freshwater turtles are affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segurado, P.; Kunin, W.E.; Filipe, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring biotic interactions from the examination of patterns of species occurrences has been a central tenet in community ecology, and it has recently gained interest in the context of single-species distribution modelling. However, understanding of how spatial extent and grain size affect such...

  12. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  13. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  14. Large-scale diversity patterns in spore communities of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Alvarez-Sanchez; Nancy C. Johnson; Anita Antoninka; V. Bala Chaudhary; Matthew K. Lau; Suzanne M. Owen; Patricia Gauadarrama; Silvia. Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Surprising little is known about the factors controlling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity and distribution patterns. A better understanding of these factors is necessary before mycorrhizas can be effectively managed for their benefits in ecosystem restoration and agriculture. The goal of this chapter is to examine the relationships between AM fungal...

  15. Cluster headache - clinical pattern and a new severity scale in a Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Anna; Fourier, Carmen; Ran, Caroline; Waldenlind, Elisabet; Sjöstrand, Christina; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2018-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate clinical features of a cluster headache cohort in Sweden and to construct and test a new scale for grading severity. Methods Subjects were identified by screening medical records for the ICD 10 code G44.0, that is, cluster headache. Five hundred participating research subjects filled in a questionnaire including personal, demographic and medical aspects. We constructed a novel scale for grading cluster headache in this cohort: The Cluster Headache Severity Scale, which included number of attacks per day, attack and period duration. The lowest total score was three and the highest 12, and we used the Cluster Headache Severity Scale to grade subjects suffering from cluster headache. We further implemented the scale by defining a cluster headache maximum severity subgroup with a high Cluster Headache Severity Scale score ≥ 9. Results A majority (66.7%) of the patients reported that attacks appear at certain time intervals. In addition, cluster headache patients who were current tobacco users or had a history of tobacco consumption had a later age of disease onset (31.7 years) compared to non-tobacco users (28.5 years). The Cluster Headache Severity Scale score was higher in the patient group reporting sporadic or no alcohol intake than in the groups reporting an alcohol consumption of three to four standard units per week or more. Maximum severity cluster headache patients were characterised by higher age at disease onset, greater use of prophylactic medication, reduced hours of sleep, and lower alcohol consumption compared to the non-cluster headache maximum severity group. Conclusion There was a wide variation of severity grade among cluster headache patients, with a very marked impact on daily living for the most profoundly affected.

  16. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    By the use of data from the annihilation process of electron-positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, charged particles multiplicity distribution is obtained and fitted with the KNO scaling. Then, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution with respect to the jet axis are obtained, and the results are compared to the different models of QCD; also, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations are studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jets are stronger than the quark ones. One of the reasons for such case is that splitting function of quarks is larger than splitting function of gluon.

  17. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  18. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  19. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  20. Brazilian Portuguese transcultural adaptation of Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Victor Polignano; Mata, Fernanda Gomes Da; Conde, Bárbara Romaneli; Souza, Caroline Antunes de Oliveira e; Martins, Ana Luiza Guimarães; Mattos, Paulo; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the importance of Executive Functions to clinical and nonclinical situations, Barkley proposed a new theory of executive functioning based on an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective and clinical research using large samples of clinical and community identified adults and children as well as children with ADHD followed to adulthood. Objective The present study aims to adapt the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functions Scales (BDEFS) to Brazilian Portug...

  1. Validation of the stream function method used for reconstruction of experimental ionospheric convection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Israelevich

    Full Text Available In this study we test a stream function method suggested by Israelevich and Ershkovich for instantaneous reconstruction of global, high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns from a limited set of experimental observations, namely, from the electric field or ion drift velocity vector measurements taken along two polar satellite orbits only. These two satellite passes subdivide the polar cap into several adjacent areas. Measured electric fields or ion drifts can be considered as boundary conditions (together with the zero electric potential condition at the low-latitude boundary for those areas, and the entire ionospheric convection pattern can be reconstructed as a solution of the boundary value problem for the stream function without any preliminary information on ionospheric conductivities. In order to validate the stream function method, we utilized the IZMIRAN electrodynamic model (IZMEM recently calibrated by the DMSP ionospheric electrostatic potential observations. For the sake of simplicity, we took the modeled electric fields along the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk meridians as the boundary conditions. Then, the solution(s of the boundary value problem (i.e., a reconstructed potential distribution over the entire polar region is compared with the original IZMEM/DMSP electric potential distribution(s, as well as with the various cross cuts of the polar cap. It is found that reconstructed convection patterns are in good agreement with the original modelled patterns in both the northern and southern polar caps. The analysis is carried out for the winter and summer conditions, as well as for a number of configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field.

    Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; plasma convection; modelling and forecasting

  2. Inference of functional properties from large-scale analysis of enzyme superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2012-01-02

    As increasingly large amounts of data from genome and other sequencing projects become available, new approaches are needed to determine the functions of the proteins these genes encode. We show how large-scale computational analysis can help to address this challenge by linking functional information to sequence and structural similarities using protein similarity networks. Network analyses using three functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies illustrate the use of these approaches for facile updating and comparison of available structures for a large superfamily, for creation of functional hypotheses for metagenomic sequences, and to summarize the limits of our functional knowledge about even well studied superfamilies.

  3. Inference of Functional Properties from Large-scale Analysis of Enzyme Superfamilies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    As increasingly large amounts of data from genome and other sequencing projects become available, new approaches are needed to determine the functions of the proteins these genes encode. We show how large-scale computational analysis can help to address this challenge by linking functional information to sequence and structural similarities using protein similarity networks. Network analyses using three functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies illustrate the use of these approaches for facile updating and comparison of available structures for a large superfamily, for creation of functional hypotheses for metagenomic sequences, and to summarize the limits of our functional knowledge about even well studied superfamilies. PMID:22069325

  4. Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Holland

    Full Text Available Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses. We collected 2.8-million locations for 9 black and 9 turkey vultures from June 2013 -August 2015 using solar-powered GSM/GPS transmitters. We quantified home ranges and core areas using the dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and evaluated differences as a function of species, sex, and month. Mean monthly home ranges for turkey vultures were ~50% larger than those of black vultures, although mean core area sizes did not differ between species. Turkey vulture home ranges varied little across months, with exception to a notable reduction in space-use in May, which corresponds with timing of chick-rearing activities. Black vulture home ranges and core areas as well as turkey vulture core areas were larger in breeding season months (January-April. Comparison of space use between male and female vultures was only possible for black vultures, and space use was only slightly larger for females during breeding months (February-May. Analysis of activity patterns revealed turkey vultures spend more time in flight and switch motion states (between flight and stationary more frequently than black vultures across temporal scales. This study reveals substantive variability in space use and activity rates between sympatric black and turkey vultures, providing insights into potential behavioral mechanisms

  5. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-07-15

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  8. Preliminary study of wing interference patterns (WIPs in some species of soft scale (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Simon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fore wings of scale insect males possess reduced venation compared with other insects and the homologies of remaining veins are controversial. The hind wings are reduced to hamulohalterae. When adult males are prepared using the standard methods adopted to females and nymphs, i.e. using KOH to clear the specimens, the wings become damaged or deformed, an so these structures are not usually described or illustrated in publications. The present study used dry males belonging to seven species of the family Coccidae to check the presence of stable, structural colour patterns of the wings. The visibility of the wing interference patterns (WIP, discovered in Hymenoptera and Diptera species, is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. This frequently occurring taxonomically specific pattern is caused by uneven membrane thickness and hair placement, and also is stabilized and reinforced by microstructures of the wing, such as membrane corrugations and the shape of cells. The semitransparent scale insect’s fore wings possess WIPs and they are taxonomically specific. It is very possible that WIPs will be an additional and helpful trait for the identification of species, which in case of males specimens is quite difficult, because recent coccidology is based almost entirely on the morphology of adult females.

