Sample records for scalers

  1. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4840 Rotary scaler. (a) Identification. A rotary scaler is an...

  2. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius


    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  3. A scaler-timer for portable instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif


    A compact scaler-timer with adjustable scale factor and counting period is described. The circuit is for the most part fully integrated and is powered from a rechargeable Ni-Cd battery.......A compact scaler-timer with adjustable scale factor and counting period is described. The circuit is for the most part fully integrated and is powered from a rechargeable Ni-Cd battery....

  4. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips. (United States)

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L; Wang, Qianxi X; Leppinen, David M; Walmsley, A Damien


    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation.

  5. Comparison of the impact of scaler material composition on polished titanium implant abutment surfaces. (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Nguyen, Daniel Huy; Sherzai, Homa; Song, Xiaoping; Soukos, Nikos; Bidlack, Felicitas B; Van Dyke, Thomas E


    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of the removal of biofilm with hand scalers of different material composition on the surface of implant abutments by assessing the surface topography and residual plaque after scaling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Titanium implant analogs from 3 manufacturers (Straumann USA LLC, Andover, Maine, Nobel BioCare USA LLC, Yorba Linda, Cali, Astra Tech Implant Systems, Dentsply, Mölndal, Sweden) were mounted in stone in plastic vials individually with authentic prosthetic abutments. Plaque samples were collected from a healthy volunteer, inoculated into growth medium and incubated with the abutments anaerobically for 1 week. A blinded, calibrated hygienist performed scaling to remove the biofilm using 6 implant scalers (in triplicate), 1 scaler for 1 abutment. The abutments were mounted on an imaging stand and processed for SEM. Images were captured in 3 randomly designated areas of interest on each abutment. Analysis of the implant polished abutment surface and plaque area measurements were performed using ImageJ image analysis software. Surface alterations were characterized by the number, length, depth and the width of the scratches observed. Glass filled resin scalers resulted in significantly more and longer scratches on all 3 abutment types compared to other scalers, while unfilled resin scalers resulted in the least surface change (p < 0.05). Filled resin-graphite reinforced scalers, carbon fiber reinforced resin scalers and titanium scalers resulted in more superficial scratches compared to glass filled resin, as well as more scratches than unfilled resin. No statistically significant differences were found between scalers and abutments with regard to plaque removal. The impact of scalers on implant abutment surfaces varies between abutment types presumably due to different surface characteristics with no apparent advantage of one abutment type over the other with regard to resistance to surface

  6. Microstructural Effects Regarding Fracture of Clinically Retrieved Dental Sonic and Hand Scalers


    Mueller, H. J.; Bapna, M. S.


    The fracture surfaces of sonic and hand scaler instruments fractured under clinical and laboratory conditions were compared to their etched sections, and analyzed for evidence revealing the process that led to their failure. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy indicated the quality of the martensitic stainless steel comprising the sonic scalers, all from one manufacturer, was inferior to the steel comprising the hand scalers from another manufacturer. The sonic sca...

  7. Do ultrasonic dental scalers interfere with implantable cardioverter defibrillators? An in vivo investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maiorana, Carlo; Grossi, Giovanni B; Garramone, Rocco A; Manfredini, Ruggero; Santoro, Franco


    .... Ultrasonic dental scalers have been suspected of electromagnetic interference (EMI) with the normal functioning of ICDs and the use of this type of equipment for patients with these devices has been controversial. This is the first in vivo study to investigate EMI of ICD activity during the operation with ultrasonic dental scaler.

  8. Three-dimensional analyses of ultrasonic scaler oscillations. (United States)

    Lea, Simon C; Felver, Bernhard; Landini, Gabriel; Walmsley, A Damien


    It is stated that the oscillation patterns of dental ultrasonic scalers are dependent upon whether the instrument is of a magnetostrictive or piezoelectric design. These patterns are then linked to differences in root surface debridement in vitro. Piezoelectric (A, P) and magnetostrictive (Slimline, TFI-3) ultrasonic scalers (three of each) were evaluated, loaded (100 g/200 g) and unloaded with a 3D laser vibrometer. Loads were applied to the probe tips via teeth mounted in a load-measuring device. Elliptical motion was demonstrated for all probes under loaded and unloaded conditions. Loading flattened the elliptical motion along the length of the probe. Unloaded, Slimline tip 1 was significantly different to tips 2 and 3 (p0.207). All TFI-3 tips were different to each other (p0.867). Generator power increased all Slimline and P tip vibrations (p<0.0001). Probe oscillation patterns are independent of ultrasound production mechanism and are dependent upon probe shape and generator power. Loaded probes oscillated with an elliptical pattern.

  9. Imaging and analysis of individual cavitation microbubbles around dental ultrasonic scalers. (United States)

    Vyas, N; Dehghani, H; Sammons, R L; Wang, Q X; Leppinen, D M; Walmsley, A D


    Cavitation is a potentially effective and less damaging method of removing biofilm from biomaterial surfaces. The aim of this study is to characterise individual microbubbles around ultrasonic scaler tips using high speed imaging and image processing. This information will provide improved understanding on the disruption of dental biofilm and give insights into how the instruments can be optimised for ultrasonic cleaning. Individual cavitation microbubbles around ultrasonic scalers were analysed using high speed recordings up to a million frames per second with image processing of the bubble movement. The radius and rate of bubble growth together with the collapse was calculated by tracking multiple points on bubbles over time. The tracking method to determine bubble speed demonstrated good inter-rater reliability (intra class correlation coefficient: 0.993) and can therefore be a useful method to apply in future studies. The bubble speed increased over its oscillation cycle and a maximum of 27ms -1 was recorded during the collapse phase. The maximum bubble radii ranged from 40 to 80μm. Bubble growth was observed when the ultrasonic scaler tip receded from an area and similarly bubble collapse was observed when the tip moved towards an area, corresponding to locations of low pressure around the scaler tip. Previous work shows that this cavitation is involved in biofilm removal. Future experimental work can be based on these findings by using the protocols developed to experimentally analyse cavitation around various clinical instruments and comparing with theoretical calculations. This will help to determine the main cleaning mechanisms of cavitation and how clinical instruments such as ultrasonic scalers can be optimised. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the safety and efficiency of novel metallic implant scaler tips manufactured by the powder injection molding technique. (United States)

    Chun, Kyung A; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Choi, Hae-Won; Shon, Won-Jun


    Although many studies have compared the properties of ultrasonic scaling instruments, it remains controversial as to which is most suitable for implant scaling. This study evaluated the safety and efficiency of novel metallic ultrasonic scaler tips made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique on titanium surfaces. Mechanical instrumentation was carried out using four types of metal scaler tips consisting of copper (CU), bronze (BR), 316 L stainless steel (316 L), and conventional stainless steel (SS) tips. The instrumented surface alteration image of samples was viewed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profile of the each sample was investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra) and maximum height roughness (Rmax) of titanium samples were measured and dissipated power of the scaler tip was estimated for scaling efficiency. The average Ra values caused by the 316 L and SS tip were about two times higher than those of the CU and BR tips (p < 0.05). The Rmax value showed similar results. The efficiency of the SS tip was about 3 times higher than that of CU tip, the 316 L tip is about 2.7 times higher than that of CU tip, and the BR tip is about 1.2 times higher than that of CU tip. Novel metallic bronze alloy ultrasonic scaler tip minimally damages titanium surfaces, similar to copper alloy tip. Therefore, this bronze alloy scaler tip may be promising instrument for implant maintenance therapy.

  11. Adverse events associated with ultrasonic scalers: A manufacturer and user facility device experience database analysis. (United States)

    Thennukonda, Rajagopal Athmarao; Natarajan, Bhavani Rekha


    The present study was conducted to determine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasonic scaler reported to the Food and Drug Administration manufacturer and user facility device experience (MAUDE) database. The authors reviewed the ultrasonic scaler units (USU) related AEs reported to MAUDE from October 1, 1995, to September 31, 2015. Analyses of details collected are presented. MAUDE received a total of 667 unique USU-related AE reports. Of 667 cases, MAUDE classified 628 instances (94.2%) as malfunction 27 (4%) as injurious, 10 (1.5%) as others, and 2 (0.3%) claiming the use of USU as cause of death. Of the 667 cases, 511 (76.6%) were used for endodontic application, and 147 (22%) as scaler applications. In 512 (76.8%) instances, there was separation of the tips, posing danger to patients or users, and 112 (16.8%) instances of overheating, 12 (1.8%) instances of breakage, and electrical issues in 8 (1.2%) instances. These AE resulted in 19 instances of thermal injury, 2 suspicious deaths, and hearing loss in 3 cases. In 4 cases, patient swallowed broken parts requiring additional medical care. Use of USU, a Class 2 device without exemption, carries a degree of risk to patient's safety, if not properly used. As of today, MAUDE data is the only reliable source of AE until another database or such study is carried out. Certain AE that has been largely anecdotal, such as hearing loss has been reported in this study. The findings from study reiterate that more in-depth analysis of AE of USU is needed. Until then operator needs to take all precautions to avoid AE when using USU.

  12. Trauma from instrumentation after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and Nd:YAG laser. (United States)

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Sevinc, Semanur


    Periodontal therapies aimed at altering the progression of periodontal diseases must include meticulous mechanical debridement during both the non-surgical and the surgical phases of periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the immediate effect of trauma from instrumentation on clinical attachment level after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and a Nd:YAG laser. Twenty-four patients with untreated chronic periodontitis, presenting probing depths of 4-6 mm on anterior teeth, upper and lower, were entered into the study. The selected teeth were probed with a pressure-controlled probe, guided by stents. Each quadrant was randomly allocated in a split-mouth design either to treatment with Nd:YAG laser using an energy of 1W, 100mj, 1064nm (test group) or to periodontal treatment using ultrasonic scalers (control group). Clinical parameters, including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) were acquired prior to and immediately after treatment. Statistical analysis demonstrated no differences between groups at baseline for all parameters (p > 0.05). Immediately after treatment, the control group showed a greater PAL loss than the test group (p 0.05). Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers causes a mean immediate attachment loss of 0.68 mm and that a Nd:YAG laser seems to reduce significantly the trauma the instrumentation produced.

  13. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O., E-mail:; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.


    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  14. Microbial contamination of contact lenses after scaling and root planing using ultrasonic scalers with and without protective eyewear: A clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooh Afzha


    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonic scaler is a preferential treatment modality among the clinicians. However, the aerosol/splatter generated is a concern for patients and practitioners. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate contamination of contact lenses of the dentist after scaling and root planing using ultrasonic scalers with and without protective eyewear. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were randomly selected for scaling and root planing and divided into 2 groups of 15 each. Group A - dentist wearing contact lenses and protective eyewear. Group B - dentist wearing only contact lenses. After scaling and root planing using ultrasonic scalers, the lenses were subjected to culture and 16S rRNA (16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: In Group A – 15 out of thirty samples were contaminated, in Group B – all the thirty samples were contaminated. Most of the samples showed Gram-positive bacteria and 5 samples were contaminated with fungi. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of forty contaminated samples showed that 31 were contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and 9 with Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the limitation of the study for the absence of negative control, we would like to conclude that dental practitioners should better avoid contact lenses in a dental setup because of the risk of contamination of the contact lenses from the various dental procedures which can produce aerosol/splatter and if worn, it is recommended to wear protective eyewear.

