Scale-free transport in fusion plasmas: theory and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Mier, Jose Angel [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Carreras, Benjamin A [BACV Solutions, Inc., Oak Ridge; Garcia, Luis [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [JNL Scientific, Inc., Casa Grande, AZ; Decyk, Viktor [University of California, Los Angeles
2008-01-01
A novel approach to detect the existence of scale-free transport in turbulent flows, based on the characterization of its Lagrangian characteristics, is presented and applied to two situations relevant for tokamak plasmas. The first one, radial transport in the presence of near-critical turbulence, has been known for quite some time to yield scale-free, superdiffusive transport. We use it to test the method and illustrate its robustness with respect to other approaches. The second situation, radial transport across radially-sheared poloidal zonal flows driven by turbulence via the Reynold stresses, is examined for the first time in this manner. The result is rather surprising and different from the traditionally assumed diffusive behavior. Instead, radial transport behaves instead in a scale-free, subdiffusive manner, which may have implications for the modeling of transport across transport barriers.
Scale-free systems organization as entropy competition
Sanchirico, A.; Fiorentino, M.
2009-04-01
networks, technological systems, as electronic circuits, geomorphological systems, as river networks, and so on. Here, based on statistical mechanics, we discuss how network systems organize themselves into an equilibrium scale-free structure. In particular, we show that the power-law is the most probable distribution that both nodes and edges, in a reciprocal competition, assume when the respective entropy functions reach their maxima, under mutual constraint. The proposed approach predicts scaling exponent values in agreement with those most frequently observed in nature.
Scale-free dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system
Saito, Shiro
2009-01-01
The long-time dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system is simulated by a simple physical model. The immune system described by the model exhibits a scale free behavior as is observed in living systems. The balance between the positive and negative feedbacks of the model leads to a robust immune system where the positive one corresponds to the formation of memory cells and the negative one to immunosuppression. Also the immunosenescence of the system is discussed based on the time-dependence of the epigenetic landscape of the adaptive immune cells in the shape space.
Small-World and Scale-Free Network Models for IoT Systems
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Insoo Sohn
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It is expected that Internet of Things (IoT revolution will enable new solutions and business for consumers and entrepreneurs by connecting billions of physical world devices with varying capabilities. However, for successful realization of IoT, challenges such as heterogeneous connectivity, ubiquitous coverage, reduced network and device complexity, enhanced power savings, and enhanced resource management have to be solved. All these challenges are heavily impacted by the IoT network topology supported by massive number of connected devices. Small-world networks and scale-free networks are important complex network models with massive number of nodes and have been actively used to study the network topology of brain networks, social networks, and wireless networks. These models, also, have been applied to IoT networks to enhance synchronization, error tolerance, and more. However, due to interdisciplinary nature of the network science, with heavy emphasis on graph theory, it is not easy to study the various tools provided by complex network models. Therefore, in this paper, we attempt to introduce basic concepts of graph theory, including small-world networks and scale-free networks, and provide system models that can be easily implemented to be used as a powerful tool in solving various research problems related to IoT.
Scale-Free Relationships between Social and Landscape Factors in Urban Systems
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Chunzhu Wei
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Urban planners and ecologists have long debated the relationship between the structure of urban landscapes and social activities. There have, however, been very few discussions as to whether any such relationships might depend on the scales of observation. This work applies a hierarchical zoning technique to data from the city of Quito, Ecuador, to examine how relationships between typical spatial landscape metrics and social indicators depend on zoning scales. Our results showed that the estimates of both landscape heterogeneity features and social indicators significantly depend on the zoning scale. The mean values of the typical landscape metrics and the social indicators all exhibited predictable responses to a changing zoning scale, suggesting a consistent and significant scaling relationship within the multiple zoning scales. Yet relationships between these pairs of variables remain notably invariant to scale. This quantitative demonstration of the scale-free nature of the relationship between landscape characteristics and social indicators furthers our understanding of the relationships between landscape structures and social aspects of urban spaces, including deprivation and public service accessibility. The relationships between social indicators and one typical landscape aggregation metric (represented as the percentage of like adjacencies were nevertheless significantly dependent on scale, suggesting the importance of zoning scale decisions for analyzing the relationships between the social indicators and the landscape characteristics related with landscape adjacency. Aside from this typical landscape aggregation metric, the general invariance to the zoning scale of relationships between landscape structures and socioeconomic indicators in Quito suggests the importance of applying these scale-free relationships in understanding complex socio-ecological systems in other cities, which are shaped by the conflated influences of both
Emergence of scale-free leadership structure in social recommender systems.
Zhou, Tao; Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2011-01-01
The study of the organization of social networks is important for the understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-based simulations of this model highlight a "good get richer" mechanism where users with broad interests and good judgments are likely to become popular leaders for the others. Simulations also indicate that the studied social recommendation mechanism can gradually improve the user experience by adapting to tastes of its users. Finally we outline implications for real online resource-sharing systems.
Emergency response to disaster-struck scale-free network with redundant systems
Ouyang, Min; Yu, Ming-Hui; Huang, Xiang-Zhao; Luan, En-Jie
2008-07-01
Disasters cause tremendous damage every year. In this paper, we have specifically studied emergency response to disaster-struck scale-free networks when some nodes in the network have redundant systems. If one node collapses, its redundant system will substitute it to work for a period of time. In the first part, according to the network structure, several redundant strategies have been formulated, and then our studies focused on their effectiveness by means of simulation. Results show that the strategy based on total degrees is the most effective one. However, many nodes still collapse in the end if redundant systems do not have sufficient capability, so emergency responses are necessary. Several emergent strategies controlling the distribution of external resources have been proposed in the second part. The effectiveness of those emergent strategies are then studied from three aspects, such as the effect of strategies on spreading processes, minimum sufficient quantities of external resources and determination of the most appropriate emergent strategy. In addition, the effects of redundant intensity on these aspects have been discussed as well.
Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi
2011-01-27
The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.
Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Gang
2007-10-01
We study how heterogeneous degree distributions and large-scale collective cooperation in social networks emerge in complex homogeneous systems by a simple local rule: learning from the best in both strategy selections and linking choices. The prisoner's dilemma game is used as the local dynamics. We show that the social structure may evolve into single-scale, broad-scale, and scale-free (SF) degree distributions for different control parameters. In particular, in a relatively strong-selfish parameter region the SF property can be self-organized in social networks by dynamic evolutions and these SF structures help the whole node community to reach a high level of cooperation under the poor condition of a high selfish intention of individuals.
Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.
2007-04-01
When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGhee Timothy
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background While standard reductionist approaches have provided some insights into specific gene polymorphisms and molecular pathways involved in disease pathogenesis, our understanding of complex traits such as atherosclerosis or type 2 diabetes remains incomplete. Gene expression profiling provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand complex human diseases by providing a global view of the multiple interactions across the genome that are likely to contribute to disease pathogenesis. Thus, the goal of gene expression profiling is not to generate lists of differentially expressed genes, but to identify the physiologic or pathogenic processes and structures represented in the expression profile. Methods RNA was separately extracted from peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear leukocytes, labeled, and hybridized to genome level microarrays to generate expression profiles of children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis relative to childhood controls. Statistically significantly differentially expressed genes were identified from samples of each disease relative to controls. Functional network analysis identified interactions between products of these differentially expressed genes. Results In silico models of both diseases demonstrated similar features with properties of scale-free networks previously described in physiologic systems. These networks were observable in both cells of the innate immune system (neutrophils and cells of the adaptive immune system (peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Genome-level transcriptional profiling from childhood onset rheumatic diseases suggested complex interactions in two arms of the immune system in both diseases. The disease associated networks showed scale-free network patterns similar to those reported in normal physiology. We postulate that these features have important implications for therapy as such networks are relatively resistant
Chaotic Modes in Scale Free Opinion Networks
Kusmartsev, Feo V.; Kürten, Karl E.
2010-12-01
In this paper, we investigate processes associated with formation of public opinion in varies directed random, scale free and small-world social networks. The important factor of the opinion formation is the existence of contrarians which were discovered by Granovetter in various social psychology experiments1,2,3 long ago and later introduced in sociophysics by Galam.4 When the density of contrarians increases the system behavior drastically changes at some critical value. At high density of contrarians the system can never arrive to a consensus state and periodically oscillates with different periods depending on specific structure of the network. At small density of the contrarians the behavior is manifold. It depends primary on the initial state of the system. If initially the majority of the population agrees with each other a state of stable majority may be easily reached. However when originally the population is divided in nearly equal parts consensus can never be reached. We model the emergence of collective decision making by considering N interacting agents, whose opinions are described by two state Ising spin variable associated with YES and NO. We show that the dynamical behaviors are very sensitive not only to the density of the contrarians but also to the network topology. We find that a phase of social chaos may arise in various dynamical processes of opinion formation in many realistic models. We compare the prediction of the theory with data describing the dynamics of the average opinion of the USA population collected on a day-by-day basis by varies media sources during the last six month before the final Obama-McCain election. The qualitative ouctome is in reasonable agreement with the prediction of our theory. In fact, the analyses of these data made within the paradigm of our theory indicates that even in this campaign there were chaotic elements where the public opinion migrated in an unpredictable chaotic way. The existence of such a phase
Evolution of vocabulary on scale-free and random networks
Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos
2007-06-01
We examine the evolution of the vocabulary of a group of individuals (linguistic agents) on a scale-free network, using Monte Carlo simulations and assumptions from evolutionary game theory. It is known that when the agents are arranged in a two-dimensional lattice structure and interact by diffusion and encounter, then their final vocabulary size is the maximum possible. Knowing all available words is essential in order to increase the probability to “survive” by effective reproduction. On scale-free networks we find a different result. It is not necessary to learn the entire vocabulary available. Survival chances are increased by using the vocabulary of the “hubs” (nodes with high degree). The existence of the “hubs” in a scale-free network is the source of an additional important fitness generating mechanism.
Mechanical failure in amorphous solids: Scale-free spinodal criticality
Procaccia, Itamar; Rainone, Corrado; Singh, Murari
2017-09-01
The mechanical failure of amorphous media is a ubiquitous phenomenon from material engineering to geology. It has been noticed for a long time that the phenomenon is "scale-free," indicating some type of criticality. In spite of attempts to invoke "Self-Organized Criticality," the physical origin of this criticality, and also its universal nature, being quite insensitive to the nature of microscopic interactions, remained elusive. Recently we proposed that the precise nature of this critical behavior is manifested by a spinodal point of a thermodynamic phase transition. Demonstrating this requires the introduction of an "order parameter" that is suitable for distinguishing between disordered amorphous systems. At the spinodal point there exists a divergent correlation length which is associated with the system-spanning instabilities (known also as shear bands) which are typical to the mechanical yield. The theory, the order parameter used and the correlation functions which exhibit the divergent correlation length are universal in nature and can be applied to any amorphous solid that undergoes mechanical yield. The phenomenon is seen at its sharpest in athermal systems, as is explained below; in this paper we extend the discussion also to thermal systems, showing that at sufficiently high temperatures the spinodal phenomenon is destroyed by thermal fluctuations.
Emergence of Scale-Free Syntax Networks
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V.
The evolution of human language allowed the efficient propagation of nongenetic information, thus creating a new form of evolutionary change. Language development in children offers the opportunity of exploring the emergence of such complex communication system and provides a window to understanding the transition from protolanguage to language. Here we present the first analysis of the emergence of syntax in terms of complex networks. A previously unreported, sharp transition is shown to occur around two years of age from a (pre-syntactic) tree-like structure to a scale-free, small world syntax network. The observed combinatorial patterns provide valuable data to understand the nature of the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of syntax, introducing a new ingredient to understand the possible biological endowment of human beings which results in the emergence of complex language. We explore this problem by using a minimal, data-driven model that is able to capture several statistical traits, but some key features related to the emergence of syntactic complexity display important divergences.
Detrended fluctuation analysis: A scale-free view on neuronal oscillations
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Richard eHardstone
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease can lead to differences in the scale-free amplitude modulation of oscillations. Furthermore, amplitude dynamics is remarkably independent of the time-averaged oscillation power, indicating that the DFA provides unique insights into the functional organization of neuronal systems. To facilitate understanding and encourage wider use of scaling analysis of neuronal oscillations, we provide a pedagogical explanation of the DFA algorithm and its underlying theory. Practical advice on applying DFA to oscillations is supported by MATLAB scripts from the Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT and links to the NBT tutorial website (http://www.nbtwiki.net/. Finally, we provide a brief overview of insights derived from the application of DFA to ongoing oscillations in health and disease, and discuss the putative relevance of criticality for understanding the mechanism underlying scale-free modulation of oscillations.
Detrended fluctuation analysis: a scale-free view on neuronal oscillations.
Hardstone, Richard; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Schiavone, Giuseppina; Jansen, Rick; Nikulin, Vadim V; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus
2012-01-01
Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease can lead to differences in the scale-free amplitude modulation of oscillations. Furthermore, amplitude dynamics is remarkably independent of the time-averaged oscillation power, indicating that the DFA provides unique insights into the functional organization of neuronal systems. To facilitate understanding and encourage wider use of scaling analysis of neuronal oscillations, we provide a pedagogical explanation of the DFA algorithm and its underlying theory. Practical advice on applying DFA to oscillations is supported by MATLAB scripts from the Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT) and links to the NBT tutorial website http://www.nbtwiki.net/. Finally, we provide a brief overview of insights derived from the application of DFA to ongoing oscillations in health and disease, and discuss the putative relevance of criticality for understanding the mechanism underlying scale-free modulation of oscillations.
The scale-free dynamics of eukaryotic cells.
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Miguel A Aon
Full Text Available Temporal organization of biological processes requires massively parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. We analyzed time-series data obtained from the bioenergetic oscillatory outputs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolated cardiomyocytes utilizing Relative Dispersional (RDA and Power Spectral (PSA analyses. These analyses revealed broad frequency distributions and evidence for long-term memory in the observed dynamics. Moreover RDA and PSA showed that the bioenergetic dynamics in both systems show fractal scaling over at least 3 orders of magnitude, and that this scaling obeys an inverse power law. Therefore we conclude that in S. cerevisiae and cardiomyocytes the dynamics are scale-free in vivo. Applying RDA and PSA to data generated from an in silico model of mitochondrial function indicated that in yeast and cardiomyocytes the underlying mechanisms regulating the scale-free behavior are similar. We validated this finding in vivo using single cells, and attenuating the activity of the mitochondrial inner membrane anion channel with 4-chlorodiazepam to show that the oscillation of NAD(PH and reactive oxygen species (ROS can be abated in these two evolutionarily distant species. Taken together these data strongly support our hypothesis that the generation of ROS, coupled to redox cycling, driven by cytoplasmic and mitochondrial processes, are at the core of the observed rhythmicity and scale-free dynamics. We argue that the operation of scale-free bioenergetic dynamics plays a fundamental role to integrate cellular function, while providing a framework for robust, yet flexible, responses to the environment.
Modeling interactome: scale-free or geometric?
Przulj, N; Corneil, D G; Jurisica, I
2004-12-12
Networks have been used to model many real-world phenomena to better understand the phenomena and to guide experiments in order to predict their behavior. Since incorrect models lead to incorrect predictions, it is vital to have as accurate a model as possible. As a result, new techniques and models for analyzing and modeling real-world networks have recently been introduced. One example of large and complex networks involves protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We analyze PPI networks of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster using a newly introduced measure of local network structure as well as the standardly used measures of global network structure. We examine the fit of four different network models, including Erdos-Renyi, scale-free and geometric random network models, to these PPI networks with respect to the measures of local and global network structure. We demonstrate that the currently accepted scale-free model of PPI networks fails to fit the data in several respects and show that a random geometric model provides a much more accurate model of the PPI data. We hypothesize that only the noise in these networks is scale-free. We systematically evaluate how well-different network models fit the PPI networks. We show that the structure of PPI networks is better modeled by a geometric random graph than by a scale-free model. Supplementary information is available at http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~juris/data/data/ppiGRG04/
Power Laws, Scale-Free Networks and Genome Biology
Koonin, Eugene V; Karev, Georgy P
2006-01-01
Power Laws, Scale-free Networks and Genome Biology deals with crucial aspects of the theoretical foundations of systems biology, namely power law distributions and scale-free networks which have emerged as the hallmarks of biological organization in the post-genomic era. The chapters in the book not only describe the interesting mathematical properties of biological networks but moves beyond phenomenology, toward models of evolution capable of explaining the emergence of these features. The collection of chapters, contributed by both physicists and biologists, strives to address the problems in this field in a rigorous but not excessively mathematical manner and to represent different viewpoints, which is crucial in this emerging discipline. Each chapter includes, in addition to technical descriptions of properties of biological networks and evolutionary models, a more general and accessible introduction to the respective problems. Most chapters emphasize the potential of theoretical systems biology for disco...
An optimal routing strategy on scale-free networks
Yang, Yibo; Zhao, Honglin; Ma, Jinlong; Qi, Zhaohui; Zhao, Yongbin
Traffic is one of the most fundamental dynamical processes in networked systems. With the traditional shortest path routing (SPR) protocol, traffic congestion is likely to occur on the hub nodes on scale-free networks. In this paper, we propose an improved optimal routing (IOR) strategy which is based on the betweenness centrality and the degree centrality of nodes in the scale-free networks. With the proposed strategy, the routing paths can accurately bypass hub nodes in the network to enhance the transport efficiency. Simulation results show that the traffic capacity as well as some other indexes reflecting transportation efficiency are further improved with the IOR strategy. Owing to the significantly improved traffic performance, this study is helpful to design more efficient routing strategies in communication or transportation systems.
Jin, Meng; Champagne, Pascale; Hall, Geoffrey
2017-01-01
Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), as part of municipal wastewater treatment strategies, can exhibit variability in performance due to climatic conditions. Under elevated temperature and strong solar radiation, algal blooms and subsequent high pH effluents have often been observed. In this study, four substrates (gravel, peat, organic mulch, and topsoil) were evaluated for their ability to attenuate high pH effluents from a WSP. Synthetic wastewater with pH > 9.5, and low organic and nutrient loadings, was used to mimic algal-induced high pH effluents in 72 L rectangular bench-scale superficial constructed wetland configuration reactors. Peat exhibited the highest attenuation ability, where the effluent pH decreased substantially from 10.3 to 7.7, primarily due to its high organic contents. Peat also removed 53.7% of the influent total phosphorus, which could effectively limit algal growth. No statistically significant differences were discovered among gravel, topsoil, and organic mulch in terms of pH attenuation. Topsoil and organic mulch both have a relatively high alkalinity, making them ideal to maintain consistent pH levels. However, naturally high chemical oxygen demand levels in organic mulch raised concerns in the leaching of these compounds into the treated wastewater, making it less appealing for systems with low organic loading.
Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto
1979-01-01
This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...
Scale-free texture of the fast solar wind
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2011-12-01
The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 h. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind and puts a strong constraint on any theory of solar corona and the heliosphere. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range.
Theory system classics and theory of emotions
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Milenković Pavle
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problematization of emotions within the systems theory in sociology, with special reference to Talcott Parsons and Niklas Luhmann. After considering the ambivalent interrelation of (studying emotions and sociology, as well as the basic postulates of systems theory, we offer a (reinterpretation of the role and place of emotions within this theoretical tradition. It is argued that emotions as a variable have a prominent place and play a significant role in the formulation of the basic assumptions of systems theory in sociology. Attention is drawn to the fact that systems theories offer a useful theoretical framework for problematization and explanation of human emotions and emotionality in a comprehensive and relevant manner. Finally, we discuss systems theory as a potential connecting point or a bridge between sociology and psychology (of emotions.
Applied multidimensional systems theory
Bose, Nirmal K
2017-01-01
Revised and updated, this concise new edition of the pioneering book on multidimensional signal processing is ideal for a new generation of students. Multidimensional systems or m-D systems are the necessary mathematical background for modern digital image processing with applications in biomedicine, X-ray technology and satellite communications. Serving as a firm basis for graduate engineering students and researchers seeking applications in mathematical theories, this edition eschews detailed mathematical theory not useful to students. Presentation of the theory has been revised to make it more readable for students, and introduce some new topics that are emerging as multidimensional DSP topics in the interdisciplinary fields of image processing. New topics include Groebner bases, wavelets, and filter banks.
Design Theory in Information Systems
Shirley Gregor
2002-01-01
The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...
Decision Support Systems: Theory.
1976-01-01
Henry , Man-Machine System Experiments. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press , 1972. Parsons , Talcott , Structure and Process in Modern Societies, The Free...B146-155, Dec. 1965. Heany, D. F. , " Education - The Critical Link in Getting Managers to Use Management Systems." Interfaces, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1...34Toward a Psychological Theory of Education ," of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 17-52, 1969. Mogni, Ben , "The Computer’s Role in Marketing
Characterizing the intrinsic correlations of scale-free networks
de Brito, J B; Moreira, A A; Andrade, J S
2015-01-01
Very often, when studying topological or dynamical properties of random scale-free networks, it is tacitly assumed that degree-degree correlations are not present. However, simple constraints, such as the absence of multiple edges and self-loops, can give rise to intrinsic correlations in these structures. In the same way that Fermionic correlations in thermodynamic systems are relevant only in the limit of low temperature, the intrinsic correlations in scale-free networks are relevant only when the extreme values for the degrees grow faster than the square-root of the network size. In this situation, these correlations can significantly affect the dependence of the average degree of the nearest neighbors of a given vertice on this vertices's degree. Here, we introduce an analytical approach that is capable to predict the functional form of this property. Moreover, our results indicate that random scale-free networks models are not self-averaging, that is, the second moment of their degree distribution may va...
Design Theory in Information Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shirley Gregor
2002-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i theory for analysing and describing, (ii theory for understanding, (iii theory for predicting, (iv theory for explaining and predicting, and (v theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding and recognition of this type of theory in information systems indicates that further debate concerning its nature and role in our discipline is needed.
Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks
Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.
Theoretical model for mesoscopic-level scale-free self-organization of functional brain networks.
Piersa, Jaroslaw; Piekniewski, Filip; Schreiber, Tomasz
2010-11-01
In this paper, we provide theoretical and numerical analysis of a geometric activity flow network model which is aimed at explaining mathematically the scale-free functional graph self-organization phenomena emerging in complex nervous systems at a mesoscale level. In our model, each unit corresponds to a large number of neurons and may be roughly seen as abstracting the functional behavior exhibited by a single voxel under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the course of the dynamics, the units exchange portions of formal charge, which correspond to waves of activity in the underlying microscale neuronal circuit. The geometric model abstracts away the neuronal complexity and is mathematically tractable, which allows us to establish explicit results on its ground states and the resulting charge transfer graph modeling functional graph of the network. We show that, for a wide choice of parameters and geometrical setups, our model yields a scale-free functional connectivity with the exponent approaching 2, which is in agreement with previous empirical studies based on fMRI. The level of universality of the presented theory allows us to claim that the model does shed light on mesoscale functional self-organization phenomena of the nervous system, even without resorting to closer details of brain connectivity geometry which often remain unknown. The material presented here significantly extends our previous work where a simplified mean-field model in a similar spirit was constructed, ignoring the underlying network geometry.
Dekkers, Rob
2017-01-01
Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...
Scale-free music of the brain.
Wu, Dan; Li, Chao-Yi; Yao, De-Zhong
2009-06-15
There is growing interest in the relation between the brain and music. The appealing similarity between brainwaves and the rhythms of music has motivated many scientists to seek a connection between them. A variety of transferring rules has been utilized to convert the brainwaves into music; and most of them are mainly based on spectra feature of EEG. In this study, audibly recognizable scale-free music was deduced from individual Electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. The translation rules include the direct mapping from the period of an EEG waveform to the duration of a note, the logarithmic mapping of the change of average power of EEG to music intensity according to the Fechner's law, and a scale-free based mapping from the amplitude of EEG to music pitch according to the power law. To show the actual effect, we applied the deduced sonification rules to EEG segments recorded during rapid-eye movement sleep (REM) and slow-wave sleep (SWS). The resulting music is vivid and different between the two mental states; the melody during REM sleep sounds fast and lively, whereas that in SWS sleep is slow and tranquil. 60 volunteers evaluated 25 music pieces, 10 from REM, 10 from SWS and 5 from white noise (WN), 74.3% experienced a happy emotion from REM and felt boring and drowsy when listening to SWS, and the average accuracy for all the music pieces identification is 86.8%(kappa = 0.800, Pbrain, which provide a real-time strategy for monitoring brain activities and are potentially useful to neurofeedback therapy.
Scale-free music of the brain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Wu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the relation between the brain and music. The appealing similarity between brainwaves and the rhythms of music has motivated many scientists to seek a connection between them. A variety of transferring rules has been utilized to convert the brainwaves into music; and most of them are mainly based on spectra feature of EEG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, audibly recognizable scale-free music was deduced from individual Electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. The translation rules include the direct mapping from the period of an EEG waveform to the duration of a note, the logarithmic mapping of the change of average power of EEG to music intensity according to the Fechner's law, and a scale-free based mapping from the amplitude of EEG to music pitch according to the power law. To show the actual effect, we applied the deduced sonification rules to EEG segments recorded during rapid-eye movement sleep (REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS. The resulting music is vivid and different between the two mental states; the melody during REM sleep sounds fast and lively, whereas that in SWS sleep is slow and tranquil. 60 volunteers evaluated 25 music pieces, 10 from REM, 10 from SWS and 5 from white noise (WN, 74.3% experienced a happy emotion from REM and felt boring and drowsy when listening to SWS, and the average accuracy for all the music pieces identification is 86.8%(kappa = 0.800, P<0.001. We also applied the method to the EEG data from eyes closed, eyes open and epileptic EEG, and the results showed these mental states can be identified by listeners. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sonification rules may identify the mental states of the brain, which provide a real-time strategy for monitoring brain activities and are potentially useful to neurofeedback therapy.
Dekkers, Rob
2014-01-01
Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst
Enhanced storage capacity with errors in scale-free Hopfield neural networks: An analytical study.
Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jinha; Kahng, Byungnam
2017-01-01
The Hopfield model is a pioneering neural network model with associative memory retrieval. The analytical solution of the model in mean field limit revealed that memories can be retrieved without any error up to a finite storage capacity of O(N), where N is the system size. Beyond the threshold, they are completely lost. Since the introduction of the Hopfield model, the theory of neural networks has been further developed toward realistic neural networks using analog neurons, spiking neurons, etc. Nevertheless, those advances are based on fully connected networks, which are inconsistent with recent experimental discovery that the number of connections of each neuron seems to be heterogeneous, following a heavy-tailed distribution. Motivated by this observation, we consider the Hopfield model on scale-free networks and obtain a different pattern of associative memory retrieval from that obtained on the fully connected network: the storage capacity becomes tremendously enhanced but with some error in the memory retrieval, which appears as the heterogeneity of the connections is increased. Moreover, the error rates are also obtained on several real neural networks and are indeed similar to that on scale-free model networks.
The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.
He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E
2010-05-13
Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L
2011-01-01
The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie
Quartic chameleons: Safely scale-free in the early Universe
Miller, Carisa; Erickcek, Adrienne L.
2016-11-01
In chameleon gravity, there exists a light scalar field that couples to the trace of the stress-energy tensor in such a way that its mass depends on the ambient matter density, and the field is screened in local, high-density environments. Recently it was shown that, for the runaway potentials commonly considered in chameleon theories, the field's coupling to matter and the hierarchy of scales between Standard Model particles and the energy scale of such potentials result in catastrophic effects in the early Universe when these particles become nonrelativistic. Perturbations with trans-Planckian energies are excited, and the theory suffers a breakdown in calculability at the relatively low temperatures of big bang nucleosynthesis. We consider a chameleon field in a quartic potential and show that the scale-free nature of this potential allows the chameleon to avoid many of the problems encountered by runaway potentials. Following inflation, the chameleon field oscillates around the minimum of its effective potential, and rapid changes in its effective mass excite perturbations via quantum particle production. The quartic model, however, only generates high-energy perturbations at comparably high temperatures and is able remain a well-behaved effective field theory at nucleosynthesis.
Control Theory for Linear Systems
Trentelman, Harry L.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Hautus, Malo
2001-01-01
Control Theory for Linear Systems deals with the mathematical theory of feedback control of linear systems. It treats a wide range of control synthesis problems for linear state space systems with inputs and outputs. The book provides a treatment of these problems using state space methods, often
Ideological Complex Systems: Mathematical Theory
Nescolarde-Selva, Josué Antonio; Usó i Domènech, Josep Lluís; Lloret-Climent, Miguel
2015-01-01
The goal of this article is to build an abstract mathematical theory rather than a computational one of the process of transmission of ideology. The basis of much of the argument is Patten's Environment Theory that characterizes a system with its double environment (input or stimulus and output or response) and the existing interactions among them. Ideological processes are semiotic processes, and if in Patten's theory, the two environments are physical, in this theory ideological processes a...
Information theory of molecular systems
Nalewajski, Roman F
2006-01-01
As well as providing a unified outlook on physics, Information Theory (IT) has numerous applications in chemistry and biology owing to its ability to provide a measure of the entropy/information contained within probability distributions and criteria of their information ""distance"" (similarity) and independence. Information Theory of Molecular Systems applies standard IT to classical problems in the theory of electronic structure and chemical reactivity. The book starts by introducing the basic concepts of modern electronic structure/reactivity theory based upon the Density Functional Theory
Ergodic theory and dynamical systems
Coudène, Yves
2016-01-01
This textbook is a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, with a particular emphasis on chaotic dynamics. This book contains a broad selection of topics and explores the fundamental ideas of the subject. Starting with basic notions such as ergodicity, mixing, and isomorphisms of dynamical systems, the book then focuses on several chaotic transformations with hyperbolic dynamics, before moving on to topics such as entropy, information theory, ergodic decomposition and measurable partitions. Detailed explanations are accompanied by numerous examples, including interval maps, Bernoulli shifts, toral endomorphisms, geodesic flow on negatively curved manifolds, Morse-Smale systems, rational maps on the Riemann sphere and strange attractors. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems will appeal to graduate students as well as researchers looking for an introduction to the subject. While gentle on the beginning student, the book also contains a number of commen...
Some scale-free networks could be robust under selective node attacks
Zheng, Bojin; Huang, Dan; Li, Deyi; Chen, Guisheng; Lan, Wenfei
2011-04-01
It is a mainstream idea that scale-free network would be fragile under the selective attacks. Internet is a typical scale-free network in the real world, but it never collapses under the selective attacks of computer viruses and hackers. This phenomenon is different from the deduction of the idea above because this idea assumes the same cost to delete an arbitrary node. Hence this paper discusses the behaviors of the scale-free network under the selective node attack with different cost. Through the experiments on five complex networks, we show that the scale-free network is possibly robust under the selective node attacks; furthermore, the more compact the network is, and the larger the average degree is, then the more robust the network is; with the same average degrees, the more compact the network is, the more robust the network is. This result would enrich the theory of the invulnerability of the network, and can be used to build robust social, technological and biological networks, and also has the potential to find the target of drugs.
Critical behavior of the contact process in annealed scale-free networks
Noh, Jae Dong; Park, Hyunggyu
2008-01-01
Critical behavior of the contact process is studied in annealed scale-free networks by mapping it on the random walk problem. We obtain the analytic results for the critical scaling, using the event-driven dynamics approach. These results are confirmed by numerical simulations. The disorder fluctuation induced by the sampling disorder in annealed networks is also explored. Finally, we discuss over the discrepancy of the finite-size-scaling theory in annealed and quenched networks in spirit of...
Scale-free networks as entropy competition
Sanchirico, Antonio; Fiorentino, Mauro
2008-10-01
Complex networks describe several and different real-world systems consisting of a number of interacting elements. A very important characteristic of such networks is the degree distribution that strongly controls their behavior. Based on statistical mechanics, three classes of uncorrelated complex networks are identified here, depending on the role played by the connectivities amongst elements. In particular, by identifying the connectivities of a node with the number of its nearest neighbors, we show that the power law is the most probable degree distribution that both nodes and neighbors, in a reciprocal competition, assume when the respective entropy functions reach their maxima, under mutual constraint. As a result, we obtain scaling exponent values as a function of the structural characteristics of the whole network. Moreover, our approach sheds light on the exponential and Poissonian degree distributions, derived, respectively, when connectivities are thought of as degenerated connections or as half-edges. Thus, all three classes of degree distributions are derived, starting from a common principle and leading to a general and unified framework for investigating the network structure.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.
Salisbury, David F.
1990-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
Evolution of Scale-Free Wireless Sensor Networks with Feature of Small-World Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Duan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Scale-free network and small-world network are the most impacting discoveries in the complex networks theories and have already been successfully proved to be highly effective in improving topology structures of wireless sensor networks. However, currently both theories are not jointly applied to have further improvements in the generation of WSN topologies. Therefore, this paper proposes a cluster-structured evolution model of WSNs considering the characteristics of both networks. With introduction of energy sensitivity and maximum limitation of degrees that a cluster head could have, the performance of our model can be ensured. In order to give an overall assessment of lifting effects of shortcuts, four placement schemes of shortcuts are analyzed. The characteristics of small-world network and scale-free network of our model are proved via theoretical derivation and simulations. Besides, we find that, by introducing shortcuts into scale-free wireless sensor network, the performance of the network can be improved concerning energy-saving and invulnerability, and we discover that the schemes constructing shortcuts between cluster heads and the sink node have better promoted effects than the scheme building shortcuts between pairs of cluster heads, and the schemes based on the preferential principle are superior to the schemes based on the random principle.
Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
Scale-free random graphs and Potts model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We introduce a simple algorithm that constructs scale-free random graphs efficiently: each vertex has a prescribed weight − (0 < < 1) and an edge can connect vertices and with rate . Corresponding equilibrium ensemble is identified and the problem is solved by the → 1 limit of the -state Potts ...
Theory of Planetary System Formation
Cassen, Patrick
1996-01-01
Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.
Dynamical systems V bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory
1994-01-01
Bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory are two of the best known areas within the field of dynamical systems. Both are studies of smooth systems, focusing on properties that seem to be manifestly non-smooth. Bifurcation theory is concerned with the sudden changes that occur in a system when one or more parameters are varied. Examples of such are familiar to students of differential equations, from phase portraits. Moreover, understanding the bifurcations of the differential equations that describe real physical systems provides important information about the behavior of the systems. Catastrophe theory became quite famous during the 1970's, mostly because of the sensation caused by the usually less than rigorous applications of its principal ideas to "hot topics", such as the characterization of personalities and the difference between a "genius" and a "maniac". Catastrophe theory is accurately described as singularity theory and its (genuine) applications. The authors of this book, the first printing of w...
Sparse cliques trump scale-free networks in coordination and competition
Gianetto, David A.; Heydari, Babak
2016-02-01
Cooperative behavior, a natural, pervasive and yet puzzling phenomenon, can be significantly enhanced by networks. Many studies have shown how global network characteristics affect cooperation; however, it is difficult to understand how this occurs based on global factors alone, low-level network building blocks, or motifs are necessary. In this work, we systematically alter the structure of scale-free and clique networks and show, through a stochastic evolutionary game theory model, that cooperation on cliques increases linearly with community motif count. We further show that, for reactive stochastic strategies, network modularity improves cooperation in the anti-coordination Snowdrift game and the Prisoner’s Dilemma game but not in the Stag Hunt coordination game. We also confirm the negative effect of the scale-free graph on cooperation when effective payoffs are used. On the flip side, clique graphs are highly cooperative across social environments. Adding cycles to the acyclic scale-free graph increases cooperation when multiple games are considered; however, cycles have the opposite effect on how forgiving agents are when playing the Prisoner’s Dilemma game.
Language theory and expert systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Attilio Agodi
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.
IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cosma Sorinel
2010-12-01
Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.
Metric clusters in evolutionary games on scale-free networks.
Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja
2017-12-01
The evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas in structured populations has been studied extensively in recent years. Whereas many theoretical studies have found that a heterogeneous network of contacts favors cooperation, the impact of spatial effects in scale-free networks is still not well understood. In addition to being heterogeneous, real contact networks exhibit a high mean local clustering coefficient, which implies the existence of an underlying metric space. Here we show that evolutionary dynamics in scale-free networks self-organize into spatial patterns in the underlying metric space. The resulting metric clusters of cooperators are able to survive in social dilemmas as their spatial organization shields them from surrounding defectors, similar to spatial selection in Euclidean space. We show that under certain conditions these metric clusters are more efficient than the most connected nodes at sustaining cooperation and that heterogeneity does not always favor-but can even hinder-cooperation in social dilemmas.
A scale-free neural network for modelling neurogenesis
Perotti, Juan I.; Tamarit, Francisco A.; Cannas, Sergio A.
2006-11-01
In this work we introduce a neural network model for associative memory based on a diluted Hopfield model, which grows through a neurogenesis algorithm that guarantees that the final network is a small-world and scale-free one. We also analyze the storage capacity of the network and prove that its performance is larger than that measured in a randomly dilute network with the same connectivity.
Strategic Factor Markets Scale Free Resources and Economic Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geisler Asmussen, Christian
2015-01-01
This paper analyzes how scale free resources, which can be acquired by multiple firms simultaneously and deployed against one another in product market competition, will be priced in strategic factor markets, and what the consequences are for the acquiring firms' performance. Based on a game...... at (and largely succeed in) setting resource prices so that the acquiring firms earn negative strategic factor market profits—sacrificing some of their preexisting market power rents—by acquiring resources that they know to be overpriced....
Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems
Pinedo, Michael L
2016-01-01
This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...
The Systems Theory of Autistogenesis
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J. Patrick Malone
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The systems theory of autistogenesis accounts for genetic and environmental predisposing factors for pervasive developmental disorders. During development, regions of the brain myelinate differentially, even while neuroinflammatory events induce neurological damage. Incorrect dietary ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to arachidonic acid (AA promote developmental aberration characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and commercial infant formulae possesses DHA/AA ratios unsuitable for normal brain development in those predisposed. The aromatase gene regulates DHA/AA metabolism and represents a potential biomarker for ASD. Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol. Estradiol is neuroprotective and a modulator of oxytocin receptors deficient in autism. Neuroprotective DHA is not well synthesized in males and is regulated by estradiol. Therefore, converging evidence indicates that any disturbance to the autistogenic system linking environment to neurobiology and genetics is capable of inducing developmental disorders with gender disparity.
Medium Theory and Social Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tække, Jesper
The paper first gives a tentative theoretical explanation of the concept of media, based on the dichotomies of actual/potential (meaning), form/medium (appearance), and substratum/material content (extension in time and space). This theoretical explanation presents...... the possibility for observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next section the paper frames the macro level by a tentative synthesis of the medium theory and the sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......-evolutionary process where new media alter the societal capacity to handle complexity in time and space. In this section it becomes probable that by means of different media, social systems give different possibilities for actual social performance. In a way, social systems themselves can be...
Yin and Yang of disease genes and death genes between reciprocally scale-free biological networks.
Han, Hyun Wook; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Ju Han
2013-11-01
Biological networks often show a scale-free topology with node degree following a power-law distribution. Lethal genes tend to form functional hubs, whereas non-lethal disease genes are located at the periphery. Uni-dimensional analyses, however, are flawed. We created and investigated two distinct scale-free networks; a protein-protein interaction (PPI) and a perturbation sensitivity network (PSN). The hubs of both networks exhibit a low molecular evolutionary rate (P genes but not with disease genes, whereas PSN hubs are highly enriched with disease genes and drug targets but not with lethal genes. PPI hub genes are enriched with essential cellular processes, but PSN hub genes are enriched with environmental interaction processes, having more TATA boxes and transcription factor binding sites. It is concluded that biological systems may balance internal growth signaling and external stress signaling by unifying the two opposite scale-free networks that are seemingly opposite to each other but work in concert between death and disease.
Statistical mechanics of scale-free gene expression networks
Gross, Eitan
2012-12-01
The gene co-expression networks of many organisms including bacteria, mice and man exhibit scale-free distribution. This heterogeneous distribution of connections decreases the vulnerability of the network to random attacks and thus may confer the genetic replication machinery an intrinsic resilience to such attacks, triggered by changing environmental conditions that the organism may be subject to during evolution. This resilience to random attacks comes at an energetic cost, however, reflected by the lower entropy of the scale-free distribution compared to the more homogenous, random network. In this study we found that the cell cycle-regulated gene expression pattern of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae obeys a power-law distribution with an exponent α = 2.1 and an entropy of 1.58. The latter is very close to the maximal value of 1.65 obtained from linear optimization of the entropy function under the constraint of a constant cost function, determined by the average degree connectivity . We further show that the yeast's gene expression network can achieve scale-free distribution in a process that does not involve growth but rather via re-wiring of the connections between nodes of an ordered network. Our results support the idea of an evolutionary selection, which acts at the level of the protein sequence, and is compatible with the notion of greater biological importance of highly connected nodes in the protein interaction network. Our constrained re-wiring model provides a theoretical framework for a putative thermodynamically driven evolutionary selection process.
Generate the scale-free brain music from BOLD signals.
Lu, Jing; Guo, Sijia; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Weixia; Yang, Hua; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong
2018-01-01
Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions. The interactions between different brain regions were represented by the average normalized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) structural connectivity with a coupling coefficient that modulated the coupling strength. Seventy-eight brain regions were adopted from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) template. Furthermore, we used the Balloon-Windkessel hemodynamic model to transform neural activity into a blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. Because the fMRI BOLD signal changes slowly, we used a sampling rate of 250 Hz to produce the temporal series for music generation. Then, the BOLD music was generated for each region using these simulated BOLD signals. Because the BOLD signal is scale free, these music pieces were also scale free, which is similar to classic music. Here, to simulate the case of an epileptic patient, we changed the parameter that determined the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the neural mass model. Finally, we obtained BOLD music for healthy and epileptic patients. The differences in levels of arousal between the 2 pieces of music may provide a potential tool for discriminating the different populations if the differences can be confirmed by more real data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exact Solutions of a Generalized Weighted Scale Free Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Tan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate a class of generalized weighted scale-free networks, where the new vertex connects to m pairs of vertices selected preferentially. The key contribution of this paper is that, from the standpoint of random processes, we provide rigorous analytic solutions for the steady state distributions, including the vertex degree distribution, the vertex strength distribution and the edge weight distribution. Numerical simulations indicate that this network model yields three power law distributions for the vertex degrees, vertex strengths and edge weights, respectively.
Theories are knowledge organizing systems (KOS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2015-01-01
-laden. The concept of knowledge organization system (KOS) is briefly introduced and discussed. A theory is a fundamental form of KOS and theories are the point of departure of any KOS. It is generally understood in KO that concepts are the units of KOS, but the theory-dependence of concepts brings theories......The notion “theory” is a neglected concept in the field of information science and knowledge organization (KO) as well as generally in philosophy and in many other fields, although there are exceptions from this general neglect (e.g., the so-called “theory theory” in cognitive psychology......). This article introduces different conceptions of “theory” and argues that a theory is a statement or a conception, which may be questioned and which is connected with background assumptions. Theories form interconnected systems of grand, middle rank and micro theories; also practice and artifacts are theory...
Network theory and its applications in economic systems
Huang, Xuqing
This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing theoretical framework of complex networks; and ii) applying complex networks models to quantitatively analyze economics systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks, which includes two chapters: 1) We develop a mathematical framework to study the percolation of interdependent networks under targeted-attack and find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc = 0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. 2) We analytically demonstrates that clustering, which quantifies the propensity for two neighbors of the same vertex to also be neighbors of each other, significantly increases the vulnerability of the system. In part II, we apply the complex networks models to study economics systems, which also includes two chapters: 1) We study the US corporate governance network, in which nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards, and propose a quantitative measure of information and influence transformation in the network. Thus we are able to identify the most influential directors in the network. 2) We propose a bipartite networks model to simulate the risk propagation process among commercial banks during financial crisis. With empirical bank's balance sheet data in 2007 as input to the model, we find that our model efficiently identifies a significant portion of the actual failed banks reported by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation during the financial crisis between 2008 and 2011. The results suggest that complex networks model could be useful for systemic risk stress testing for financial systems. The model also identifies that commercial rather than residential real estate assets are major culprits for the
Chemical organization theory: towards a theory of constructive dynamical systems
Dittrich, Peter; di Fenizio, Pietro Speroni
2005-01-01
Complex dynamical networks consisting of many components that interact and produce each other are difficult to understand, especially, when new components may appear. In this paper we outline a theory to deal with such systems. The theory consists of two parts. The first part introduces the concept of a chemical organization as a closed and mass-maintaining set of components. This concept allows to map a complex (reaction) network to the set of organizations, providing a new view on the syste...
General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.
Salisbury, David F.
The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…
Connecting Relational Theory and the Systems Theory Framework: Individuals and Their Systems
Patton, Wendy
2007-01-01
The Systems Theory Framework (STF) facilitates the inclusion of relevant aspects of multiple existing theories within an integrated framework, wherein relevance and meaning is decided upon by each individual. Patton and McMahon emphasise that the application of the Systems Theory Framework in integrating theory and practice is located within the…
Innovation diffusion equations on correlated scale-free networks
Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.
2016-07-01
We introduce a heterogeneous network structure into the Bass diffusion model, in order to study the diffusion times of innovation or information in networks with a scale-free structure, typical of regions where diffusion is sensitive to geographic and logistic influences (like for instance Alpine regions). We consider both the diffusion peak times of the total population and of the link classes. In the familiar trickle-down processes the adoption curve of the hubs is found to anticipate the total adoption in a predictable way. In a major departure from the standard model, we model a trickle-up process by introducing heterogeneous publicity coefficients (which can also be negative for the hubs, thus turning them into stiflers) and a stochastic term which represents the erratic generation of innovation at the periphery of the network. The results confirm the robustness of the Bass model and expand considerably its range of applicability.
Lower bound of assortativity coefficient in scale-free networks
Yang, Dan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao
2017-03-01
The degree-degree correlation is important in understanding the structural organization of a network and dynamics upon a network. Such correlation is usually measured by the assortativity coefficient r, with natural bounds r ∈ [ - 1 , 1 ] . For scale-free networks with power-law degree distribution p ( k ) ˜ k - γ , we analytically obtain the lower bound of assortativity coefficient in the limit of large network size, which is not -1 but dependent on the power-law exponent γ. This work challenges the validation of the assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous networks, suggesting that one cannot judge whether a network is positively or negatively correlated just by looking at its assortativity coefficient alone.
Organizational and Systems Theory: An Integrated Review
1980-09-30
1974, 17, 663-677. Weber, M. The theory of social and economic organizations, 44.• translated by A. Henderson, & Talcott Parsons New York: Free Press...Technical Report 595 te LORGANIZATIONAL AND SYSTEMS THEORY : AN INTEGRATED REVIEW Robert W. Swezey, Elaine G. Davis, cE. Scott Baudhuin, Siegfried...34Technical Report 595 7 -p "/)/3 ____,________ 4. TITLE (•.d Subtitle) 5. TYPE OP REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ORGANIZATIONAL AND SYSTEMS THEORY : AN Technical
Synchronization in scale-free networks: The role of finite-size effects
Torres, D.; Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Braunstein, L. A.
2015-06-01
Synchronization problems in complex networks are very often studied by researchers due to their many applications to various fields such as neurobiology, e-commerce and completion of tasks. In particular, scale-free networks with degree distribution P(k)∼ k-λ , are widely used in research since they are ubiquitous in Nature and other real systems. In this paper we focus on the surface relaxation growth model in scale-free networks with 2.5< λ <3 , and study the scaling behavior of the fluctuations, in the steady state, with the system size N. We find a novel behavior of the fluctuations characterized by a crossover between two regimes at a value of N=N* that depends on λ: a logarithmic regime, found in previous research, and a constant regime. We propose a function that describes this crossover, which is in very good agreement with the simulations. We also find that, for a system size above N* , the fluctuations decrease with λ, which means that the synchronization of the system improves as λ increases. We explain this crossover analyzing the role of the network's heterogeneity produced by the system size N and the exponent of the degree distribution.
Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keshav Raj Acharya
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.
Control Systems and Number Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuhuo Li
2012-01-01
and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.
Synchronization in Scale Free networks: The role of finite size effects
Torres, Débora; La Rocca, Cristian E; Braunstein, Lidia A
2015-01-01
Synchronization problems in complex networks are very often studied by researchers due to its many applications to various fields such as neurobiology, e-commerce and completion of tasks. In particular, Scale Free networks with degree distribution $P(k)\\sim k^{-\\lambda}$, are widely used in research since they are ubiquitous in nature and other real systems. In this paper we focus on the surface relaxation growth model in Scale Free networks with $2.5< \\lambda <3$, and study the scaling behavior of the fluctuations, in the steady state, with the system size $N$. We find a novel behavior of the fluctuations characterized by a crossover between two regimes at a value of $N=N^*$ that depends on $\\lambda$: a logarithmic regime, found in previous research, and a constant regime. We propose a function that describes this crossover, which is in very good agreement with the simulations. We also find that, for a system size above $N^{*}$, the fluctuations decrease with $\\lambda$, which means that the synchroniza...
Influence of dynamical condensation on epidemic spreading in scale-free networks.
Tang, Ming; Liu, Li; Liu, Zonghua
2009-01-01
Considering the accumulation phenomenon in public places, we investigate how the condensation of moving bosonic particles influences the epidemic spreading in scale-free metapopulation networks. Our mean-field theory shows that condensation can significantly enhance the effect of epidemic spreading and reduce the threshold for epidemic to survive, in contrast to the case of without condensation. In the stationary state, the number of infected particles increases with the degree k linearly when kk_{c}, where k_{c} denotes the crossover degree of the nodes with unity particle. The dependence of critical infective rate beta_{c} on the parameters k_{max}, micro, and delta, is figured out, where k_{max}, micro, and delta denote the largest degree, recovery rate, and jumping exponent, respectively. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.
Spreading dynamics of an e-commerce preferential information model on scale-free networks
Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei; Liu, Xiongding
2017-02-01
In order to study the influence of the preferential degree and the heterogeneity of underlying networks on the spread of preferential e-commerce information, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-beneficial model based on scale-free networks. The spreading dynamics of the preferential information are analyzed in detail using the mean-field theory. We determine the basic reproductive number and equilibria. The theoretical analysis indicates that the basic reproductive number depends mainly on the preferential degree and the topology of the underlying networks. We prove the global stability of the information-elimination equilibrium. The permanence of preferential information and the global attractivity of the information-prevailing equilibrium are also studied in detail. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical results.
Dynamics of epidemic spreading model with drug-resistant variation on scale-free networks
Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Zhang, Wu; Dong, Jing
2018-03-01
Considering the influence of the virus' drug-resistant variation, a novel SIVRS (susceptible-infected-variant-recovered-susceptible) epidemic spreading model with variation characteristic on scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. By using the mean-field theory, the spreading dynamics of the model is analyzed in detail. Then, the basic reproductive number R0 and equilibriums are derived. Studies show that the existence of disease-free equilibrium is determined by the basic reproductive number R0. The relationships between the basic reproductive number R0, the variation characteristic and the topology of the underlying networks are studied in detail. Furthermore, our studies prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium, the permanence of epidemic and the global attractivity of endemic equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results.
Turbulence and other processes for the scale-free texture of the fast solar wind
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2012-04-01
The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 hours. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind which co-exists with the signature of MHD turbulence but extends to lower frequencies. Importantly, scaling and non- Gaussian statistics of fluctuations are not unique to turbulence and can imply other physical mechanisms- our results thus place a strong constraint on theories of the dynamics of the solar corona and solar wind. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components also show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range of MHD turbulence.
Improving Estimation of Betweenness Centrality for Scale-Free Graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bromberger, Seth A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klymko, Christine F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henderson, Keith A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pearce, Roger [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-11-07
Betweenness centrality is a graph statistic used to nd vertices that are participants in a large number of shortest paths in a graph. This centrality measure is commonly used in path and network interdiction problems and its complete form requires the calculation of all-pairs shortest paths for each vertex. This leads to a time complexity of O(jV jjEj), which is impractical for large graphs. Estimation of betweenness centrality has focused on performing shortest-path calculations on a subset of randomly- selected vertices. This reduces the complexity of the centrality estimation to O(jSjjEj); jSj < jV j, which can be scaled appropriately based on the computing resources available. An estimation strategy that uses random selection of vertices for seed selection is fast and simple to implement, but may not provide optimal estimation of betweenness centrality when the number of samples is constrained. Our experimentation has identi ed a number of alternate seed-selection strategies that provide lower error than random selection in common scale-free graphs. These strategies are discussed and experimental results are presented.