  9. Patterns and drivers of plant functional group dominance across the Western Hemisphere: a macroecological re-assessment based on a massive botanical dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian

    2016-01-01

    a standardized plant species occurrence dataset of unprecedented size covering the entire New World. Functional group distributions were estimated from 3 648 533 standardized occurrence records for a total of 83 854 vascular plant species, extracted from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN......Plant functional group dominance has been linked to climate, topography and anthropogenic factors. Here, we assess existing theory linking functional group dominance patterns to their drivers by quantifying the spatial distribution of plant functional groups at a 100-km grid scale. We use......) database. Seven plant functional groups were considered, describing major differences in structure and function: epiphytes; climbers; ferns; herbs; shrubs; coniferous trees; and angiosperm trees. Two measures of dominance (relative number of occurrences and relative species richness) were analysed against...

  10. Large scale ZnTe nanostructures on polymer micro patterns via capillary force photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florence, S. Sasi, E-mail: sshanmugaraj@jazanu.edu.sa; Can, N.; Adam, H. [Department of Physics, Jazan University, Jizan-114 (Saudi Arabia); Sachan, P.; Gupta, R. K. [DST-Unit on Nanosciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Arockiasamy, L. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Umadevi, M. [Department of Physics, Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal-624101 (India)

    2016-06-10

    A novel approach to prepare micro patterns ZnTe nanostructures on Si (100) substrate using thermal evaporation is proposed by capillary Force Lithography (CFL) technique on a self-assembled sacrificial Polystyrene mask. Polystyrene thin films on Si substrates are used to fabricate surface micro-relief patterns. ZnTe nanoparticles have been deposited by thermal evaporation method. The deposited ZnTe nanoparticles properties were assessed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM studies indicated that the particles are uniform in size and shape, well dispersed and spherical in shape. This study reports the micro-arrays of ZnTe nanoparticles on a self-assembled sacrificial PS mask using a capillary flow photolithography process which showed excellent, morphological properties which can be used in photovoltaic devices for anti-reflection applications.

  11. The pattern analysis of family business succession : a study on medium scale family business in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Christina Whidya; Bernardus, Denny; Sintha, Gek

    2017-01-01

    The family business is a business family members have developed, whose ownership and policy-making are dominated by members of a group with emotional kinship. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the management succession patterns including a personality system, a family system, a ownership right system and a management system become the primary factors determining the success of the family business The results of the study, using Partial Least Square showed Family System var...

  12. Macrosystems ecology: novel methods and new understanding of multi-scale patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin Potter

    2016-01-01

    As the global biomes are increasingly threatened by human activities, understanding of macroscale patterns and processes is pressingly needed for effective management and policy making. Macrosystems ecology, which studies multiscale ecologicalpatterns and processes, has gained growing interest in the research community. However, as a relatively new field in...

  13. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor Aleksander

    2016-01-27

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity.

  14. AFM imaging and analysis of local mechanical properties for detection of surface pattern of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, Petr, E-mail: petr.knotek@upce.cz [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC ASCR and University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Chanova, Eliska; Rypacek, Frantisek [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the applicability of different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, such as Phase Shift Imaging, Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) and Force Spectroscopy, for mapping of the distribution pattern of low-molecular-weight biomimetic groups on polymer biomaterial surfaces. Patterns with either random or clustered spatial distribution of bioactive peptide group derived from fibronectin were prepared by surface deposition of functional block copolymer nano-colloids and grafted with RGDS peptide containing the sequence of amino acids arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (conventionally labeled as RGDS) and carrying biotin as a tag. The biotin-tagged peptides were labeled with 40 nm streptavidin-modified Au nanospheres. The peptide molecules were localized through the detection of bound Au nanospheres by AFM, and thus, the surface distribution of peptides was revealed. AFM techniques capable of monitoring local mechanical properties of the surface were proved to be the most efficient for identification of Au nano-markers. The efficiency was successfully demonstrated on two different patterns, i.e. random and clustered distribution of RGDS peptides on structured surface of the polymer biomaterial. Highlights: ► Bioactive peptides for cell adhesion on PLA-b-PEO biomimetic surface were visualized. ► The biotin-tagged RGDS peptides were labeled with streptavidin-Au nanospheres. ► The RGDS pattern was detected using different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes. ► Phase Shift Image was proved to be suitable method for studying peptide distribution.

  15. Visible Light Emission from Atomic Scale Patterns Fabricated by the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.; Stokbro, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) induced light emission from artificial atomic scale structures comprising silicon dangling bonds on hydrogen-terminated Si(001) surfaces has been mapped spatially and analyzed spectroscopically in the visible spectral range. The light emission is based on a novel...

  16. Extrapolating population size from the occupancy-abundance relationship and the scaling pattern of occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    estimated as occurring in South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. SPO models outperformed the OAR models, due to OAR models assuming environmental homogeneity and yielding scale-dependent estimates. Therefore, OAR models should only be applied across small, homogenous areas. By contrast, SPO models...

  17. Attachment Patterns in the Psychotherapy Relationship: Development of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an instrument, the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis revealed four types of client attachment. Discusses implications of attachment…

  18. Recreational freshwater fishing drives non-native aquatic species richness patterns at a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental factors that drive freshwater biological invasions. Such efforts are often limited to local scales and/or to single species, ...

  19. Adoption patterns and constraints pertaining to small-scale water lifting technologies in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namara, R.E.; Hope, L.; Sarpong, E.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Owusu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is a priority development agenda item in Ghana and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a genuine endeavor to increase public and large-scale private investment in the sector. The on-going smallholder-driven private irrigation development that is largely based on water lifting

  20. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  1. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  2. Spatial patterns and scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish in the Bay of Biscay: an acoustic study

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, A

    2011-10-20

    Macrozooplankton plays a key role in pelagic ecosystems as a link between lower trophic levels and fish. However, although its ecological role is usually considered in polar ecosystems, it is rarely considered in temperate ones. To obtain comprehensive information on the macrozooplankton distribution in the Bay of Biscay we adapted a bi-frequency acoustic method developed for the Humboldt Current system. This method can be used to extract continuous and simultaneous high-resolution information on the spatiotemporal patterns of biomass distributions of macrozooplankton and pelagic fish throughout the diel cycle. The 2 distributions were mapped using geostatistical techniques. We applied kriging with external drifts, which accounts for both diel and across-shore changes in macrozooplankton biomass. We then used a cross-variogram to determine the scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish. The results show how macrozooplankton and fish are distributed according to the different ecological domains (coast, shelf, shelf-break and offshore) along the Spanish and French coasts. Specific macrozooplankton hotspots were observed, but macrozooplankton was generally more abundant offshore than inshore, whereas fish showed the opposite trend. This pattern was confirmed by the aggregation sizes, which increased towards oceanic waters for macrozooplankton and decreased for fish. Finally, the correlation between fish and macrozooplankton was positive on a small scale (<30 nautical miles) and negative on a large scale (>30 nautical miles).

  3. The brief family relationship scale: a brief measure of the relationship dimension in family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2014-02-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis.

  4. The Role of Executive Functions in Social Cognition among Children with Down Syndrome: Relationship Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet; Vallès-Majoral, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show a link between social cognition, a set of cognitive and emotional abilities applied to social situations, and executive functions in typical developing children. Children with Down syndrome (DS) show deficits both in social cognition and in some subcomponents of executive functions. However this link has barely been studied in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the links between social cognition and executive functions among children with DS. We administered a battery of social cognition and executive function tasks (six theory of mind tasks, a test of emotion comprehension, and three executive function tasks) to a group of 30 participants with DS between 4 and 12 years of age. The same tasks were administered to a chronological-age control group and to a control group with the same linguistic development level. Results showed that apart from deficits in social cognition and executive function abilities, children with DS displayed a slight improvement with increasing chronological age and language development in those abilities. Correlational analysis suggested that working memory was the only component that remained constant in the relation patterns of the three groups of participants, being the relation patterns similar among participants with DS and the language development control group. A multiple linear regression showed that working memory explained above 50% of the variability of social cognition in DS participants and in language development control group, whereas in the chronological-age control group this component only explained 31% of the variability. These findings, and specifically the link between working memory and social cognition, are discussed on the basis of their theoretical and practical implications for children with DS. We discuss the possibility to use a working memory training to improve social cognition in this population. PMID:27679588