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser, Ultrasonic Scaler and Curette on Root Surface Profile Using Surface Analyser and Scanning Electron Microscope: An In Vitro Study (United States)

    Arora, Shipra; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti; Ahad, Abdul


    Introduction: The periodontal therapy is primarily targeted at removal of dental plaque and plaque retentive factors. Although the thorough removal of adherent plaque, calculus and infected root cementum is desirable, it is not always achieved by conventional modalities. To accomplish more efficient results several alternative devices have been used. Lasers are one of the most promising modalities for nonsurgical periodontal treatment as they can achieve excellent tissue ablation with strong bactericidal and detoxification effects. Methods: Thirty freshly extracted premolars were selected and decoronated. The mesial surface of each root was divided vertically into four approximately equal parts. These were distributed into four group based on the root surface treatment. Part A (n = 30) was taken as control and no instrumentation was performed. Part B (n = 30) was irradiated by Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. Part C (n = 30) was treated by piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler. Part D (n = 30) was treated by Gracey curette. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by profilometer using roughness average (Ra) value, while presence of smear layer, cracks, craters and melting of surface were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The means across the groups were statistically compared with control using Dunnett test. Results: Among the test groups, Er,Cr:YSGG laser group showed maximum surface roughness (mean Ra value of 4.14 μm) as compared to ultrasonic scaler (1.727 μm) and curette group (1.22 μm). However, surface with smear layer were found to be maximum (50%) in curette treated samples and minimum (20%) in laser treated ones. Maximum cracks (83.34%) were produced by ultrasonic scaler, and minimum (43.33%) by curettes. Crater formation was maximum (50%) in laser treated samples and minimum (3.33%) in curette treated ones. 63.33% samples treated by laser demonstrated melting of root surface, followed by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE


    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.


    This report describes a comparative technical and economic evaluation of using a dustless needlegun system versus a conventional abrasive grit blasting system in the removal of lead-based paint from steel structures. The objective of the study was to comparatively analyze the ope...

  18. In-Situ Observation of Undisturbed Surface Layer Scaler Profiles for Characterizing Evaporative Duct Properties (United States)


    58(1-2), 151–159. Dockery, G. D., 1988: Modeling electromagnetic wave propagation in the troposphere using the parabolic equation. IEEE Trans...multidisciplinary research initiative on electromagnetic wave propagation in the marine atmosphere, Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium...extremely important for naval and civilian applications. In particular, such variations affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by forming an

  19. The virtual machine (VM) scaler: an infrastructure manager supporting environmental modeling on IaaS clouds (United States)

    Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds provide a new medium for deployment of environmental modeling applications. Harnessing advancements in virtualization, IaaS clouds can provide dynamic scalable infrastructure to better support scientific modeling computational demands. Providing scientific m...

  20. Log Scaler (logging; paper & pulp; sawmill) 941.488--Technical Report on USES Aptitude Test Battery. (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Programmable Power-of-two RNS Scaler and its Application to a QRNS Polyphase Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto


    The scaling operation, i.e. the division by a constant factor followed by rounding, is a commonly used technique for reducing the dynamic range in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. Usually, the constant is a power of two, and the implementation of the scaling is reduced to a right shift....... This basic operation is not easily implementable in the Residue Number System (RNS) due to its non positional nature. A number of different algorithms have been presented in the literature for the RNS scaling. In this paper, several RNS dynamic reduction techniques have been analyzed and the selected one...... is applied to a polyphase filter bank. A comparison of the filter bank scaled with RNS to binary and binary to RNS conversions, and the RNS scaled implementation is presented. A reduction of area and power consumption of about 30% for the scaling block is obtained....

  2. Comparing fibroblast attachment in root surface scaling with Er, Cr:YSGG laser versus ultrasonic scaler: A SEM study. (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Lotfi, Ghogha; Harandi, Mohammad; Ayremlou, Sara; A M Kalhori, Katayoun; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh


    The regeneration of periodontal support is the main concern in periodontal therapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the fibroblasts attachment on root surfaces after scaling with Er, Cr:YSGG laser and ultrasonic instruments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 72 root plates of ∼6 × 4 × 1 mm(3) in dimension were prepared from 27 single-rooted human mature teeth and were then divided into four groups. One group irradiated with a G6 tip of Er, Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 µm, 0.75 W, pulse duration of 140 µs, repetition rate of 20 Hz) for 5 to 7 s, and the other groups were scaled with ultrasonic alone or laser-ultrasonic. The control group was subjected to neither laser nor ultrasonic scaling. Subsequently, Viability and proliferation rates were done using MTT assay on days 3 and 5. Finally the cell attachment was observed using SEM. The data derived from MTT and cell-attachment analysis indicated that laser-ultrasonic scaling tended to increase cell-viability by the lapse of time (within 3-5 days), with significantly better cell-attachment compared with other groups on days 3 and 5 (p Cr:YSGG laser and ultrasonic scaling may promote fibroblast attachment on dentinal root surfaces more than laser or ultrasonic scaling alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic

  4. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin Observ. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples; Aminaei, A.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST


    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and transient events are observed. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. In this study, the available data are presented together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, where a strong correlation with neutron monitor data is found.

  5. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 44. Competency Curriculum for Dental Assistant. (United States)


    Fixed Prosthodontic Appliances - Fixed Bridge 61 4. Mouthguard Construction ... ........... . 62 XII. Chairside Assisting During Endodontic Procedures...With direct or indirect supervision; using the required instruments and equipment, e.g., scalers, curettes, files, ultrasonic unit and prophylactic...the periodontium Dental materials and equipment, e.g., scalers, curettes, files, ultrasonic unit and prophylactic handpiece with polishing cups and

  6. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument. (United States)


    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic... scaler, collar and crown scissors, endodontic pulp canal filling material spreader, surgical osteotome...

  7. Mapping cavitation activity around dental ultrasonic tips. (United States)

    Walmsley, A Damien; Lea, Simon C; Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Price, Gareth J


    Cavitation arising within the water around the oscillating ultrasonic scaler tip is an area that may lead to advances in enhancing biofilm removal. The aim of this study is to map the occurrence of cavitation around scaler tips under loaded conditions. Two designs of piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling probes were evaluated with a scanning laser vibrometer and luminol dosimetric system under loaded (100 g/200 g) and unloaded conditions. Loads were applied to the probe tips via teeth mounted in a load-measuring apparatus. There was a positive correlation between probe displacement amplitude and cavitation production for ultrasonic probes. The position of cavitation at the tip of each probe was greater under loaded conditions than unloaded and for the longer P probe towards the tip. Whilst increasing vibration displacement amplitude of ultrasonic scalers increases the occurrence of cavitation, factors such as the length of the probe influence the amount of cavitation activity generated. The application of load affects the production of cavitation at the most clinically relevant area-the tip. Loading and the design of ultrasonic scalers lead to maximising the occurrence of the cavitation at the tip and enhance the cleaning efficiency of the scaler.

  8. Penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules using ultrasonic cavitation. (United States)

    Vyas, N; Sammons, R L; Pikramenou, Z; Palin, W M; Dehghani, H; Walmsley, A D


    Functionalised silica sub-micron particles are being investigated as a method of delivering antimicrobials and remineralisation agents into dentinal tubules. However, their methods of application are not optimised, resulting in shallow penetration and aggregation. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of cavitation occurring around ultrasonic scalers for enhancing particle penetration into dentinal tubules. Dentine slices were prepared from premolar teeth. Silica sub-micron particles were prepared in water or acetone. Cavitation from an ultrasonic scaler (Satelec P5 Newtron, Acteon, France) was applied to dentine slices immersed inside the sub-micron particle solutions. Samples were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess tubule occlusion and particle penetration. Qualitative observations of SEM images showed some tubule occlusion. The particles could penetrate inside the tubules up to 60μm when there was no cavitation and up to ∼180μm when there was cavitation. The cavitation bubbles produced from an ultrasonic scaler may be used to deliver sub-micron particles into dentine. This method has the potential to deliver such particles deeper into the dentinal tubules. Cavitation from a clinical ultrasonic scaler may enhance penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules. This can aid in the development of novel methods for delivering therapeutic clinical materials for hypersensitivity relief and treatment of dentinal caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Indicators of cull in western Oregon conifers. (United States)

    Paul E. Aho


    Descriptions and color photographs of important fungal sporophores (conks), other indicators of cull (wounds), and associated decays in western Oregon conifers are provided to aid timber markers, cruisers, and scalers in identifying them. Cull factors are given for the indicators by tree species.

  10. Evaluation of Stress Levels of Professionals. (United States)

    Schnorr, Janet K.; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    This study was conducted to analyze levels and areas of stress of professionals in selected service professions and to establish national norms of stress for these professions. The 60-item Tennessee Stress Scale-R (TSS-R) is a work-related stress inventory for professionals which provides a measure of stress in three areas: stress producers,…

  11. Exploring the Relationships between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development and Family Environment for White Undergraduate Women (United States)

    Wolff, Kara E.; Munley, Patrick H.


    A sample of 394 White undergraduate females completed a demographic questionnaire and three assessment measures: the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Revised (ORAS-R) (Vandiver & Leach, 2005), the Feminist Identity Composite (FIC) (Fischer et. al., 2000) and the Family Environment Scale-Real Form (FES-R) (Moos & Moos, 1974, 1994, 2002). Four…

  12. Biofilm, dental unit water line and its control | Liaqat | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofilms are well-organized communities of cooperating microorganisms that can include bacteria, algae, fungi and diatoms. Dental unit waterlines (DUWL) are an integral part of dental surgery equipment, supplying water as a coolant, primarily for air turbine and ultrasonic scalers. Surveys of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) ...

  13. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R


    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  14. Infection Control in Air Force Dental Clinics (Second Edition), (United States)


    28 HANDWASHING . . ... .. .. .. ....................................... 28 General Procedures .................................... 29 Surgical ...latter has real application during surgical procedures or when treating certain highly susceptible patients. The system consists of a pressure vessel...a sterile handpiece, 3-way syringe, and ultrasonic scaler tip. d. For surgical procedures, use a sterile bulb syringe (or a large sterile syringe and

  15. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  16. Determination of Lithium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Skanborg, Preben Zacho; Gwozdz, R.


    -scaler data was accumulated in 300 channels at 0.1 s per channel. With a suitable choice of discrimination level only16N and background interfere, and the 0.84 s half-life of8Li was resolved by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented for 36 international geochemical reference materials...

  17. Analysis of Solar Events in 2015 with the HAWC Gamma Ray Observatory (United States)

    Tirado, E.; Moreno, E.; Lara, A.; HAWC Collaboration


    The work consists in finding and analyse solar events, such as the solar flares and coronal mass ejections and study the variation in the data counting, which can be observed by the high - rise light Cherenkov in water “HAWC” observatory, consist of 300 tanks of ultrapure water, where each of them has 4 photomultiplier tubes. HAWC is dedicated to the observation of gamma and cosmic rays with energies of TeV and has an opening that covers more of 15 % of the sky. With its wide field of view, the observatory is exposed two -thirds of the sky during each 24 hours cycle. The detector has to main data acquisition systems: the particular event and the total sum or Scalers, in this work is will make use of the counting system called TDC Scaler, which records the count rate of the number of particles which impacted on the detector in a time range.

  18. Work Management Manual - Blast and Paint General (United States)


    Asphalt cut back-asphalt Plus thinner; asphalt soluton; asphalt coatings formed & dissolving aspait. .Asphalt emulsion -asphalt dispersion; not a solution...a water emulsion of asphalt. Asphalt impregnated-containing absorbed asphalt. Atomize-break stream into Aurand Scaler-Properietary small Particles...blocking device. Base-substrats. Binder-resin; film former; vehicle. Bitumen -product of asphalt or coal tar origin. Bituminous coating-coal tar or

  19. for the inference of Furan combustion reaction rate

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan


    We carry out the design of experiments for the identification of the reaction parameters in Furan combustion. The lacks of information on the true value of the control parameters, specifically, the initial temperature and the initial TBHP concentration, are considered in the design procedure by errors-invariables models. We use two types of observables. The first is a scaler observable, i.e., half decay time of the [TBHP]. The second is the time history of the concentration.