Traffic properties for stochastic routings on scale-free networks
Hayashi, Yukio
2011-01-01
For realistic scale-free networks, we investigate the traffic properties of stochastic routing inspired by a zero-range process known in statistical physics. By parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\delta$, this model controls degree-dependent hopping of packets and forwarding of packets with higher performance at more busy nodes. Through a theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we derive the condition for the concentration of packets at a few hubs. In particular, we show that the optimal $\\alpha$ and $\\delta$ are involved in the trade-off between a detour path for $\\alpha 0$; In the low-performance regime at a small $\\delta$, the wandering path for $\\alpha 0$ and $\\alpha < 0$ is small, neither the wandering long path with short wait trapped at nodes ($\\alpha = -1$), nor the short hopping path with long wait trapped at hubs ($\\alpha = 1$) is advisable. A uniformly random walk ($\\alpha = 0$) yields slightly better performance. We also discuss the congestion phenomena in a more complicated situation with pack...
Power-law citation distributions are not scale-free
Golosovsky, Michael
2017-09-01
We analyze time evolution of statistical distributions of citations to scientific papers published in the same year. While these distributions seem to follow the power-law dependence we find that they are nonstationary and the exponent of the power-law fit decreases with time and does not come to saturation. We attribute the nonstationarity of citation distributions to different longevity of the low-cited and highly cited papers. By measuring citation trajectories of papers we found that citation careers of the low-cited papers come to saturation after 10-15 years while those of the highly cited papers continue to increase indefinitely: The papers that exceed some citation threshold become runaways. Thus, we show that although citation distribution can look as a power-law dependence, it is not scale free and there is a hidden dynamic scale associated with the onset of runaways. We compare our measurements to our recently developed model of citation dynamics based on copying-redirection-triadic closure and find explanations to our empirical observations.
Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Severini, Simone; Kuehn, Reimer; Sollich, Peter
2015-01-01
One of the key characteristics of cancer cells is an increased phenotypic plasticity, driven by underlying genetic and epigenetic perturbations. However, at a systems-level it is unclear how these perturbations give rise to the observed increased plasticity. Elucidating such systems-level principles is key for an improved understanding of cancer. Recently, it has been shown that signaling entropy, an overall measure of signaling pathway promiscuity, and computable from integrating a sample's gene expression profile with a protein interaction network, correlates with phenotypic plasticity and is increased in cancer compared to normal tissue. Here we develop a computational framework for studying the effects of network perturbations on signaling entropy. We demonstrate that the increased signaling entropy of cancer is driven by two factors: (i) the scale-free (or near scale-free) topology of the interaction network, and (ii) a subtle positive correlation between differential gene expression and node connectivity. Indeed, we show that if protein interaction networks were random graphs, described by Poisson degree distributions, that cancer would generally not exhibit an increased signaling entropy. In summary, this work exposes a deep connection between cancer, signaling entropy and interaction network topology. PMID:25919796
The Systems Theory Framework of Career Development
McMahon, Mary
2011-01-01
The Systems Theory Framework (STF; McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 2006) of career development was proposed as a metatheoretical framework that accommodates the contribution of all theories and offers an integrative and coherent framework of career influences. In this article, the author provides an overview of the STF, outlines its…
Conservative perturbation theory for nonconservative systems.
Shah, Tirth; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Vaidya, Kedar; Chakraborty, Sagar
2015-12-01
In this paper, we show how to use canonical perturbation theory for dissipative dynamical systems capable of showing limit-cycle oscillations. Thus, our work surmounts the hitherto perceived barrier for canonical perturbation theory that it can be applied only to a class of conservative systems, viz., Hamiltonian systems. In the process, we also find Hamiltonian structure for an important subset of Liénard system-a paradigmatic system for modeling isolated and asymptotic oscillatory state. We discuss the possibility of extending our method to encompass an even wider range of nonconservative systems.
ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY, SYSTEMIC THINKING AND SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Shahram Mirzaie Daryani; Samad Aali; Ahmad Asli-zadeh
2012-01-01
Organizational theory offers effective ways of thinking to researchers and practitioners who are interested in this field of study. This knowledge helps managers make organizational behavior more efficient through analyzing complex situations and developing effective tools to resolve them. In other words, it opens human’s mind to different aspects of life both inside and outside of the organization. Therefore, the value of organizational theory is in changing managers' thinking ways, thought ...
Large fluctuations in anti-coordination games on scale-free graphs
Sabsovich, Daniel; Mobilia, Mauro; Assaf, Michael
2017-05-01
We study the influence of the complex topology of scale-free graphs on the dynamics of anti-coordination games (e.g. snowdrift games). These reference models are characterized by the coexistence (evolutionary stable mixed strategy) of two competing species, say ‘cooperators’ and ‘defectors’, and, in finite systems, by metastability and large-fluctuation-driven fixation. In this work, we use extensive computer simulations and an effective diffusion approximation (in the weak selection limit) to determine under which circumstances, depending on the individual-based update rules, the topology drastically affects the long-time behavior of anti-coordination games. In particular, we compute the variance of the number of cooperators in the metastable state and the mean fixation time when the dynamics is implemented according to the voter model (death-first/birth-second process) and the link dynamics (birth/death or death/birth at random). For the voter update rule, we show that the scale-free topology effectively renormalizes the population size and as a result the statistics of observables depend on the network’s degree distribution. In contrast, such a renormalization does not occur with the link dynamics update rule and we recover the same behavior as on complete graphs.
MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…
Emergent "Quantum" Theory in Complex Adaptive Systems.
Minic, Djordje; Pajevic, Sinisa
2016-04-30
Motivated by the question of stability, in this letter we argue that an effective quantum-like theory can emerge in complex adaptive systems. In the concrete example of stochastic Lotka-Volterra dynamics, the relevant effective "Planck constant" associated with such emergent "quantum" theory has the dimensions of the square of the unit of time. Such an emergent quantum-like theory has inherently non-classical stability as well as coherent properties that are not, in principle, endangered by thermal fluctuations and therefore might be of crucial importance in complex adaptive systems.
Educational Interpretations of General Systems Theory.
Hug, William E.; King, James E.
This chapter discusses General Systems Theory as it applies to education, classrooms, innovations, and instructional design. The principles of equifinality, open and closed systems, the individual as the key system, hierarchical structures, optimization, stability, cooperation, and competition are discussed, and their relationship to instructional…
Get with the System: General Systems Theory for Business Officials.
Graczyk, Sandra L.
1993-01-01
An introduction to general systems theory and an overview of vocabulary and concepts are presented to introduce school business officials to systems thinking and to foster its use as an analytical tool. The theory is then used to analyze a sample problem: planning changes to a district's administrative computer system. (eight references) (MLF)
Distributed computer systems theory and practice
Zedan, H S M
2014-01-01
Distributed Computer Systems: Theory and Practice is a collection of papers dealing with the design and implementation of operating systems, including distributed systems, such as the amoeba system, argus, Andrew, and grapevine. One paper discusses the concepts and notations for concurrent programming, particularly language notation used in computer programming, synchronization methods, and also compares three classes of languages. Another paper explains load balancing or load redistribution to improve system performance, namely, static balancing and adaptive load balancing. For program effici
Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems
Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Diebner, Hans H.; Tsuda, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yukiharu
2008-01-01
We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is add...
Modular theory of inverse systems
1979-01-01
The relationship between multivariable zeros and inverse systems was explored. A definition of zero module is given in such a way that it is basis independent. The existence of essential right and left inverses were established. The way in which the abstract zero module captured previous definitions of multivariable zeros is explained and examples are presented.
Algebraic methods in system theory
Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.
1975-01-01
Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.
A novel classification system for aging theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas Siqueira Trindade
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial, maladaptive (neutral, assisted death (detrimental and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental. We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.
Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application
Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob
2013-01-01
Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic
Optimization theory for large systems
Lasdon, Leon S
2002-01-01
Important text examines most significant algorithms for optimizing large systems and clarifying relations between optimization procedures. Much data appear as charts and graphs and will be highly valuable to readers in selecting a method and estimating computer time and cost in problem-solving. Initial chapter on linear and nonlinear programming presents all necessary background for subjects covered in rest of book. Second chapter illustrates how large-scale mathematical programs arise from real-world problems. Appendixes. List of Symbols.
Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems
Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der
2005-01-01
Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac
Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice
Ayers, Mark L
2012-01-01
"Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"
IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario
2017-01-01
Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...
Dynamic Systems Theory and Team Sport Coaching
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
2014-01-01
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
Rube Goldberg Salad System: Teaching Systems Theory in Communication
Linabary, Jasmine R.; Long, Ziyu; Mouton, Ashton; Rao, Ranjani L.; Buzzanell, Patrice M.
2016-01-01
Systems theory has been a staple in organizational communication textbooks since the field's inception (Miller, 2015; Poole, 2014). Nevertheless, the authors' classroom experiences have revealed that systems theory may not seem applicable to students due to its complicated nature. While examples and cases can help students make sense of the…
Optimal control strategy for a novel computer virus propagation model on scale-free networks
Zhang, Chunming; Huang, Haitao
2016-06-01
This paper aims to study the combined impact of reinstalling system and network topology on the spread of computer viruses over the Internet. Based on scale-free network, this paper proposes a novel computer viruses propagation model-SLBOSmodel. A systematic analysis of this new model shows that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when its spreading threshold is less than one; nevertheless, it is proved that the viral equilibrium is permanent if the spreading threshold is greater than one. Then, the impacts of different model parameters on spreading threshold are analyzed. Next, an optimally controlled SLBOS epidemic model on complex networks is also studied. We prove that there is an optimal control existing for the control problem. Some numerical simulations are finally given to illustrate the main results.
On the visualization of social and other scale-free networks.
Jia, Yuntao; Hoberock, Jared; Garland, Michael; Hart, John C
2008-01-01
This paper proposes novel methods for visualizing specifically the large power-law graphs that arise in sociology and the sciences. In such cases a large portion of edges can be shown to be less important and removed while preserving component connectedness and other features (e.g. cliques) to more clearly reveal the network's underlying connection pathways. This simplification approach deterministically filters (instead of clustering) the graph to retain important node and edge semantics, and works both automatically and interactively. The improved graph filtering and layout is combined with a novel computer graphics anisotropic shading of the dense crisscrossing array of edges to yield a full social network and scale-free graph visualization system. Both quantitative analysis and visual results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.
A hybrid queuing strategy for network traffic on scale-free networks
Cai, Kai-Quan; Yu, Lu; Zhu, Yan-Bo
2017-02-01
In this paper, a hybrid queuing strategy (HQS) is proposed in traffic dynamics model on scale-free networks, where the delivery priority of packets in the queue is related to their distance to destination and the queue length of next jump. We compare the performance of the proposed HQS with that of the traditional first-in-first-out (FIFO) queuing strategy and the shortest-remaining-path-first (SRPF) queuing strategy proposed by Du et al. It is observed that the network traffic efficiency utilizing HQS with suitable value of parameter h can be further improved in the congestion state. Our work provides new insights for the understanding of the networked-traffic systems.
Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy
Abraham, Jane L.
Theories of learning affect how cognition is viewed, and this subsequently leads to the style of pedagogical practice that is used in education. Traditionally, educators have relied on a variety of theories on which to base pedagogy. Behavioral learning theories influenced the teaching/learning process for over 50 years. In the 1960s, the information processing approach brought the mind back into the learning process. The current emphasis on constructivism integrates the views of Piaget, Vygotsky, and cognitive psychology. Additionally, recent scientific advances have allowed researchers to shift attention to biological processes in cognition. The problem is that these theories do not provide an integrated approach to understanding principles responsible for differences among students in cognitive development and learning ability. Dynamical systems theory offers a unifying theoretical framework to explain the wider context in which learning takes place and the processes involved in individual learning. This paper describes how principles of Dynamic Systems Theory can be applied to cognitive processes of students, the classroom community, motivation to learn, and the teaching/learning dynamic giving educational psychologists a framework for research and pedagogy.
Using institutional theory in enterprise systems research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svejvig, Per
2013-01-01
This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, and bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 181 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...... model that advocates multi-level and multi-theory approaches and applies newer institutional aspects such as institutional logics. The findings show that institutional theory in ES research is in its infancy and adopts mainly traditional institutional aspects like isomorphism, with the organization...
General theory eh ondulyatornyh induction acceleration systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В.В. Куліш
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Universal theoretical model within which it is possible quantitative description of ЕН-accelerators and similar devices on their basis is built (ЕН-systems. Description of such universal model is offered to realize within the theory of hierarhial ossilations and waves. For solution of nonlinear tasks of theory of the ЕН-systems is offered to use the hierarchical versions of method of Bogolubov, method of averaged equation for the current density and method of hierarchical transformation of coordinates.
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY
Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...
The Theory of Random Laser Systems
Xun Ya Jian
2002-01-01
Studies of random laser systems are a new direction with promising potential applications and theoretical interest. The research is based on the theories of localization and laser physics. So far, the research shows that there are random lasing modes inside the systems which is quite different from the common laser systems. From the properties of the random lasing modes, they can understand the phenomena observed in the experiments, such as multi-peak and anisotropic spectrum, lasing mode number saturation, mode competition and dynamic processes, etc. To summarize, this dissertation has contributed the following in the study of random laser systems: (1) by comparing the Lamb theory with the Letokhov theory, the general formulas of the threshold length or gain of random laser systems were obtained; (2) they pointed out the vital weakness of previous time-independent methods in random laser research; (3) a new model which includes the FDTD method and the semi-classical laser theory. The solutions of this model ...
Topological theory of dynamical systems recent advances
Aoki, N
1994-01-01
This monograph aims to provide an advanced account of some aspects of dynamical systems in the framework of general topology, and is intended for use by interested graduate students and working mathematicians. Although some of the topics discussed are relatively new, others are not: this book is not a collection of research papers, but a textbook to present recent developments of the theory that could be the foundations for future developments. This book contains a new theory developed by the authors to deal with problems occurring in diffentiable dynamics that are within the scope of general topology. To follow it, the book provides an adequate foundation for topological theory of dynamical systems, and contains tools which are sufficiently powerful throughout the book. Graduate students (and some undergraduates) with sufficient knowledge of basic general topology, basic topological dynamics, and basic algebraic topology will find little difficulty in reading this book.
Multiple Intelligences Theory in Turkish Education System
Kaya, Osman Nafiz
2006-01-01
Turkey can be regarded as a cultural bridge between the East and the West. After Turkish Republic was established by Ataturk in 1923, many radical revolutions, including the Turkish Education System, were made in order for Turkey to reach the level of contemporary civilizations. In the last two decades, Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory has been…
Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris
2004-10-30
The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.
Possibilistic systems within a general information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joslyn, C.
1999-06-01
The author surveys possibilistic systems theory and place it in the context of Imprecise Probabilities and General Information Theory (GIT). In particular, he argues that possibilistic systems hold a distinct position within a broadly conceived, synthetic GIT. The focus is on systems and applications which are semantically grounded by empirical measurement methods (statistical counting), rather than epistemic or subjective knowledge elicitation or assessment methods. Regarding fuzzy measures as special provisions, and evidence measures (belief and plausibility measures) as special fuzzy measures, thereby he can measure imprecise probabilities directly and empirically from set-valued frequencies (random set measurement). More specifically, measurements of random intervals yield empirical fuzzy intervals. In the random set (Dempster-Shafer) context, probability and possibility measures stand as special plausibility measures in that their distributionality (decomposability) maps directly to an aggregable structure of the focal classes of their random sets. Further, possibility measures share with imprecise probabilities the ability to better handle open world problems where the universe of discourse is not specified in advance. In addition to empirically grounded measurement methods, possibility theory also provides another crucial component of a full systems theory, namely prediction methods in the form of finite (Markov) processes which are also strictly analogous to the probabilistic forms.
A Review of Group Systems Theory
Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.
2005-01-01
The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…
Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Xufeng Xu, Joydeep Mitra
trapezoidal fuzzy numbers have been used to express uncertainties in Lei et al, 2005; Yuan et al, 2007 have used interval algorithm to deal with the uncertainty of component data to calculate the interval reliability indices. Most of fuzzy methods for reliability evaluation of distribution system are based on fuzzy set theory.
Ecological Systems Theory in "School Psychology Review"
Burns, Matthew K.; Warmbold-Brann, Kristy; Zaslofsky, Anne F.
2015-01-01
Ecological systems theory (EST) has been suggested as a framework to provide effective school psychology services, but previous reviews of research found questionable consistency between methods and the principles of EST. The current article reviewed 349 articles published in "School Psychology Review" (SPR) between 2006 and 2015 and…
General Systems Theory and Counterplan Competition.
Madsen, Arnie
1989-01-01
Discusses the trend in academic debate on policy questions toward a wide acceptance of counterplans, encouraging combinations of proposals which appear at face value able to coexist but upon deeper analysis are incompatible. Argues in opposition to this trend by applying concepts from general systems theory to competition. (KEH)
Teaching Family Systems Theory through Service Learning
Murray, Christine E.; Lampinen, Autumn; Kelley-Soderholm, Erin L.
2006-01-01
The authors present a rationale for incorporating service-learning projects into courses that teach family systems theory. A model program is presented to provide an example of the objectives, practical considerations, and student responses to such a project. Recommendations for counselor educators are made based on experience with the model…
Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.
Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E
2012-05-28
Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.
A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harsh Beohar
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.
Brune sections in nonstationary system theory
Alpay, Daniel; Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Dewilde, Patrick; Dijksma, Aad
2000-01-01
“Brune sections” are rational functions analytic in the open unit disk D, J-inner and with a pole on the unit circle. They play an important role in the theory of stationary systems. In this Note we present their analogues in the setting of nonstationary systems, where analytic functions bounded in the open unit disk are replaced by upper triangular bounded operators.
Thermal Field Theory in Small Systems
Horowitz, W. A.
2017-09-01
We compute the finite size corrections to the partition function in a Cartesian space of finite extent in M directions and of infinite extent in D - M directions for a massless, non-interacting scalar field theory. We then use this partition function to compute numerically the energy density, pressure, entropy density, and speed of sound for this theory for M = 1, 2, and 3 for D = 3 total spatial dimensions. The finite size corrections for the speed of sound are ˜ 600%, which indicates the need to consider these corrections in hydrodynamic simulations of small collision systems in high energy nuclear physics.
Walking Across Wikipedia: A Scale-Free Network Model of Semantic Memory Retrieval
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Graham William Thompson
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Semantic knowledge has been investigated using both online and offline methods. One common online method is category recall, in which members of a semantic category like animals are retrieved in a given period of time. The order, timing, and number of retrievals are used as assays of semantic memory processes. One common offline method is corpus analysis, in which the structure of semantic knowledge is extracted from texts using co-occurrence or encyclopedic methods. Online measures of semantic processing, as well as offline measures of semantic structure, have yielded data resembling inverse power law distributions. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether these patterns in data might be related. A semantic network model of animal knowledge is formulated on the basis of Wikipedia pages and their overlap in word probability distributions. The network is scale-free, in that node degree is related to node frequency as an inverse power law. A random walk over this network is shown to simulate a number of results from a category recall experiment, including power law-like distributions of inter-response intervals. Results are discussed in terms of theories of semantic structure and processing.
Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory
Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.
1983-01-01
Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Mulhall, Declan
2015-01-01
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the Δ3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and Δ3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.
The emergence of overlapping scale-free genetic architecture in digital organisms.
Gerlee, P; Lundh, T
2008-01-01
We have studied the evolution of genetic architecture in digital organisms and found that the gene overlap follows a scale-free distribution, which is commonly found in metabolic networks of many organisms. Our results show that the slope of the scale-free distribution depends on the mutation rate and that the gene development is driven by expansion of already existing genes, which is in direct correspondence to the preferential growth algorithm that gives rise to scale-free networks. To further validate our results we have constructed a simple model of gene development, which recapitulates the results from the evolutionary process and shows that the mutation rate affects the tendency of genes to cluster. In addition we could relate the slope of the scale-free distribution to the genetic complexity of the organisms and show that a high mutation rate gives rise to a more complex genetic architecture.
Robust control systems theory and case studies
Mackenroth, Uwe
2004-01-01
"Robust Control Systems" gives a self-contained introduction to modern Control Theory. It thus adds a textbook to the existing research-oriented literature on Robust Control. The author lays emphasis on the modern aspects of the design of controllers with prescribed performance and robustness properties. Different to the classical engineering approach, a rigorous mathematical treatment is essential for the full understanding and applicability of the modern methods such as H2 or H8 control or methods based on the structured singular value µ. Nevertheless, no prior knowledge of Control Theory is required as the classical fundamentals are introduced within the first few chapters. Subsequently a large part of the text provides elementary examples and industrial case studies, which are developed in full detail to show how modern methods can be applied to advanced problems. They make intensive use of MATLAB, especially the Control Systems Toolbox and the µ-Analysis and Synthesis Toolbox.
Do citation systems represent theories of truth?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betsy Van der Veer Martens
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.
McAteer, R. T. James
2015-08-01
My soul is spiraling in frozen fractals all around, And one thought crystallizes like an icy blast, I'm never going back, the past is in the past.Elsa, from Disney’s Frozen, characterizes two fundamental aspects of scale-free processes in Nature: fractals are everywhere in space; fractals can be used to probe changes in time. Self-Organized Criticality provides a powerful set of tools to study scale-free processes. It connects spatial fractals (more generically, multifractals) to temporal evolution. The drawback is that this usually results in scale-free, unit-less, indices, which can be difficult to connect to everyday physics. Here, I show a novel method that connects one of the most powerful SOC tools - the wavelet transform modulus maxima approach to calculating multifractality - to one of the most powerful equations in all of physics - Ampere’s law. In doing so I show how the multifractal spectra can be expressed in terms of current density, and how current density can then be used for the prediction of future energy release from such a system.Our physical understanding of the solar magnetic field structure, and hence our ability to predict solar activity, is limited by the type of data currently available. I show that the multifractal spectrum provides a powerful physical connection between the details of photospheric magnetic gradients of current data and the coronal magnetic structure. By decomposing Ampere’s law and comparing it to the wavelet transform modulus maximum method, I show how the scale-free Holder exponent provides a direct measure of current density across all relevant sizes. The prevalence of this current density across various scales is connected to its stability in time, and hence to the ability of the magnetic structure to store and then release energy. Hence (spatial) multifractals inform us of (future) solar activity.Finally I discuss how such an approach can be used in any study of scale-free processes, and highlight the necessary
Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories
Shapiro, Irwin I.
2005-01-01
This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Theory and design of CNC systems
Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian
2008-01-01
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t
Random matrix theory, interacting particle systems and integrable systems
Forrester, Peter
2014-01-01
Random matrix theory is at the intersection of linear algebra, probability theory and integrable systems, and has a wide range of applications in physics, engineering, multivariate statistics and beyond. This volume is based on a Fall 2010 MSRI program which generated the solution of long-standing questions on universalities of Wigner matrices and beta-ensembles and opened new research directions especially in relation to the KPZ universality class of interacting particle systems and low-rank perturbations. The book contains review articles and research contributions on all these topics, in addition to other core aspects of random matrix theory such as integrability and free probability theory. It will give both established and new researchers insights into the most recent advances in the field and the connections among many subfields.
Scattering theory for open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behrndt, Jussi [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Malamud, Mark M. [Donetsk National University (Ukraine). Dept. of Mathematics; Neidhardt, Hagen [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)
2006-07-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A{sub D} in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A{sub D} can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {l_brace}A{sub D},h{r_brace}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {l_brace}A({mu}){r_brace} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy {mu}, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)
Applied optimal control theory of distributed systems
Lurie, K A
1993-01-01
This book represents an extended and substantially revised version of my earlierbook, Optimal Control in Problems ofMathematical Physics,originally published in Russian in 1975. About 60% of the text has been completely revised and major additions have been included which have produced a practically new text. My aim was to modernize the presentation but also to preserve the original results, some of which are little known to a Western reader. The idea of composites, which is the core of the modern theory of optimization, was initiated in the early seventies. The reader will find here its implementation in the problem of optimal conductivity distribution in an MHD-generatorchannel flow.Sincethen it has emergedinto an extensive theory which is undergoing a continuous development. The book does not pretend to be a textbook, neither does it offer a systematic presentation of the theory. Rather, it reflects a concept which I consider as fundamental in the modern approach to optimization of dis tributed systems. ...
The digestive system: linking theory and practice.
Hoyle, T
This article, the second in the nutrition series, presents an outline of food chemistry and the digestion of energy-producing foods. It is hoped that this will facilitate understanding of some of the principles of nutrition. A number of 'clinical points' are highlighted to emphasize the link between theory and practice. The processes by which the chemical building blocks (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen) are formed into more complex molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats are explained. The gross anatomy of the digestive system is outlined and the sites where digestive enzymes are secreted are identified. Regulation of the digestive system by endocrine secretions and the nervous system is described and tabulated.
Rate-independent systems theory and application
Mielke, Alexander
2015-01-01
This monograph provides both an introduction to and a thorough exposition of the theory of rate-independent systems, which the authors have worked on with a number of collaborators over many years. The focus is mostly on fully rate-independent systems, first on an abstract level with or without a linear structure, discussing various concepts of solutions with full mathematical rigor. The usefulness of the abstract concepts is then demonstrated on the level of various applications primarily in continuum mechanics of solids, including suitable approximation strategies with guaranteed numerical stability and convergence. Particular applications concern inelastic processes such as plasticity, damage, phase transformations, or adhesive-type contacts both at small strains and at finite strains. Other physical systems such as magnetic or ferroelectric materials, and couplings to rate-dependent thermodynamic models are also considered. Selected applications are accompanied by numerical simulations illustrating both t...
Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Thomas
2007-01-01
This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...... the conductance. The methods have been applied to a number of specific systems, includ- ing monatomic gold chains, atomic point contacts, and metal-molecule-metal configurations. These studies have clarified the inelastic effects in the elec- tron transport and characterized the vibrational modes that couple...
Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey
2018-01-01
The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.
The spread of computer viruses over a reduced scale-free network
Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan
2014-02-01
Due to the high dimensionality of an epidemic model of computer viruses over a general scale-free network, it is difficult to make a close study of its dynamics. In particular, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prove the global stability of its viral equilibrium, if any. To overcome this difficulty, we suggest to simplify a general scale-free network by partitioning all of its nodes into two classes: higher-degree nodes and lower-degree nodes, and then equating the degrees of all higher-degree nodes and all lower-degree nodes, respectively, yielding a reduced scale-free network. We then propose an epidemic model of computer viruses over a reduced scale-free network. A theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed model is bound to have a globally stable viral equilibrium, implying that any attempt to eradicate network viruses would prove unavailing. As a result, the next best thing we can do is to restrain virus prevalence. Based on an analysis of the impact of different model parameters on virus prevalence, some practicable measures are recommended to contain virus spreading. The work in this paper adequately justifies the idea of reduced scale-free networks.
Theories and simulations of complex social systems
Mago, Vijay
2014-01-01
Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...
Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas
Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.
Selective evolutionary generation systems: Theory and applications
Menezes, Amor A.
This dissertation is devoted to the problem of behavior design, which is a generalization of the standard global optimization problem: instead of generating the optimizer, the generalization produces, on the space of candidate optimizers, a probability density function referred to as the behavior. The generalization depends on a parameter, the level of selectivity, such that as this parameter tends to infinity, the behavior becomes a delta function at the location of the global optimizer. The motivation for this generalization is that traditional off-line global optimization is non-resilient and non-opportunistic. That is, traditional global optimization is unresponsive to perturbations of the objective function. On-line optimization methods that are more resilient and opportunistic than their off-line counterparts typically consist of the computationally expensive sequential repetition of off-line techniques. A novel approach to inexpensive resilience and opportunism is to utilize the theory of Selective Evolutionary Generation Systems (SECS), which sequentially and probabilistically selects a candidate optimizer based on the ratio of the fitness values of two candidates and the level of selectivity. Using time-homogeneous, irreducible, ergodic Markov chains to model a sequence of local, and hence inexpensive, dynamic transitions, this dissertation proves that such transitions result in behavior that is called rational; such behavior is desirable because it can lead to both efficient search for an optimizer as well as resilient and opportunistic behavior. The dissertation also identifies system-theoretic properties of the proposed scheme, including equilibria, their stability and their optimality. Moreover, this dissertation demonstrates that the canonical genetic algorithm with fitness proportional selection and the (1+1) evolutionary strategy are particular cases of the scheme. Applications in three areas illustrate the versatility of the SECS theory: flight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Prokhorchenko
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The work is devoted to the study the property of scaling invariance of the organization system of train traffic volume on Ukrainian railways. Methodology. To prove the real network origin of Trains Formation Plan (TFP destination to the type of so-called scale-invariant networks it is proposed to generate scale-free networks with different dimensions, Barabási–Albert type with parameters that real networks of TFP destination has and to investigate their structure on survivability using the procedure of percolation nodes. Percolation process is proposed to be considered as a modified version of the spatial movement of cars on the network by increasing the number of railway stations, which have lost the ability to perform the basic function to pass cars on TFP destination in terms of adverse effects (an accident, overload. Findings. Comparative analysis of percolation at random and targeted destructive impact on network nodes has shown matching with the results of real network percolation of TFP destination, which proves the existence of self-similarity. Comparable figures in percolation were: percentage of remote stations in the network, in which the network fragmentation occurs, the average inverse path between network nodes, the diameter of the graph structure, the size meaning of the second largest cluster in the network from the steps of destruction. Originality. For the first time the hypothesis of the existence of scaling invariance properties of the graph TFP destinations on the railways of Ukraine, which can be attributed to a class of the graph scale-free networks was confirmed. Existing knowledge in the field theory of scale-free networks can be used to describe the survivability of system transportation on the railways of Ukraine. Practical value. Based on the identified properties of system directions of train traffic volumes, it is possible to create a mathematical model in the future that will predict the behavior of the
Bio-Inspired Computation: Clock-Free, Grid-Free, Scale-Free and Symbol Free
2015-06-11
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2015-0002 Bio -inspired computation: clock-free, grid-free, scale-free, and symbol free Janet Wiles THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND...SUBTITLE Bio -inspired computation: clock-free, grid-free, scale-free, and symbol free 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4050 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The project developed a new fundamental component for bio -inspired computing, based on a new way of modelling
Global positioning system theory and practice
Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Collins, James
2001-01-01
This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichteneg...
Application of control theory to dynamic systems simulation
Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Young, G. E.
1982-01-01
The application of control theory is applied to dynamic systems simulation. Theory and methodology applicable to controlled ecological life support systems are considered. Spatial effects on system stability, design of control systems with uncertain parameters, and an interactive computing language (PARASOL-II) designed for dynamic system simulation, report quality graphics, data acquisition, and simple real time control are discussed.
Collaborative Control Theory and Decision Support Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shimon Y. Nof
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Collaborative Decision Support Systems, CDSS, depend on cost-effective collaboration among the decision participants. Those may include, in addition to human decision makers, non-human entities such as robots, software and hardware agents, sensors, and autonomous instruments. The purpose of this article is to explore the impact that CCT, the Collaborative Control Theory, has on cyber supported augmentation of collaboration in general, and its proven and potential impacts on CDSS in particular. Three recent case studies are discussed. The correlation between CDSS decision process and quality; and the level of CCT-based collaboration augmentation and the resulting level of Collaborative Intelligence, CI, is presented. It is concluded that while there are clear positive impacts of CCT based augmentation and level of CI, they need to be measured and optimized, not maximized. Further research in this area is also described.
TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS
While there is tremendous interest in the topic of sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory starting with Information Theory and ecological models. We discuss the state of complex sustainable syste...
Complex Systems: An Introduction-Information Theory, Chaos ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 8. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Information Theory, Chaos Theory and Computational Complexity. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 8 August 2009 pp 761-781 ...
Detrended fluctuation analysis: A scale-free view on neuronal oscillations
Hardstone, R.E.; Poil, S.S.; Schiavone, G.; Nikulin, V.V.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Linkenkaer Hansen, K.
2012-01-01
Recent years of research have shown that the complex temporal structure of ongoing oscillations is scale-free and characterized by long-range temporal correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has proven particularly useful, revealing that genetic variation, normal development, or disease
Emergence of super cooperation of prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angsheng Li
Full Text Available Recently, the authors proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game based on the spatial game of Nowak and May, and showed that the game can be played classically. By using this idea, we proposed three generalized prisoner's dilemma (GPD, for short games based on the weak Prisoner's dilemma game, the full prisoner's dilemma game and the normalized Prisoner's dilemma game, written by GPDW, GPDF and GPDN respectively. Our games consist of two players, each of which has three strategies: cooperator (C, defector (D and super cooperator (denoted by Q, and have a parameter γ to measure the entangled relationship between the two players. We found that our generalised prisoner's dilemma games have new Nash equilibrium principles, that entanglement is the principle of emergence and convergence (i.e., guaranteed emergence of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that entanglement provides a threshold for a phase transition of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that the role of heterogeneity of the scale-free networks in cooperations and super cooperations is very limited, and that well-defined structures of scale-free networks allow coexistence of cooperators and super cooperators in the evolutions of the weak version of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games.
Emergence of Super Cooperation of Prisoner’s Dilemma Games on Scale-Free Networks
Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi
2015-01-01
Recently, the authors proposed a quantum prisoner’s dilemma game based on the spatial game of Nowak and May, and showed that the game can be played classically. By using this idea, we proposed three generalized prisoner’s dilemma (GPD, for short) games based on the weak Prisoner’s dilemma game, the full prisoner’s dilemma game and the normalized Prisoner’s dilemma game, written by GPDW, GPDF and GPDN respectively. Our games consist of two players, each of which has three strategies: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q), and have a parameter γ to measure the entangled relationship between the two players. We found that our generalised prisoner’s dilemma games have new Nash equilibrium principles, that entanglement is the principle of emergence and convergence (i.e., guaranteed emergence) of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner’s dilemma games on scale-free networks, that entanglement provides a threshold for a phase transition of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner’s dilemma games on scale-free networks, that the role of heterogeneity of the scale-free networks in cooperations and super cooperations is very limited, and that well-defined structures of scale-free networks allow coexistence of cooperators and super cooperators in the evolutions of the weak version of our generalised prisoner’s dilemma games. PMID:25643279
Activity theory as a challenge to systems design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne
1991-01-01
This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...... to systems design, certain cornerstones become apparent, on which future systems design practice and research need to build. The paper will discuss these cornerstones, and the implications of the new understanding for design practice and research....
Dynamical systems theory for the Gardner equation
Saha, Aparna; Talukdar, B.; Chatterjee, Supriya
2014-02-01
The Gardner equation ut+auux+bu2ux+μuxxx=0 is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation when the effects of higher-order nonlinearity become significant. Using the so-called traveling wave ansatz u (x,t)=φ(ξ), ξ =x-vt (where v is the velocity of the wave) we convert the (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equation to a second-order ordinary differential equation in ϕ with an arbitrary constant and treat the latter equation by the methods of the dynamical systems theory. With some special attention on the equilibrium points of the equation, we derive an analytical constraint for admissible values of the parameters a, b, and μ. From the Hamiltonian form of the system we confirm that, in addition to the usual bright soliton solution, the equation can be used to generate three different varieties of internal waves of which one is a dark soliton recently observed in water [A. Chabchoub et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 124101 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.124101].
Complex network theory, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design
Halverson, M. J.; Fleming, S. W.
2015-07-01
Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (BC) and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and, more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, have a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the observed degree distribution did not clearly indicate a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A network theoretic community detection algorithm identified separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation) and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing). Furthermore, betweenness analyses suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, and index stations having large numbers of intracommunity links, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.
Standard systems: the foundational element of measurement theory.
Aftanas, Marion S
2006-01-01
All measurement involves some system or mechanism for deriving metric information and yet definitions and theories of the process in psychology have not emphasized this element. The theory of standard systems, on the other hand, introduces the system as the foundational element in the measurement process. When combined with a categorization of types of standard systems and other elements of the measurement process, the theory highlights, and provides a meta-theoretical framework for integrating the historically important and heuristic contributions to measurement theory. The early positive contributions that focussed on the development of systems of measurement and models for deriving metric information, were deflected by the requirements outlined in the physical addition theory, and in the limiting theory of scales. Some of these requirements were liberalized by subsequent theoretical thrusts. Future research should bolster the promise of the Rasch solutions with emphasis on the provision of standard systems with empirically anchored magnitude points.
The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III)
2005-01-01
Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST) took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life. PMID:16136205
The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. Olalde Rangel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life.
world system theory and keynesian macroeconomics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrateur
including major tenets, of Marx's economic theory. My essential point of divergence from Marx consists in a. Keynesian theory of profit. Following Marx, capitalism depends on profit, and profit is a special type of surplus which is appropriated under conditions approaching perfect competition in perfect markets. Profits ...
Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don
The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…
Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory.
Baron-Cohen, Simon
2009-03-01
The mind-blindness theory of autism spectrum conditions has been successful in explaining the social and communication difficulties that characterize these conditions but cannot explain the nonsocial features (the narrow interests, need for sameness, and attention to detail). A new theory, the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory, is summarized, which argues two factors are needed to explain the social and nonsocial features of the condition. This is related to other cognitive theories such as the weak central coherence theory and the executive dysfunction theory. The E-S theory is also extended to the extreme male brain theory as a way of understanding the biased sex ratio in autism. Etiological predictions are discussed, as are the clinical applications arising from the E-S theory.
Dynamical systems theory for music dynamics.
Boon, Jean Pierre; Decroly, Olivier
1995-09-01
We show that, when music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, the concepts and tools of dynamical systems theory can be applied to the analysis of temporal dynamics in music. (i) Phase space portraits are constructed from the time series wherefrom the dimensionality is evaluated as a measure of the global dynamics of each piece. (ii) Spectral analysis of the time series yields power spectra ( approximately f(-nu)) close to red noise (nu approximately 2) in the low frequency range. (iii) We define an information entropy which provides a measure of the local dynamics in the musical piece; the entropy can be interpreted as an evaluation of the degree of complexity in the music, but there is no evidence of an analytical relation between local and global dynamics. These findings are based on computations performed on eighty sequences sampled in the music literature from the 18th to the 20th century. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.
LeGare, M
1987-04-01
The general designations of neural systems and their levels of organization as presently applied in the neurosciences are described as being at variance with rigorous systems thinking. It is proposed that the rule-driven use of systems terminology and hierarchies would facilitate investigations of neural functioning in the natural case. General systems theory with its major propositions for hierarchical organization, open systems, and equifinality, is presented as providing the guidelines for developing systems-type theories for neuroscience investigations. General systems theory as metatheory is also used to evaluate hierarchies and systems designations in the neurosciences as these concepts are now applied in theories, models, and research. The metatheory is comprised of three sets of rules: the criteria for hierarchies; the properties of the open biological system; the criteria for the final conditions of open biological systems. The notion of the discovery of neural systems is contrasted with the apparent design of systems as frequently practiced by neuroscientists. The metatheory is summarized as directions for developing theories and as questions directed toward any neuroscience theory proposing levels of organization and systems.
Postmodern Fuzzy System Theory: A Deconstruction Approach Based on Kabbalah
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Burstein
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Modern general system theory proposed a holistic integrative approach based on input-state-output dynamics as opposed to the traditional reductionist detail based approach. Information complexity and uncertainty required a fuzzy system theory, based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. While successful in dealing with analysis, synthesis and control of technical engineering systems, general system theory and fuzzy system theory could not fully deal with humanistic and human-like intelligent systems which combine technical engineering components with human or human-like components characterized by their cognitive, emotional/motivational and behavioral/action levels of operation. Such humanistic systems are essential in artificial intelligence, cognitive and behavioral science applications, organization management and social systems, man-machine systems or human factor systems, behavioral knowledge based economics and finance applications. We are introducing here a “postmodern fuzzy system theory” for controlled state dynamics and output fuzzy systems and fuzzy rule based systems using our earlier postmodern fuzzy set theory and a Kabbalah possible worlds model of modal logic and semantics type. In order to create a postmodern fuzzy system theory, we “deconstruct” a fuzzy system in order to incorporate in it the cognitive, emotional and behavioral actions and expressions levels characteristic for humanistic systems. Kabbalah offers a structural, fractal and hierarchic model for integrating cognition, emotions and behavior. We obtain a canonic deconstruction for a fuzzy system into its cognitive, emotional and behavioral fuzzy subsystems.
The Role of Formal Theory in Social Work Research: Formalizing Family Systems Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzanne Taylor Sutphin
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Formal theories are critical to accumulating knowledge through scientific research to advance the discipline and practice. The use of formal theory in social work research is currently absent. Family Systems Theory (FST is commonly used in social work; however, it currently lacks the criteria to be considered a formal theory. We use FST to demonstrate the formalization process and its potential effect on social work research and practice. Currently, FST is being used as a perspective, to develop theories and models used in marriage and family therapy, and to develop assessment tools. We identify the components of a formal theory while presenting a formal version of FST. Directions for future research are suggested including the benefits of using formal theory to direct scientific research and guide the development of evidence-based practice.
Robustness of scale-free networks to cascading failures induced by fluctuating loads.
Mizutaka, Shogo; Yakubo, Kousuke
2015-07-01
Taking into account the fact that overload failures in real-world functional networks are usually caused by extreme values of temporally fluctuating loads that exceed the allowable range, we study the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading overload failures induced by fluctuating loads. In our model, loads are described by random walkers moving on a network and a node fails when the number of walkers on the node is beyond the node capacity. Our results obtained by using the generating function method show that scale-free networks are more robust against cascading overload failures than Erdős-Rényi random graphs with homogeneous degree distributions. This conclusion is contrary to that predicted by previous works, which neglect the effect of fluctuations of loads.
Modeling Peer-to-Peer Botnet on Scale-Free Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liping Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P botnets have emerged as one of the serious threats to Internet security. To prevent effectively P2P botnet, in this paper, a mathematical model which combines the scale-free trait of Internet with the formation of P2P botnet is presented. Explicit mathematical analysis demonstrates that the model has a globally stable endemic equilibrium when infection rate is greater than a critical value. Meanwhile, we find that, in scale-free network, the critical value is very little. Hence, it is unrealistic to completely dispel the P2P botnet. Numerical simulations show that one can take effective countermeasures to reduce the scale of P2P botnet or delay its outbreak. Our findings can provide meaningful instruction to network security management.
EEG microstate sequences in healthy humans at rest reveal scale-free dynamics
Van De Ville, Dimitri; Britz, Juliane; Michel, Christoph M.
2010-01-01
Recent findings identified electroencephalography (EEG) microstates as the electrophysiological correlates of fMRI resting-state networks. Microstates are defined as short periods (100 ms) during which the EEG scalp topography remains quasi-stable; that is, the global topography is fixed but strength might vary and polarity invert. Microstates represent the subsecond coherent activation within global functional brain networks. Surprisingly, these rapidly changing EEG microstates correlate significantly with activity in fMRI resting-state networks after convolution with the hemodynamic response function that constitutes a strong temporal smoothing filter. We postulate here that microstate sequences should reveal scale-free, self-similar dynamics to explain this remarkable effect and thus that microstate time series show dependencies over long time ranges. To that aim, we deploy wavelet-based fractal analysis that allows determining scale-free behavior. We find strong statistical evidence that microstate sequences are scale free over six dyadic scales covering the 256-ms to 16-s range. The degree of long-range dependency is maintained when shuffling the local microstate labels but becomes indistinguishable from white noise when equalizing microstate durations, which indicates that temporal dynamics are their key characteristic. These results advance the understanding of temporal dynamics of brain-scale neuronal network models such as the global workspace model. Whereas microstates can be considered the “atoms of thoughts,” the shortest constituting elements of cognition, they carry a dynamic signature that is reminiscent at characteristic timescales up to multiple seconds. The scale-free dynamics of the microstates might be the basis for the rapid reorganization and adaptation of the functional networks of the brain. PMID:20921381
Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control
Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien
2015-01-01
This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...
Mean field analysis of algorithms for scale-free networks in molecular biology.
Konini, S; Janse van Rensburg, E J
2017-01-01
The sampling of scale-free networks in Molecular Biology is usually achieved by growing networks from a seed using recursive algorithms with elementary moves which include the addition and deletion of nodes and bonds. These algorithms include the Barabási-Albert algorithm. Later algorithms, such as the Duplication-Divergence algorithm, the Solé algorithm and the iSite algorithm, were inspired by biological processes underlying the evolution of protein networks, and the networks they produce differ essentially from networks grown by the Barabási-Albert algorithm. In this paper the mean field analysis of these algorithms is reconsidered, and extended to variant and modified implementations of the algorithms. The degree sequences of scale-free networks decay according to a powerlaw distribution, namely P(k) ∼ k-γ, where γ is a scaling exponent. We derive mean field expressions for γ, and test these by numerical simulations. Generally, good agreement is obtained. We also found that some algorithms do not produce scale-free networks (for example some variant Barabási-Albert and Solé networks).
Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adolfo Paolo Masucci
Full Text Available In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.
Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.
Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio
2011-02-28
In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.
Faster Parallel Traversal of Scale Free Graphs at Extreme Scale with Vertex Delegates
Pearce, Roger
2014-11-01
© 2014 IEEE. At extreme scale, irregularities in the structure of scale-free graphs such as social network graphs limit our ability to analyze these important and growing datasets. A key challenge is the presence of high-degree vertices (hubs), that leads to parallel workload and storage imbalances. The imbalances occur because existing partitioning techniques are not able to effectively partition high-degree vertices. We present techniques to distribute storage, computation, and communication of hubs for extreme scale graphs in distributed memory supercomputers. To balance the hub processing workload, we distribute hub data structures and related computation among a set of delegates. The delegates coordinate using highly optimized, yet portable, asynchronous broadcast and reduction operations. We demonstrate scalability of our new algorithmic technique using Breadth-First Search (BFS), Single Source Shortest Path (SSSP), K-Core Decomposition, and Page-Rank on synthetically generated scale-free graphs. Our results show excellent scalability on large scale-free graphs up to 131K cores of the IBM BG/P, and outperform the best known Graph500 performance on BG/P Intrepid by 15%
Scaling Techniques for Massive Scale-Free Graphs in Distributed (External) Memory
Pearce, Roger
2013-05-01
We present techniques to process large scale-free graphs in distributed memory. Our aim is to scale to trillions of edges, and our research is targeted at leadership class supercomputers and clusters with local non-volatile memory, e.g., NAND Flash. We apply an edge list partitioning technique, designed to accommodate high-degree vertices (hubs) that create scaling challenges when processing scale-free graphs. In addition to partitioning hubs, we use ghost vertices to represent the hubs to reduce communication hotspots. We present a scaling study with three important graph algorithms: Breadth-First Search (BFS), K-Core decomposition, and Triangle Counting. We also demonstrate scalability on BG/P Intrepid by comparing to best known Graph500 results. We show results on two clusters with local NVRAM storage that are capable of traversing trillion-edge scale-free graphs. By leveraging node-local NAND Flash, our approach can process thirty-two times larger datasets with only a 39% performance degradation in Traversed Edges Per Second (TEPS). © 2013 IEEE.
Optimization and Control of Bilinear Systems Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
Pardalos, Panos M
2008-01-01
Covers developments in bilinear systems theory Focuses on the control of open physical processes functioning in a non-equilibrium mode Emphasis is on three primary disciplines: modern differential geometry, control of dynamical systems, and optimization theory Includes applications to the fields of quantum and molecular computing, control of physical processes, biophysics, superconducting magnetism, and physical information science
What can systems and control theory do for agricultural science?
Straten, van G.
2008-01-01
Abstract: While many professionals with a background in agricultural and bio-resource sciences work with models, only few have been exposed to systems and control theory. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate a selection of methods from systems theory that can be beneficial to quantitative
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective
Fitch, Dale
2004-01-01
The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…
Theory of Technical Systems--Educational Tool for Engineering
Eder, Wolfgang Ernst
2016-01-01
Hubka's theory of technical systems (TTS) is briefly outlined. It describes commonalities in all engineering devices, whatever their physical principles of action. This theory is based on a general transformation system (TrfS), which can be used to show engineering in the contexts of society, economics and historic developments. The life cycle of…
Theory of functional systems and human general pathology.
Khitrov, N K; Saltykov, A B
2003-07-01
We analyze the role of the theory of functional systems for human general pathology and the necessity of integration of this theory with the concepts of pathological and ambivalent systems. Multiple (qualitatively heterogeneous) nature of system-forming factors and principle possibility of the formation of physiological, pathological, and ambivalent systems by the same factors are discussed. These theses broaden the application of the theory of functional systems as the fundamental basis for studies of informational mechanisms of vital activity under normal and pathological conditions.
Continuous and distributed systems theory and applications
Sadovnichiy, Victor
2014-01-01
In this volume, the authors close the gap between abstract mathematical approaches, such as abstract algebra, number theory, nonlinear functional analysis, partial differential equations, methods of nonlinear and multi-valued analysis, on the one hand, and practical applications in nonlinear mechanics, decision making theory and control theory on the other. Readers will also benefit from the presentation of modern mathematical modeling methods for the numerical solution of complicated engineering problems in hydromechanics, geophysics and mechanics of continua. This compilation will be of interest to mathematicians and engineers working at the interface of these field. It presents selected works of the open seminar series of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”. The authors come from Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia, Ukraine, and the USA.
Fast sparsely synchronized brain rhythms in a scale-free neural network
Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang
2015-08-01
We consider a directed version of the Barabási-Albert scale-free network model with symmetric preferential attachment with the same in- and out-degrees and study the emergence of sparsely synchronized rhythms for a fixed attachment degree in an inhibitory population of fast-spiking Izhikevich interneurons. Fast sparsely synchronized rhythms with stochastic and intermittent neuronal discharges are found to appear for large values of J (synaptic inhibition strength) and D (noise intensity). For an intensive study we fix J at a sufficiently large value and investigate the population states by increasing D . For small D , full synchronization with the same population-rhythm frequency fp and mean firing rate (MFR) fi of individual neurons occurs, while for large D partial synchronization with fp> ( : ensemble-averaged MFR) appears due to intermittent discharge of individual neurons; in particular, the case of fp>4 is referred to as sparse synchronization. For the case of partial and sparse synchronization, MFRs of individual neurons vary depending on their degrees. As D passes a critical value D* (which is determined by employing an order parameter), a transition to unsynchronization occurs due to the destructive role of noise to spoil the pacing between sparse spikes. For D
On activity theory in cognitive systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian
Theory' (Virksomhedsteori). Virksomhedsteori er den dominante teori i den sovjetiske tradition af social psykologi. Virksomhedsteori startede med Vygotskys arbejde og fortsatte sin vækst under vejledningen af forskere som Leontiev og Luria. Med sit erkendelsesteoretiske program baseret på interaktion med...
Legal System and Legal Chaos Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Syarifudin
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Order of the universe and other objects can be described either by cosmology and physics. But from of the regularity of the object there in terms or aspect of irregularity or fractal (broken that difficult to describe by Auklides and Calculus mathematical models. Benoit Medelbrot tried to explain the chaotic objects with fractal theory which basically a branch of mathematics. The fractal theory affect the view of the law that inspired Charles Sampford which then sparked a legal chaos theory. The core of legal chaos theory is (1 social relationships , including the relationship established based on the relationship of forces (power relation, (2 the parties who make that relationship does not have the same strength or balance, and (3 at the time of execution of the respective relations based on their subjective opinions. Those three thing that is causing chaos. But the atmosphere of chaos that would eventually return to the regularity, because of the strength towing (strange attractor that in the area of law is the law and the power of the state. Chaos basically contained in the freedom -based relationship beyond the confines of order. When the towing force managed to recover the chaos so as to create harmony between order and freedom, the peace that one of the legal goal is achieved.
General Contingency Theory of Organizations: An Alternative to Open Systems Theory.