  5. A Rating Scale for the Functional Assessment of Patients with Familial Dysautonomia (Riley Day Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B.; Rolnitzky, Linda; von Simson, Gabrielle Gold; Berlin, Dena; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable rating scale to assess functional capacity in children with familial dysautonomia, evaluate changes over time and determine whether severity within a particular functional category at a young age affected survival. Study design Ten functional categories were retrospectively assessed in 123 patients with familial dysautonomia at age 7 years ± 6 months. Each of the ten Functional Severity Scale (FuSS) categories (motor development, cognitive ability, psychological status, expressive speech, balance, oral coordination, frequency of dysautonomic crisis, respiratory, cardiovascular and nutritional status) was scored from 1 (worst or severely affected) to 5 (best or no impairment). Changes over time were analyzed further in 22 of the 123 patients who were also available at ages 17 and 27 years. Results Severely impaired cardiovascular function and high frequency of dysautonomic crisis negatively affected survival (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). In the 22 individuals followed up to age 27 years, psychological status significantly worsened (p=0.01), and expressive speech improved (p=0.045). From age 17 to 27 years, balance worsened markedly (p =0.048). Conclusion The FuSS scale is a reliable tool to measure functional capacity in patients with familial dysautonomia. The scale may prove useful in providing prognosis and as a complementary endpoint in clinical trials. PMID:22727867

  6. Functional ability among elderly people in three service settings: the discriminatory power of a new functional ability scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E

    1998-01-01

    The purpose is to assess the discriminatory power of the Avlund scales: (1) by assessing the ability of the scales to discriminate between three different populations of elderly people, and (2) by studying groups with a poor fit between use of formal home care and functional ability. The study...... included (A) all residents in new sheltered housing facilities (response rate 68%, n = 102), (B) a random sample of users of home care (response rate 67%, n = 435), and (C) a random sample of individuals not using home care (response rate 74%, n = 501). All participants were 60+ years old. Data were...

  7. High-throughput preparation of complex multi-scale patterns from block copolymer/homopolymer blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Jae-Up; Park, Soojin

    2012-02-01

    A simple, straightforward process for fabricating multi-scale micro- and nanostructured patterns from polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymer in a preferential solvent for PS and PMMA is demonstrated. When the PS-b-P2VP/PMMA blend films were spin-coated onto a silicon wafer, PS-b-P2VP micellar arrays consisting of a PS corona and a P2VP core were formed, while the PMMA macrodomains were isolated, due to the macrophase separation caused by the incompatibility between block copolymer micelles and PMMA homopolymer during the spin-coating process. With an increase of PMMA composition, the size of PMMA macrodomains increased. Moreover, the P2VP blocks have a strong interaction with a native oxide of the surface of the silicon wafer, so that the P2VP wetting layer was first formed during spin-coating, and PS nanoclusters were observed on the PMMA macrodomains beneath. Whereas when a silicon surface was modified with a PS brush layer, the PS nanoclusters underlying PMMA domains were not formed. The multi-scale patterns prepared from copolymer micelle/homopolymer blend films are used as templates for the fabrication of gold nanoparticle arrays by incorporating the gold precursor into the P2VP chains. The combination of nanostructures prepared from block copolymer micellar arrays and macrostructures induced by incompatibility between the copolymer and the homopolymer leads to the formation of complex, multi-scale surface patterns by a simple casting process.A simple, straightforward process for fabricating multi-scale micro- and nanostructured patterns from polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymer in a preferential solvent for PS and PMMA is demonstrated. When the PS-b-P2VP/PMMA blend films were spin-coated onto a silicon wafer, PS-b-P2VP micellar arrays consisting of a PS corona and a P2VP core were formed, while the PMMA macrodomains were isolated, due to the

  8. Pattern recognition in probability spaces for visualization and identification of plasma confinement regimes and confinement time scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdoolaege, G; Karagounis, G; Oost, G Van; Tendler, M

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition is becoming an increasingly important tool for making inferences from the massive amounts of data produced in fusion experiments. The purpose is to contribute to physics studies and plasma control. In this work, we address the visualization of plasma confinement data, the (real-time) identification of confinement regimes and the establishment of a scaling law for the energy confinement time. We take an intrinsically probabilistic approach, modeling data from the International Global H-mode Confinement Database with Gaussian distributions. We show that pattern recognition operations working in the associated probability space are considerably more powerful than their counterparts in a Euclidean data space. This opens up new possibilities for analyzing confinement data and for fusion data processing in general. We hence advocate the essential role played by measurement uncertainty for data interpretation in fusion experiments. (paper)

  9. Optimization of the kernel functions in a probabilistic neural network analyzing the local pattern distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleske, I; Castellanos, J

    2002-05-01

    This article proposes a procedure for the automatic determination of the elements of the covariance matrix of the gaussian kernel function of probabilistic neural networks. Two matrices, a rotation matrix and a matrix of variances, can be calculated by analyzing the local environment of each training pattern. The combination of them will form the covariance matrix of each training pattern. This automation has two advantages: First, it will free the neural network designer from indicating the complete covariance matrix, and second, it will result in a network with better generalization ability than the original model. A variation of the famous two-spiral problem and real-world examples from the UCI Machine Learning Repository will show a classification rate not only better than the original probabilistic neural network but also that this model can outperform other well-known classification techniques.

  10. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Wu, Shu-Qun; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  11. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics

  12. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao, E-mail: ensiyu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  13. Time Scale Inequalities of the Ostrowski Type for Functions Differentiable on the Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, some inequalities of the Ostrowski type for functions (of two variables differentiable on the coordinates were established. In this paper, we extend these results to an arbitrary time scale by means of a parameter λ∈0,1. The aforementioned results are regained for the case when the time scale T=R. Besides extension, our results are employed to the continuous and discrete calculus to get some new inequalities in this direction.

  14. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Wander, Jeremiah D.; Ko, Andrew L.; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  15. Deciphering Fluvial-Capture-Induced Erosional Patterns at the Continental Scale on the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, L.; Munoz Martin, A.; De Vicente, G.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The process of river incision into bedrock dictates the landscape response to changes in climate and bedrock uplift in most unglaciated settings. Hence, understanding processes of river incision into bedrock and their topographic signatures are a basic goal of geomorphology. Formerly closed drainage basins provide an exceptional setting for the quantification of long term fluvial dissection and landscape change, making them valuable natural laboratories. Internally drained basins are peculiar because they trap all the sediment eroded within the watershed; as closed systems they do not respond to the base level of the global ocean and deposition is the dominant process. In that context, the opening of an outward drainage involves a sudden lowering of the base level, which is transmitted upstream along fluvial channels in the form of erosional waves, leading to high incision and denudation rates within the intrabasinal areas. Through digital topographic analysis and paleolandscape reconstruction based on relict deposits and landscapes on the Iberian Peninsula, we quantify the volume of sediments eroded from formerly internally drained basins since capture. Mapping of fluvial dissection patterns reveals how, and how far, regional waves of incision have propagated upstream. In our analysis, erosional patterns are consistent with the progressive establishment of an outward drainage system, providing a relative capture chronology for the different studied basins. Divide migration inferred from chi maps supports the interpretations based on fluvial dissection patterns and volumes, providing clues on how landscaped changed and how drainage integration occurred within the studied watersheds. [Funded by S2013/MAE-2739 and CGL2014-59516].

  16. Relationship between physical function and biomechanical gait patterns in boys with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephensen, D; Taylor, S; Bladen, M; Drechsler, W I

    2016-11-01

    The World Federation of Haemophilia recommends joint and muscle health is evaluated using X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, together with clinical examination scores. To date, inclusion of performance-based functional activities to monitor children with the condition has received little attention. To evaluate test-retest repeatability of physical function tests and quantify relationships between physical function, lower limb muscle strength and gait patterns in young boys with haemophilia. Timed 6-minute walk, timed up and down stairs, timed single leg stance, muscle strength of the knee extensors, ankle dorsi and plantar flexors, together with joint biomechanics during level walking were collected from 21 boys aged 6-12 years with severe haemophilia. Measures of physical function and recording of muscle strength with a hand-held myometer were repeatable (ICC > 0.78). Distances walked in six minutes, time taken to go up and down a flight of stairs and lower limb muscle strength correlated closely with ankle range of motion, together with peak knee flexion and ankle dorsi and plantarflexion moments during walking (P biomechanical joint function, and hence might serve as a basis for the clinical monitoring of physical function outcomes in children with haemophilia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. E-book usage on a global scale: patterns, trends and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levine-Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines worldwide usage of over 600,000 e-books from EBL and ebrary. Using multiple modes of analysis, the study shows that there are variations in usage by geographic region as well as by subject. The study examines usage in relation to availability of titles, different types of usage per session, usage of the top ten percent of titles, and intensive and extensive use. These patterns can be used for benchmarking and as a model for local e-book studies.