  20. Return on Investment in Basic Research. Exploring a Methodology (United States)


    was transferred to 1. "Hoty of Progrumming Lenguages " June 1.3, 1978, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. 17 TABLE 1 NEW KNOWLEDGE FROM...Design and construction of very large Van de Graff generator Two to three million volt x-rays for cancer therapy . Bactericidal effects of x-rays on...brain tumors, a whole-body radi- ation counter, counting rate meters, scalers, etc.; x-ray therapy for cancer; etc. Today, nuclear medicine is an

  1. Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO₃. (United States)

    Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian


    We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.

  2. Characteristic properties of crystals. Their demonstration; Proprietes caracteristiques des cristaux. Mise en evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesueur, C


    The characteristic properties of scintillation crystals discussed are the photon spectrum emitted by passage of a particle, number of these photons, transparence of the crystal to its own fluorescence radiation, and decay period of the fluorescence. The experimental apparatus, consisting of photomultiplier tube, preamplifier, amplifier, discriminator, and scaler, is described, and the experimental evaluation of the characteristic properties is discussed. Results of tests on various crystals with {alpha} and {beta} radiations are reported graphically.

  3. Identification of Sources with Unknown Wavefronts. (United States)


    SFRS TRANSFER OF SCALER RELATION DECORRELATED SFRS B, B2 ...BN 1 ilc I~III t ilul w ws f e Vici c vI re p m) wi2Iill- i e H’Ic ei (3.30)541 aI i hi I1...vallent to 2 P’ real scalars. The coiist raiints 1bet weeni these scalaris are: 1Every columin imust, be a normalized vector giving one real scala r 4

  4. Effect of an aerosol- reduction device on spreading infected aerosols during ultrasonic scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalyani Isfahani P. Assistant Professor"


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ultrasonic Scaling is one of the main sources of producing infected aerosols in dentistry. These aerosols are able to spread pathogens such as microorganisms associated with tuberculosis, conjunctivitis, influenza and other respiratory diseases, herpetic and other skin diseases, ADIS and hepatitis B."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of an aerosol- reduction device attaching to ultrasonic scaler handpiece."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study 18 patients participated. Randomly, mandibular and maxillary quadrants of one side, in each subject, were scaled using an ultrasonic scaler with aerosol-reduction device for 5 minutes. After 30 minutes, another quadrant was scaled by ultrasonic scaler without aerosol- reduction device. In order to determine the effectiveness of aerosol- reduction device, blood agar plates attached to the surgical mask of the operator, 30 cm far from the patient's mouth, were incubated in 37°c for three days and the colonies were counted. Median, Interquartile eange and Wilcoxon test, at the 0.05 level of significance, were used to analyze the data."nResults: The median and interquartile range for the number of colony forming units (CFUS without aerosol- reduction device was 17.5 (8, 24, while the median for the number of CFUS when using aerosol-reduction device was 0 (0, 1, indicating significant statistical difference (PO.001 Conclusion: The aerosol- reduction device significantly reduces the amount of aerosols produced during ultrasonic scaling.

  5. The Artist 5 (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan A.; Khmyrov, Grigori M.; Kozlov, Alexander V.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym V.


    Version 5 of the Automatic Real-Time Ionogram Scaler with True height (ARTIST), an intelligent system developed at UMLCAR for extraction of ionospheric specification data from Digisonde ionograms, entered its operational phase in May 2007. Version 5 implements the classic ARTIST techniques re-vamped for modern computers and programming environments, as well as new approaches developed to strengthen the ARTIST performance. This paper describes progress in the ionogram autoscaling research at UMLCAR that has culminated into release of the ARTIST 5 software.

  6. Automation of the Jarrell--Ash model 70-314 emission spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R.; Taber, L.


    Automation of the Jarrell-Ash 3.4-Meter Ebert direct-reading emission spectrometer with digital scaler readout is described. The readout is interfaced to a Data General NOVA 840 minicomputer. The automation code consists of BASIC language programs for interactive routines, data processing, and report generation. Call statements within the BASIC programs invoke assembly language routines for real-time data acquisition and control. In addition, the automation objectives as well as the spectrometer-computer system functions, coding, and operating instructions are presented.

  7. A history of radiation detection instrumentation. (United States)

    Frame, Paul W


    A review is presented of the history of radiation detection instrumentation. Specific radiation detection systems that are discussed include the human senses, photography, calorimetry, color dosimetry, ion chambers, electrometers, electroscopes, proportional counters, Geiger Mueller counters, scalers and rate meters, barium platinocyanide, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, direct ion storage, electrets, cloud chambers, bubble chambers, and bubble dosimeters. Given the broad scope of this review, the coverage is limited to a few key events in the development of a given detection system and some relevant operating principles. The occasional anecdote is included for interest.

  8. Noninvasive method for retrieval of broken dental implant abutment screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Reddy Gooty


    Full Text Available Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants.

  9. Mathematical model for space perception to explain auditory horopter curves; Chokaku horopter wo setsumeisuru kukan ichi chikaku model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, M. [Dynax Co., Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, T.; Tachi, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For binocular visual space, the horizontal line seen as a straight line on the subjective frontoparallel plane does not always agree with the physically straight line, and the shape thereof depends on distance from the observer. This phenomenon is known as a Helmhotz`s horopter. The same phenomenon may occur also in binaural space, which depends on distance to an acoustic source. This paper formulates a scaler addition model that explains auditory horopter by using two items of information: sound pressure and interaural time difference. Furthermore, this model was used to perform simulations on different learning domains, and the following results were obtained. It was verified that the distance dependence of the auditory horopter can be explained by using the above scaler addition model; and difference in horopter shapes among the subjects may be explained by individual difference in learning domains of spatial position recognition. In addition, such an auditory model was shown not to include as short distance as in the learning domain in the auditory horopter model. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  11. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  12. Er:YAG lasers versus ultrasonic and hand instruments in periodontal therapy: clinical parameters, intracrevicular micro-organism and leukocyte counts. (United States)

    Malali, Ezgi; Kadir, Tanju; Noyan, Ulku


    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical parameters and crevicular cell population, particularly leukocyte counts, changes after initial periodontal therapy with different instruments by a chairside laboratory technique, in severe periodontitis patients. Although scaling and root planing (SRP) with hand curettes or ultrasonic scalers may alter the subgingival microbial composition and improve clinical parameters, it is known that this effect decreases as the pocket depth (PD) increases. Thirty systemically healthy subjects with severe chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10), and were treated either with hand curettes, ultrasonic scalers, or Er:YAG laser alone. Clinical measurements were made before and 90 days after treatment. A total of four subgingival plaque samples were collected from pockets with a PD 4-6 and ≥7 mm and were analyzed with a phase-contrast microscopy for microorganism proportions and leukocyte counts at baseline and 7 and 90 days after treatment. From day 0 to day 90, clinical parameters were significantly improved in all groups (plasers are promising in treating periodontitis, the results of this study favor finishing SRP with hand curettes. Moreover, as there is a similar tendency between micro-organism and leukocyte count changes, leukocyte counts may be used as chairside marker to evaluate the efficacy of SRP.

  13. The use of holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser as pit and fissure cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar


    Full Text Available Background: The prevention and management of pit and fissure caries has become relatively more important in recent times. There is a need for an effective preventive measure against pit and fissure caries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser beam as a cleaning method of pits and fissures. Methods: Ho-YAG laser which has a wavelength of 2.1 µm was used in this experiment. The specimens were extracted human teeth. The effect of three cleaning methods was examined comparatively by scoring the cleaned area of fissure, namely laser irradiation with Ho-YAG laser, chemico-mechanical with combination of 10% NaOCl and ultrasonic scaler and mechanical with ultrasonic scaler. Vertico-bucco-lingual serial ground sections of each tooth were observed under light microscopy. Scoring the depth of cleaned area was performed by comparing the depth of fissure. result: Progressive result was obtained on the cleaning effect of three methods laser irradiation methods which was the most effective compared to other methods but statistically was not significant. Cleaned area of laser irradiation method was 48.91%, chemico-mechanical method was 41.77% and mechanical method was 36.78%. Conclusion: Holmium -yttrium aluminum garner laser is a relatively new method for pit and fissure cleaning even though the effectivity is not yet maximal. More research is needed to maximize the use of this laser.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eHENNET


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric bone surgery is a recent and innovative technology permitting a selective cut of mineralized tissue while sparing soft tissue. Similar to a dental scaler, a high frequency vibration, in the range of 25-35kHz, is transmitted to a metallic tip. However, the power of the piezosurgical instrument is 3 to 6 times higher than that of a dental scaler. The major advantages of this technology include high precision, a design that increases ease of curvilinear osteotomy, less trauma to soft tissue, preservation of neurological and vascular structures, reduced hemorrhage, minimal thermal damage to the bone as well as overall improvement of healing. The handpiece of the instrument is equipped with a sterile irrigation system and light-emitting diode (LED light, which improves visibility and overall safety. Piezoelectric surgery is particularly useful when performing delicate bone procedures such as periodontal or endodontic surgery. It is also indicated when performing more invasive bone surgery such as maxillectomy, mandibulectomy, and condylectomy, where preservation of neurovascular structures is important. Piezoelectric instruments are different from rotary instrumentation or oscillating saws, they require light pressure with constant motion of the tip. Training is required to master the technique.

  15. Multi-timescale measurements of brain responses in visual cortex during functional stimulation using time-resolved spectroscopy (United States)

    Lebid, Solomiya; O'Neill, Raymond; Markham, Charles; Ward, Tomás; Coyle, Shirley


    Studies of neurovascular coupling (hemodynamic changes and neuronal activation) in the visual cortex using a time-domain single photon counting system have been undertaken. The system operates in near infrared (NIR) range of spectrum and allows functional brain monitoring to be done non-invasively. The detection system employs a photomultiplier and multi-channel scaler to detect and record emerging photons with sub-microsecond resolution (the effective collection time per curve point is ~ 200 ns). Localisation of the visual evoked potentials in the brain was done using knowledge obtained from electroencephalographic (EEG) studies and previous frequency-domain optical NIR spectroscopic systems. The well-known approach of visual stimulation of the human brain, which consists of an alternating black and white checkerboard pattern used previously for the EEG study of neural responses, is applied here. The checkerboard pattern is synchronized with the multi-channel scaler system and allows the analysis of time variation in back-scattered light, at different stimulation frequencies. Slow hemodynamic changes in the human brain due to Hb-HbO2 changes in the blood flow were observed, which is evidence of the system's capability to monitor these changes. Monocular visual tests were undertaken and compared with those done with an EEG system. In some subjects a fast optical response on a time scale commensurate with the neural activity associated with the visual cortex was detected. Future work will concentrate on improved experimental protocols and apparatus to confirm the existence of this important physiological signal.

  16. A data acquisition work station for ORELA (Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, B.D.; Todd, J.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Weston, L.W.


    A new multiparameter data acquisition system has been developed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) which utilizes an IBM PS/2 Model 80 personal computer and data handler with a 2048 word buffer. The acquisition system can simultaneously acquire data from one, two, or three digitizers, multiplex up to four detectors, read and control up to 16 scalers, and output 32 DC logic signals which can be used to control external instrumentation. Software has been developed for the OS/2 operating system, supporting multiparameter data storage for up to three million channels with the capability of collecting data in a background mode, to make the computer available for other tasks while collecting data. The system also supports multiparameter biasing and can collect, crunch, and store data at rates as high as 30,000 events per second.

  17. Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment to observe Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    González, M. M.

    Ground based telescopes have marginally observed very high energy emission (>100GeV) from gamma-ray bursts(GRB). For instance, Milagrito observed GRB970417a with a significance of 3.7 sigmas over the background. Milagro have not yet observed TeV emission from a GRB with its triggered and untriggered searches or GeV emission with a triggered search using its scalers. These results suggest the need of new observatories with higher sensitivity to transient sources. The HAWC (High Altitute Water Cherenkov) observatory is proposed as a combination of the Milagro tecnology with a very high altitude (>4000m over see level) site. The expected HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is at least >10 times the Milagro sensitivity. In this work HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is discussed for different detector configurations such as altitude, distance between PMTs, depth under water of PMTs, number of PMTs required for a trigger, etc.