1982-08-01
genetic and mechanical open systems. We have recently proposed a general contingency theory (GCT) of management (Luthans and Stewart, 1977) which promises...developed in response to the need for an integrative theory of management that incorporates the environment (in the open systems sense. and begins to...subsystem (M) ( concepts and techniques of management practice) 7 Secondary level: situation E x R organization M x R performance criteria M x E
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Håkan Andréasson
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein’s equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein–Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.
Andréasson, Håkan
2011-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
An Activity Systems Theory Approach to Agent Technology
Zhang, Peng; Bai, Guohua
2005-01-01
In the last decade, Activity Theory has been discussed a lot in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Activity Theory was used both theoretically as an analytical method and practically as a development framework for Information Systems. Meanwhile, there is a new trench from Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence researchers find that the fruit from Activity Theory study may contribute, especially to Agent Technology, with socio-psychologic...
Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro dos; Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima da
2004-01-01
This qualitative study aimed to understand, through nursing discourse, the relation between theory and practice in nursing and its implications for the development of information systems. Grounded theory was used as a methodological reference framework. The study population consisted of nurses who work at the clinic of a school hospital. Data analysis resulted in the main category: The search for theory-practice interaction in the nursing information system. This process was formed by the integration among categories, based on Strauss and Corbin's paradigm as a model with two phenomena: the attempt to apply the formal models in nursing practice and the perspective of the theory-practice gap in the nursing information system.
Scale-free models for the structure of business firm networks.
Kitsak, Maksim; Riccaboni, Massimo; Havlin, Shlomo; Pammolli, Fabio; Stanley, H Eugene
2010-03-01
We study firm collaborations in the life sciences and the information and communication technology sectors. We propose an approach to characterize industrial leadership using k -shell decomposition, with top-ranking firms in terms of market value in higher k -shell layers. We find that the life sciences industry network consists of three distinct components: a "nucleus," which is a small well-connected subgraph, "tendrils," which are small subgraphs consisting of small degree nodes connected exclusively to the nucleus, and a "bulk body," which consists of the majority of nodes. Industrial leaders, i.e., the largest companies in terms of market value, are in the highest k -shells of both networks. The nucleus of the life sciences sector is very stable: once a firm enters the nucleus, it is likely to stay there for a long time. At the same time we do not observe the above three components in the information and communication technology sector. We also conduct a systematic study of these three components in random scale-free networks. Our results suggest that the sizes of the nucleus and the tendrils in scale-free networks decrease as the exponent of the power-law degree distribution lambda increases, and disappear for lambda>or=3 . We compare the k -shell structure of random scale-free model networks with two real-world business firm networks in the life sciences and in the information and communication technology sectors. We argue that the observed behavior of the k -shell structure in the two industries is consistent with the coexistence of both preferential and random agreements in the evolution of industrial networks.
Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development
Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May
2010-01-01
Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…
Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development
Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.
2012-01-01
We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…
Filament Formation in Molecular Clouds as a Scale-Free Process
Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto
We discuss the formation of filaments in molecular clouds (MCs) as the result of large-scale collapse in the clouds. We first give arguments suggesting that self-gravity dominates the nonthermal motions, and then briefly describe the resulting structure, similar to that found in molecular-line and dust observations of the filaments in the clouds. The filaments exhibit a hierarchical structure in both density and velocity, suggesting a scale-free nature, similar to that of the cosmic web, resulting from the domination of self-gravity from the MC down to the core scale.
Explosive synchronization in clustered scale-free networks: Revealing the existence of chimera state
Berec, V.
2016-02-01
The collective dynamics of Kuramoto oscillators with a positive correlation between the incoherent and fully coherent domains in clustered scale-free networks is studied. Emergence of chimera states for the onsets of explosive synchronization transition is observed during an intermediate coupling regime when degree-frequency correlation is established for the hubs with the highest degrees. Diagnostic of the abrupt synchronization is revealed by the intrinsic spectral properties of the network graph Laplacian encoded in the heterogeneous phase space manifold, through extensive analytical investigation, presenting realistic MC simulations of nonlocal interactions in discrete time dynamics evolving on the network.
On thermodynamic states of the Ising model on scale-free graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. Kozitsky
2013-06-01
Full Text Available There is proposed a model of scale-free random graphs which are locally close to the uncorrelated complex random networks with divergent 2> studied in, e.g., S. N. Dorogovtsev et al, Rev. Mod. Phys., 80, 1275 (2008. It is shown that the Ising model on the proposed graphs with interaction intensities of arbitrary signs with probability one is in a paramagnetic state at sufficiently high finite values of the temperature. For the same graphs, the bond percolation model with probability one is in a nonpercolative state for positive values of the percolation probability. These results and their possible extensions are also discussed.
Entanglement percolation on a quantum internet with scale-free and clustering characters
Wu, Liang; Zhu, Shiqun
2011-11-01
The applicability of entanglement percolation protocol to real Internet structure is investigated. If the current Internet can be used directly in the quantum regime, the protocol can provide a way to establish long-distance entanglement when the links are pure nonmaximally entangled states. This applicability is primarily due to the combination of scale-free degree distribution and a high level of clustering, both of which are widely observed in many natural and artificial networks including the current Internet. It suggests that the topology of real Internet may play an important role in entanglement establishment.
Binary systems from quantum cluster equilibrium theory.
Brüssel, Marc; Perlt, Eva; Lehmann, Sebastian B C; von Domaros, Michael; Kirchner, Barbara
2011-11-21
An extension of the quantum cluster equilibrium theory to treat binary mixtures is introduced in this work. The necessary equations are derived and a possible implementation is presented. In addition an alternative sampling procedure using widely available experimental data for the quantum cluster equilibrium approach is suggested and tested. An illustrative example, namely, the binary mixture of water and dimethyl sulfoxide, is given to demonstrate the new approach. A basic cluster set is introduced containing the relevant cluster motifs. The populations computed by the quantum cluster equilibrium approach are compared to the experimental data. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy is computed and compared to experiments as well.
Integrable Hamiltonian systems and spectral theory
Moser, J
1981-01-01
Classical integrable Hamiltonian systems and isospectral deformations ; geodesics on an ellipsoid and the mechanical system of C. Neumann ; the Schrödinger equation for almost periodic potentials ; finite band potentials ; limit cases, Bargmann potentials.
A Systems Model of Parkinson's Disease Using Biochemical Systems Theory.
Sasidharakurup, Hemalatha; Melethadathil, Nidheesh; Nair, Bipin; Diwakar, Shyam
2017-08-01
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although studies on PD from various aspects are becoming popular, few rely on predictive systems modeling approaches. Using Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), this article attempts to model and characterize dopaminergic cell death and understand pathophysiology of progression of PD. PD pathways were modeled using stochastic differential equations incorporating law of mass action, and initial concentrations for the modeled proteins were obtained from literature. Simulations suggest that dopamine levels were reduced significantly due to an increase in dopaminergic quinones and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) relating to imbalances compared to control during PD progression. Associating to clinically observed PD-related cell death, simulations show abnormal parkin and reactive oxygen species levels with an increase in neurofibrillary tangles. While relating molecular mechanistic roles, the BST modeling helps predicting dopaminergic cell death processes involved in the progression of PD and provides a predictive understanding of neuronal dysfunction for translational neuroscience.
Information Theory Density Matrix for a Simple Quantum System.
Titus, William J.
1979-01-01
Derives the density matrix that best describes, according to information theory, a one-dimensional single particle quantum system when the only information available is the values for the linear and quadratic position-momentum moments. (Author/GA)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per
2009-01-01
Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of social and historical structures of information systems (IS) implementation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organisational actors make sense of and enact technologies in their local...... context. We address this limitation by exploring the potential of using institutional theory with sensemaking theory to study IS implementation in organisations. We argue that each theoretical perspective has its own explanatory power and that a combination of the two facilitates a much richer...... interpretation of IS implementation by linking macro- and micro-levels of analysis. To illustrate this, we report from an empirical study of the implementation of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system in a clinical setting. Using key constructs from the two theories, our findings address the phenomenon...
Stochastic chemical kinetics theory and (mostly) systems biological applications
Érdi, Péter; Lente, Gabor
2014-01-01
This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. In recent years, due to the development in experimental techniques, such as optical imaging, single cell analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical kinetic data inside single living cells have increasingly been available. The emergence of systems biology brought renaissance in the application of stochastic kinetic methods.
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.
Analysis of Average Shortest-Path Length of Scale-Free Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoyong Mao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Computing the average shortest-path length of a large scale-free network needs much memory space and computation time. Hence, parallel computing must be applied. In order to solve the load-balancing problem for coarse-grained parallelization, the relationship between the computing time of a single-source shortest-path length of node and the features of node is studied. We present a dynamic programming model using the average outdegree of neighboring nodes of different levels as the variable and the minimum time difference as the target. The coefficients are determined on time measurable networks. A native array and multimap representation of network are presented to reduce the memory consumption of the network such that large networks can still be loaded into the memory of each computing core. The simplified load-balancing model is applied on a network of tens of millions of nodes. Our experiment shows that this model can solve the load-imbalance problem of large scale-free network very well. Also, the characteristic of this model can meet the requirements of networks with ever-increasing complexity and scale.
Scale-free distribution of Dead Sea sinkholes: Observations and modeling
Yizhaq, H.; Ish-Shalom, C.; Raz, E.; Ashkenazy, Y.
2017-05-01
There are currently more than 5500 sinkholes along the Dead Sea in Israel. These were formed due to the dissolution of subsurface salt layers as a result of the replacement of hypersaline groundwater by fresh brackish groundwater. This process has been associated with a sharp decline in the Dead Sea water level, currently more than 1 m/yr, resulting in a lower water table that has allowed the intrusion of fresher brackish water. We studied the distribution of the sinkhole sizes and found that it is scale free with a power law exponent close to 2. We constructed a stochastic cellular automata model to understand the observed scale-free behavior and the growth of the sinkhole area in time. The model consists of a lower salt layer and an upper soil layer in which cavities that develop in the lower layer lead to collapses in the upper layer. The model reproduces the observed power law distribution without involving the threshold behavior commonly associated with criticality.
Scale-free brain-wave music from simultaneously EEG and fMRI recordings.
Lu, Jing; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong
2012-01-01
In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain.
Scale-free brain-wave music from simultaneously EEG and fMRI recordings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Lu
Full Text Available In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain.
Scale-Free Brain-Wave Music from Simultaneously EEG and fMRI Recordings
Lu, Jing; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong
2012-01-01
In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain. PMID:23166768
Scale-free distribution of Dead Sea sinkholes--observations and modeling
Yizhaq, Hezi; Raz, Eli; Ashkenazy, Yosef
2016-01-01
There are currently more than 5500 sinkholes along the Dead Sea in Israel. These were formed due to dissolution of subsurface salt layers as a result of the replacement of hypersaline groundwater by fresh brackish groundwater. This process was associated with a sharp decline in the Dead Sea level, currently more than one meter per year, resulting in a lower water table that has allowed the intrusion of fresher brackish water. We studied the distribution of the sinkholes sizes and found that it is scale-free with a power-law exponent close to 2. We constructed a stochastic cellular automata model to understand the observed scale-free behavior and the growth of the sinkholes area in time. The model consists of a lower salt layer and an upper soil layer in which cavities that develop in the lower layer lead to collapses in the upper layer. The model reproduces the observed power-law distribution without entailing the threshold behavior commonly associated with criticality.
The Depressed Brain: An Evolutionary Systems Theory.
Badcock, Paul B; Davey, Christopher G; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B; Friston, Karl J
2017-03-01
Major depression is a debilitating condition characterised by diverse neurocognitive and behavioural deficits. Nevertheless, our species-typical capacity for depressed mood implies that it serves an adaptive function. Here we apply an interdisciplinary theory of brain function to explain depressed mood and its clinical manifestations. Combining insights from the free-energy principle (FEP) with evolutionary theorising in psychology, we argue that depression reflects an adaptive response to perceived threats of aversive social outcomes (e.g., exclusion) that minimises the likelihood of surprising interpersonal exchanges (i.e., those with unpredictable outcomes). We suggest that psychopathology typically arises from ineffectual attempts to alleviate interpersonal difficulties and/or hyper-reactive neurobiological responses to social stress (i.e., uncertainty), which often stems from early experience that social uncertainty is difficult to resolve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theory and practice in machining systems
Ito, Yoshimi
2017-01-01
This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach
Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-01-01
meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization ...
Nonlinear dynamical systems for theory and research in ergonomics.
Guastello, Stephen J
2017-02-01
Nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory offers new constructs, methods and explanations for phenomena that have in turn produced new paradigms of thinking within several disciplines of the behavioural sciences. This article explores the recent developments of NDS as a paradigm in ergonomics. The exposition includes its basic axioms, the primary constructs from elementary dynamics and so-called complexity theory, an overview of its methods, and growing areas of application within ergonomics. The applications considered here include: psychophysics, iconic displays, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation in systems. Although these applications make use of different subsets of NDS constructs, several of them share the general principles of the complex adaptive system. Practitioner Summary: Nonlinear dynamical systems theory reframes problems in ergonomics that involve complex systems as they change over time. The leading applications to date include psychophysics, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, biomechanics, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation of system components.
A quest towards a mathematical theory of living systems
Bellomo, Nicola; Gibelli, Livio; Outada, Nisrine
2017-01-01
This monograph aims to lay the groundwork for the design of a unified mathematical approach to the modeling and analysis of large, complex systems composed of interacting living things. Drawing on twenty years of research in various scientific fields, it explores how mathematical kinetic theory and evolutionary game theory can be used to understand the complex interplay between mathematical sciences and the dynamics of living systems. The authors hope this will contribute to the development of new tools and strategies, if not a new mathematical theory. The first chapter discusses the main features of living systems and outlines a strategy for their modeling. The following chapters then explore some of the methods needed to potentially achieve this in practice. Chapter Two provides a brief introduction to the mathematical kinetic theory of classical particles, with special emphasis on the Boltzmann equation; the Enskog equation, mean field models, and Monte Carlo methods are also briefly covered. Chapter Three...
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mulhall, Declan [Department of Physics/Engineering, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510-4642 (United States)
2014-10-15
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and Δ{sub 3}(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and Δ{sub 3}(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems
Lunze, Jan
2013-01-01
The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic
Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation
Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto
2015-01-01
A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available
The Application of Big-Neuron Theory in Expert Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李涛
2001-01-01
With a new way of knowledge representation and acquirement, inference, and building an expert system based on big-neurons composed of different field expert knowledge presented, the fundamental theory and architecture of expert system based upon big-neuron theory has thus been built. It is unnecessary to organize a large number of production rules when using big-neurons to build an expert system. The facts and rules of an expert system have already been hidden in big-neurons. And also, it is unnecessary to do a great quantity of tree searching when using this method to do logic reasoning. Machine can do self-organizing and self-learning.
Theory of control systems described by differential inclusions
Han, Zhengzhi; Huang, Jun
2016-01-01
This book provides a brief introduction to the theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and deals in depth with control of three kinds of differential inclusion systems. The authors introduce the algebraic decomposition of convex processes, the stabilization of polytopic systems, and observations of Luré systems. They also introduce the elemental theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and the properties and designs of the control systems described by differential inclusions. Addressing the material with clarity and simplicity, the book includes recent research achievements and spans all concepts, concluding with a critical mathematical framework. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and postgraduate students in the area of automatic control engineering.
Residue number systems theory and applications
Mohan, P V Ananda
2016-01-01
This new and expanded monograph improves upon Mohan's earlier book, Residue Number Systems (Springer, 2002) with a state of the art treatment of the subject. Replete with detailed illustrations and helpful examples, this book covers a host of cutting edge topics such as the core function, the quotient function, new Chinese Remainder theorems, and large integer operations. It also features many significant applications to practical communication systems and cryptography such as FIR filters and elliptic curve cryptography. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the basics and leading up to current research trends that are not yet widely distributed in other publications, this book will be of interest to both researchers and students alike.
Some Open Problems in Random Matrix Theory and the Theory of Integrable Systems. II
Deift, Percy
2017-03-01
We describe a list of open problems in random matrix theory and the theory of integrable systems that was presented at the conference Asymptotics in Integrable Systems, Random Matrices and Random Processes and Universality, Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, June 7-11, 2015. We also describe progress that has been made on problems in an earlier list presented by the author on the occasion of his 60^{th} birthday in 2005 (see [Deift P., Contemp. Math., Vol. 458, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2008, 419-430, arXiv:0712.0849]).
A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.
Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G
2013-01-01
Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.
Qubit Systems from Colored Toric Geometry and Hypercube Graph Theory*
Aadel, Y.; Belhaj, A.; Bensed, M.; Benslimane, Z.; Sedra, M. B.; Segui, A.
2017-09-01
We develop a new geometric approach to deal with qubit information systems using colored graph theory. More precisely, we present a one to one correspondence between graph theory, and qubit systems, which may be explored to attack qubit information problems using toric geometry considered as a powerful tool to understand modern physics including string theory. Concretely, we examine in some details the cases of one, two, and three qubits, and we find that they are associated with CP 1, CP 1 × CP 1 and CP 1 × CP 1 × CP 1 toric varieties respectively. Using a geometric procedure referred to as a colored toric geometry, we show that the qubit physics can be converted into a scenario handling toric data of such manifolds by help of hypercube graph theory. Operations on toric information can produce universal quantum gates.
[Development of delusion in view of Luhmann's systems theory].
Maier, T
2003-01-01
The systems theory of Niklas Luhmann declares itself as a universal theory and therefore claims applicability to any social and psychic phenomenon.In spite of its high complexity, to many it seems too vague and nonspecific. The possible usefulness of this theory should be demonstrated on the example of the development of delusion, still a mysterious and unexplained phenomenon. Within the framework of Luhmann's systems theory, delusion can be considered a communication disorder and therefore a phenomenon within the social system. Both the autopoietic systems society and psyche are based on and processed by meaning but cannot communicate directly, and they are mutually nontransparent and unpredictable. Due to this fact, the interface between the two systems is a potential source of disturbances. Luhmann defines the distinction of information, message, and understanding as the crucial element to connect the social system with the psychic one. If the psychic system fails to recognize the message of an information correctly or is unable to negotiate between understanding and misunderstanding messages, it detaches itself from the social system to which it is normally closely connected. This detachment releases the possibility of unhindered autistic fulfillment of desires and uncontrolled fear. Due to the meaning-based autopoiesis of the psychic system,these released thoughts and emotions still appear in meaningfully condensed form as delusions.
History, geography and world-systems theory
Kearns, Gerry
1988-01-01
Peter Taylor's Political geography: world-economy, nation-state and locality presents the work of Immanuel Wallerstein to geographers in a clear and accurate fashion, It reconnects political geography and political science, mapping Mackinder onto Spykman and Whittlesey onto Deutsch. It urges that human geography be a historical social science. Elsewhere, Taylor has teasingly averred "that all geography is historical geography", and has argued that the world-systems project s...
An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Integrating Organizational and Systems Theory
1985-09-01
tour d’horizon of the multi- dimensional and multidisciplinary facets of general systems theory: its conceptualization in elementary mathematical...the actions taken to foster and * .1 encourage such a movement, whether by a psychotherapist or a teacher. It can refer to the mental or social...Inc., 1967. This book calls attention to the multidisciplinary develop- ments in organizational theory. A central purpose is to identify a framework
Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Hu
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.
Robustness of cooperation on scale-free networks under continuous topological change
Ichinose, Genki; Tanizawa, Toshihiro
2013-01-01
In this paper, we numerically investigate the robustness of cooperation clusters in prisoner's dilemma played on scale-free networks, where their network topologies change by continuous removal and addition of nodes. Each of these removal and addition can be either random or intentional. We therefore have four different strategies in changing network topology: random removal and random addition (RR), random removal and preferential addition (RP), targeted removal and random addition (TR), and targeted removal and preferential addition (TP). We find that cooperation clusters are the most fragile against TR, while they are the most robust against RP even in high temptation coefficients for defect. The effect of the degree mixing pattern of the network is not the primary factor for the robustness of cooperation under continuous change in network topology due to consequential removal and addition of nodes, which is quite different from the cases observed in static networks. Cooperation clusters become more robust...
Statistical properties of Olami-Feder-Christensen model on Barabasi-Albert scale-free network
Tanaka, Hiroki; Hatano, Takahiro
2017-12-01
The Olami-Feder-Christensen model on the Barabasi-Albert type scale-free network is investigated in the context of statistical seismology. This simple model may be regarded as the interacting faults obeying power-law size distribution under two assumptions: (i) each node represents a distinct fault; (ii) the degree of a node is proportional to the fault size and the energy accumulated around it. Depending on the strength of an interaction, the toppling events exhibit temporal clustering as is ubiquitously observed for natural earthquakes. Defining a geometrical parameter that characterizes the heterogeneity of the energy stored in the nodes, we show that aftershocks are characterized as a process of regaining the heterogeneity that is lost by the main shock. The heterogeneity is not significantly altered during the loading process and foreshocks.
Scale-free foraging by primates emerges from their interaction with a complex environment
Boyer, Denis; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel; Miramontes, Octavio; Mateos, José L; Cocho, Germinal; Larralde, Hernán; Ramos, Humberto; Rojas, Fernando
2006-01-01
Scale-free foraging patterns are widespread among animals. These may be the outcome of an optimal searching strategy to find scarce, randomly distributed resources, but a less explored alternative is that this behaviour may result from the interaction of foraging animals with a particular distribution of resources. We introduce a simple foraging model where individual primates follow mental maps and choose their displacements according to a maximum efficiency criterion, in a spatially disordered environment containing many trees with a heterogeneous size distribution. We show that a particular tree-size frequency distribution induces non-Gaussian movement patterns with multiple spatial scales (Lévy walks). These results are consistent with field observations of tree-size variation and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) foraging patterns. We discuss the consequences that our results may have for the patterns of seed dispersal by foraging primates. PMID:16790406
Effects of maximum node degree on computer virus spreading in scale-free networks
Bamaarouf, O.; Ould Baba, A.; Lamzabi, S.; Rachadi, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
2017-10-01
The increase of the use of the Internet networks favors the spread of viruses. In this paper, we studied the spread of viruses in the scale-free network with different topologies based on the Susceptible-Infected-External (SIE) model. It is found that the network structure influences the virus spreading. We have shown also that the nodes of high degree are more susceptible to infection than others. Furthermore, we have determined a critical maximum value of node degree (Kc), below which the network is more resistible and the computer virus cannot expand into the whole network. The influence of network size is also studied. We found that the network with low size is more effective to reduce the proportion of infected nodes.
An improved local immunization strategy for scale-free networks with a high degree of clustering
Xia, Lingling; Jiang, Guoping; Song, Yurong; Song, Bo
2017-01-01
The design of immunization strategies is an extremely important issue for disease or computer virus control and prevention. In this paper, we propose an improved local immunization strategy based on node's clustering which was seldom considered in the existing immunization strategies. The main aim of the proposed strategy is to iteratively immunize the node which has a high connectivity and a low clustering coefficient. To validate the effectiveness of our strategy, we compare it with two typical local immunization strategies on both real and artificial networks with a high degree of clustering. Simulations on these networks demonstrate that the performance of our strategy is superior to that of two typical strategies. The proposed strategy can be regarded as a compromise between computational complexity and immune effect, which can be widely applied in scale-free networks of high clustering, such as social network, technological networks and so on. In addition, this study provides useful hints for designing optimal immunization strategy for specific network.
A Congestion Control Strategy for Power Scale-Free Communication Network
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Min Xiang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The scale-free topology of power communication network leads to more data flow in less hub nodes, which can cause local congestion. Considering the differences of the nodes’ delivery capacity and cache capacity, an integrated routing based on the communication service classification is proposed to reduce network congestion. In the power communication network, packets can be classified as key operational services (I-level and affairs management services (II-level. The shortest routing, which selects the path of the least hops, is adopted to transmit I-level packets. The load-balanced global dynamic routing, which uses the node’s queue length and delivery capacity to establish the cost function and chooses the path with minimal cost, is adopted to transmit II-level packets. The simulation results show that the integrated routing has a larger critical packet generation rate and can effectively reduce congestion.
Community structure and scale-free collections of Erdős-Rényi graphs.
Seshadhri, C; Kolda, Tamara G; Pinar, Ali
2012-05-01
Community structure plays a significant role in the analysis of social networks and similar graphs, yet this structure is little understood and not well captured by most models. We formally define a community to be a subgraph that is internally highly connected and has no deeper substructure. We use tools of combinatorics to show that any such community must contain a dense Erdős-Rényi (ER) subgraph. Based on mathematical arguments, we hypothesize that any graph with a heavy-tailed degree distribution and community structure must contain a scale-free collection of dense ER subgraphs. These theoretical observations corroborate well with empirical evidence. From this, we propose the Block Two-Level Erdős-Rényi (BTER) model, and demonstrate that it accurately captures the observable properties of many real-world social networks.
Scale-free brain quartet: artistic filtering of multi-channel brainwave music.
Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong
2013-01-01
To listen to the brain activities as a piece of music, we proposed the scale-free brainwave music (SFBM) technology, which translated scalp EEGs into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In the present study, the methodology was extended for deriving a quartet from multi-channel EEGs with artistic beat and tonality filtering. EEG data from multiple electrodes were first translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively. Then, these sequences were processed by a beat filter which adjusted the duration of notes in terms of the characteristic frequency. And the sequences were further filtered from atonal to tonal according to a key defined by the analysis of the original music pieces. Resting EEGs with eyes closed and open of 40 subjects were utilized for music generation. The results revealed that the scale-free exponents of the music before and after filtering were different: the filtered music showed larger variety between the eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions, and the pitch scale exponents of the filtered music were closer to 1 and thus it was more approximate to the classical music. Furthermore, the tempo of the filtered music with eyes closed was significantly slower than that with eyes open. With the original materials obtained from multi-channel EEGs, and a little creative filtering following the composition process of a potential artist, the resulted brainwave quartet opened a new window to look into the brain in an audible musical way. In fact, as the artistic beat and tonal filters were derived from the brainwaves, the filtered music maintained the essential properties of the brain activities in a more musical style. It might harmonically distinguish the different states of the brain activities, and therefore it provided a method to analyze EEGs from a relaxed audio perspective.