  18. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Rubin, David M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20–30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90°) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation.

  19. Data, data everywhere: detecting spatial patterns in fine-scale ecological information collected across a continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. Iannone

    2016-01-01

    Context Fine-scale ecological data collected across broad regions are becoming increasingly available. Appropriate geographic analyses of these data can help identify locations of ecological concern. Objectives We present one such approach, spatial association of scalable hexagons (SASH), whichidentifies locations where ecological phenomena occur at greater...

  20. Functional evaluation of pedotransfer functions derived from different scales of data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemes, A.; Schaap, M.G.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Estimation of soil hydraulic properties by pedotransfer functions (PTFs) can be an alternative to troublesome and expensive measurements. New approaches to develop PTFs are continuously being introduced, however, PTF applicability in locations other than those of data collection has been rarely

  1. Factors affecting distribution patterns of organic carbon in sediments at regional and national scales in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yiran; Lal, Rattan; Wang, Renqing; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2017-07-14

    Wetlands are an important carbon reservoir pool in terrestrial ecosystems. Light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were fractionated in sediment samples from the four wetlands (ZR: Zhaoniu River; ZRCW: Zhaoniu River Constructed Wetland; XR: Xinxue River; XRCW: Xinxue River Constructed Wetland). Organic carbon (OC) from rivers and coasts of China were retrieved and statistically analyzed. At regional scale, HFOC stably dominates the deposition of OC (95.4%), whereas DOC and LFOC in ZR is significantly higher than in ZRCW. Concentration of DOC is significantly higher in XRCW (30.37 mg/l) than that in XR (13.59 mg/l). DOC and HFOC notably distinguish between two sampling campaigns, and the deposition of carbon fractions are limited by low nitrogen input. At the national scale, OC attains the maximum of 2.29% at precipitation of 800 mm. OC has no significant difference among the three climate zones but significantly higher in river sediments than in coasts. Coastal OC increases from Bohai Sea (0.52%) to South Sea (0.70%) with a decrease in latitude. This study summarizes the factors affecting organic carbon storage in regional and national scale, and have constructive implications for carbon assessment, modelling, and management.

  2. Exercise training improves autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Maresca, Luigi; Vuolo, Laura; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Francesco, Orio

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female reproductive-age endocrine disease predominantly characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammatory status. Exercise training (ET) favourably modulates cardiopulmonary function and insulin-sensitivity markers in PCOS women. The present study investigated the effects of ET on autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in PCOS women. Prospective baseline uncontrolled clinical study. One-hundred and eighty five PCOS women referred to our department were screened for the inclusion into the study protocol from March 2004 to July 2007. One-hundred and twenty four PCOS women met the criteria for the inclusion into the study protocol and were subdivided into two groups each composed of 62 patients: PCOS-T (trained) group underwent 3-month ET program, whereas PCOS-UnT (untrained) group did not. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, hormonal and metabolic profile, cardiopulmonary parameters, autonomic function (as expressed by heart rate recovery, HRR) and inflammatory pattern [as expressed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs) count] were evaluated. PCOS-T showed a significant (P PCOS-UnT. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 3-month HRR is linearly related to the inclusion in training group (beta = 0.316, P PCOS women.

  3. Exploratory graphical models of functional and structural connectivity patterns for Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eOrtiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Itsdevelopment has been shown to be closely related to changes in the brain connectivity networkand in the brain activation patterns along with structural changes caused by the neurodegenerativeprocess.Methods to infer dependence between brain regions are usually derived from the analysis ofcovariance between activation levels in the different areas. However, these covariance-basedmethods are not able to estimate conditional independence between variables to factor out theinfluence of other regions. Conversely, models based on the inverse covariance, or precisionmatrix, such as Sparse Gaussian Graphical Models allow revealing conditional independencebetween regions by estimating the covariance between two variables given the rest as constant.This paper uses Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation (SICE methods to learn undirectedgraphs in order to derive functional and structural connectivity patterns from Fludeoxyglucose(18F-FDG Position Emission Tomography (PET data and segmented Magnetic Resonanceimages (MRI, drawn from the ADNI database, for Control, MCI (Mild Cognitive ImpairmentSubjects and AD subjects. Sparse computation fits perfectly here as brain regions usually onlyinteract with a few other areas.The models clearly show different metabolic covariation patters between subject groups, revealingthe loss of strong connections in AD and MCI subjects when compared to Controls. Similarly,the variance between GM (Grey Matter densities of different regions reveals different structuralcovariation patterns between the different groups. Thus, the different connectivity patterns forcontrols and AD are used in this paper to select regions of interest in PET and GM images withdiscriminative power for early AD diagnosis. Finally, functional an structural models are combinedto leverage the classification accuracy.The results obtained in this work show the usefulness

  4. Relationship Between the Functional Status Scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scales FREE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Funai, Tomohiko; Clark, Amy; Moler, Frank; Shanley, Thomas; Meert, Kathy; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Carcillo, Joseph; Berger, John T.; Doctor, Allan; Berg, Robert A.; Dalton, Heidi; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Functional status assessment methods are important as outcome measures for pediatric critical care studies. Objective To investigate the relationships between the 2 functional status assessment methods appropriate for large-sample studies, the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (POPC/PCPC) scales. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study with random patient selection at 7 sites and 8 children’s hospitals with general/medical and cardiac/cardiovascular pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Participants included all PICU patients younger than 18 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Functional Status Scale and POPC/PCPC scores determined at PICU admission (baseline) and PICU discharge. We investigated the association between the baseline and PICU discharge POPC/PCPC scores and the baseline and PICU discharge FSS scores, the dispersion of FSS scores within each of the POPC/PCPC ratings, and the relationship between the FSS neurologic components (FSS-CNS) and the PCPC. Results We included 5017 patients. We found a significant (P < .001) difference between FSS scores in each POPC or PCPC interval, with an FSS score increase with each worsening POPC/PCPC rating. The FSS scores for the good and mild disability POPC/PCPC ratings were similar and increased by 2 to 3 points for the POPC/PCPC change from mild to moderate disability, 5 to 6 points for moderate to severe disability, and 8 to 9 points for severe disability to vegetative state or coma. The dispersion of FSS scores within each POPC and PCPC rating was substantial and increased with worsening POPC and PCPC scores. We also found a significant (P < .001) difference between the FSS-CNS scores between each of the PCPC ratings with increases in the FSS-CNS score for each higher PCPC rating. Conclusions and Relevance The FSS and POPC/PCPC system

  5. Climate pattern-scaling set for an ensemble of 22 GCMs – adding uncertainty to the IMOGEN version 2.0 impact system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zelazowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global circulation models (GCMs are the best tool to understand climate change, as they attempt to represent all the important Earth system processes, including anthropogenic perturbation through fossil fuel burning. However, GCMs are computationally very expensive, which limits the number of simulations that can be made. Pattern scaling is an emulation technique that takes advantage of the fact that local and seasonal changes in surface climate are often approximately linear in the rate of warming over land and across the globe. This allows interpolation away from a limited number of available GCM simulations, to assess alternative future emissions scenarios. In this paper, we present a climate pattern-scaling set consisting of spatial climate change patterns along with parameters for an energy-balance model that calculates the amount of global warming. The set, available for download, is derived from 22 GCMs of the WCRP CMIP3 database, setting the basis for similar eventual pattern development for the CMIP5 and forthcoming CMIP6 ensemble. Critically, it extends the use of the IMOGEN (Integrated Model Of Global Effects of climatic aNomalies framework to enable scanning across full uncertainty in GCMs for impact studies. Across models, the presented climate patterns represent consistent global mean trends, with a maximum of 4 (out of 22 GCMs exhibiting the opposite sign to the global trend per variable (relative humidity. The described new climate regimes are generally warmer, wetter (but with less snowfall, cloudier and windier, and have decreased relative humidity. Overall, when averaging individual performance across all variables, and without considering co-variance, the patterns explain one-third of regional change in decadal averages (mean percentage variance explained, PVE, 34.25 ± 5.21, but the signal in some models exhibits much more linearity (e.g. MIROC3.2(hires: 41.53 than in others (GISS_ER: 22.67. The two most often