  18. The global paleogeographical reconstruction of the Triassic in the earth dilatation framework and the paleoposition of india .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera


    Full Text Available Following the production of a series of three and Jurassic (Scalers, assistance of paleogeographical reconstructions for the Paleocene, Cretaceous 1995, 1998, a further reconstruction has been made here for the Triassic period, with the paleomagnetic data. The data provided by mutual fragment positions and paleomagnetic vectors, are best reconciled if the data are treated in an expanding Earth framework, and give credence to the view that this represents the real evolution of the Earth. ln particular a new solution of the case of indian paleoposition is given which could constitute the key to a reinterpretation of the Eurasia paleogeography throughout geological time. The main conclusion of this work is that the unambiguous choice between constant radius and increasing radius geodynamic frameworks (dr/dt = 15 mm/yr on average in this work can be made on the basis of the possibility to define the paleoposition and kinematics of india from the Triassic to the Paleocene.

  19. A Tribute to the ARTIST (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin


    The Automatic Real-Time Ionogram Scaler with True height (ARTIST) is an intelligent system developed at UMLCAR for extraction of ionospheric specification data from ionograms, images of remote sounding of the ionosphere with HF radio waves, routinely acquired by the network of ionospheric sounders "Digisonde". The automatic ionogram interpretation ("scaling") is a computer-hard problem that requires a model of human visual perception to extract useful ionogram image signatures and a syntactic analyzer to identify and characterize them. Introduction of the ARTIST in the early 1980s was the single most influential advance in the ionospheric sounding technology that had brought the digisonde data outside of a narrow circle of experts into realm of the operational 24/7 space weather systems.

  20. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsana Tanwar


    Full Text Available Nonsurgical therapy aims to eliminate both living bacteria in the microbial biofilm and calcified biofilm microorganisms from the tooth surface and adjacent soft tissues. Complete elimination of such pathogenic microorganisms is perhaps over-ambitious. However, a reduction in inflammation of the periodontium due to a lesser bacterial load leads to beneficial clinical changes. In addition, nonsurgical therapy aims to create an environment in which the host can more effectively prevent pathogenic microbial recolonization using personal oral hygiene methods. The concept of critical probing depth was consistently found to be greater for the surgical approach than for the nonsurgical treatment. The various methods used in nonsurgical therapy, such as hand instrumentation, ultrasonic and sonic scalers, and ablative laser therapy.

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, Ralf; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T


    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP) combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). In addition to the event-selection decision, the CTP also provides trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and the data acquisition system. It further provides accumulated and bunch-by-bunch scaler data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The CTP is presented and results are shown from tests with the calorimeter adn muon trigger processors connected to detectors in a particle beam, as well as from stand-alone full-system tests in the laboratory which were used to validate the CTP.

  2. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  3. A quantitative method to measure biofilm removal efficiency from complex biomaterial surfaces using SEM and image analysis (United States)

    Vyas, N.; Sammons, R. L.; Addison, O.; Dehghani, H.; Walmsley, A. D.


    Biofilm accumulation on biomaterial surfaces is a major health concern and significant research efforts are directed towards producing biofilm resistant surfaces and developing biofilm removal techniques. To accurately evaluate biofilm growth and disruption on surfaces, accurate methods which give quantitative information on biofilm area are needed, as current methods are indirect and inaccurate. We demonstrate the use of machine learning algorithms to segment biofilm from scanning electron microscopy images. A case study showing disruption of biofilm from rough dental implant surfaces using cavitation bubbles from an ultrasonic scaler is used to validate the imaging and analysis protocol developed. Streptococcus mutans biofilm was disrupted from sandblasted, acid etched (SLA) Ti discs and polished Ti discs. Significant biofilm removal occurred due to cavitation from ultrasonic scaling (p dental implants. This imaging and analysis method will be of value to other researchers and manufacturers wishing to study biofilm growth and removal.

  4. Measurements of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T.; Tsurita, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.


    The {beta}-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors, a High-rate spectroscopy amplifier (EG and G ORTEC model 973) and a Spectrum multi-scaler (Laboratory equipment corporation SMS-48) in the multi-scaling mode. The adequate corrections for pile-up and dead-time losses were made by applying source and pulser methods. The half-lives of {sup 53}V, {sup 53g}Fe, {sup 89m}Y and {sup 162}Tb were determined with uncertainties of 0.13-0.65%. It has been shown that previous values shorter than 10 min were systematically longer than the present ones. (author)

  5. Microcomputer interface board for time-resolved multichannel scaling (United States)

    Cobb, Cathy L.; Martin, Richard M.


    A low-cost multichannel scaler and signal-averaging system with user selectable channel widths ranging from 1 to 255 μs has been developed for molecular beam time-of-flight (TOF) experiments. It has the ability to collect up to 255 channels and has a programmable delay of up to 0.65 s. On-board logic can accommodate a 15-MHz count rate. Completely contained on a 7×2 3/4 -in. Apple II prototyping board (with the exception of a 5-A, 5-V external power supply), the interface fits into a peripheral port of the Apple II. The interface was tested by measuring the TOF distribution of Ar metastables from a supersonic nozzle beam source.

  6. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.


    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  7. The Role of Expert Assessment in Early Identification of Above Avarage Abilities of Gifted Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Milic


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to establish whether there is a correlation between results achieved by young primary school students at standardised intelligence tests and evaluation of their intelligence done by their teachers, parents, coevals, including self-evaluation as well. The sample consisted of 151 students, chosen as listed by teachers of 11 primary schools located within the Republic of Srpska. The following instruments were applied in the research: Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM, Comprehension subtest (REWISC subtest Revised Scale of Children's Intelligence by Wechsler, and a comprehensive survey-scaler containing 135 particles in the form of statements systemised in nine areas of giftedness i.e. intelligence, according to Gardner, has been developed for all of the evaluator groups. Results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between standardised intelligence test results and those obtained through evaluation done by all the four evaluator groups.

  8. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  9. Ultramorphology of the root surface subsequent to hand-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation during non-surgical periodontal treatments: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D. Aspriello


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultramorphology of the root surfaces induced by mechanical instrumentation performed using conventional curettes or piezoelectric scalers when used single-handedly or with a combined technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups: Group A, instrumentation with curettes; Group B instrumentation with titanium nitride coated periodontal tip mounted in a piezoelectric handpiece; Group C, combined technique with curette/ultrasonic piezoelectric instrumentation. The specimens were processed and analyzed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the different groups of instrumentation were determined using Pearson's χ2 with significance predetermined at α=0.001. RESULTS: Periodontal scaling and root planing performed with curettes, ultrasonic or combined instrumentation induced several morphological changes on the root surface. The curettes produced a compact and thick multilayered smear layer, while the morphology of the root surfaces after ultrasonic scaler treatment appeared irregular with few grooves and a thin smear layer. The combination of curette/ultrasonic instrumentation showed exposed root dentin tubules with a surface morphology characterized by the presence of very few grooves and slender remnants of smear layer which only partially covered the root dentin. In some cases, it was also possible to observe areas with exposed collagen fibrils. CONCLUSIONS: The curette-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation may combine the beneficial effects of each instrument in a single technique creating a root surface relatively free from the physical barrier of smear layer and dentin tubules orifices partial occlusion.

  10. An investigation of the effect of scaling-induced surface roughness on bacterial adhesion in common fixed dental restorative materials. (United States)

    Checketts, Matthew R; Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Asar, Neset Volkan


    Bacterial plaque must be routinely removed from teeth, adjacent structures, and prostheses. However, the removal of this plaque can inadvertently increase the risk of future bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the change in the surface roughness of 3 different surfaces after dental prophylactic instrumentation and how this influenced bacterial adhesion. Forty specimens each of Type III gold alloy, lithium disilicate, and zirconia were fabricated in the same dimensions. The specimens were divided into 4 groups: ultrasonic scaler, stainless steel curette, prophylaxis cup, and control. Pretreatment surface roughness measurements were made with a profilometer. Surface treatments in each group were performed with a custom mechanical scaler. Posttreatment surface roughness values were measured. In turn, the specimens were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Bacterial adhesion was assessed by rinsing the specimens with sterile saline to remove unattached cells. The specimens were then placed in sterile tubes with 1 mL of sterile saline. The solution was plated and quantified. Scanning electron microscopy was performed. The statistical analysis of surface roughness was completed by using repeated-measures single-factor ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction. The surface roughness values for gold alloy specimens increased as a result of prophylaxis cup treatment (0.221 to 0.346 Ra) (Psteel curette treatment (0.264 to 1.835 Ra) (Psteel curette significantly increased bacterial adhesion compared with the control (Psteel curette and prophylaxis cup treatments. Zirconia was less susceptible to bacterial adhesion than lithium disilicate, and greater bacterial adhesion was found for the stainless steel curette than the other instrumentation methods. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasonic Instrumentation Instruction in Dental Hygiene Programs in the United States. (United States)

    Hinchman, Sharon Stemple; Funk, Amy; DeBiase, Christina; Frere, Cathryn


    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ultrasonic scaling instrumentation instruction in dental hygiene programs in the U.S. Currently, there is no publication available defining a consensus of instruction for ultrasonic instrumentation. Exempt status was received from the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board. A survey was developed with dental hygiene administrators and faculty, based on assumptions and a list of questions to be answered. The survey was tested for validity and revised after feedback from additional faculty. The instrument was 64 questions divided into demographics, curriculum and equipment. Most questions included a text box for additional comments. An email survey was sent to all directors of accredited dental hygiene programs in the U.S. (n=323). The final possible number of respondents was n=301. Results were collected in aggregate through the Secure Online Environment (SOLE). Results were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for statistical analysis. After 3 emails, the response rate was 45% (n=136). No significant differences in methods of instruction were found between associate and baccalaureate degree granting programs. Eighty-nine percent of programs introduce hand scaling prior to ultrasonic scaling instruction. Students in 96% of the programs were required to administer pre-procedural mouth rinse intended to reduce the amount of bacteria. The magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler is widely used in dental hygiene instruction. A variety of inserts/ tips were available although a universal or straight insert/tip was most common. Calculus, not inflammation, was the primary criterion for ultrasonic scaler use. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonic instrumentation is an integral component of the clinical curriculum and the majority of the dental hygiene programs prescribe to similar teaching methods. Programs could benefit from incorporating current scientific research findings of using site

  12. Midwifery empowerment: National surveys of midwives from Australia, New Zealand and Sweden. (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Gamble, Jenny; Sidebotham, Mary; Creedy, Debra K; Guilliland, Karen; Dixon, Lesley; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, Jennifer


    the predicted midwifery workforce shortages in several countries have serious implications for the care of women during pregnancy, birth and post partum. There are a number of factors known to contribute to midwifery shortages and work attrition. However, midwives assessment of their own professional identity and role (sense of empowerment) are perhaps among the most important. There are few international workforce comparisons. to compare midwives' sense of empowerment across Australia, New Zealand and Sweden using the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale-R (PEMS-Revised). a self-administered survey package was distributed to midwives through professional colleges and networks in each country. The surveys asked about personal, professional and employment details and included the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale-R (PEMS-Revised). Descriptive statistics for the sample and PEMS were generated separately for the three countries. A series of analysis of variance with posthoc tests (Tukey's HSD) were conducted to compare scale scores across countries. Effect size statistics (partial eta squared) were also calculated. completed surveys were received from 2585 midwives (Australia 1037; New Zealand 1073 and Sweden 475). Respondents were predominantly female (98%), aged 50-59 years and had significant work experience as a midwife (+20 years). Statistically significant differences were recorded comparing scores on all four PEMS subscales across countries. Moderate effects were found on Professional Recognition, Skills and Resources and Autonomy/Empowerment comparisons. All pairwise comparisons between countries reached statistical significance (pempowerment compared to their Australian counterparts. This is likely the result of working in more autonomous ways within a health system that is primary health care focused and a culture that constructs childbirth as a normal but significant life event. If midwifery is to reach its full potential globally then

  13. Data acquisition workstation for Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J.H.; Rooney, B.D.; Spencer, R.R.; Weston, L.W.