Scale-free brain quartet: artistic filtering of multi-channel brainwave music.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Wu
Full Text Available To listen to the brain activities as a piece of music, we proposed the scale-free brainwave music (SFBM technology, which translated scalp EEGs into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In the present study, the methodology was extended for deriving a quartet from multi-channel EEGs with artistic beat and tonality filtering. EEG data from multiple electrodes were first translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively. Then, these sequences were processed by a beat filter which adjusted the duration of notes in terms of the characteristic frequency. And the sequences were further filtered from atonal to tonal according to a key defined by the analysis of the original music pieces. Resting EEGs with eyes closed and open of 40 subjects were utilized for music generation. The results revealed that the scale-free exponents of the music before and after filtering were different: the filtered music showed larger variety between the eyes-closed (EC and eyes-open (EO conditions, and the pitch scale exponents of the filtered music were closer to 1 and thus it was more approximate to the classical music. Furthermore, the tempo of the filtered music with eyes closed was significantly slower than that with eyes open. With the original materials obtained from multi-channel EEGs, and a little creative filtering following the composition process of a potential artist, the resulted brainwave quartet opened a new window to look into the brain in an audible musical way. In fact, as the artistic beat and tonal filters were derived from the brainwaves, the filtered music maintained the essential properties of the brain activities in a more musical style. It might harmonically distinguish the different states of the brain activities, and therefore it provided a method to analyze EEGs from a relaxed audio perspective.
Quantum theory of many-particle systems
Fetter, Alexander L
2003-01-01
""Singlemindedly devoted to its job of educating potential many-particle theorists…deserves to become the standard text in the field."" - Physics Today""The most comprehensive textbook yet published in its field and every postgraduate student or teacher in this field should own or have access to a copy."" - EndeavorA self-contained, unified treatment of nonrelativistic many-particle systems, this text offers a solid introduction to procedures in a manner that enables students to adopt techniques for their own use. Its discussions of formalism and applications move easily between general theo
Theories about architecture and performance of multi-agent systems
Gazendam, H.W.M.; Jorna, René J.
1998-01-01
Multi-agent systems are promising as models of organization because they are based on the idea that most work in human organizations is done based on intelligence, communication, cooperation, and massive parallel processing. They offer an alternative for system theories of organization, which are
What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?
Salisbury, David F.
1989-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)
Theory of skyrmions in bilayer systems.
Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-02-15
Skyrmion is an emergent particle consisting of many spins in magnets, and has many nontrivial features such as (i) nano-scale size, (ii) topological stability, (iii) gyrodynamics, and (iv) highly efficient spin transfer torque, which make skyrmions the promising candidate for the magnetic devices. Earlier works were focusing on the bulk or thin film of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) magnets, while recent advances are focusing on the skyrmions induced by the interfaces. Therefore, the superstructures naturally leads to the interacting skyrmions on different interfaces, which has unique dynamics compared with those on the same interface. Here we theoretically study the two skyrmions on bilayer systems employing micromagnetic simulations as well as the analysis based on Thiele equation, revealing the reaction between them such as the collision and bound state formation. The dynamics depends sensitively on the sign of DM interactions, i.e., helicities, and skyrmion numbers of two skyrmions, which can be well described by Thiele equation. Furthermore, we have found the colossal spin-transfer-torque effect of bound skyrmion pair on antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer systems.
Theory of skyrmions in bilayer systems
Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-01-01
Skyrmion is an emergent particle consisting of many spins in magnets, and has many nontrivial features such as (i) nano-scale size, (ii) topological stability, (iii) gyrodynamics, and (iv) highly efficient spin transfer torque, which make skyrmions the promising candidate for the magnetic devices. Earlier works were focusing on the bulk or thin film of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) magnets, while recent advances are focusing on the skyrmions induced by the interfaces. Therefore, the superstructures naturally leads to the interacting skyrmions on different interfaces, which has unique dynamics compared with those on the same interface. Here we theoretically study the two skyrmions on bilayer systems employing micromagnetic simulations as well as the analysis based on Thiele equation, revealing the reaction between them such as the collision and bound state formation. The dynamics depends sensitively on the sign of DM interactions, i.e., helicities, and skyrmion numbers of two skyrmions, which can be well described by Thiele equation. Furthermore, we have found the colossal spin-transfer-torque effect of bound skyrmion pair on antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer systems. PMID:28198436
Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems
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Topolinjska Zuzana
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.
Finite Fermi systems theory and self-consistency relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khodel, V.A.; Saperstein, E.E. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)
1982-12-01
The self-consistent theory of the finite Fermi systems is outlined. This approach is based on the same Fermi liquid theory principles as the familiar theory for finite Fermi systems (FFS) by Migdal. We show that the basic Fermi system properties can be evaluated in terms of the quasiparticle Lagrangian Lsub(q) which incorporates the energy dependency effects. This Lagrangian is defined so that the corresponding Lagrange equations should coincide with the FFS theory equations of motion of the quasiparticles. The quasiparticle energy Esub(q) defined in the terms of the quasiparticle Lagrangian Lsub(q) according to the usual canonical rules is shown to be equal to the binding energy E/sub 0/ of the system. For a given Lagrangian Lsub(q) the particle densities in nuclei, the nuclear single-particle spectra, the low-lying collective states (LCS) properties, and the amplitude of the interquasiparticle interaction are also evaluated. The suggested approach is compared with the Hartree-Fock theory with effective forces.
Extending density functional embedding theory for covalently bonded systems.
Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A
2017-12-19
Quantum embedding theory aims to provide an efficient solution to obtain accurate electronic energies for systems too large for full-scale, high-level quantum calculations. It adopts a hierarchical approach that divides the total system into a small embedded region and a larger environment, using different levels of theory to describe each part. Previously, we developed a density-based quantum embedding theory called density functional embedding theory (DFET), which achieved considerable success in metals and semiconductors. In this work, we extend DFET into a density-matrix-based nonlocal form, enabling DFET to study the stronger quantum couplings between covalently bonded subsystems. We name this theory density-matrix functional embedding theory (DMFET), and we demonstrate its performance in several test examples that resemble various real applications in both chemistry and biochemistry. DMFET gives excellent results in all cases tested thus far, including predicting isomerization energies, proton transfer energies, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps for local chromophores. Here, we show that DMFET systematically improves the quality of the results compared with the widely used state-of-the-art methods, such as the simple capped cluster model or the widely used ONIOM method.
Systemic Functional Theory: A Pickax of Textual Investigation
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Taofeek Dalamu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The study examines Systemic Functional Theory (SFT as a tool of examining text, and perhaps, text of any dimension as long as it falls within the grammatical organs of the clause. The author provides explanations for the theory from its relevant source(s. The chronological appreciation involves the efforts of Saussure, Firth, Malinowski, Hjelmslev, etc. However, Halliday’s insight seems prominent and upon which Systemic Functional Theory receives a global status that it has assumed today. Halliday constructs numerous concepts e.g. lexicogrammar, processes, cohesion, coherence, system, system network with background from traditional grammar and sociological tokens. In addition to that, the three metafunctions are characterized as its core operational concepts. Out of these, the mood system serves as the instrument of analysis of Psalm one utilized in this endeavor as a case study. Although the clauses fall within the profile of the indicative and imperative, the study reveals that some of the structures are inverted in order to propagate the intended messages. To that end, there are inverted indicative clauses expressed as inverted declarative statements, inverted imperative questions and inverted negativized polarity. In sum, Systemic Functional Theory is a facility for explaining different shapes of texts.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
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Andréasson Håkan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einsteins equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on nonrelativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e. to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. The Vlasov equation describes matter phenomenologically, and it should be stressed that most of the theorems presented in this article are not presently known for other such matter models (i.e. fluid models. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach
Anderson, Brian D O
2006-01-01
Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations
Time delay systems theory, numerics, applications, and experiments
Ersal, Tulga; Orosz, Gábor
2017-01-01
This volume collects contributions related to selected presentations from the 12th IFAC Workshop on Time Delay Systems, Ann Arbor, June 28-30, 2015. The included papers present novel techniques and new results of delayed dynamical systems. The topical spectrum covers control theory, numerical analysis, engineering and biological applications as well as experiments and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of time delay systems, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike. .
Elements of social representation theory incollaborative tagging systems
Patricia Zeni Marchiori; Andre Luiz Appel; Eduardo Michellotti Bettoni; Denise Fukumi Tsunoda; Frank Coelho de Alcântara
2014-01-01
This article discusses the information representation process based on the Moscovici's Social Representation Theory and domain analysis in Information Science. The aim was to identify mechanisms and constituent dimensions of social representation in collaborative tagging systems/social bookmarking systems. Scientific knowledge was defined as the object/phenomenon of representation in these systems; and the tag as the shareable structure of meaning that connects participants and resources. The...
Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings
Kamen, E. W.
1978-01-01
The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.
The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.
Miller, James G.
General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…
International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics
Szegö, G
1969-01-01
The International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics was held at the Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, from June 1 through June 12, 1967. The objective of this Summer School was to review the state of the art and the prospects for the application of the mathematical theory of systems to the study and the solution of economic problems. Particular emphasis was given to the use of the mathematical theory of control for the solution of problems in economics. It was felt that the publication of a volume collecting most of the lectures given at the school would show the current status of the application of these methods. The papers are organized into four sections arranged into two volumes: basic theories and optimal control of economic systems which appear in the first volume, and special mathematical problems and special applications which are contained in the second volume. Within each section the papers follow in alphabetical order by author. The seven papers on basic theories are a rat...
Perspective: Explicitly correlated electronic structure theory for complex systems.
Grüneis, Andreas; Hirata, So; Ohnishi, Yu-Ya; Ten-No, Seiichiro
2017-02-28
The explicitly correlated approach is one of the most important breakthroughs in ab initio electronic structure theory, providing arguably the most compact, accurate, and efficient ansatz for describing the correlated motion of electrons. Since Hylleraas first used an explicitly correlated wave function for the He atom in 1929, numerous attempts have been made to tackle the significant challenges involved in constructing practical explicitly correlated methods that are applicable to larger systems. These include identifying suitable mathematical forms of a correlated wave function and an efficient evaluation of many-electron integrals. R12 theory, which employs the resolution of the identity approximation, emerged in 1985, followed by the introduction of novel correlation factors and wave function ansätze, leading to the establishment of F12 theory in the 2000s. Rapid progress in recent years has significantly extended the application range of explicitly correlated theory, offering the potential of an accurate wave-function treatment of complex systems such as photosystems and semiconductors. This perspective surveys explicitly correlated electronic structure theory, with an emphasis on recent stochastic and deterministic approaches that hold significant promise for applications to large and complex systems including solids.
A synthesis theory for self-oscillating adaptive systems /SOAS/
Horowitz, I.; Smay, J.; Shapiro, A.
1974-01-01
A quantitative synthesis theory is presented for the Self-Oscillating Adaptive System (SOAS), whose nonlinear element has a static, odd character with hard saturation. The synthesis theory is based upon the quasilinear properties of the SOAS to forced inputs, which permits the extension of quantitative linear feedback theory to the SOAS. A reasonable definition of optimum design is shown to be the minimization of the limit cycle frequency. The great advantages of the SOAS is its zero sensitivity to pure gain changes. However, quasilinearity and control of the limit cycle amplitude at the system output, impose additional constraints which partially or completely cancel this advantage, depending on the numerical values of the design parameters. By means of narrow-band filtering, an additional factor is introduced which permits trade-off between filter complexity and limit cycle frequency minimization.
Network anomaly detection system with optimized DS evidence theory.
Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu
2014-01-01
Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network-complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each sensor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly.
Nonautonomous linear Hamiltonian systems oscillation, spectral theory and control
Johnson, Russell; Novo, Sylvia; Núñez, Carmen; Fabbri, Roberta
2016-01-01
This monograph contains an in-depth analysis of the dynamics given by a linear Hamiltonian system of general dimension with nonautonomous bounded and uniformly continuous coefficients, without other initial assumptions on time-recurrence. Particular attention is given to the oscillation properties of the solutions as well as to a spectral theory appropriate for such systems. The book contains extensions of results which are well known when the coefficients are autonomous or periodic, as well as in the nonautonomous two-dimensional case. However, a substantial part of the theory presented here is new even in those much simpler situations. The authors make systematic use of basic facts concerning Lagrange planes and symplectic matrices, and apply some fundamental methods of topological dynamics and ergodic theory. Among the tools used in the analysis, which include Lyapunov exponents, Weyl matrices, exponential dichotomy, and weak disconjugacy, a fundamental role is played by the rotation number for linear Hami...
A Theory of the Origin of the Solar System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. MITRA
1969-06-01
Full Text Available theory of tlie origin of the solar system is propounded.
The approach belongs to the dualistic class of theories but still retains all
the essential features of a monistic theory. It emphasizes the need of a
foreign body approaching the solar nebula for the occurrence of an instability
in the boundary layer of the nebular disc. This foreign body is postulated
to be a brother star of the Sun in the sense that both belong to a common
central parent body such as any two successive planets belong to
the Sun. The analysis gives a law of distance of the planets from tlie Sun.
This law is obeyed separately by both the groups of the planets more closely
than the existing Titius - Bode's law. The law is also found to be applicable
in the various satellite systems.
System, subsystem, hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomer Fekete
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some – perhaps most – of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness, and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people. This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder. We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness.
Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann's Systems-Theory
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Kathrin Maurer
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This article investigates the function and reality of language in Niklas Luhmann's systems theory. How can one interpret the systems-theoretical assumption that language is based on communication? Luhmann describes language as a dynamic media/form relationship, which is able to couple the social and psychological system. This structural coupling, which constructs consciousness and language as two autonomous systems, raises problems if one defines language from a cognitive point of view. This article discusses these problems and aims to develop assumptions and questions within the systems-theoretical approach.
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yano, Toru [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida Hon-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yano@thx.appi.keio.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems.
Multimodal Transport System Coevolution Model Based on Synergetic Theory
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Fenling Feng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates multimodal transport system evolution law with the consideration of synergetic theory. Compared with previous studies, this paper focuses on understanding influencing factors of system collaborative development. In particular, we have applied a multimodal system order parameter model to obtain the order parameter. Based on order parameters, the coevolution equations of the multimodal transport system are constructed with consideration of cooperation and competitive relationship between the subsystems. We set out the multimodal system followed the coevolution law of the freight system and dominated by the combined effects of order parameter line length and freight density. The results show that the coordination effects between railway, road, and water subsystems are stronger than aviation subsystem; the railway system is the short plank of the system. Some functional implications from this study are also discussed. Finally the results indicate that expansion of railway system capacity and mutual cooperation within the subsystems are required to reach an optimal multimodal transport system.
Berker, A Nihat; Hinczewski, Michael; Netz, Roland R
2009-10-01
Percolation in a scale-free hierarchical network is solved exactly by renormalization-group theory in terms of the different probabilities of short-range and long-range bonds. A phase of critical percolation, with algebraic [Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT)] geometric order, occurs in the phase diagram in addition to the ordinary (compact) percolating phase and the nonpercolating phase. It is found that no connection exists between, on the one hand, the onset of this geometric BKT behavior and, on the other hand, the onsets of the highly clustered small-world character of the network and of the thermal BKT transition of the Ising model on this network. Nevertheless, both geometric and thermal BKT behaviors have inverted characters, occurring where disorder is expected, namely, at low bond probability and high temperature, respectively. This may be a general property of long-range networks.
The Formation of the Solar System: Theories Old and New
Woolfson, Michael
ch. 1. Theories come and theories go -- ch. 2. Measuring atoms and the universe -- ch. 3. Greek offerings -- ch. 4. The shoulders of giants -- ch. 5. A voyage of discovery to the solar system -- ch. 6. The problem to be solved -- ch. 7. The French connection -- ch. 8. American Catherine-Wheels -- ch. 9. British big tides -- ch. 10. Russian could capture-with British help -- ch. 11. German vortices-with a little French help -- ch. 12. McCrea's floccules -- ch. 13. What earlier theories indicate -- ch. 14. Disks around new stars -- ch. 15. Planets around other stars -- ch. 16. Disks around older stars -- ch. 17. What a theory should explain now -- ch. 18. The new Solar Nebula theory: the angular momentum problem -- ch. 19. Making planets top-down -- ch. 20. A bottom-up alternative -- ch. 21. Making planets faster -- ch. 22. Wandering planets -- ch. 23. Back to top-down -- ch. 24. This is the stuff that stars are made of -- ch. 25. Making dense cool clouds -- ch. 26. A star is born -- ch. 27. Close to the maddening crowd -- ch. 28. Close encounters of the stellar kind -- ch. 29. Ever decreasing circles -- ch. 30. How many planetary systems? -- ch. 31. Starting a family -- ch. 32. Tilting-but not as windmills -- ch. 33. The terrestrial planets raise problems! -- ch. 34. A British Bang theory: the earth and Venus -- ch. 35. Behold the wandering moon -- ch. 36. Fleet Mercury and warlike Mars -- ch. 37. Gods of the sea and the nether regions -- ch. 38. Bits and pieces -- ch. 39. Comets-the harbingers of doom! -- ch. 40. Making atoms with a biggish bang -- ch. 41. Is the capture theory valid?
Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing ...
Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory | Xu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper describes a new method of using credibility theory to evaluate distribution system reliability. The advantage of this method lies in its ability to account for both objective and subjective uncertainty by integrating stochastic and fuzzy approaches. Equipment failures are modeled as random events, while the ...
World system theory and keynesian macroeconomics: towards an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A mechanistic and sometimes dogmatic interpretation of capitalism has kept world systems theory from attaining practical relevance for social movements which try to combine the democratic management of society with efficiency, including the market. By using Keynesian macroeconomics as a basis and integrating it into a ...
A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development
Coté, Carol A.
2015-01-01
This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…
An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.
Matthews, Charles O.
1992-01-01
Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)
Applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems
Vos, Hendrik J.
1995-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to consider some applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems. In particular, it will be indicated how the problem of adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to the changing nature of student's capabilities during the learning process
Applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems
Vos, Hendrik J.
1994-01-01
Some applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems are considered. How the problem of adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to the changing nature of a student's capabilities during the learning process can be situated in the general framework of Bayesian decision
Solution of quantum integrable systems from quiver gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorey, Nick [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zhao, Peng [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook (United States)
2017-02-23
We construct new integrable systems describing particles with internal spin from four-dimensional N = 2 quiver gauge theories. The models can be quantized and solved exactly using the quantum inverse scattering method and also using the Bethe/Gauge correspondence.
Complex Time-Delay Systems Theory and Applications
Atay, Fatihcan M
2010-01-01
Time delays in dynamical systems arise as an inevitable consequence of finite speeds of information transmission. Realistic models increasingly demand the inclusion of delays in order to properly understand, analyze, design, and control real-life systems. The goal of this book is to present the state-of-the-art in research on time-delay dynamics in the framework of complex systems and networks. While the mathematical theory of delay equations is quite mature, its application to the particular problems of complex systems and complexity is a newly emerging field, and the present volume aims to play a pioneering role in this perspective. The chapters in this volume are authored by renowned experts and cover both theory and applications in a wide range of fields, with examples extending from neuroscience and biology to laser physics and vehicle traffic. Furthermore, all chapters include sufficient introductory material and extensive bibliographies, making the book a self-contained reference for both students and ...
Theory of heavy-fermion compounds theory of strongly correlated Fermi-systems
Amusia, Miron Ya; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Stephanovich, Vladimir A
2015-01-01
This book explains modern and interesting physics in heavy-fermion (HF) compounds to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics. It presents a theory of heavy-fermion (HF) compounds such as HF metals, quantum spin liquids, quasicrystals and two-dimensional Fermi systems. The basic low-temperature properties and the scaling behavior of the compounds are described within the framework of the theory of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Upon reading the book, the reader finds that HF compounds with quite different microscopic nature exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior, while the data collected on very different HF systems have a universal scaling behavior, and these compounds are unexpectedly uniform despite their diversity. For the reader's convenience, the analysis of compounds is carried out in the context of salient experimental results. The numerous calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties, being in good...
International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications
2016-01-01
The book is a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.
International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications
2016-01-01
The book is the second volume of a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.
Randomized Algorithms for Systems and Control: Theory and Applications
2008-05-01
IEIIT-CNR Randomized Algorithms for Systems and Control: Theory and Applications NATO LS Glasgow, Pamplona , Cleveland @RT 2008 Roberto Tempo IEIIT...Glasgow, Pamplona , Cleveland @RT 2008 roberto.tempo@polito.it IEIIT-CNR References R. Tempo, G. Calafiore and F. Dabbene, “Randomized Algorithms for...Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems,” Springer-Verlag, London, 2005 R Tempo and H Ishii “Monte Carlo and Las Vegas NATO LS Glasgow, Pamplona , Cleveland
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Recursion Operators for CBC system with reductions. Geometric theory
Yanovski, A.; Vilasi, G.
2016-09-01
We discuss some recent developments of the geometric theory of the Recursion Operators (Generating Operators) for Caudrey-Beals-Coifman systems (CBC systems) on semisimple Lie algebras. As is well known the essence of this interpretation is that the Recursion Operators could be considered as adjoint to Nijenhuis tensors on certain infinite-dimensional manifolds. In particular, we discuss the case when there are Zp reductions of Mikhailov type.
Dynamics of an epidemic model with quarantine on scale-free networks
Kang, Huiyan; Liu, Kaihui; Fu, Xinchu
2017-12-01
Quarantine strategies are frequently used to control or reduce the transmission risks of epidemic diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis and cholera. In this paper, we formulate a susceptible-exposed-infected-quarantined-recovered model on a scale-free network incorporating the births and deaths of individuals. Considering that the infectivity is related to the degrees of infectious nodes, we introduce quarantined rate as a function of degree into the model, and quantify the basic reproduction number, which is shown to be dependent on some parameters, such as quarantined rate, infectivity and network structures. A theoretical result further indicates the heterogeneity of networks and higher infectivity will raise the disease transmission risk while quarantine measure will contribute to the prevention of epidemic spreading. Meanwhile, the contact assumption between susceptibles and infectives may impact the disease transmission. Furthermore, we prove that the basic reproduction number serves as a threshold value for the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria and the uniform persistence of the disease on the network by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. Finally, some numerical simulations are illustrated to perform and complement our analytical results.
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2011-12-01
We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the higher order statistics of magnetic field magnitude and component temporal fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind. The magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single global intermittent non-Gaussian scale free behaviour from minutes to over 5 hours. This coexists with the signature in the field components of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to ~ 30 minutes and a ~ 1/f range of coronal origin on longer timescales. This is found both in the ecliptic with ACE and in ULLYSES polar passes. This suggests a single stochastic process for magnetic field magnitude fluctuations operating across the full range of MHD timescales supported by the solar wind. Fluctuations in velocity and magnetic field show the strongest 'dynamic' alignment on scales in the ~ 1/f range. We wil discuss how uncertainties in velocity and magnetic field measurements propagate through 'compound' measures of the turbulence properties of the flow in this context. Observational evidence of incompressible MHD turbulence in the solar wind must thus be understood in the context of this global scaling of the compressive 'texture' of the solar wind.
Modeling the spread of virus in packets on scale free network
Lamzabi, S.; Lazfi, S.; Rachadi, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new model for computer virus attacks and recovery at the level of information packets. The model we propose is based on one hand on the susceptible-infected (SI) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) stochastic epidemic models for computer virus propagation and on the other hand on the time-discrete Markov chain of the minimal traffic routing protocol. We have applied this model to the scale free Barabasi-Albert network to determine how the dynamics of virus propagation is affected by the traffic flow in both the free-flow and the congested phases. The numerical results show essentially that the proportion of infected and recovered packets increases when the rate of infection λ and the recovery rate β increase in the free-flow phase while in the congested phase, the number of infected (recovered) packets presents a maximum (minimum) at certain critical value of β characterizing a certain competition between the infection and the recovery rates.
Extraversion is encoded by scale-free dynamics of default mode network.
Lei, Xu; Zhao, Zhiying; Chen, Hong
2013-07-01
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsfMRI) is a powerful tool to investigate neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recently, the evidences linking the scaling properties of resting-state activity and the personality have been accumulated. However, it remains unknown whether the personality is associated with the scale-free dynamics of default mode network (DMN) - the most widely studied network in the rsfMRI literatures. To investigate this question, we estimated the Hurst exponent, quantifying long memory of a time-series, in DMN of rsfMRI in 20 healthy individuals. The Hurst exponent in DMN, whether extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) or region of interest (ROI), was significantly associated with the extraversion score of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Specifically, longer memory in DMN corresponded to lower extraversion. We provide evidences for an association between individual differences in personality and scaling dynamics in DMN, whose alteration has been previously linked with introspective cognition. This association might arise from the efficiency in online information processing. Our results suggest that personality trait may be reflected by the scaling property of resting-state networks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Solar system constraints on some Horndeski gravity theories
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2016-01-01
We discuss two spherically symmetric solutions admitted by the Horndeski (or scalar tensor) theory in the context of solar system physics. One of these solutions is derived for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, while the other originates from the coupling of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant with a scalar field. Specifically, we discuss the perihelion precession of the Mercury and the bending angle of light for these two different spherically symmetric spacetimes derived in arXiv hep-th/0611188 and 1408.1698 respectively. Numerical bounds on relevant parameters of these theories from such computations are also presented.
Chemical reaction network approaches to Biochemical Systems Theory.