  6. Climate pattern-scaling set for an ensemble of 22 GCMs - adding uncertainty to the IMOGEN version 2.0 impact system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Huntingford, Chris; Mercado, Lina M.; Schaller, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    Global circulation models (GCMs) are the best tool to understand climate change, as they attempt to represent all the important Earth system processes, including anthropogenic perturbation through fossil fuel burning. However, GCMs are computationally very expensive, which limits the number of simulations that can be made. Pattern scaling is an emulation technique that takes advantage of the fact that local and seasonal changes in surface climate are often approximately linear in the rate of warming over land and across the globe. This allows interpolation away from a limited number of available GCM simulations, to assess alternative future emissions scenarios. In this paper, we present a climate pattern-scaling set consisting of spatial climate change patterns along with parameters for an energy-balance model that calculates the amount of global warming. The set, available for download, is derived from 22 GCMs of the WCRP CMIP3 database, setting the basis for similar eventual pattern development for the CMIP5 and forthcoming CMIP6 ensemble. Critically, it extends the use of the IMOGEN (Integrated Model Of Global Effects of climatic aNomalies) framework to enable scanning across full uncertainty in GCMs for impact studies. Across models, the presented climate patterns represent consistent global mean trends, with a maximum of 4 (out of 22) GCMs exhibiting the opposite sign to the global trend per variable (relative humidity). The described new climate regimes are generally warmer, wetter (but with less snowfall), cloudier and windier, and have decreased relative humidity. Overall, when averaging individual performance across all variables, and without considering co-variance, the patterns explain one-third of regional change in decadal averages (mean percentage variance explained, PVE, 34.25 ± 5.21), but the signal in some models exhibits much more linearity (e.g. MIROC3.2(hires): 41.53) than in others (GISS_ER: 22.67). The two most often considered variables

  7. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  8. Combined Effects of Synoptic-Scale Teleconnection Patterns on Summer Precipitation in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using ERA-Interim daily reanalysis and precipitation data, the combined effects of East Asia-Pacific (EAP and Silk Road (SR teleconnection patterns on summer precipitation in Southern China were investigated on synoptic to sub-monthly timescales. Combined EAP and SR patterns lead to more persistent and extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV and exhibit an obvious zonal advance between the South Asia High (SAH and Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH prior to its onset. During typical combined events, an overlap between the SAH and WPSH remains in a favorable position for Persistent Extreme Precipitation (PEP. Furthermore, SR-induced acceleration of the westerly jet stream and extra positive vorticity advection provide persistent upper-level divergence for YRV precipitation. An anomalous EAP-related cyclone/anticyclone pair over East Asia induces enhanced low-level southwesterlies to the northern anticyclone flank and northerlies from the mid-latitudes, advecting anomalously abundant moisture toward the YRV, resulting in clear moisture convergence. Moreover, the strong ascent of warmer/moister air along a quasi-stationary front may be crucial for PEP. During decay, the SAH and WPSH diverge from each other and retreat to their normal positions, and the strong ascent of warmer/moister air rapidly weakens to dissipation, terminating PEP in the YRV.

  9. Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Teng-Fei; Tan, Xin; Pan, Jing-Xue; Shen, Li-Xiao

    2018-03-20

    Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function. Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η 2 = 0.12, P ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction task (F = 4.89, η 2 = 0.067, P = 0.003). However, no significant group differences were found between the ADHD-I group and normal control. Based on the combined evaluation of performance-based neuropsychological tests and the BRIEF-P, preschoolers with ADHD show difficulties of neuropsychological function in many aspects.

  10. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Massat

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM, which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  11. Association of long-term patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function among older men with and without human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Nicole M; Surkan, Pamela J; Treisman, Glenn J; Sacktor, Ned C; Irwin, Michael R; Teplin, Linda A; Stall, Ron; Martin, Eileen M; Becker, James T; Munro, Cynthia; Levine, Andrew J; Jacobson, Lisa P; Abraham, Alison G

    2017-08-01

    Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men. Group-based trajectory models, stratified by HIV status, were used to identify latent patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function across 12 years of follow-up. We identified three depression patterns for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (rare/never 50.0 vs. 60.6%, periodically depressed 29.6 vs. 24.5%, chronic high 20.5 vs.15.0%, respectively) and three patterns of attention/executive function for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (worst-performing 47.4 vs. 45.1%; average 41.9 vs. 47.0%; best-performing 10.7 vs. 8.0%, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between depression patterns and worst-performing attention/executive function. Among HIV-uninfected men, those in the periodically depressed and chronic high depressed groups had higher odds of membership in the worst-performing attention/executive function group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.03; AOR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.49, 3.39, respectively). Among HIV-infected men, patterns of depression symptoms were not associated with patterns of attention/executive function. Results suggest that HIV-uninfected, but not HIV-infected, men with chronic high depression are more likely to experience a long-term pattern of attention/executive dysfunction.

  12. Study on the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, 1; Comparison of the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with lung function tests in pulmonary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    The deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphies and lung function tests were studied in 102 cases; 64 cases of obstructive pulmonary diseases (19 pulmonary emphysema, 27 diffuse panbronchiolitis, 18 chronic bronchitis) and 38 restrictive pulmonary disease (15 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 16 pulmonary asbestosis, 7 interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease). The deposition patterns were classified into 5 patterns (Type A:normal homogenous distribution; Type B: mildly unhomogenous distribution; Type C: severely unhomogenous distribution mingled with hot spots; Type D: non-hilar hot spots; and Type E: hilar hot spots). The deposition patterns of restrictive pulmonary diseases were markedly abnormal as well as obstructive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Types C, D and E in obstructive pulmonary diseases, Type B in restrictive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Type E in pulmonary emphysema, Types C and D in diffuse panbronchiolitis, Types A, B and C in chronic bronchitis, Type B in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease, Types B and C in pulmonary asbestosis. The deposition patterns correlated well with %FEV{sub 1.0} which was a good indicator of the severity of obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in obstructive pulmonary diseases was nearly equal to the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in restrictive pulmonary diseases in each type of the deposition patterns. (J.P.N.).

  13. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L; Limb, Ryan F; Daigh, Aaron L; Volk, Jay M; Wick, Abbey F

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  14. Dynamic of the morphologic and functional X-ray patterns following operation for pylorus consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radev, D.; Ganchev, D.; Nakov, D.; Demirov, D.; Najdenov, N.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of X-ray study of 24 patients operated for pyloric insufficiency and reflux-gastritis. The operative technique was one of consolidation of the pylorus by circular invagination of the pyloric ring with formation of a valvular mechanism with two transversal folds. The X-ray pattern and the function of the consolidated pylorus were close to the normal. For a period of 7 years the effect was lasting; despite the combination with ligamentotomy, however, the duodenal stasis and the duodeno-gastric reflux were insufficiently affected. 2 figs., 14 refs

  15. Multi-scale analysis of relationship between landscape pattern and urban river water quality in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Zhonghao

    2016-05-05

    Water quality is highly dependent on the landscape characteristics. In this study, we investigated the relationships between water quality and landscape pattern (composition and configuration) in Huzhou City, China. The water quality variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3-N, petroleum, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total nitrogen (TN) in low water, normal water and flood periods were identified by investigating 34 sampling sites in Huzhou City during the period from 2001 to 2007. Landscape composition and landscape configuration metrics were calculated for different scales. It was found that scales and seasons both play important role when analyzing the relationships between landscape characteristics of different land use types. The results implied that some water quality parameters such as CODMn, petroleum are more polluted in flood period than the other two seasons at different scales, while DTP and TN are more polluted in low water period. Influences of different landscape metrics on water quality should operate at different spatial scales. The results shown in this paper will effectively provide scientific basis for the policy making in sustainable development of water environment.