    A new multiparameter data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) was developed, fabricated and tested. This system uses an IBM PS/2 Model 80-111 personal computer and a data handler with a 2048-word buffer. The buffer can accept data at a rate exceeding one million events per second in bursts of 512 words of 64-bits length. The acquisition system, limited by software, can acquire data from 1, 2, or 3 digitizers; multiplex up to 4 detectors; read and control up to 16 scalers or registers; and output up to 32 DC logic lines that can be used to control external instrumentation. Software was developed for the OS/2 operating system, supporting multiparameter data storage for up to three million channels. Data can be collected in a background mode to make the computer available for other tasks while collecting data. The system also supports multiparameter biasing and can collect, crunch, and store data at rates of 30,000 events per second, each event containing up to 64-bits of information. A technical manual, ORNL/TM-11454, covering the use of the system has been published. 1 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. ORCODE. 77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.


    ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.

  15. [Slowly progressive dysarthria and impaired language function--a case report]. (United States)

    Sakajiri, K; Bandou, M; Yamanouchi, H; Ishii, K; Fukusako, Y


    A 68-year-old right-handed woman was admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital because of slowly progressive dysarthria and writing disability over 2-year period. On admission, severe dysarthria was observed, but no dysphagia. The dysarthria mostly resembled a type of pseudobulbar palsy, although it was associated with effortful speech production. An oro-facial apraxia was also found. She could name objects, and could understand spoken words correctly. Examination using the Western Aphasia Battery showed diminution of word fluency, impaired repetition and perseveration and writing errors. On the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R verbal IQ was 100 and performance IQ was 87. These scores did not suggest any significant degree of general intellectual deterioration. Wisconsin card sorting test disclosed mild frontal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. Measurements of regional cerebral metabolic rate by 18F-FDG-PET demonstrated decreased uptake in the latero-dorso-inferior area of the bilateral frontal lobes, especially on the left side. The present case showed slowly progressive dysarthria and progressive aphasia without generalized dementia, and without typical aphasia. These symptoms are speculated to be related to the atrophy in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes shown by MRI and the decreased metabolic rate in the left dominant bilateral frontal lobes on PET study. The pathologic process responsible for these lesions remains obscure.

  16. Application of vector CSAMT for the imaging of an active fault; CSAMT ho ni yoru danso no imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify three-dimensionally resistivity in deep fault in the Mizunawa fault in Fukuoka Prefecture, a measurement was carried out by using the CSAMT method. The measurement was conducted by arranging seven traverse lines, each line having observation points installed at intervals of about 500 m. Among the 68 observation points in total, 33 points performed the vector measurement, and the remaining points the scaler measurement. For observation points having performed the vector measurement, polarized wave eclipses were depicted in the electric field to discuss which direction the current will prevail in. For analyses, a one-dimensional analysis was performed by using an inversion with smoothing restriction, and a two-dimensional analysis was conducted by using the finite element method based on the result of the former analysis. The vector measurement revealed that the structure in the vicinity of a fault was estimated to have become complex, and the two-dimensional analysis discovered that the Mizunawa fault is located on a relatively clear resistivity boundary. In addition, it was made clear that the high resistivity band may even be divided into two regions of about 200 ohm-m and about 1000 ohm-m. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study. (United States)

    Hossam, A Eid; Rafi, A Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani Cr


    This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities. Nanofilled, hybrid, silorane and flowable composites were tested. Forty extracted teeth served as specimen and were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens, with each group receiving a different treatment and were examined by a Field emission scanning electron microscope. Bacterial suspension was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and then bacterial adhesion was analyzed by using image analyzing program. Flowable and silorane-based composites showed considerably smoother surfaces and lesser bacterial count in comparison to other types, proving that bacterial adhesion is directly proportional to surface roughness. The use of ultrasonic scalers affects the surfaces of composite restorative materials. Routine periodontal scaling should be carried out very carefully, and polishing of the scaled surfaces may overcome the alterations in roughness, thus preventing secondary caries, surface staining, plaque accumulation and subsequent periodontal inflammation. How to cite this article: Eid H A, Togoo R A, Saleh A A, Sumanth C R. Surface Topography of Composite Restorative Materials following Ultrasonic Scaling and its Impact on Bacterial Plaque Accumulation. An In-Vitro SEM Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):13-19.

  18. Effect of radiant heat and ultrasound on fluoride release and surface hardness of glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Tolidis, Kosmas; Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos


    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of radiant heat and ultrasound on fluoride release and surface hardness of 3 glass ionomer cements (GICs). There were 3 experimental groups for each GIC; in group 1, the specimens were left to set without any treatment; in group 2, the specimens were irradiated for 2 minutes using a LED unit; and in group 3, ultrasound was applied using a scaler for 55 seconds on the specimen surface. Fluoride release measurements were performed daily for 7 days and at days 14 and 28. Surface hardness of the tested GICs was determined using Vickers method. The measurements were performed 24 hours and 7 days after mixing. Statistical analysis of the data was made using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Radiant heat during setting reduced the fluoride release and increased the surface hardness of GICs (p<0.05). Ultrasonic treatment also reduced the fluoride release and increased the surface hardness (p<0.05) of GICs but in lower extent. Among the GICs there were differences in fluoride release and surface hardness properties depending on their composition (p<0.05). Radiant heat and ultrasonic treatments may be useful methods for GIC restorations in order to achieve faster adequate initial mechanical properties.

  19. The radioisotope osteogram: Kinetic studies of skeletal disorders in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N.S.


    Radioactive strontium can serve as a tracer to gain information concerning calcium metabolism in human subjects. Gamma-emitting Sr{sup 85} is used rather than the much more hazardous, beta-emitting Sr{sup 89} and Sr{sup 90}. (ca{sup 47} -- the ideal tracer for normal calcium -- is quite expensive and difficult to procure.) Very significant information may be obtained merely by measuring and recording the changes in radioactivity in various body areas during the first hour after intravenous injection of the bone-seeking radioisotope. This is accomplished by placing a lead-shielded gamma-scintillation detector in contact with the skin over the sites of interest and recording the activities on a scaler or ratemeter. The activity versus time curves so obtained are called radioisotope osteograms. Data were presented which indicated that Sr{sup 85} osteograms for patients afflicted with osteoporosis, Paget`s disease, tumor metastases to bone, and possibly multiple myeloma, differ significantly from those obtained from subjects with no skeletal abnormalities. Some interpretations of these deviations were discussed. The value of conducting double-tracer tests (e.g. -- Sr{sup 85} plus radio-iodinated serum albumin) was demonstrated, and correlations with excretion data were made. With further refinements the technique may ultimately become useful for certain diagnostic problems in the clinic and.for evaluating the efficacy of treatment of these disorders.

  20. Does social capital reduce child behavior problems? Results from the Great East Japan Earthquake follow-up for Children Study. (United States)

    Yagi, Junko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Yambe, Takehito; Okuyama, Makiko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sakai, Akio


    We sought to investigate the association between social capital and child behavior problems in Iwate prefecture, Japan, in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Children and their caregivers were recruited from four nursery schools in coastal areas affected by the tsunami, as well as one in an unaffected inland area (N = 94). We assessed the following via caregiver questionnaire: perceptions of social capital in the community, child behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist, Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, child's exposure to trauma (e.g. loss of family members), and caregiver's mental health (Impact of Event Scale-R for PTSD symptoms; K6 for general mental health). We collected details on trauma exposure by interviewing child participants. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether the association between social capital and child behavior problems was mediated by caregiver's mental health status. Children of caregivers who perceived higher community social capital (trust and mutual aid) showed fewer PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, caregiver's mental health mediated the association between social trust and child PTSD symptoms. Social capital had no direct impact on child behavior problems. Community social capital was indirectly associated (via caregiver mental health status) with child behavior problems following exposure to disaster. Community development to boost social capital among caregivers may help to prevent child behavior problems.

  1. The efficacy of selective calculus ablation at 400 nm: comparison to conventional calculus removal methods (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter

    A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.

  2. Ultrasonics in Dentistry (United States)

    Walmsley, A. D.

    Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.

  3. Experimental study on sup 2 sup 2 Na(p, gamma) sup 2 sup 3 Mg reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Hong Wei; Wu He Yu; Xiao Zhi Gang; Zhang Bao Guo; Duan Li Min; Wei Zh; Li Zu Yu; Hu Rong Jiang; Liu Yong Ying; Lu Zhao Hui; Chen Ke Liang; Wang Su Fang; Zhu Hai Dong; Li Xiang Qing; Chen Tao; Hua Hui


    The reaction of sup 2 sup 2 Na(p, gamma) sup 2 sup 3 Mg has been investigated at the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) using a radioactive beam sup 2 sup 3 Al. The beta sup + delayed proton decay spectrum has been measured with the TOF-DELTA E method and zero degree detectors. The half-life of sup 2 sup 3 Al is determined to be T sub 1 sub / sub 2 = (476 +- 45) ms by using a time scaler combined with the precision pulse generator, which is consistent with the other group's results of (470 +- 30) ms. The known beta sup + delayed protons at E sub r = 0.216, 0.278, 0.438, 0.479 MeV have also observed in the experiment. The resonance strength of isospin analog state (IAS) is calculated. The resonance intensity of IAS is (11.4 +- 6.0) meV. A new energy level of beta sup + delayed proton decay has been identified at E sub x = 8.916 MeV, and their relative intensity also been obtained

  4. Effect of chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and ozone on microorganisms in dental aerosols: randomized double-blind clinical trial. (United States)

    Kaur, Ravleen; Singh, Inderjot; Vandana, K L; Desai, Rajendra


    Dental handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, air polishers, air abrasion units produce the most visible aerosols. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI), and ozone (OZ) on the microorganisms in dental aerosols. A total of 60 patients were included in this study, they were randomly assigned into three groups and were subjected to scaling before and after rinsing with 0.2% CHX, 1% PI or irrigation with OZ. Blood agar plates were used to collect the gravitometric settling of aerosols and were sent for aerobic and anaerobic culture. The results demonstrated high percentage reduction of aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) in all three groups. In aerobic CFUs, CHX showed the highest reduction (57%) at mask position whereas at chest position and at 9 ft, PI showed higher CFU reductions (37% and 47%, respectively). In anaerobic CFUs, CHX showed the highest percentage of reduction at chest level (43%) and at 9 ft (44%). CHX, PI and OZ showed similar effects in reducing aerobic and anaerobic CFU's at the chest mask and at 9 ft. OZ can be used as a preprocedural agent, considering its beneficial effects.

  5. Electric personnel carrier introduced : RES Equipment Sales spearheads development of electric underground vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, N.


    RES Equipment Sales of Dryden, Ontario is leading the development of a battery-powered personnel utility vehicle for underground mining applications. Among the advantages of the battery-powered personnel carrier are quietness of the carrier and zero emissions, which eliminates particulates from diesel engines and reduces the need for ventilation. This article discussed the design and building of the vehicle. It was designed to accommodate up to 3 battery packs, depending on the frequency of use. Swapping batteries takes between 2 or 3 minutes. Spent batteries must be plugged in for 6 hours and rest for another 6 to 8 hours before being ready for service. The vehicle accommodates 2 or 3 people and travels at speeds of 6 to 8 miles per hour. This article also provided background information on RES Equipment Sales. The company remanufactures underground mining equipment, including load-haul-dump machines, jumbos, haul trucks and utility vehicles. In addition, the company sells and services new equipment, including Oldenburg Cannon jumbos, scalers and utility vehicles, as well as Canun International pneumatic rock drills and NPK rock breakers. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. A general-purpose VME module (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Gao, Z. W.; Chang, M. C.; Li, H. H.; Wang, M. Z.