Arceo, Carlene Perpetua P; Jose, Editha C; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto; Mendoza, Eduardo R
2015-11-01
This paper provides a framework to represent a Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) model (in either GMA or S-system form) as a chemical reaction network with power law kinetics. Using this representation, some basic properties and the application of recent results of Chemical Reaction Network Theory regarding steady states of such systems are shown. In particular, Injectivity Theory, including network concordance [36] and the Jacobian Determinant Criterion [43], a "Lifting Theorem" for steady states [26] and the comprehensive results of Müller and Regensburger [31] on complex balanced equilibria are discussed. A partial extension of a recent Emulation Theorem of Cardelli for mass action systems [3] is derived for a subclass of power law kinetic systems. However, it is also shown that the GMA and S-system models of human purine metabolism [10] do not display the reactant-determined kinetics assumed by Müller and Regensburger and hence only a subset of BST models can be handled with their approach. Moreover, since the reaction networks underlying many BST models are not weakly reversible, results for non-complex balanced equilibria are also needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Honing Theory: A Complex Systems Framework for Creativity
Gabora, Liane
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a theory of creativity, referred to as honing theory, which posits that creativity fuels the process by which culture evolves through communal exchange amongst minds that are self-organizing, self-maintaining, and self-reproducing. According to honing theory, minds, like other selforganizing systems, modify their contents and adapt to their environments to minimize entropy. Creativity begins with detection of high psychological entropy material, which provokes uncertainty and is arousalinducing. The creative process involves recursively considering this material from new contexts until it is sufficiently restructured that arousal dissipates. Restructuring involves neural synchrony and dynamic binding, and may be facilitated by temporarily shifting to a more associative mode of thought. A creative work may similarly induce restructuring in others, and thereby contribute to the cultural evolution of more nuanced worldviews. Since lines of cultural descent connecting creative outputs may exhi...
Guillemin, Ernst A
2013-01-01
An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.
Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications
Xing, Jing Tang
2015-01-01
This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...
Multi-point cooperative communication systems theory and applications
Ding, Ming
2013-01-01
Multi-point Cooperative Communication Systems: Theory and Applications mainly discusses multi-point cooperative communication technologies which are used to overcome the long-standing problem of limited transmission rate caused by the inter-point interference. Instead of combating the interference, recent progress in both academia and industrial standardizations has evolved to adopt the philosophy of “exploiting” the interference to improve the transmission rate by cooperating among multiple points. This book addresses the multi-point cooperative communication system systematically giving the readers a clear picture of the technology map and where the discussed schemes may fit. This book includes not only the theories of the paradigm-shifting multi-point cooperative communication, but also the designs of sub-optimal cooperative communication schemes for practical systems. Ming Ding is a senior researcher at Sharp Laboratories of China; Hanwen Luo is a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Honing Theory: A Complex Systems Framework for Creativity.
Gabora, Liane
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a theory of creativity, referred to as honing theory, which posits that creativity fuels the process by which culture evolves through communal exchange amongst minds that are self-organizing, self-maintaining, and self-reproducing. According to honing theory, minds, like other self-organizing systems, modify their contents and adapt to their environments to minimize entropy. Creativity begins with detection of high psychological entropy material, which provokes uncertainty and is arousal-inducing. The creative process involves recursively considering this material from new contexts until it is sufficiently restructured that arousal dissipates. Restructuring involves neural synchrony and dynamic binding, and may be facilitated by temporarily shifting to a more associative mode of thought. A creative work may similarly induce restructuring in others, and thereby contribute to the cultural evolution of more nuanced worldviews. Since lines of cultural descent connecting creative outputs may exhibit little continuity, it is proposed that cultural evolution occurs at the level of self-organizing minds; outputs reflect their evolutionary state. Honing theory addresses challenges not addressed by other theories of creativity, such as the factors that guide restructuring, and in what sense creative works evolve. Evidence comes from empirical studies, an agent-based computational model of cultural evolution, and a model of concept combination.
Realistic theory of electronic correlations in nanoscopic systems
Schüler, Malte; Barthel, Stefan; Wehling, Tim; Karolak, Michael; Valli, Angelo; Sangiovanni, Giorgio
2017-07-01
Nanostructures with open shell transition metal or molecular constituents host often strong electronic correlations and are highly sensitive to atomistic material details. This tutorial review discusses method developments and applications of theoretical approaches for the realistic description of the electronic and magnetic properties of nanostructures with correlated electrons. First, the implementation of a flexible interface between density functional theory and a variant of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) highly suitable for the simulation of complex correlated structures is explained and illustrated. On the DMFT side, this interface is largely based on recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization techniques allowing for efficient descriptions of general four fermion Coulomb interactions, reduced symmetries and spin-orbit coupling, which are explained here. With the examples of the Cr (001) surfaces, magnetic adatoms, and molecular systems it is shown how the interplay of Hubbard U and Hund's J determines charge and spin fluctuations and how these interactions drive different sorts of correlation effects in nanosystems. Non-local interactions and correlations present a particular challenge for the theory of low dimensional systems. We present our method developments addressing these two challenges, i.e., advancements of the dynamical vertex approximation and a combination of the constrained random phase approximation with continuum medium theories. We demonstrate how non-local interaction and correlation phenomena are controlled not only by dimensionality but also by coupling to the environment which is typically important for determining the physics of nanosystems.
The theory and practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification system
Satija, M P
2013-01-01
The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.
Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed
2017-03-01
This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.
Quantum theory of many-body systems techniques and applications
Zagoskin, Alexandre
2014-01-01
This text presents a self-contained treatment of the physics of many-body systems from the point of view of condensed matter. The approach, quite traditionally, uses the mathematical formalism of quasiparticles and Green’s functions. In particular, it covers all the important diagram techniques for normal and superconducting systems, including the zero-temperature perturbation theory and the Matsubara, Keldysh and Nambu-Gor'kov formalism, as well as an introduction to Feynman path integrals. This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems. Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum...
Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger
2015-01-01
Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...
[Theories of biological evolution from the viewpoint of the modern systemic biology].
Lashin, S A; Suslov, V V; Matushkin, Iu G
2012-05-01
Theories of biological evolution advanced in the last 200 years are reviewed from the viewpoint of advances of modern genetics. The theory of gene networks as a key direction of systemic biology is a link connecting different evolutionary theories.
Grümmer, Frank; Speth, Josef
2006-07-01
We review Migdal's theory of finite Fermi systems and its application to the structure of nuclei. The theory is an extension of Landau's theory of interacting Fermi systems. In the first part the basic formulae are derived within the many-body Green functions approach. The theory is applied to isovector electric giant resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei. The parameterizations of the renormalized effective ph-interaction and the effective operators are discussed. It is shown that the number of free parameters is restricted by conservation laws. We also present an extension of Migdal's theory, where the low-lying phonons are considered in a consistent manner. The extended theory is again applied to the same isovector electric giant resonances and to the analysis of (α, α') reaction data. We point out that the extended theory is the appropriate framework for self-consistent nuclear structure calculations starting from effective Lagrangians and Hamiltonians.
Applications of living systems theory to life in space
Miller, James Grier
1992-01-01
The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the basic needs of life, is an extreme example of such isolation. A space station would include living systems at levels of individual human beings, groups of people engaged in a variety of activities, and the entire space crew as an organization. It could also carry living systems of other species, such as other animals and plants. Using the subsystem analysis of living systems theory, planners of a station, either in space or on a celestial body, would make sure that all the requirements for survival at all these levels had been considered. Attention would be given not only to the necessary matter and energy, but also the essential information flows that integrate and control living systems. Many variables for each subsystem could be monitored and kept in steady states. Use of living systems process analysis of the five flows of matter energy and information would assure that all members of the crew received what they needed.
Information theory and stochastics for multiscale nonlinear systems
Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J
2005-01-01
This book introduces mathematicians to the fascinating emerging mathematical interplay between ideas from stochastics and information theory and important practical issues in studying complex multiscale nonlinear systems. It emphasizes the serendipity between modern applied mathematics and applications where rigorous analysis, the development of qualitative and/or asymptotic models, and numerical modeling all interact to explain complex phenomena. After a brief introduction to the emerging issues in multiscale modeling, the book has three main chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to information theory with novel applications to statistical mechanics, predictability, and Jupiter's Red Spot for geophysical flows. The second chapter discusses new mathematical issues regarding fluctuation-dissipation theorems for complex nonlinear systems including information flow, various approximations, and illustrates applications to various mathematical models. The third chapter discusses stochastic modeling of com...
Perturbation theory calculations of model pair potential systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jianwu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2016-01-01
Helmholtz free energy is one of the most important thermodynamic properties for condensed matter systems. It is closely related to other thermodynamic properties such as chemical potential and compressibility. It is also the starting point for studies of interfacial properties and phase coexistence if free energies of different phases can be obtained. In this thesis, we will use an approach based on the Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) perturbation theory to calculate the free energy of both solid and liquid phases of Lennard-Jones pair potential systems and the free energy of liquid states of Yukawa pair potentials. Our results indicate that the perturbation theory provides an accurate approach to the free energy calculations of liquid and solid phases based upon comparisons with results from molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.
Continuous and distributed systems II theory and applications
Zgurovsky, Mikhail
2015-01-01
As in the previous volume on the topic, the authors close the gap between abstract mathematical approaches, such as applied methods of modern algebra and analysis, fundamental and computational mechanics, nonautonomous and stochastic dynamical systems, on the one hand, and practical applications in nonlinear mechanics, optimization, decision making theory and control theory on the other. Readers will also benefit from the presentation of modern mathematical modeling methods for the numerical solution of complicated engineering problems in biochemistry, geophysics, biology and climatology. This compilation will be of interest to mathematicians and engineers working at the interface of these fields. It presents selected works of the joint seminar series of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Institute for Applied System Analysis at National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”. The authors come from Brazil, Germany, France, Mexico, Spain, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and the USA. ...
The Benchmark of Gutzwiller Density Functional Theory in Hydrogen Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming
2011-01-13
We propose an approximate form of the exchange-correlation energy functional for the Gutzwiller density functional theory. It satisfies certain physical constraints in both weak and strong electron correlation limits. We benchmark the Gutzwiller density functional approximation in the hydrogen systems, where the static correlation error is shown to be negligible. The good transferability is demonstrated by applications to the hydrogen molecule and some crystal structures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2012
The Power and Promise of Developmental Systems Theory
Letitia Meynell
2008-01-01
I argue that it is time for many feminists to rethink their attitudes towards evolutionary biology, not because feminists have been wrong to be deeply sceptical about many of its claims, both explicit and implicit, but because biology itself has changed. A new appreciation for the importance of development in biology has become mainstream and a new ontology, associated with developmental systems theory (DST), has been introduced over the last two decades. This turn challenges some of the feat...
Applications of Algebraic Geometry to Systems Theory. Part 1
Hermann, Robert
1977-01-01
Basic theorems of algebraic geometry are applied to prove some pole-placement theorems, including an improved version of pole placement with output feedback. Examples are given which show the limitations of the algebro-geometric theorems and their potential value for systems theory. This paper and those to follow might contribute towards making the powerful theorems of modern algebraic geometry accessible and applicable to problems of engineering.
Y-system for γ-deformed ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hui-Huang; Liu, Peng [Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities,Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jun-Bao [School of Science, University of Tianjin,92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University,37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities,Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-03-27
We investigate the integrable aspects of the planar γ-deformed ABJM theory and propose the twisted asymptotic Bethe ansatz equations. A more general method through a twisted generating functional is discussed, based on which, the asymptotic large L solution of Y-system is modified in order to match the asymptotic Bethe ansatz equations. Several applications of our method in the sl(2)-like sector and some important examples in β-deformed ABJM are presented as well.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy Forerunner of Evolutionary Systems Theory
Wolfgang, Hofkirchner
2005-01-01
Ludwig von Bertalanffy is known as founding father of the General System Theory (GST). When Ludwig von Bertalanffy created his GST amidst the last century, he was able to overcome the deep cleft between the controversial theoretical approaches to biology - mechanicism and vitalism. He did so by formulating laws of organisation ruling biota and after generalising them he successfully applied them to different domains such as medicine, psychology, psychotherapy. Methodologically, Bertalanffy re...
Synthesis of Systemic Functional Theory & Dynamical Systems Theory for Socio-Cultural Modeling
2012-05-07
with pre-assigned systems for time-stamped analysis and overlays for spatial analysis. The analyst selects the 7 required system choice from the menu ...and Mr Ebell ( coloured red, pink and black respectively) in the first episode develops into a somewhat frenzied ‘exchange’ with more frequent short
Developing interprofessional education online: An ecological systems theory analysis.
Bluteau, Patricia; Clouder, Lynn; Cureton, Debra
2017-07-01
This article relates the findings of a discourse analysis of an online asynchronous interprofessional learning initiative involving two UK universities. The impact of the initiative is traced over three intensive periods of online interaction, each of several-weeks duration occurring over a three-year period, through an analysis of a random sample of discussion forum threads. The corpus of rich data drawn from the forums is interpreted using ecological systems theory, which highlights the complexity of interaction of individual, social and cultural elements. Ecological systems theory adopts a life course approach to understand how development occurs through processes of progressively more complex reciprocal interaction between people and their environment. This lens provides a novel approach for analysis and interpretation of findings with respect to the impact of pre-registration interprofessional education and the interaction between the individual and their social and cultural contexts as they progress through 3/4 years of their programmes. Development is mapped over time (the chronosystem) to highlight the complexity of interaction across microsystems (individual), mesosystems (curriculum and institutional/care settings), exosystems (community/wider local context), and macrosystems (national context and culture). This article illustrates the intricacies of students' interprofessional development over time and the interactive effects of social ecological components in terms of professional knowledge and understanding, wider appreciation of health and social care culture and identity work. The implications for contemporary pre-registration interprofessional education and the usefulness and applicability of ecological systems theory for future research and development are considered.
Theory of L -edge spectroscopy of strongly correlated systems
Lüder, Johann; Schött, Johan; Brena, Barbara; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Thunström, Patrik; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab; Di Marco, Igor; Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.
2017-12-01
X-ray absorption spectroscopy measured at the L edge of transition metals (TMs) is a powerful element-selective tool providing direct information about the correlation effects in the 3 d states. The theoretical modeling of the 2 p →3 d excitation processes remains to be challenging for contemporary ab initio electronic structure techniques, due to strong core-hole and multiplet effects influencing the spectra. In this work, we present a realization of the method combining the density-functional theory with multiplet ligand field theory, proposed in Haverkort et al. [Phys. Rev. B 85, 165113 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.165113]. In this approach, a single-impurity Anderson model (SIAM) is constructed, with almost all parameters obtained from first principles, and then solved to obtain the spectra. In our implementation, we adopt the language of the dynamical mean-field theory and utilize the local density of states and the hybridization function, projected onto TM 3 d states, in order to construct the SIAM. The developed computational scheme is applied to calculate the L -edge spectra for several TM monoxides. A very good agreement between the theory and experiment is found for all studied systems. The effect of core-hole relaxation, hybridization discretization, possible extensions of the method as well as its limitations are discussed.
The S(c)ensory Immune System Theory.
Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Freitas, António A
2017-10-01
Viewpoints on the immune system have evolved across different paradigms, including the clonal selection theory, the idiotypic network, and the danger and tolerance models. Herein, we propose that in multicellular organisms, where panoplies of cells from different germ layers interact and immune cells are constantly generated, the behavior of the immune system is defined by the rules governing cell survival, systems physiology and organismic homeostasis. Initially, these rules were imprinted at the single cell-protist level, but supervened modifications in the transition to multicellular organisms. This context determined the emergence of the 'sensory immune system', which operates in a s(c)ensor mode to ensure systems physiology, organismic homeostasis, and perpetuation of its replicating molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rise and fall of the two visual systems theory.
Rossetti, Yves; Pisella, Laure; McIntosh, Robert D
2017-06-01
Among the many dissociations describing the visual system, the dual theory of two visual systems, respectively dedicated to perception and action, has yielded a lot of support. There are psychophysical, anatomical and neuropsychological arguments in favor of this theory. Several behavioral studies that used sensory and motor psychophysical parameters observed differences between perceptive and motor responses. The anatomical network of the visual system in the non-human primate was very readily organized according to two major pathways, dorsal and ventral. Neuropsychological studies, exploring optic ataxia and visual agnosia as characteristic deficits of these two pathways, led to the proposal of a functional double dissociation between visuomotor and visual perceptual functions. After a major wave of popularity that promoted great advances, particularly in knowledge of visuomotor functions, the guiding theory is now being reconsidered. Firstly, the idea of a double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual form agnosia, as cleanly separating visuomotor from visual perceptual functions, is no longer tenable; optic ataxia does not support a dissociation between perception and action and might be more accurately viewed as a negative image of action blindsight. Secondly, dissociations between perceptive and motor responses highlighted in the framework of this theory concern a very elementary level of action, even automatically guided action routines. Thirdly, the very rich interconnected network of the visual brain yields few arguments in favor of a strict perception/action dissociation. Overall, the dissociation between motor function and perceptive function explored by these behavioral and neuropsychological studies can help define an automatic level of action organization deficient in optic ataxia and preserved in action blindsight, and underlines the renewed need to consider the perception-action circle as a functional ensemble. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Li, Jianan; Zhou, Qizhi; Campos, Luiza C
2017-12-01
Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) based lab-scale free water constructed wetland (CW) was employed for removing four emerging pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (i.e. DEET, paracetamol, caffeine and triclosan). Orthogonal design was used to test the effect of light intensity, aeration, E.coli abundance and plant biomass on the target compounds. Synthetic wastewater contaminated with the target compounds at concentration of 25 μg/L was prepared, and both batch and continuous flow experiments were conducted. Up to 100% removals were achieved for paracetamol (PAR), caffeine (CAF) and tricolsan (TCS) while the highest removal for DEET was 32.2% in batch tests. Based on orthogonal Duncan analysis, high light intensity (240 μmolmm -2 s -1 ), full aeration, high plant biomass (1.00 kg/m 2 ) and high E.coli abundance (1.0 × 10 6 CFU/100 mL) favoured elimination of the PPCPs. Batch verification test achieved removals of 17.1%, 98.8%, 96.4% and 95.4% for DEET, PAR, CAF and TCS respectively. Continuous flow tests with CW only and CW followed by stabilization tank (CW-ST) were carried out. Final removals of the PPCP contaminants were 32.6%, 97.7%, 98.0% and 100% for DEET, PAR, CAF and TCS, respectively, by CW system alone, while 43.3%, 97.5%, 98.2% and 100%, respectively, were achieved by CW-ST system. By adding the ST tank, PPCP concentrations decreased significantly faster (p < 0.05) compared with continuous flow CW alone. In addition, after removing aerators during continuous flow CW experiments, the treatment systems presented good stability for the PPCP removals. CW-ST showed better chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals (89.3%, 91.2%, respectively) than CW only (79.4%, 85.2%, respectively). However, poor DEET removal (<50%) and high E.coli abundance (up to 1.7 log increase) in the final treated water indicated further treatment processes may be required. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations
Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
2014-12-01
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: j.a.sakstein@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2014-12-01
This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible.
Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology
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Rietman Edward A
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.
Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems
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Hobfoll Stevan E
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to
Regularity theory for mean-field game systems
Gomes, Diogo A; Voskanyan, Vardan
2016-01-01
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
A Systematic Review of Literature Using Business Systems Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn
2015-01-01
Business system theory (BST) lies at the intersection of organization theory, political economy and sociology. It is gaining incremental attention in the field of management, particularly in cross-border and comparative studies of the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. Yet......, international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests......’ focused in BST literature show that the highest focus of publications is on the study of internationalisation and the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. International business studies, particularly that using neo- and new-institutionalism as a framework have much to learn from the BST...
The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems.
Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre
2012-08-01
Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling.
Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering
Geiser, Juergen
2016-01-01
This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...
Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-09-14
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
A Preliminary Exposé of Systemic Functional Theory Fundamentals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The study attempted to explain fundamentals of Systemic Functional Theory as textual analytical instruments. The basis was to demonstrate the applications of Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual Metafunctions as alternative semiotic resources that provide composite meaning potential to the structure of the clause. For illustration, six clauses in the advert of Premium Pension Limited were used as textual elements which the three metafunctions were applied. The study revealed conditionality, sensitizationality, judgmentality as well as integrity as the nuggets of the message. In addition, the ad tends to propound solutions to the financial security of the future of the people. The solution is for the recipients to negotiate and begin savings with Premium Pension Limited whose concern is how to care for the people in their old age. Above all, the study concluded that Halliday’s theory as a very practicable tool of textual analysis for researchers.
System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.
Brockett, R. W.
1972-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.
A unified theory for systems and cellular memory consolidation.
Dash, Pramod K; Hebert, April E; Runyan, Jason D
2004-04-01
The time-limited role of the hippocampus for explicit memory storage has been referred to as systems consolidation where learning-related changes occur first in the hippocampus followed by the gradual development of a more distributed memory trace in the neocortex. Recent experiments are beginning to show that learning induces plasticity-related molecular changes in the neocortex as well as in the hippocampus and with a similar time course. Present memory consolidation theories do not account for these findings. In this report, we present a theory (the C theory) that incorporates these new findings, provides an explanation for the length of time for hippocampal dependency, and that can account for the apparent longer consolidation periods in species with larger brains. This theory proposes that a process of cellular consolidation occurs in the hippocampus and in areas of the neocortex during and shortly after learning resulting in long-term memory storage in both areas. For a limited time, the hippocampus is necessary for memory retrieval, a process involving the coordinated reactivation of these areas. This reactivation is later mediated by longer extrahippocampal connectivity between areas. The delay in hippocampal-independent memory retrieval is the time it takes for gene products in these longer extrahippocampal projections to be transported from the soma to tagged synapses by slow axonal transport. This cellular transport event defines the period of hippocampal dependency and, thus, the duration of memory consolidation. The theoretical description for memory consolidation presented in this review provides alternative explanations for several experimental observations and presents a unification of the concepts of systems and cellular memory consolidation.
Power System Transient Stability Based on Data Mining Theory
Cui, Zhen; Shi, Jia; Wu, Runsheng; Lu, Dan; Cui, Mingde
2018-01-01
In order to study the stability of power system, a power system transient stability based on data mining theory is designed. By introducing association rules analysis in data mining theory, an association classification method for transient stability assessment is presented. A mathematical model of transient stability assessment based on data mining technology is established. Meanwhile, combining rule reasoning with classification prediction, the method of association classification is proposed to perform transient stability assessment. The transient stability index is used to identify the samples that cannot be correctly classified in association classification. Then, according to the critical stability of each sample, the time domain simulation method is used to determine the state, so as to ensure the accuracy of the final results. The results show that this stability assessment system can improve the speed of operation under the premise that the analysis result is completely correct, and the improved algorithm can find out the inherent relation between the change of power system operation mode and the change of transient stability degree.
Clinical implications of dynamic systems theory for phonological development.
Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May
2010-02-01
To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed phonological analyses of pre-and posttreatment speech samples are provided for 6 children who received treatment in a previously published randomized controlled trial of contrasting approaches to target selection (Rvachew & Nowak, 2001). Three children received treatment for simple target phonemes that did not introduce any new feature contrasts into the children's phonological systems. Three children received treatment for complex targets that represented feature contrasts that were absent from the children's phonological systems. Children who received treatment for simple targets made more progress toward the acquisition of the target sounds and demonstrated emergence of complex untreated segments and feature contrasts. Children who received treatment for complex targets made little measurable gain in phonological development. Treatment outcomes will be enhanced if the clinician selects treatment targets at the segmental and prosodic levels of the phonological system in such a way as to stabilize the child's knowledge of subcomponents that form the foundation for the emergence of more complex phoneme contrasts.
CHAOS THEORY, GLOBAL SYSTEMIC CHANGE, AND HYBRID WARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Korybko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The global system is being rocked by the dueling ambitions of two competing blocs, with the US and its allies fighting to reinforce their unipolar system while Russia and its partners struggle to forge a multipolar future. The rapidity and scope with which events are unfolding makes it overwhelming for the casual observer to make sense of all of the complex processes currently at play, and truth be told, it’s understandable that all of this can appear confusing. In an attempt to clarify the present state of global affairs and forecast the direction that it’s all headed in, the article begins by explaining the nature of chaos theory and describing how it’s applicable to conceptualizing contemporary international relations. Afterwards, the idea of “chaos sequencing” is proposed, which in essence is a model that can be used in understanding the process of chaotic change. Following that, the article addresses the topic of global systemic change and includes the most relevant examples for how this relates to the present day. Next, the research combines these two aforementioned elements (chaos theory and global systemic change and presents a forward-looking geopolitical analysis that incorporates cutting-edge Hybrid War theory and aims to put the New Cold War into its proper perspective. Finally, the article ends on a suggestive note in encouraging analysts to study the authors’ conceptualization of Hybrid War in order to better prepare themselves for understanding and responding to forthcoming international events.
Theory of hybrid dynamical systems and its applications to biological and medical systems.
Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki
2010-11-13
In this introductory article, we survey the contents of this Theme Issue. This Theme Issue deals with a fertile region of hybrid dynamical systems that are characterized by the coexistence of continuous and discrete dynamics. It is now well known that there exist many hybrid dynamical systems with discontinuities such as impact, switching, friction and sliding. The first aim of this Issue is to discuss recent developments in understanding nonlinear dynamics of hybrid dynamical systems in the two main theoretical fields of dynamical systems theory and control systems theory. A combined study of the hybrid systems dynamics in the two theoretical fields might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of hybrid dynamical systems. In addition, mathematical modelling by hybrid dynamical systems is particularly important for understanding the nonlinear dynamics of biological and medical systems as they have many discontinuities such as threshold-triggered firing in neurons, on-off switching of gene expression by a transcription factor, division in cells and certain types of chronotherapy for prostate cancer. Hence, the second aim is to discuss recent applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine. Thus, this Issue is not only general to serve as a survey of recent progress in hybrid systems theory but also specific to introduce interesting and stimulating applications of hybrid systems in biology and medicine. As the introduction to the topics in this Theme Issue, we provide a brief history of nonlinear dynamics and mathematical modelling, different mathematical models of hybrid dynamical systems, the relationship between dynamical systems theory and control systems theory, examples of complex behaviour in a simple neuron model and its variants, applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine as a road map of articles in this Theme Issue and future directions of hybrid systems modelling.
Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko
2007-01-01
Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…
Maximized Gust Loads of a Closed-Loop, Nonlinear Aeroelastic System Using Nonlinear Systems Theory
Silva, Walter A.
1999-01-01
The problem of computing the maximized gust load for a nonlinear, closed-loop aeroelastic aircraft is discusses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems is applied in order to define a linearized system that provides a bounds on the response of the nonlinear system of interest. The method is applied to a simplified model of an Airbus A310.