  16. Ecosystem-level water-use efficiency inferred from eddy covariance data: definitions, patterns and spatial up-scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Beer, C.; Kuglitsch, F.; Papale, D.; Soussana, J. A.; Janssens, I.; Ciais, P.; Baldocchi, D.; Buchmann, N.; Verbeeck, H.; Ceulemans, R.; Moors, E.; Köstner, B.; Schulze, D.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.

    2007-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss ways to infer and to interpret water-use efficiency at ecosystem level (WUEe) from eddy covariance flux data and possibilities for scaling these patterns to regional and continental scale. In particular we convey the following: WUEe may be computed as a ratio of integrated fluxes or as the slope of carbon versus water fluxes offering different chances for interpretation. If computed from net ecosystem exchange and evapotranspiration on has to take of counfounding effects of respiration and soil evaporation. WUEe time-series at diurnal and seasonal scale is a valuable ecosystem physiological diagnostic for example about ecosystem-level responses to drought. Most often WUEe decreases during dry periods. The mean growing season ecosystem water-use efficiency of gross carbon uptake (WUEGPP) is highest in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forests, followed by temperate mixed forests, temperate evergreen conifers, Mediterranean broad-leaved deciduous forests, Mediterranean broad-leaved evergreen forests and Mediterranean evergreen conifers and boreal, grassland and tundra ecosystems. Water-use efficiency exhibits a temporally quite conservative relation with atmospheric water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) that is modified between sites by leaf area index (LAI) and soil quality, such that WUEe increases with LAI and soil water holding capacity which is related to texture. This property and tight coupling between carbon and water cycles is used to estimate catchment-scale water-use efficiency and primary productivity by integration of space-borne earth observation and river discharge data.

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Groarke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants (N = 1,191, 17–66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males. Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity, and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML—the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross

  18. [Upper limb functional assessment scale for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Spinal muscular atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo

    2016-08-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions. To describe the development of a scale to evaluate upper limb function (UL) in patients with DMD and SMA, and describe its validation process, which includes self-training for evaluators. The development of the scale included a review of published scales, an exploratory application of a pilot scale in healthy children and those with DMD, self-training of evaluators in applying the scale using a handbook and video tutorial, and assessment of a group of children with DMD and SMA using the final scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach and Kendall concordance and with intra and inter-rater test-retest, and validity with concordance and factorial analysis. A high level of reliability was observed, with high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.97), and inter-rater (Kendall W=0.96) and intra-rater concordance (r=0.97 to 0.99). The validity was demonstrated by the absence of significant differences between results by different evaluators with an expert evaluator (F=0.023, P>.5), and by the factor analysis that showed that four factors account for 85.44% of total variance. This scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing UL functionality in children with DMD and SMA. It is also easily implementable due to the possibility of self-training and the use of simple and inexpensive materials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke, Jenny M; Hogan, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML) and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants ( N = 1,191, 17-66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males). Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML) scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity , and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML-the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross-sectional studies.

  20. Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA): a Large Scale Functional Connectivity Data Mining Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nixon, Erika; Herskovits, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to study functional connectivity is of great importance to understand normal development and function as well as a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Seed-based analysis is one of the most widely used rs-fMRI analysis methods. Here we describe a freely available large scale functional connectivity data mining software package called Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA). ACA enables large-scale seed-based analysis and brain-behavior analysis. It can seamlessly examine a large number of seed regions with minimal user input. ACA has a brain-behavior analysis component to delineate associations among imaging biomarkers and one or more behavioral variables. We demonstrate applications of ACA to rs-fMRI data sets from a study of autism.

  1. Development of a Multidimensional Functional Health Scale for Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fanzhen; Han, Yaofeng; Chen, Junze; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Manqiong; Alicia Hong, Y; Fang, Ya

    2016-05-01

    A first step to achieve successful aging is assessing functional wellbeing of older adults. This study reports the development of a culturally appropriate brief scale (the Multidimensional Functional Health Scale for Chinese Elderly, MFHSCE) to assess the functional health of Chinese elderly. Through systematic literature review, Delphi method, cultural adaptation, synthetic statistical item selection, Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis, we conducted development of item pool, two rounds of item selection, and psychometric evaluation. Synthetic statistical item selection and psychometric evaluation was processed among 539 and 2032 older adults, separately. The MFHSCE consists of 30 items, covering activities of daily living, social relationships, physical health, mental health, cognitive function, and economic resources. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, and the comparative fit index was 0.917. The MFHSCE has good internal consistency and construct validity; it is also concise and easy to use in general practice, especially in communities in China.

  2. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Qi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58 showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65, suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2 and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  3. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Qi; Zhao, Mengxin; Wang, Shiping; Ma, Xingyu; Wang, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Lin, Qiaoyan; Li, Xiangzhen; Gu, Baohua; Li, Guoxue; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-06-13

    As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58) showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65), suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2) and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  4. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina J. Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a promising first example towards controlling the properties of a self-assembling mineral film by means of the functionality and polarity of a substrate template. In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different chemical functionality. We demonstrate the template-modulated morphological properties of the growing film, as the surface functionality dictates the granularity of the growing film. This, in turn, is a key property influencing other film properties such as conductivity, piezoelectric activity and the mechanical properties. A very pronounced contrast is observed between areas with an underlying fluorinated, low energy template surface, showing a much more (almost two orders of magnitude coarse-grained film with a typical agglomerate size of around 75 nm. In contrast, amino-functionalized surface areas induce the growth of a very smooth, fine-grained surface with a roughness of around 1 nm. The observed influence of the template on the resulting clear contrast in morphology of the growing film could be explained by a contrast in surface adhesion energies and surface diffusion rates of the nanoparticles, which nucleate in solution and subsequently deposit on the functionalized substrate.

  5. Overlapping functions of argonaute proteins in patterning and morphogenesis of Drosophila embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke J Meyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute proteins are essential components of the molecular machinery that drives RNA silencing. In Drosophila, different members of the Argonaute family of proteins have been assigned to distinct RNA silencing pathways. While Ago1 is required for microRNA function, Ago2 is a crucial component of the RNA-induced silencing complex in siRNA-triggered RNA interference. Drosophila Ago2 contains an unusual amino-terminus with two types of imperfect glutamine-rich repeats (GRRs of unknown function. Here we show that the GRRs of Ago2 are essential for the normal function of the protein. Alleles with reduced numbers of GRRs cause specific disruptions in two morphogenetic processes associated with the midblastula transition: membrane growth and microtubule-based organelle transport. These defects do not appear to result from disruption of siRNA-dependent processes but rather suggest an interference of the mutant Ago2 proteins in an Ago1-dependent pathway. Using loss-of-function alleles, we further demonstrate that Ago1 and Ago2 act in a partially redundant manner to control the expression of the segment-polarity gene wingless in the early embryo. Our findings argue against a strict separation of Ago1 and Ago2 functions and suggest that these proteins act in concert to control key steps of the midblastula transition and of segmental patterning.

  6. Soil Functional Mapping: A Geospatial Framework for Scaling Soil Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is dramatically altering biogeochemical cycles in most terrestrial ecosystems, particularly the cycles of water and carbon (C). These changes will affect myriad ecosystem processes of importance, including plant productivity, C exports to aquatic systems, and terrestrial C storage. Soil C storage represents a critical feedback to climate change as soils store more C than the atmosphere and aboveground plant biomass combined. While we know plant and soil C cycling are strongly coupled with soil moisture, substantial unknowns remain regarding how these relationships can be scaled up from soil profiles to ecosystems. This greatly limits our ability to build a process-based understanding of the controls on and consequences of climate change at regional scales. In an effort to address this limitation we: (1) describe an approach to classifying soils that is based on underlying differences in soil functional characteristics and (2) examine the utility of this approach as a scaling tool that honors the underlying soil processes. First, geospatial datasets are analyzed in the context of our current understanding of soil C and water cycling in order to predict soil functional units that can be mapped at the scale of ecosystems or watersheds. Next, the integrity of each soil functional unit is evaluated using available soil C data and mapping units are refined as needed. Finally, targeted sampling is conducted to further differentiate functional units or fill in any data gaps that are identified. Completion of this workflow provides new geospatial datasets that are based on specific soil functions, in this case the coupling of soil C and water cycling, and are well suited for integration with regional-scale soil models. Preliminary results from this effort highlight the advantages of a scaling approach that balances theory, measurement, and modeling.