    A general-purpose Versa Module Europa (VME) module has been developed for trigger and DAQ application. It takes advantage of the flexibility of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and the modularity of personality cards. It can perform different functions without hardware modification simply by changing the design of the firmware in the FPGA. Higher gate-count FPGAs can also be used for more complex logic applications. The personality card is mainly used for adapting TTL to various level standards at the front panel. A personality card, featuring a 12-bit DAC and analog switch that generates calibration pulses, has also been designed. An example of FPGA program for a "4-channel 16-bit scaler" is also presented in this paper. The concept of a general-purpose VME module can also be extended to CAMAC, cPCI (compact peripheral component interconnect), or other modular standards. Several logic functions can be combined in one module, which is especially useful for trigger and DAQ control of a small experiment.

  7. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.


    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Comparison of suction device with saliva ejector for aerosol and spatter reduction during ultrasonic scaling. (United States)

    Holloman, Jessica L; Mauriello, Sally M; Pimenta, Luiz; Arnold, Roland R


    Aerosols and spatter are concerns in health care owing to their potential adverse health effects. The Isolite illuminated isolation system (Isolite Systems) and a saliva ejector were compared for aerosol and spatter reduction during and after ultrasonic scaling. Fifty participants were randomized to control (n = 25, saliva ejector) or test (n = 25, Isolite) groups and received a prophylaxis with an ultrasonic scaler. Aerosols were collected in a petri dish containing transport media, dispersed, and plated to anaerobic blood agar to determine colony-forming units (CFUs). The authors analyzed the data using a t test. No significant difference occurred between groups in aerosol and spatter reduction (P = .25). Mean (standard deviation) of log10 CFUs per milliliter collected during ultrasonic scaling in the control and test groups were 3.61 (0.95) and 3.30 (0.88), respectively. All samples contained α-hemolytic streptococci, and many samples contained strictly oral anaerobes. A significant amount of contamination occurred during ultrasonic scaling in both groups, as indicated by high numbers of CFUs and the identification of strictly oral anaerobes in all plates. Neither device reduced aerosols and spatter effectively, and there was no significant difference in reduction between the 2 devices. Additional measures should be taken with these devices to reduce the likelihood of disease transmission. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development: Transcultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Madaschi


    Full Text Available Abstract Scales with evidence of validity and reliability are important to evaluate child development. In Brazil, there is a lack of standardized instruments to evaluate young children. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III. It was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapted and tested on 207 children (12-42 months of age. Evidence of convergent validity was obtained from correlations of the Bayley-III with the: Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2, Leiter International Performance Scale-R, Expressive Vocabulary Assessment List and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Exploratory factor analyses showed a single component explaining 86% of the variance, supported by goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis. The Bailey-III demonstrated good internal consistency with alpha coefficients greater than or equal to .90 and stability for fine motor scale only. These robust psychometric properties support the use of this tool in future national studies on child development.

  10. Effect of chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and ozone on microorganisms in dental aerosols: Randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Objective: Dental handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, air polishers, air abrasion units produce the most visible aerosols. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX, povidone iodine (PI, and ozone (OZ on the microorganisms in dental aerosols. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in this study, they were randomly assigned into three groups and were subjected to scaling before and after rinsing with 0.2% CHX, 1% PI or irrigation with OZ. Blood agar plates were used to collect the gravitometric settling of aerosols and were sent for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Results: The results demonstrated high percentage reduction of aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs in all three groups. In aerobic CFUs, CHX showed the highest reduction (57% at mask position whereas at chest position and at 9 ft, PI showed higher CFU reductions (37% and 47%, respectively. In anaerobic CFUs, CHX showed the highest percentage of reduction at chest level (43% and at 9 ft (44%. Conclusion: CHX, PI and OZ showed similar effects in reducing aerobic and anaerobic CFU′s at the chest mask and at 9 ft. OZ can be used as a preprocedural agent, considering its beneficial effects.

  11. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Z. Ally


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  12. A digital method for period measurements in a nuclear reactor; Um metodo digital para medidas de periodo em um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Sergio Gorretta


    The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)

  13. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) TDC for the Fermilab SeaQuest (E906) Experiment and Its Test with a Novel External Wave Union Launcher (United States)

    Wang, Su-Yin; Wu, Jinyuan; Yao, Shi-Hong; Chang, Wen-Chen


    We developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) TDC module for the tracking detectors of the Fermilab SeaQuest (E906) experiment, including drift chambers, proportional tubes, and hodoscopes. This 64-channel TDC module had a 6U VMEbus form factor and was equipped with a low-power, radiation-hardened Microsemi ProASIC3 Flash-based FPGA. The design of the new FPGA firmware (Run2-TDC) aimed to reduce the data volume and data acquisition (DAQ) deadtime. The firmware digitized multiple input hits of both polarities while allowing users to turn on a multiple-hit elimination logic to remove after-pulses in the wire chambers and proportional tubes. A scaler was implemented in the firmware to allow for recording the number of hits in each channel. The TDC resolution was determined by an internal cell delay of 450 ps. A measurement precision of 200 ps was achieved. We used five kinds of tests to ensure the qualification of 93 TDCs in mass production. We utilized the external wave union launcher in our test to improve the TDC's measurement precision and also to illustrate how to construct the Wave Union TDC using an existing multi-hit TDC without modifying its firmware. Measurement precision was improved by a factor of about two (108 ps) based on the four-edge wave union. Better measurement precision (69 ps) was achieved by combining the approaches of Wave Union TDC and multiple-channel ganging.

  14. The effect of different bracket base cleaning method on shear bond strength of rebonded brackets. (United States)

    Al Maaitah, Emad F; Alomari, Sawsan; Abu Alhaija, Elham S; Saf, Ahmed Am


    To assess the effect of different bracket base conditioning method on shear bond strength (SBS) of rebonded brackets. Eighty brackets were bonded to freshly extracted premolar teeth using light cured composite adhesive. SBS was measured for 20 random samples as control group (G1). After debonding, 60 debonded brackets were allocated randomly into three groups of bracket base conditioning methods to remove the remaining adhesives. G2: bracket base cleaned with slow speed round carbide bur (CB), G3: cleaned with ultrasonic scaler (US), G4: cleaned with sandblasting (SB). After that, brackets were rebonded in the same manner as frst bonding and SBS was measured. Modifed adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recorded for all groups. SBS for new brackets was 11.95 MPa followed by 11.65 MPa for G2, 11.56 MPa for G4 and 11.04 MPa for G3 group. There were no statistically signifcant differences between all groups (p = 0.946). In all groups, failure mode showed that the majority of adhesive composite remained on the bracket base with ARI of 4. There was no statistically signifcant difference between all groups in ARI (p = 0.584). In-offce methods; slow speed CB and US are effective, quick and cheap methods for bracket base cleaning for rebonding.

  15. Traumatic lesions of the gingiva: a case series. (United States)

    Rawal, Swati Y; Claman, Lewis J; Kalmar, John R; Tatakis, Dimitris N


    The most recent classification of periodontal diseases includes a new section on traumatic gingival lesions. Traumatic lesions of the gingiva are thought to be highly prevalent, yet the periodontal literature contains few references on the topic. The purpose of this article is to present a broad spectrum of traumatic gingival lesions of iatrogenic, accidental, and factitious origin. Twelve clinical cases were selected to document chemical (due to aspirin, snuff, and peroxide), physical (due to malocclusion, flossing, removable partial denture, oral piercing, and self-inflicted trauma), and thermal (due to overheated ultrasonic scaler, hot food, and ice) injury to the gingiva. Chemical, physical, and thermal gingival injuries of iatrogenic, accidental, or factitious origin can have a variety of presentations with overlapping clinical features. Although the appearance and associated symptoms of a gingival lesion may be suggestive of a particular traumatic etiology, useful or confirmatory diagnostic information is often discovered through careful history-taking. The management of gingival injuries typically requires elimination of the insult and symptomatic therapy. If permanent gingival defects resulted from the injury, periodontal plastic surgery may be necessary. A variety of chemical, physical, and thermal injuries may involve the gingiva. Accidental and iatrogenic injuries are often acute and self-limiting, while factitious injuries tend to be more chronic in nature.

  16. Interactions of $^{16}$O Projectile and its Fragments in Nuclear Emulsion at about 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia


    The aim of the experiment is to measure the multiplicity ``$ n _{s} $'' and pseudo-rapidity ``$\\eta$'' of the shower particles ($\\beta$~$\\geq$~0.7) produced in different types of collisions (peripheral, semi-central and central), of $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S in nuclear emulsions. The multiplicities and angular distributions of both the grey ``$ n _{g} $'' (mainly due to knock- on and recoil protons), and black ``$ n _{b} $'' (slow evaporated target fragments) particles, and the inter-correlation between them are studied. \\\\ \\\\ The yield, charge and angular distributions of produced relativistic projectile fragments P.F.S., for $ Z _{P} . _{F} . $ $\\geq$~2 are measured and their interactions in emulsions are investigated. \\\\ \\\\ The study of the mean free paths for the projectile fragments with Z $\\geq$ 3 produced from 200~A~GeV $^{16}$ 0 interactions were performed, which show the absence of the anomalous phenomena. \\\\ \\\\ The possible production of zero-spin light neutral scaler bosons and pseudoscaler bosons from...

  17. Parity Violating Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering from the Deuteron at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Kai [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An experiment that measured the parity violating (PV) asymmetry Ad in e-2H deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at Q2 ~ 1.10 and 1.90 (GeV/c)2 and xB ~ 0.3 was completed in experimental Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The asymmetry can be used to extract the neutral weak coupling combination (2C2u-C2d), providing a factor of five to six improvement over the current world data. To achieve this precision, asymmetries of the 10-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 500 kHz with high electron detection efficiency and high pion background rejection capability. A specialized scaler-based counting data acquisition system (DAQ) with hardware-based particle identification was successfully implemented. The statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes and the experimental goal of 3-4% statistical uncertainty was achieved. The design and performance of the new DAQ system is presented with the preliminary asymmetry results given in the end.

  18. Gambling and physical intimate partner violence: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC). (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Landon, Jason; Sharman, Stephen; Hakes, Jahn; Suomi, Aino; Cowlishaw, Sean


    Links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and gambling problems are under researched in general population samples. Understanding these relationships will allow for improved identification and intervention. We investigated these relationships and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by axis I and II disorders. This study examined data from waves 1 and 2 (N = 25,631) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC); a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Gambling symptoms and other psychiatric disorders were measured at wave 1 by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disability Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Physical IPV victimization and perpetration in the last 12 months were assessed 3 years later at wave 2 using items from the Conflict Tactics Scale-R. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations separately for males and females. Problem gambling was associated with increased odds of both IPV perpetration for males (OR = 2.62, 95%CI = 1.22-5.60) and females (OR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.29-6.42), and with IPV victimization for females only (OR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.31-6.74). Results were attenuated with inclusion of axis I and axis II disorders; links between gambling and IPV were weaker than those involving other mental health conditions. There are prospective associations with gambling problems and physical IPV which have implications for identification, spontaneous disclosure, and treatment seeking. The links between gambling problems and violence are complex and should not be considered independently of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. (Am J Addict 2018;27:7-14). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Emotional characteristics of mothers bringing up children with arthrogryposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V Pyatakova


    Full Text Available Introduction. Arthrogryposis is a congenital disease that can cause feelings of deprivation in parents of affected children. Mothers of children with the disease may experience emotional trauma, manifested as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD (a term coined by N.V. Tarabrina, anxiety and depressive manifestations. Mothers with such emotional problems may hinder the effective rehabilitation treatment of their children. Aims. To examine the emotional characteristics of mothers of children with arthrogryposis. Material and methods. In this study, the following methods were used: a scale that assesses the level of reactive and personal anxiety (C.D. Spielberg and J.L. Hanina; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Gorovits Impact of Event Scale-R (N.V. Tarabrina. Case histories were also examined. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. The study involved 58 mothers with children aged from 1 to 8 years old. Among these, 28 mothers had children suffering from arthrogryposis; the children of the remaining 30 mothers were apparently healthy. Results. There was no difference in level of personal anxiety between the mothers of children with arthrogryposis and those with healthy children. The mothers of children with arthrogryposis suffered from severe situational anxiety and PTSD (including symptoms of intrusive invasion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal; the mothers of healthy children did not experience such emotional trauma. Mothers with negative emotional states of this kind may hinder the effective rehabilitation of their children with arthrogryposis. In such situations, the participation of a clinical psychologist who can provide the necessary psychological assistance on the basis of individual psychological diagnosis is required.

  20. Use of a continual sweep motion to compare air polishing devices, powders and exposure time on unexposed root cementum. (United States)

    Herr, Mandy L; DeLong, Ralph; Li, Yuping; Lunos, Scott A; Stoltenberg, Jill L


    Low abrasive air polishing powders are a viable method for subgingival biofilm removal. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of air polishing using a standard tip on cementum following clinically recommended protocols. Forty-eight teeth were randomly divided into eight groups with six teeth per group. Teeth were treated using either a Hu-Friedy EMS or DENTSPLY Cavitron ® air polishing device. One of three glycine powders (Air-flow 25 µm, Clinpro 45 μm, Clinpro+TCP 45 μm) or a sodium bicarbonate powder (NaHCO 3  85 μm) was sprayed on cementum using a clinically relevant sweeping motion. Volume and depth of cementum removed after 5 and 90 s exposures were calculated. Surface texture was evaluated using SEMs taken following the last exposure. After 5 s exposures, neither unit nor powder had a substantial effect on volume loss or defect depth. After 90 s exposures, differences between powders existed only for the DENTSPLY unit (p powders (p powders (p powders; however, exposed tubules were larger and more prevalent for NaHCO 3 85 μm. Root surface loss was similar for glycine powders evaluated in this study. Differences in powder performance between units may be related to tip apertures and spray patterns. Additional research is needed to determine if cementum loss is greater than what occurs with conventional biofilm removal methods, such as curets and ultrasonic scalers.

  1. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Desarda


    Full Text Available Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient’s oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination.

  2. Professional values and competencies as explanatory factors for the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Pesjak, Katja


    To establish the connection between values, competencies, selected job characteristics and evidence-based practice use. Nurses rarely apply evidence-based practice in everyday work. A recent body of research has looked at various variables explaining the use of evidence-based practice, but not values and competencies. A cross-sectional, non-experimental quantitative explorative research design. Standardized instruments were used (Nurse Professional Values Scale-R, Nurse Competence Scale, Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation Scale). The sample included 780 nurses from 20 Slovenian hospitals. The data were collected in 2015. The study identifies two new variables contributing to a better understanding of beliefs on and implementation of evidence-based practice, thus broadening the existing research evidence. These are the values of activism and professionalism and competencies aimed at the development and professionalization of nursing. Values of caring, trust and justice and competencies expected in everyday practice do not influence the beliefs and implementation of evidence-based practice. Respondents ascribed less importance to values connected with activism and professionalism and competencies connected with the development of professionalism. Nurses agree that evidence-based practice is useful in their clinical work, but they lack the knowledge to implement it in practice. Evidence-based practice implementation in nursing practice is low. Study results stress the importance of increasing the knowledge and skills on professional values of activism and professionalism and competencies connected to nursing development. The study expands the current understanding of evidence-based practice use and provides invaluable insight for nursing managers, higher education managers and the national nursing association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Revising the process-based Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS) for rice growth and evapotranspiration simulation: BESS-Rice model description and evaluation (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.; Hwang, Y.


    As a satellite remote sensing derived, biophysical process based model, Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS) performs well in estimating global gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). However, lacking of the process of carbon allocation, which plays a critical role in ecosystem carbon cycling by shifting the products of photosynthesis, BESS could not be used for crop growth simulation and yield estimation. Meanwhile, BESS did not sufficiently take into account the water standing evaporation of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we developed the BESS-Rice model by integrating carbon allocation module into BESS, and revising the evaporation module for the early growth stage with open water. Accumulated GPP was used as a scaler for growth development, and the dynamics of dry matter distribution among aboveground organs (grain, leaf and stem) during development was simulated based on the relationships between accumulated GPP and partitioning coefficients. Annual grain yield and straw production was estimated finally. Analysis of correlation shows that over 90% variations in dry matter partitioning coefficients could be explained by accumulated GPP. It is much simpler than conventional crop models and enables us to deduce the uncertainty related to the input variables while detecting key processes. Meanwhile, a Priestley-Taylor approach was used to quantify the open water evaporation during the early stages of rice growth. We evaluated the BESS-Rice simulated GPP, ET, grain yield and straw production against eddy covariance and biometric measurements at site scale. The diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon and water fluxes and the rice growth dynamic were also investigated. The process-based BESS-Rice could be calibration-free and applied globally, which is significant for large-scale rice growth monitoring and ecosystem carbon cycling research.

  4. The effect of different cleaning methods on the surface and temperature of failed titanium implants: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; Tatar, Gulsah; Dundar, Niyazi; Demiralp, Burak


    The aims of this in vitro study are to compare the efficacy of different cleaning methods in removing debris of failed implants and to detect thermal changes of the implants treated by various scaling instruments. Twenty-seven failed implants and two unused implants as control were included to this study-group 1: plastic curette (P), group 2: titanium curette (T), group 3: carbon curette (C), group 4: titanium brush (TB), group 5: Er:YAG laser (laser 1 (L1) 100 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 6: Er:YAG laser (laser 2 (L2) 150 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 7: Er:YAG laser (laser 3 (L3) 200 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz), group 8: ultrasonic scaler appropriate for titanium (US), group 9: air abrasive method (AA) + citric acid, and group 10: implantoplasty (I). The changes on the treated/untreated titanium surfaces and remnant debris were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature of the implants before and after treatment was detected using a thermocouple. The use of air abrasive and citric acid combination and Er:YAG laser groups was found as the best methods for the decontamination of titanium surfaces of failed implant. When the hand instruments were compared, titanium curette was found better than both the plastic and the carbon curettes which leave plastics and carbon remnants on the titanium surface. The temperature was higher after hand instrumentation when compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of the present in vitro model, it can be concluded that the best method for decontamination of the implant surface is the use of air abrasives and Er:YAG laser.

  5. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.


    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  6. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Beren, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cramer, S.P. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science


    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500,000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since x-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 element Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10*10 matrix of 4mm * 4mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultra-high purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A to D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entire instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection.

  7. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Beren, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cramer, S.P. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science)


    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500,000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since x-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 element Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10*10 matrix of 4mm * 4mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultra-high purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A to D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entire instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection.

  8. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yunhe [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb-1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  9. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control (United States)

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat


    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  10. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility - Hardware and software (United States)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan


    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC's), Time to Digital Converters (TDC's), scaler's, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  11. Investigating patterns of memory impairment in ischemic stroke in an iranian population. (United States)

    Karimian, Negar; Asgari, Karim; Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Reza


    Up until the date of this research, studies have examined poststroke cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and executive functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of memory problems in various patterns of memory in ischemic stroke patients in an attempt to determine specific memory profiles of the patients. The goal was to determine the severity and patterns of memory impairments in ischemic stroke patients and to identify specific profiles of memory impairments in stroke patients, in order to help therapists to develop more appropriate memory rehabilitation programs for the patients. The sample consisted of 35 patients with ischemic stroke. Thirty-five individuals who were matched with the patients were selected as the control group. Demographic questionnaires, subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), including logical memory I and II and visual reproduction I and II, digit span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R), and the Corsi span test were administered to both of the patients and control groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was carried out to unveil possible differences in memory between the two groups. The mean scores of different memory patterns were significantly higher in the control group comparing to the patient group (p < 0.05). Among different aspects of memory, visual long-term memory and visual short-term memory had the largest effect sizes. Substantial impairments were also found in visual short-term memory, visuospatial short-term memory, and visual long-term memory. The findings suggest that the stroke patients have identifiable patterns of memory impairment.

  12. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory. (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L


    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  13. Revised SNAP III Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Calvin Elroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzales, Samuel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rothrock, Richard Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sorensen, Eric Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sundby, Gary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Shielded Neutron Assay Probe (SNAP) technique was developed to determine the leakage neutron source strength of a radioactive object. The original system consisted of an EberlineTM Mini-scaler and discrete neutron detector. The system was operated by obtaining the count rate with the EberlineTM instrument, determining the absolute efficiency from a graph, and calculating the neutron source strength by hand. In 2003 the SNAP III, shown in Figure 1, was designed and built. It required the operator to position the SNAP, and then measure the source-to-detector and detectorto- reflector distances. Next the operator entered the distance measurements and started the data acquisition. The SNAP acquired the required count rate and then calculated and displayed the leakage neutron source strength (NSS). The original design of the SNAP III is described in SNAP III Training Manual (ER-TRN-PLN-0258, Rev. 0, January 2004, prepared by William Baird) This report describes some changes that have been made to the SNAP III. One important change is the addition of a LEMO connector to provide neutron detection output pulses for input to the MC-15. This feature is useful in active interrogation with a neutron generator because the MC-15 has the capability to only record data when it is not gated off by a pulse from the neutron generator. This avoids recording of a lot of data during the generator pulses that are not useful. Another change was the replacement of the infrared RS-232 serial communication output by a similar output via a 4-pin LEMO connector. The current document includes a more complete explanation of how to estimate the amount of moderation around a neutron-emitting source.