  7. Models of mixed irradiation with a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shozo; Miura, Yuri; Mizuno, Shoichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Suzuki presented models for mixed irradiation with two and multiple types of radiation by extending the Zaider and Rossi model, which is based on the theory of dual radiation action. In these models, the repair function was simply assumed to be semi-logarithmically linear (i.e., monoexponential), or a first-order process, which has been experimentally contradicted. Fowler, however, suggested that the repair of radiation damage might be largely a second-order process rather than a first-order one, and presented data in support of this hypothesis. In addition, a second-order repair function is preferred to an n-exponential repair function for the reason that only one parameter is used in the former instead of 2n-1 parameters for the latter, although both repair functions show a good fit to the experimental data. However, according to a second-order repair function, the repair rate depends on the dose, which is incompatible with the experimental data. We, therefore, revised the models for mixed irradiation by Zaider and Rossi and by Suzuki, by substituting a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function, which is derived from the assumption that the repair rate is independent of the dose in a second-order repair function, for a first-order one in reduction and interaction factors of the models, although the underlying mechanism for this assumption cannot be well-explained. The reduction factor, which reduces the contribution of the square of a dose to cell killing in the linear-quadratic model and its derivatives, and the interaction factor, which also reduces the contribution of the interaction of two or more doses of different types of radiation, were formulated by using a 'reciprocal-time' patterns of the repair function. Cell survivals calculated from the older and the newly modified models were compared in terms of the dose-rate by assuming various types of single and mixed irradiation. The result implies that the newly modified models for

  8. The pion structure function and scale breaking in Drell-Yan processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the formalism of QCD, the structure functions of the nucleon and the pion obtained at Q 2 = m 2 sub(psi) is extended to higher values of Q 2 . These structure functions are then used to obtain predictions of scale-breaking effects in Drell-Yan lepton-pair production for both nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon cases. A comparison with recent experimental data is also presented. (author)

  9. On very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) and long-wavelength patterns in turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) are a prominent feature of thermally-neutral atmospheric boundary layers (ABL). Up to date, the influence of these very long active motions on wind-energy harvesting is not sufficiently explored. This work is an effort in this direction. We perform large-eddy simulation of a turbine row operating under neutral conditions. The ABL data is produced separately in a very long domain of 240 δ . VLSMs are isolated from smaller-scale ABL and wake motions using a spectral cutoff at streamwise wavelength λx = 3.125 δ . Reynolds-averaging of low-pass filtered fields shows that the interaction of VLSMs and turbines produce very-long-wavelength motions in the wake region, which contain about 20 % of the Reynolds-shear stress, and 30 % of the streamwise kinetic energy. A conditional analysis of filtered fields further reveals that these long-wavelength wakes are produced by modification of very long velocity streaks in ABL. In particular, the turbine row acts as a sharp boundary between low and high velocity streaks, and accompanying roller structures remain relatively unaffected. This reorganization creates a two-way flux towards the wake region, which elucidates the side-way domination in turbulent transport. The authors acknowledg funding from ERC Grant No 306471.

  10. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  11. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates.

  12. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Post-Bronchodilation Lung Function in the SAPALDIA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Pons, Marco; Rothe, Thomas; Stolz, Daiana; Turk, Alexander; Schindler, Christian; Brombach, Christine; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2018-05-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not restricted to smokers. Dietary habits may contribute to the disease occurrence. Epidemiological studies point to a protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake against COPD. To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and parameters of lung function related to COPD in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Data were included from the second follow-up assessment of the SAPALDIA cohort in 2010-2011 using a food frequency questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns, whose association with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF2575, and COPD was investigated by applying multivariate regression analyses. After adjustment for potential confounders, the "prudent dietary pattern" characterised by the predominant food groups vegetables, fruits, water, tea and coffee, fish, and nuts was positively associated with FEV1 (increase of 40 mL per SD, p promotion. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Master stability functions reveal diffusion-driven pattern formation in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechtel, Andreas; Gramlich, Philipp; Ritterskamp, Daniel; Drossel, Barbara; Gross, Thilo

    2018-03-01

    We study diffusion-driven pattern formation in networks of networks, a class of multilayer systems, where different layers have the same topology, but different internal dynamics. Agents are assumed to disperse within a layer by undergoing random walks, while they can be created or destroyed by reactions between or within a layer. We show that the stability of homogeneous steady states can be analyzed with a master stability function approach that reveals a deep analogy between pattern formation in networks and pattern formation in continuous space. For illustration, we consider a generalized model of ecological meta-food webs. This fairly complex model describes the dispersal of many different species across a region consisting of a network of individual habitats while subject to realistic, nonlinear predator-prey interactions. In this example, the method reveals the intricate dependence of the dynamics on the spatial structure. The ability of the proposed approach to deal with this fairly complex system highlights it as a promising tool for ecology and other applications.

  15. The oriented and patterned growth of fluorescent metal–organic frameworks onto functionalized surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Zhuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A metal–organic framework (MOF material, [Zn2(adc2(dabco] (adc = anthracene-9,10-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane, the fluorescence of which depends on the loading of its nanopores, was synthesized in two forms: as free-flowing nanocrystals with different shapes and as surface-attached MOFs (SURMOFs. For the latter, we used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs bearing functional groups, such as carboxylate and pyridyl groups, capable of coordinating to the constituents of the MOF. It could be demonstrated that this directed coordination also orients the nanocrystals deposited at the surface. Using two different patterning methods, i.e., microcontact printing and electron-beam lithography, the lateral distribution of the functional groups could be determined in such a way that the highly localized deposition of the SURMOF films became possible.

  16. Practical considerations in the calculation of orientation distribution functions from electron back-scattered diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Using model data sets for the Brass orientation, the importance of scatter width, angular accuracy and grain size and volume fraction on the sensitivity of the calculated Orientation Distribution Functions have been determined in order to highlight some of the practical considerations needed in the processing of experimental data from individual grain orientation measurements determined by the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique. It is suggested that the most appropriate scatter width can be calculated from the maximum function height versus scatter width curve in order to accommodate variations in texture sharpness. The sensitivity of the ODF to careful sample preparation, mounting and pattern analysis, in order to keep errors in angular accuracy to 1 or less is demonstrated, as is the imperative need to correct for the size of grains, and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  17. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  19. Current constrained voltage scaled reconstruction (CCVSR) algorithm for MR-EIT and its performance with different probing current patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birguel, Oezlem; Eyueboglu, B Murat; Ider, Y Ziya

    2003-01-01

    Conventional injected-current electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can be combined to reconstruct high resolution true conductivity images. The magnetic flux density distribution generated by the internal current density distribution is extracted from MR phase images. This information is used to form a fine detailed conductivity image using an Ohm's law based update equation. The reconstructed conductivity image is assumed to differ from the true image by a scale factor. EIT surface potential measurements are then used to scale the reconstructed image in order to find the true conductivity values. This process is iterated until a stopping criterion is met. Several simulations are carried out for opposite and cosine current injection patterns to select the best current injection pattern for a 2D thorax model. The contrast resolution and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are also studied. In all simulation studies, realistic noise models for voltage and magnetic flux density measurements are used. It is shown that, in contrast to the conventional EIT techniques, the proposed method has the capability of reconstructing conductivity images with uniform and high spatial resolution. The spatial resolution is limited by the larger element size of the finite element mesh and twice the magnetic resonance image pixel size

  20. Finite-size scaling functions for directed polymers confined between attracting walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Prellberg, T [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rechnitzer, A [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2008-01-25

    The exact solution of directed self-avoiding walks confined to a slit of finite width and interacting with the walls of the slit via an attractive potential has been recently calculated. The walks can be considered to model the polymer-induced steric stabilization and sensitized flocculation of colloidal dispersions. The large-width asymptotics led to a phase diagram different to that of a polymer attached to, and attracted to, a single wall. The question that arises is: Can one interpolate between the single wall and two wall cases? In this paper, we calculate the exact scaling functions for the partition function by considering the two variable asymptotics of the partition function for simultaneous large length and large width. Consequently, we find the scaling functions for the force induced by the polymer on the walls. We find that these scaling functions are given by elliptic {theta} functions. In some parts of the phase diagram there is more a complex crossover between the single wall and two wall cases and we elucidate how this happens.