  14. Short-term clinical and microbiologic effects of pocket debridement with an Er:YAG laser during periodontal maintenance. (United States)

    Tomasi, Cristiano; Schander, Kerstin; Dahlén, Gunnar; Wennström, Jan L


    The erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser is considered a useful tool for subgingival debridement because the laser treatment creates minimal damage to the root surface and has potential antimicrobial effects. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate clinical and microbiologic effects of pocket debridement using an Er:YAG laser in patients during periodontal maintenance. Twenty patients at a recall visit for maintenance were consecutively recruited if presenting at least four teeth with residual probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. Two pockets in each of two jaw quadrants were randomly assigned to subgingival debridement using 1) an Er:YAG laser (test) or 2) an ultrasonic scaler (control). The laser beam was set at 160 mJ with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz. Clinical variables were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 4 months after treatment. Primary clinical outcome variables were changes in PD and clinical attachment level (CAL). Microbiologic analysis of subgingival samples was performed at baseline, 2 days, and 30 days after treatment using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique against 12 periodontal disease-associated species. The mean initial PD was 6.0 mm (SD: 1.2) in the test group and 5.8 mm (SD: 0.9) in the control group. At 1 month post-treatment, the PD reduction was significantly greater for test than control sites (0.9 versus 0.5 mm; P <0.05). The CAL gain also was significantly greater (0.5 versus 0.06 mm; P <0.01). At the 4-month examination, no significant differences were detected in PD reduction (1.1 versus 1.0 mm) or CAL gain (0.6 versus 0.4 mm). Both treatments resulted in reduction of the subgingival microflora. No significant differences in microbiologic composition were identified between the treatment groups at various time intervals. Degree of treatment discomfort scored significantly lower for the test than the control treatment modality. The results of the trial failed to demonstrate any

  15. The utility of early developmental assessments on understanding later nonverbal IQ in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Phillips, Jannel; Altaye, Mekibib; Choo, Daniel I


    In children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), it is helpful to have meaningful early measures of development in order to provide effective interventions and offer benchmarks that help recognize varied developmental trajectories. The main objective of this study was to compare results of an early developmental assessment prior to 3 years of age to later nonverbal IQ assessed between 3 and 6 years of age in children who are DHH. This study included children 3-6 years of age with bilateral permanent hearing who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study on developmental outcomes. As part of the study, children received the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, which provided a nonverbal Brief IQ, as well as standardized language assessment and behavioral checklists. Children were included in this analysis if they had received an early developmental assessment with the Gesell Developmental Schedules-Revised as part of a clinical visit with a developmental pediatrician. Correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used to associate the scores on the Gesell (using a developmental quotient) with scores on the Leiter-R Brief IQ. Forty-five participants who enrolled in the observational study had available evaluation results from the Gesell and complete Brief IQ results from the Leiter-R. The adaptive domain of the Gesell had good correlation (r = 0.61, p 24 months) at the early Gesell assessment. Degree of hearing loss or maternal education did not appear to confound the relationship between the Gesell and the Leiter-R. The adaptive domain of the Gesell Developmental Schedules - Revised administered in early childhood (under 3 years of age) has good correlation with the nonverbal Brief IQ on the Leiter International Performance Scale-R. Because children who are DHH have a higher likelihood of having a developmental disability compared to the general population, early developmental assessments are often important. Although early

  16. Effect Of Non- Surgical Periodontal Treatment On Glycemic Control Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Periodontitis. (United States)

    Salman, Sadia; Khan, Khurshid; Salman, Fariha; Hameed, Maliha


    Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus are two closely, bidirectional linked disease where periodontitis is a well-known complication of diabetes it is also considered to be a cause for poor glycaemic control. The present study objective was to evaluate the glycaemic control in patients suffering from both Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis after non-surgical periodontal treatment. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of patients attending Diabetic Clinic, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, during six months from September 2013 to February 2014. Forty-six diabetes mellitus subjects who were undergoing non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease that includes mechanical removal of supra- and sub gingival bacterial plaque with scalers, antibiotics and or root canal if required while 46 subjects with diabetic mellitus having periodontal disease did not had treatment for periodontal disease. HbA1c was compared at base line and at three months. Data was compiled and analysed through SPSS version 16. Quantitative variables like HbA1c was presented as mean±SD. Qualitative variables like gender, education status, economic status, treatment for diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease were described by using frequency percentages. The t-test was applied to assess statistical significance in mean difference HbA1c between two groups. p-value periodontitis 43 (93.5%) received scaling only while 3 (6.5%) received scaling plus antibiotics. Fall in the level of HbA1c was observed among subjects with treatment of periodontal disease indicating a good control of diabetes while in group without treatment there was either no change or increase in HbA1c. Mean HbA1c at baseline in group with treatment of periodontitis at baseline was 7.672±.6414 and without treatment was 6.957±.3494. (t= -1.008, pperiodontitis was 6.867±.6168, and in group without treatment was 6.983±.3678. (t=6.641, pperiodontal treatment is associated with improved glycaemic control (reduced

  17. Microleakage around Class V Composite Restorations after Ultrasonic Scaling and Sonic Toothbrushing around their Margin. (United States)

    Goldstein, Ronald E; Lamba, Suruchi; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Beck, Preston; Oster, Robert A; Burgess, John O


    To measure microleakage around class V composite restorations after piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling and sonic toothbrushing. 3 mm × 2 mm × 1.5 mm boxes were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of extracted molars centered on the cementum-enamel junction. Half the preparations were beveled (0.5 mm). Preparations were restored with composite and polished. Restorations on one side of the teeth were either traced with an ultrasonic scaler (60 seconds, n = 16) or brushed in a sonic toothbrushing machine (2 hours, n = 16). After thermocycling (10,000 cycles/5-55°C), specimens were immersed in 5 wt% Fuchsine solution (24 hours). Samples were sectioned and evaluated for percentage of dye penetration. Data were analyzed with an exact Wilcoxon rank-sum test and exact Wilcoxon signed-rank test (alpha = 0.05). Microleakage was observed at the cementum-composite interface but not the enamel-composite interface. There was not a statistically significant effect of the bevel for ultrasonic scaling or for sonic toothbrushing. Data obtained with and without a bevel were combined and a statistically significant difference in microleakage between the treatment and control sides of the tooth were found for ultrasonic scaling (32.5%±44.9%, n = 16; p = 0.016) but not sonic toothbrushing (2.5% ± 41.2%, n = 16; p = 1.0). Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling increased microleakage at cementum-composite interface and there was no difference in microleakage with the use of a bevel. Piezoelectric sonic scaling around Class V composite restorations with margins in cementum should be avoided. Beveled margins will not reduce the incidence of microleakge resulting from ultrasonic scaling in Class V restorations. Placing the apical margin of the restoration in enamel should be attempted whenever possible to prevent future microleakage. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:41-48, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MASMA: a versatile multifunctional unit (gated window amplifier, analog memory, and height-to-time converter); Element multifonctionnel M.A.S.M.A. (module amplificateur a seuil, memoire analogique et convertisseur amplitude-temps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goursky, V.; Thenes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This multipurpose unit is designed to accomplish one of the following functions: - gated window amplifier, - Analog memory and - Amplitude-to-time converter. The first function is mainly devoted to improve the poor resolution of pulse-height analyzers with a small number of channels. The analog memory, a new function in the standard range of plug-in modules, is capable of performing a number of operations: 1) fixed delay, or variable delay dependent on an external parameter (application to the analog processing of non-coincident pulses), 2) de-randomiser to increase the efficiency of the pulse height analysis in a spectrometry experiment, 3) linear multiplexer to allow an analyser to serve as many spectrometry devices as memory elements that it possesses. Associated with a coding scaler, this unit, if used as a amplitude-to-time converter, constitutes a Wilkinson A.D.C with a capability of 10 bits (or more) and with a 100 MHz clock frequency. (authors) [French] Le present element est concu pour etre utilise dans l'un des modes de fonctionnement suivants: - amplificateur a seuil avec porte, - memoire analogique, - convertisseur amplitude-temps. La fonction amplificateur a seuil est destinee principalement a remedier a la resolution insuffisante de certains analyseurs d'amplitude possedant un faible nombre de canaux. La fonction memoire analogique est une fonction qui n'existe pas encore dans la gamme d'elements standardises. Elle peut trouver de nombreuses applications; a titre d'exemple, citons: 1) element de retard fixe ou dependant d'un parametre externe (application au calcul analogique portant sur les impulsions), 2) memoire-tampon: placee devant un analyseur, elle augmente l'efficacite d'analyse d'une chaine de spectrometrie, 3) multiplexeur analogique, permettant a un seul analyseur de desservir autant de voies de spectrometrie qu'il possede de memoires. En fonction convertisseur amplitude-temps, ce tiroir

  19. Development and Testing of a Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar For Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring (United States)

    Soukup, B.; Johnson, W.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.


    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is under development and testing at Montana State University. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the on-line absorption wavelength at 1571.4067 nm and the second operating at the off-line wavelength at 1571.2585 nm. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between on-line and off-line operation. After the fiber optic switches, an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 J and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a fiber coupled photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The PMT has a 3% quantum efficiency, a dark count rate of 90 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz. Recently, a fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) operating in the geiger mode has been incorporated into the DIAL receiver. The APD has a quantum efficiency of 10%, a dark count rate of 10 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz and provides a much larger dynamic range than the PMT. Both the PMT and APD provide TTL logic pulses that are monitored using a multichannel scaler card used to count the return photons as a function of time of flight and are thus interchangeable. The DIAL instrument was developed at the 1.571 m wavelength to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf components. The instrument is operated using a custom Labview program that switches to the DMLD operating at the on-line wavelength, locks this laser to a user defined wavelength setting, and collects return signals for a user defined time. The control program switches to the DMLD operating at the off

  20. Pengaruh Lama Paparan Gelombang Ultrasonik Frekuensi Terapi terhadap Jumlah Koloni Bakteri Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fransiska


    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Gelombang Untrasonik telah digunakan untuk terapi dan diagnosis, di klinik kedokteran gigi popular digunakan untuk ultrasonik skaler. Efek termal dan nontermal gelombang ultrasonik dapat mempengaruhi lingkungan tumbuh bakteri, merusak enzim bakteri, dan struktur bakteri. Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri penyebab karies gigi. Tujuan penelitian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans. Cara penelitian. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 20 buah cawan petri yang berisi koloni bakteri streptococcus mutans dengan media agar darah. Dua puluh buah petri dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol (A dan kelompok perlakuan (B, C, D. kelompok perlakuan diaplikasi gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi 3,5MHz  selama 5, 10, dan 15 menit, sedangkan kelompok kontrol tidak diberi perlakuan apapun. Perhitungan jumlah koloni bakteri dilakukan dengan pengamatan menggunakan colony counter dengan standart plate count (SPC method. Hasil penelitian jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans dianalisis menggunakan ANAVA satu jalur menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05 berarti terdapat pengaruh lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans. Hasil analisis post hoc (LSD terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans juga menunjukkan ada perbedaan rerata antar kelompok perlawanan yang signifikan (p<0,05. Kesimpulan. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz berpengaruh terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans.    Introduction. Ultrasonic waves have been used for therapy and diagnosis, in dental clinic ultrasonic waves are used popular for ultrasonic scaler. Thermal and non thermal effects from ultrasonic wave influence the environment of bacteria disturb bacteria enzyme and the bacteria

  1. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.


    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  2. Demand for and availability of online support to stop smoking Soporte en línea para parar de fumar Suporte online para parar de fumar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Carlini


    ínea relacionados con el cesamiento de cigarro en Brasil en 2010, utilizando herramientas de búsqueda. El número de búsquedas fue determinado a través de herramientas de análisis de Google Ads; el número y tipo de sitios fueron determinados por la reproducción de patrones de búsqueda de usuarios de internet. Los sitios fueron clasificados de acuerdo con su contenido (propagandas, biblioteca de artículos y otros. La calidad de los sitios fue analizada utilizándose la Smoking Treatment Scale-Content (STS-C y Smoking Treatment Scale-Rating (STS-R. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 642.446 búsquedas. Cerca de un tercio de los 113 sitios encontrados fueron del tipo "biblioteca", es decir, contenían solamente artículos; seguidos por sitios con propagandas de clínicas (18,6% y educación profesional (10,6%. Trece sitios ofrecían intervenciones directas para fumadores. La mayoría de ellos no estaba basada en evidencias, ofrecía bajas interactividad y capacidad de personalización y no tenía herramientas de comunicación con sus usuarios después del primer contacto. Otras limitaciones detectadas fueron omisión de las fuentes de financiamiento y ausencia de garantía de sigilo de las informaciones obtenidas y de distinción entre contenido editorial y de anuncios comerciales. CONCLUSIONES: Hay disparidad entre la alta demanda para apoyo en línea para cesamiento del cigarro y la escasa disponibilidad de intervenciones en línea de calidad para fumadores. El desarrollo de intervenciones en línea interactivas, personalizadas, basadas en evidencias y pruebas en ensayos clínicos ramdomizados es necesario para el avance en el soporte ofrecido a fumadores en Brasil.OBJETIVO Estimar a frequência de buscas online sobre tabagismo e analisar a qualidade dos recursos online de apoio para tabagistas interessados em parar de fumar. MÉTODOS: Revisão de buscas e recursos online relacionados à cessação de tabaco no Brasil em 2010, utilizando ferramentas de busca. O número de buscas foi