  1. Economies of scale in the Korean district heating system: A variable cost function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Sil; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the cost efficiency of South Korea’s district heating (DH) system by using a variable cost function and cost-share equation. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression model, with quarterly time-series data from the Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC)—a public utility that covers about 59% of the DH system market in South Korea—over the 1987–2011 period. The explanatory variables are price of labor, price of material, capital cost, and production level. The results indicate that economies of scale are present and statistically significant. Thus, expansion of its DH business would allow KDHC to obtain substantial economies of scale. According to our forecasts vis-à-vis scale economies, the KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency for some time yet. To ensure a socially efficient supply of DH, it is recommended that the KDHC expand its business proactively. With regard to informing policy or regulations, our empirical results could play a significant role in decision-making processes. - Highlights: • We examine economies of scale in the South Korean district heating sector. • We focus on Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC), a public utility. • We estimate a translog cost function, using a variable cost function. • We found economies of scale to be present and statistically significant. • KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency and expanding its supply is socially efficient.

  2. Scale-dependent Patterns in One-dimensional Fracture Spacing and Aperture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Perfect, E.

    2013-12-01

    One-dimensional scanline data about fracture spacing and size attributes such as aperture or length are mostly considered in separate studies that compute the cumulative frequency of these attributes without regard to their actual spatial sequence. In a previous study, we showed that spacing data can be analyzed using lacunarity to identify whether fractures occur in clusters. However, to determine if such clusters also contain the largest fractures in terms of a size attribute such as aperture, it is imperative that data about the size attribute be integrated with information about fracture spacing. While for example, some researchers have considered aperture in conjunction with spacing, their analyses were either applicable only to a specific type of data (e.g. multifractal) or failed to characterize the data at different scales. Lacunarity is a technique for analyzing multi-scale non-binary data and is ideally-suited for characterizing scanline data with spacing and aperture values. We present a technique that can statistically delineate the relationship between size attributes and spatial clustering. We begin by building a model scanline that has complete partitioning of fractures with small and large apertures between the intercluster regions and clusters. We demonstrate that the ratio of lacunarity for this model to that of its counterpart for a completely randomized sequence of apertures can be used to determine whether large-aperture fractures preferentially occur next to each other. The technique is then applied to two natural fracture scanline datasets, one with most of the large apertures occurring in fracture clusters, and the other with more randomly-spaced fractures, without any specific ordering of aperture values. The lacunarity ratio clearly discriminates between these two datasets and, in the case of the first example, it is also able to identify the range of scales over which the widest fractures are clustered. The technique thus developed for

  3. Scaling for deuteron structure functions in a relativistic light-front model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzou, W.N.; Gloeckle, W.

    1996-01-01

    Scaling limits of the structure functions [B.D. Keister, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1765 (1988)], W 1 and W 2 , are studied in a relativistic model of the two-nucleon system. The relativistic model is defined by a unitary representation, U(Λ,a), of the Poincaracute e group which acts on the Hilbert space of two spinless nucleons. The representation is in Dirac close-quote s [P.A.M. Dirac, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 392 (1949)] light-front formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics and is designed to give the experimental deuteron mass and n-p scattering length. A model hadronic current operator that is conserved and covariant with respect to this representation is used to define the structure tensor. This work is the first step in a relativistic extension of the results of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. The nonrelativistic limit of the model is shown to be consistent with the nonrelativistic model of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. [D. Hueber et al. Phys. Rev. C 42, 2342 (1990)]. The relativistic and nonrelativistic scaling limits, for both Bjorken and y scaling are compared. The interpretation of y scaling in the relativistic model is studied critically. The standard interpretation of y scaling requires a soft wave function which is not realized in this model. The scaling limits in both the relativistic and nonrelativistic case are related to probability distributions associated with the target deuteron. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Divergent Expression Patterns and Function Implications of Four nanos Genes in a Hermaphroditic Fish, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yang; Lu, Wei-Jia; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Shui-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-03-23

    Multiple nanos genes have been characterized in several fishes, but the functional implications of their various expression patterns remain unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized four nanos genes from a hermaphroditic fish orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides . Ecnanos1a and Ecnanos1b show divergent expression patterns, and the dynamic expression change of Ecnanos1a in pituitaries during sex change is associated with testis differentiation and spermatogenesis. Ecnanos2 and Ecnanos3 might be germline stem cells (GSCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs)-specific markers, respectively. Significantly, Ecnanos3 3'-untranslated region (UTR) is necessary for PGC specific expression, where a non-canonical "GCACGTTT" sequence is required for miR-430-mediated repression of Ecnanos3 RNA. Furthermore, grouper Dead end (Dnd) can relieve miR-430 repression in PGCs by associating with a 23 bp U-rich region (URR) in Ecnanos3 3'-UTR. The current study revealed the functional association of multiple nanos genes with PGC formation and germ cell development in orange-spotted grouper, and opened up new possibilities for developing biotechnologies through utilizing the associations between Ecnanos3 and PGCs or between Ecnanos2 and GSCs in the hermaphroditic fish.

  5. Predicting continental-scale patterns of bird species richness with spatially explicit models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Colwell, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    the extraordinary diversity of avian species in the montane tropics, the most species-rich region on Earth. Our findings imply that correlative climatic models substantially underestimate the importance of historical factors and small-scale niche-driven assembly processes in shaping contemporary species-richness......The causes of global variation in species richness have been debated for nearly two centuries with no clear resolution in sight. Competing hypotheses have typically been evaluated with correlative models that do not explicitly incorporate the mechanisms responsible for biotic diversity gradients....... Here, we employ a fundamentally different approach that uses spatially explicit Monte Carlo models of the placement of cohesive geographical ranges in an environmentally heterogeneous landscape. These models predict species richness of endemic South American birds (2248 species) measured...

  6. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... thermal cameras and analysed by computer vision software from which motion intensity maps and peoples trajectories were estimated and used as input to control the interactive illumination. The paper introduces a 2-layered interactive light strategy addressing ambient and effect illumination criteria...... totally four light scenarios were designed and tested. The result shows that in general people immersed in the street lighting did not notice that the light changed according to their presence or actions, but people watching from the edge of the square noticed the interaction between the illumination...

  7. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  8. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of the Dutch functional, communicative and critical health literacy scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, R.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Hilderink-Koertshuis, Rianne T.E.; Klaase, Joost M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: While most existing health literacy (HL) measures focus primarily on reading comprehension, the functional, communicative and critical HL scales from Ishikawa et al. [19] aim to measure a broader HL spectrum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Dutch

  10. Levels of Personality Functioning Scale Self-Report Validation Journal of Personality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Evan; Hopwood, Christopher; Morey, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.

  11. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Bottomley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by ordinal...... logistic regression....

  12. Prediction of spatially variable unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using scaled particle-size distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasta, P.; Romano, N.; Assouline, S; Vrugt, J.A.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous scaling of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions provides an effective means to characterize the heterogeneity and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties in a given study area. The statistical significance of this approach largely depends on the number of

  13. Numerical studies of the g-hartree density functional in the Thomas-Fermi scaling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millack, T.; Weymans, G.

    1986-02-01

    Methods of finite temperature quantum field theory are used to construct the g-Hartree density functional for atoms. Low and high temperature expansions are discussed in detail. Numerical studies for atomic ground-state configurations are presented in the Thomas-Fermi-Scaling limit. (orig.)

  14. Predicting ecosystem functioning from plant traits: Results from a multi-scale ecophsiological modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem functioning is the result of processes working at a hierarchy of scales. The representation of these processes in a model that is mathematically tractable and ecologically meaningful is a big challenge. In this paper I describe an individual based model (PLACO¿PLAnt COmpetition) that

  15. The blepharospasm disability scale: an instrument for the assessment of functional