Weird astronomical theories of the solar system and beyond
Seargent, David
2016-01-01
After addressing strange cosmological hypotheses in Weird Universe, David Seargent tackles the no-less bizarre theories closer to home. Alternate views on the Solar System's formation, comet composition, and the evolution of life on Earth are only some of the topics he addresses in this new work. Although these ideas exist on the fringe of mainstream astronomy, they can still shed light on the origins of life and the evolution of the planets. Continuing the author's series of books popularizing strange astronomy facts and knowledge, Weird Astronomical Theories presents an approachable exploration of the still mysterious questions about the origin of comets, the pattern of mass extinctions on Earth, and more. The alternative theories discussed here do not come from untrained amateurs. The scientists whose work is covered includes the mid-20th century Russian S. K. Vsekhsvyatskii, cosmologist Max Tegmark, British astronomers Victor Clube and William Napier, and American Tom Van Flandern, a special...
H∞ Control Theory Using in the Air Pollution Control System
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Tingya Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, air pollution control has caused great concern. This paper focuses on the primary pollutant SO2 in the atmosphere for analysis and control. Two indicators are introduced, which are the concentration of SO2 in the emissions (PSO2 and the concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere (ASO2. If the ASO2 is higher than the certain threshold, then this shows that the air is polluted. According to the uncertainty of the air pollution control systems model, H∞ control theory for the air pollution control systems is used in this paper, which can change the PSO2 with the method of improving the level of pollution processing or decreasing the emissions, so that air pollution system can maintain robust stability and the indicators ASO2 are always operated within the desired target.
Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.
2001-01-01
is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... in HMI, notably those that have been putforward by Norman and Gaver, affordances are in the foreground, whereas the system or work area is in the background. AT and CSE share the view that the actors' perception of foreground and background shifts dynamically according to the actors'situational context...... in purposeful activity. AT and CSE follow the original notion by Gibson on the actor's dynamic shifting between foreground and background of the environment. Furthermore, their work- and actor-centred approach to analysis and designof information systems opens up to an extension of Gibson's original ideas...
General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses
Tucker, Raymond K.
1971-01-01
General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.
Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.
International conference on dynamical systems and game theory
Peixoto, Mauricio Matos; Rand, David A J; Dynamics, Games and Science II
2011-01-01
"Dynamics, Games and Science I and II" are a selection of surveys and research articles written by leading researchers in mathematics and its applications to the sciences. The majority of the contributions are on dynamical systems and game theory, focusing either on some of their most fundamental and theoretical developments or on their applications to modeling in biology, economics, engineering, finances and psychology. The aim of these books is to present cutting-edge research in these areas that can encourage graduate students and researchers in mathematics to develop them further
H∞ Control Theory Using in the Air Pollution Control System
Yang, Tingya; Lu, Zhenyu; Hu, Junhao
2013-01-01
In recent years, air pollution control has caused great concern. This paper focuses on the primary pollutant SO2 in the atmosphere for analysis and control. Two indicators are introduced, which are the concentration of SO2 in the emissions (PSO2) and the concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere (ASO2). If the ASO2 is higher than the certain threshold, then this shows that the air is polluted. According to the uncertainty of the air pollution control systems model, H∞ control theory for the air ...
Multiple-base number system theory and applications
Dimitrov, Vassil
2012-01-01
Computer arithmetic has become so fundamentally embedded into digital design that many engineers are unaware of the many research advances in the area. As a result, they are losing out on emerging opportunities to optimize its use in targeted applications and technologies. In many cases, easily available standard arithmetic hardware might not necessarily be the most efficient implementation strategy. Multiple-Base Number System: Theory and Applications stands apart from the usual books on computer arithmetic with its concentration on the uses and the mathematical operations associated with the
Application of dynamical systems theory to nonlinear aircraft dynamics
Culick, Fred E. C.; Jahnke, Craig C.
1988-01-01
Dynamical systems theory has been used to study nonlinear aircraft dynamics. A six degree of freedom model that neglects gravity has been analyzed. The aerodynamic model, supplied by NASA, is for a generic swept wing fighter and includes nonlinearities as functions of the angle of attack. A continuation method was used to calculate the steady states of the aircraft, and bifurcations of these steady states, as functions of the control deflections. Bifurcations were used to predict jump phenomena and the onset of periodic motion for roll coupling instabilities and high angle of attack maneuvers. The predictions were verified with numerical simulations.
Development theory and changes in the international system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Antonio Alonso
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Development theory has undergone several changes over the last two decades. However, the international reality has changed more profoundly. The increased heterogeneity of the developing world, the diverse experience of economic success among some developing countries, the new geography of global poverty, the increased multipolarity of the international system and the wider spheres of international public assets are just some of these changes. Thus, it is necessary to think again about the development process and the strategies that are required to promote economic and social change. This article represents an attempt to contribute to that reflection.
Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes.
Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick
2014-06-01
In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype-phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait--such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations--define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.
Towards a Theory on the Design of Adaptive Transformation: A Systemic Approach
2010-05-21
theory requires exploring its differences with GST and chaos theory. In the 1960s, Ludwig von Bertalanffy elaborated GST as a new scientific discipline... Bertalanffy , General System Theory (New York: George Braziller, 1993), 37 (eleventh printing, 1968) 12 “Chaos and instability were not the same at...this field, indispensable references are: James Gleick, Chaos; Ludwig von Bertalanffy , General System Theory; Garnett Williams, Chaos Theory Tamed
Embedding research in health systems: lessons from complexity theory.
Caffrey, Louise; Wolfe, Charles; McKevitt, Christopher
2016-07-22
Internationally, there has been increasing focus on creating health research systems. This article aims to investigate the challenges of implementing apparently simple strategies to support the development of a health research system. We focus on a case study of an English National Health Service Hospital Trust that sought to implement the national recommendation that health organisations should introduce a statement about research on all patient admission letters. We apply core concepts from complexity theory to the case study and undertake a documentary analysis of the email dialogue between staff involved in implementing this initiative. The process of implementing a research statement in patient admission letters in one clinical service took 1 year and 21 days. The length of time needed was influenced firstly by adaptive self-organisation, underpinned by competing interests. Secondly, it was influenced by the relationship between systems, rather than simply being a product of issues within those systems. The relationship between the health system and the research system was weaker than might have been expected. Responsibilities were unclear, leading to confusion and delayed action. Conventional ways of thinking about organisations suggest that change happens when leaders and managers change the strategic vision, structure or procedures in an organisation and then persuade others to rationally implement the strategy. However, health research systems are complex adaptive systems characterised by high levels of unpredictability due to self-organisation and systemic interactions, which give rise to 'emergent' properties. We argue for the need to study how micro-processes of organisational dynamics may give rise to macro patterns of behaviour and strategic organisational direction and for the use of systems approaches to investigate the emergent properties of health research systems.
Schertzer, Daniel
2015-04-01
The EGU's 2015 theme 'a voyage through scales' is a recognition of the wild variability of geophysical fields over wide ranges of scales. However, we cannot forget Samuel Becket's criticism of all voyages: 'We don't travel for the fun of it, as far as I know; we're foolish, but not that foolish.' Such travels would be in fact hardly manageable: atmospheric dynamics are already beyond the yotta scale (1024)! Fortunately, Pandora's box has been opened enough to take us on a motionless travel across scales à la Gulliver. Scale symmetry is becoming generalized to the point that geophysical systems can be perceived as fixed points of (generalized) space-time contractions/dilations, depending on the side of the Wonderland mushrooms bitten by Alice. The now dated scale dependent observables are going to be replaced by scale independent singularities yielding scale free (nonlinear) geophysics. The (not yet solved) millennium problem of hydrodynamic turbulence is surprisingly a pedagogical example to illustrate what is at stake and motivated a series of paradigm shifts. Indeed, this problem can be stripped down to a network of triadic interactions. This graphically highlights how field components 'talk' to each other, i.e. how an infinitely small perturbation propagates through this network. This points out the dead ends of previous approaches (e.g. quasi-normal assumptions) and provide a first tier of concepts such as: multifractal cascades, singularities, universality, phase transitions and predictability limits. These concepts already provide a wealth of non trivial results, particularly the emergent 'dressed' properties generated by the whole set of interactions with respect to the 'bare' properties resulting from a scale truncation. Their extremes can be qualitatively different, having respectively 'heavy' and 'thin' tailed probability distributions. Moreover, the ubiquitous anisotropy of geophysical fields and patterns required another paradigm shift: a generalized
Translationally invariant coupled cluster theory for simple finite systems
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Bishop, R.F.; Flynn, M.F. (Department of Mathematics, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)); Bosca, M.C.; Buendriaaa, E.; Guardiola, R. (Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain))
1990-10-01
The widely used coupled cluster method (CCM) in quantum many-body theory has recently provided very accurate descriptions of a large number of extended systems. Although its earlier applications to closed-shell and neighboring finite nuclei were also very successful, they have been shrouded in algebraic and technical complexity. Furthermore, they are difficult to compare with more traditional calculations of generalized shell-model theory since, at least at the important level of two-body correlations, they have been largely implemented in relative-coordinate space rather than the more usual oscillator configuration space. The CCM is reviewed here in the precise context of applications to simple finite systems. Special attention is paid to formulate it in such a way that comparison may be made with generalized shell-model or configuration-interaction (CI) theories. Particular regard is paid to an exact incorporation of translational invariance, so that any spuriosity associated with the center-of-mass motion is always avoided. An important side benefit is that the number of many-body configurations in the usual oscillator basis is dramatically reduced. We are thereby able to present both CI and CCM calculations on {sup 4}He up to the essentially unprecedented level of 60{h bar}{omega} in oscillator excitation energy, for two popular and quasirealistic choices of the nucleon-nucleon interaction for which exact Monte Carlo results are available for this nucleus. Although even our simplest approximations attain about 95% of the total binding energy, the convergence in the oscillator configuration space is shown to be both very slow and of a complicated nonuniform nature. Strong implications are drawn for standard implementations of generalized shell-model techniques for heavier nuclei.
Developmental Systems of Students' Personal Theories about Education
Barger, Michael M.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa
2017-01-01
Children hold many personal theories about education: theories about themselves, knowledge, and the learning process. Personal theories help children predict what their actions will cause, and therefore relate to motivation, self-regulation, and achievement. Researchers typically examine how specific types of personal theories develop…
Adiabatic perturbation theory and geometry of periodically-driven systems
Weinberg, Phillip; Bukov, Marin; D'Alessio, Luca; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Vajna, Szabolcs; Kolodrubetz, Michael
2017-05-01
We give a systematic review of the adiabatic theorem and the leading non-adiabatic corrections in periodically-driven (Floquet) systems. These corrections have a two-fold origin: (i) conventional ones originating from the gradually changing Floquet Hamiltonian and (ii) corrections originating from changing the micro-motion operator. These corrections conspire to give a Hall-type linear response for non-stroboscopic (time-averaged) observables allowing one to measure the Berry curvature and the Chern number related to the Floquet Hamiltonian, thus extending these concepts to periodically-driven many-body systems. The non-zero Floquet Chern number allows one to realize a Thouless energy pump, where one can adiabatically add energy to the system in discrete units of the driving frequency. We discuss the validity of Floquet Adiabatic Perturbation Theory (FAPT) using five different models covering linear and non-linear few and many-particle systems. We argue that in interacting systems, even in the stable high-frequency regimes, FAPT breaks down at ultra slow ramp rates due to avoided crossings of photon resonances, not captured by the inverse-frequency expansion, leading to a counter-intuitive stronger heating at slower ramp rates. Nevertheless, large windows in the ramp rate are shown to exist for which the physics of interacting driven systems is well captured by FAPT.
New approach to microscopic theory of normal Fermi systems
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Khodel, V.A. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii); Shaginyan, V.R. (Leningrad Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (USSR))
1989-08-21
A new version of the normal Fermi system microscopic theory is suggested. A functional equation for the effective potential R of the quasiparticle interaction is obtained. Methods for the evaluation of R in terms of the particle interaction potential are discussed. It is shown that in the well-known local approximation, the functional equation for R is reduced to an integro-differential one. For a number of model examples for which the Monte Carlo equation of state is known, the local approximation proves to reproduce the Monte Carlo results to an accuracy of a few percent. The method developed is applied to superfluid Fermi systems. The equation for the evaluation of the gap in the single-particle excitation spectrum in terms of the interaction potential R is obtained. (orig.).
Complex adaptive systems and game theory: An unlikely union
Hadzikadic, M.; Carmichael, T.; Curtin, C.
2010-01-01
A Complex Adaptive System is a collection of autonomous, heterogeneous agents, whose behavior is defined with a limited number of rules. A Game Theory is a mathematical construct that assumes a small number of rational players who have a limited number of actions or strategies available to them. The CAS method has the potential to alleviate some of the shortcomings of GT. On the other hand, CAS researchers are always looking for a realistic way to define interactions among agents. GT offers an attractive option for defining the rules of such interactions in a way that is both potentially consistent with observed real-world behavior and subject to mathematical interpretation. This article reports on the results of an effort to build a CAS system that utilizes GT for determining the actions of individual agents. ?? 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 16,24-42, 2010.
Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility
Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan
2015-01-01
Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.
Dynamical response theory for driven-dissipative quantum systems
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-03-01
We discuss dynamical response theory of driven-dissipative quantum systems described by Markovian master equations generating semigroups of maps. In this setting thermal equilibrium states are replaced by nonequilibrium steady states, and dissipative perturbations are considered in addition to the Hamiltonian ones. We derive explicit expressions for the linear dynamical response functions for generalized dephasing channels and for Davies thermalizing generators. We introduce the notion of maximal harmonic response and compute it exactly for a single-qubit channel. Finally, we analyze linear response near dynamical phase transitions in quasifree open quantum systems. It is found that the effect of the dynamical phase transition shows up in a peak at the edge of the spectrum in the imaginary part of the dynamical response function.
Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems
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FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.
1999-10-22
Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.
What Learning Systems do Intelligent Agents Need? Complementary Learning Systems Theory Updated.
Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L
2016-07-01
We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships.
Kyselo, Miriam; Tschacher, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
Many social relationships are a locus of struggle and suffering, either at the individual or interactional level. In this paper we explore why this is the case and suggest a modeling approach for dyadic interactions and the well-being of the participants. To this end we bring together an enactive approach to self with dynamical systems theory. Our basic assumption is that the quality of any social interaction or relationship fundamentally depends on the nature and constitution of the individuals engaged in these interactions. From an enactive perspective the self is conceived as an embodied and socially enacted autonomous system striving to maintain an identity. This striving involves a basic two-fold goal: the ability to exist as an individual in one's own right, while also being open to and affected by others. In terms of dynamical systems theory one can thus consider the individual self as a self-other organized system represented by a phase space spanned by the dimensions of distinction and participation, where attractors can be defined. Based on two everyday examples of dyadic relationship we propose a simple model of relationship dynamics, in which struggle or well-being in the dyad is analyzed in terms of movements of dyadic states that are in tension or in harmony with individually developed attractors. Our model predicts that relationships can be sustained when the dyad develops a new joint attractor toward which dyadic states tend to move, and well-being when this attractor is in balance with the individuals' attractors. We outline how this can inspire research on psychotherapy. The psychotherapy process itself provides a setting that supports clients to become aware how they fare with regards to the two-fold norm of distinction and participation and develop, through active engagement between client (or couple) and therapist, strategies to co-negotiate their self-organization.
The health information system security threat lifecycle: an informatics theory.
Fernando, Juanita I; Dawson, Linda L
2009-12-01
This manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians' health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context. The 'questerview' technique was applied to this study of 26 clinicians situated in 3 large Australian (across Victoria) teaching hospitals. Questerviews rely on data collection that apply standardized questions and questionnaires during recorded interviews. Analysis (using Nvivo) involved the iterative scrutiny of interview transcripts to identify emergent themes. Issues including poor training, ambiguous legal frameworks containing punitive threats, productivity challenges, usability errors and the limitations of the natural hospital environment emerged from empirical data about the clinicians' HIS P&S practices. The natural hospital environment is defined by the permanence of electronic HISs (e-HISs), shared workspaces, outdated HIT infrastructure, constant interruption, a P&S regulatory environment that is not conducive to optimal training outcomes and budgetary constraints. The evidence also indicated the obtrusiveness, timeliness, and reliability of P&S implementations for clinical work affected participant attitudes to, and use of, e-HISs. The HISSTL emerged from the analysis of study evidence. The theory embodies elements such as the fiscal, regulatory and natural hospital environments which impede P&S implementations in practice settings. These elements conflict with improved patient care outcomes. Efforts by clinicians to avoid conflict and emphasize patient care above P&S tended to manifest as security breaches. These breaches entrench factors beyond clinician control and perpetuate those within clinician control. Security breaches of health information can progress through the HISSTL. Some preliminary suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed. Legislative frameworks that are not related to
Elements of social representation theory incollaborative tagging systems
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Patricia Zeni Marchiori
Full Text Available This article discusses the information representation process based on the Moscovici's Social Representation Theory and domain analysis in Information Science. The aim was to identify mechanisms and constituent dimensions of social representation in collaborative tagging systems/social bookmarking systems. Scientific knowledge was defined as the object/phenomenon of representation in these systems; and the tag as the shareable structure of meaning that connects participants and resources. The empirical research involved descriptive statistical techniques applied to a corpora of tags available in CiteULike, which is a social tagging system developed for the academic community. The data analysis, performed in a sample of groups derived from the dataset, showed that the users' reuse of their own tags resembles the anchorage mechanism. The reuse of tags by other participants - in the same group - reveals some evidence of the objectification mechanism. Some speculation arose about the cognitive effort made by the individual, under group influence, with regard to the tagging activity, user's choice of resources, and sharing styles. Further studies on social bookmarking systems depend both on a "gain scale" of users and items tagged, requiring techniques and procedures redesigned by Information Science, Statistics, Network Analysis, Linguistics/Sociolinguistics and Social Psychology.
Theory of temporal fluctuations in isolated quantum systems
Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo
2015-05-01
When an isolated quantum system is driven out of equilibrium, expectation values of general observables start oscillating in time. This paper reviews the general theory of such temporal fluctuations. We first survey some results on the strength of such temporal fluctuations. For example temporal fluctuations are exponentially small in the system's volume for generic systems whereas they fall-off algebraically in integrable systems. We then concentrate on the so-called quench scenario where the system is driven out-of-equilibrium under the application of a sudden perturbation. For sufficiently small perturbations, temporal fluctuations of physical observables can be characterized in full generality and can be used as an effective tool to probe quantum criticality of the underlying model. In the off-critical region the distribution becomes Gaussian. Close to criticality the distribution becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by a single critical exponent, that we compute explicitly. This contrasts standard equilibrium quantum fluctuations for which the critical distribution depends on a numerable set of critical coefficients and is known only for limited examples. The possibility of using temporal fluctuations to determine pseudo-critical boundaries in optical lattice experiments is further reviewed.
Vanhoof, E.; Huysmans, P.; Aerts, Walter; Verelst, J.; Aveiro, D.; Tribolet, J.; Gouveia, D.
2014-01-01
This paper uses a mixed methods approach of design science and case study research to evaluate structures of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) that report in multiple Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), using Normalized Systems Theory (NST). To comply with regulation, many companies
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life
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Nil GOKSEL CANBEK
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning
Xie, Fengjie; Shi, Jing; Lin, Jun
2017-01-01
In this work, we study an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks with limited player interactions, and explore the effect of interaction style and degree on cooperation. The results show that high-degree preference interaction, namely the most applicable interaction in the real world, is less beneficial for emergence of cooperation on scale-free networks than random interaction. Besides, cooperation on scale-free networks is enhanced with the increase of interaction degree regardless whether the interaction is high-degree preference or random. If the interaction degree is very low, the cooperation level on scale-free networks is much lower than that on regular ring networks, which is against the common belief that scale-free networks must be more beneficial for cooperation. Our analysis indicates that the interaction relations, the strategy and the game payoff of high-connectivity players play important roles in the evolution of cooperation on scale-free networks. A certain number of interactions are necessary for scale-free networks to exhibit strong capability of facilitating cooperation. Our work provides important insight for members on how to interact with others in a social organization.
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Fengjie Xie
Full Text Available In this work, we study an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks with limited player interactions, and explore the effect of interaction style and degree on cooperation. The results show that high-degree preference interaction, namely the most applicable interaction in the real world, is less beneficial for emergence of cooperation on scale-free networks than random interaction. Besides, cooperation on scale-free networks is enhanced with the increase of interaction degree regardless whether the interaction is high-degree preference or random. If the interaction degree is very low, the cooperation level on scale-free networks is much lower than that on regular ring networks, which is against the common belief that scale-free networks must be more beneficial for cooperation. Our analysis indicates that the interaction relations, the strategy and the game payoff of high-connectivity players play important roles in the evolution of cooperation on scale-free networks. A certain number of interactions are necessary for scale-free networks to exhibit strong capability of facilitating cooperation. Our work provides important insight for members on how to interact with others in a social organization.
Introduction to Supersymmetric Theory of Stochastics
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Igor V. Ovchinnikov
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Many natural and engineered dynamical systems, including all living objects, exhibit signatures of what can be called spontaneous dynamical long-range order (DLRO. This order’s omnipresence has long been recognized by the scientific community, as evidenced by a myriad of related concepts, theoretical and phenomenological frameworks, and experimental phenomena such as turbulence, 1/f noise, dynamical complexity, chaos and the butterfly effect, the Richter scale for earthquakes and the scale-free statistics of other sudden processes, self-organization and pattern formation, self-organized criticality, etc. Although several successful approaches to various realizations of DLRO have been established, the universal theoretical understanding of this phenomenon remained elusive. The possibility of constructing a unified theory of DLRO has emerged recently within the approximation-free supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS. There, DLRO is the spontaneous breakdown of the topological or de Rahm supersymmetry that all stochastic differential equations (SDEs possess. This theory may be interesting to researchers with very different backgrounds because the ubiquitous DLRO is a truly interdisciplinary entity. The STS is also an interdisciplinary construction. This theory is based on dynamical systems theory, cohomological field theories, the theory of pseudo-Hermitian operators, and the conventional theory of SDEs. Reviewing the literature on all these mathematical disciplines can be time consuming. As such, a concise and self-contained introduction to the STS, the goal of this paper, may be useful.
A non-extensive thermodynamic theory of ecological systems
Van Xuan, Le; Khac Ngoc, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2017-06-01
After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so-called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non-additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q-entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non-extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy Uq and temperature Tq based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature Tq provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well-known in 0th law of thermodynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backes, Steffen
2017-04-15
The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non
Microscopic Theory of Multipole Ordering in f-Electron Systems
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Takashi Hotta
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A microscopic framework to determine multipole ordering in f-electron systems is provided on the basis of the standard quantum field theory. For the construction of the framework, a seven-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian with strong spin-orbit coupling is adopted as a prototype model. A type of multipole and ordering vector is determined from the divergence of multipole susceptibility, which is evaluated in a random phase approximation. As an example of the application of the present framework, a multipole phase diagram on a three-dimensional simple cubic lattice is discussed for the case of n=2, where n denotes the average f-electron number per site. Finally, future problems concerning multipole ordering and fluctuations are briefly discussed.
Communication theory of quantum systems. Ph.D. Thesis, 1970
Yuen, H. P. H.
1971-01-01
Communication theory problems incorporating quantum effects for optical-frequency applications are discussed. Under suitable conditions, a unique quantum channel model corresponding to a given classical space-time varying linear random channel is established. A procedure is described by which a proper density-operator representation applicable to any receiver configuration can be constructed directly from the channel output field. Some examples illustrating the application of our methods to the development of optical quantum channel representations are given. Optimizations of communication system performance under different criteria are considered. In particular, certain necessary and sufficient conditions on the optimal detector in M-ary quantum signal detection are derived. Some examples are presented. Parameter estimation and channel capacity are discussed briefly.
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Andy M Reynolds
2007-04-01
Full Text Available During their trajectories in still air, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster explore their landscape using a series of straight flight paths punctuated by rapid 90 degrees body-saccades [1]. Some saccades are triggered by visual expansion associated with collision avoidance. Yet many saccades are not triggered by visual cues, but rather appear spontaneously. Our analysis reveals that the control of these visually independent saccades and the flight intervals between them constitute an optimal scale-free active searching strategy. Two characteristics of mathematical optimality that are apparent during free-flight in Drosophila are inter-saccade interval lengths distributed according to an inverse square law, which does not vary across landscape scale, and 90 degrees saccade angles, which increase the likelihood that territory will be revisited and thereby reduce the likelihood that near-by targets will be missed. We also show that searching is intermittent, such that active searching phases randomly alternate with relocation phases. Behaviorally, this intermittency is reflected in frequently occurring short, slow speed inter-saccade intervals randomly alternating with rarer, longer, faster inter-saccade intervals. Searching patterns that scale similarly across orders of magnitude of length (i.e., scale-free have been revealed in animals as diverse as microzooplankton, bumblebees, albatrosses, and spider monkeys, but these do not appear to be optimised with respect to turning angle, whereas Drosophila free-flight search does. Also, intermittent searching patterns, such as those reported here for Drosophila, have been observed in foragers such as planktivorous fish and ground foraging birds. Our results with freely flying Drosophila may constitute the first reported example of searching behaviour that is both scale-free and intermittent.
The Power and Promise of Developmental Systems Theory
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Letitia Meynell
2008-09-01
Full Text Available I argue that it is time for many feminists to rethink their attitudes towards evolutionary biology, not because feminists have been wrong to be deeply sceptical about many of its claims, both explicit and implicit, but because biology itself has changed. A new appreciation for the importance of development in biology has become mainstream and a new ontology, associated with developmental systems theory (DST, has been introduced over the last two decades. This turn challenges some of the features of evolutionary biology that have most troubled feminists. DST undermines the idea of biologicales sence and challenges both nature /nurture and nature/culture distinctions. Freed from these conceptual constraints, evolutionary biology no longer poses the problems that have justified feminist scepticism. Indeed, feminists have already found useful applications for DST and I argue that they should expand their use of DST to support more radical and wide-ranging political theories.Si les féministes n’ont pas eu tort d’être profondément sceptiques face aux nombreuses revendications de la biologie, leur attitude face à cette science doit être remise en question car la biologie s’est transformée au courant des dernières décennies. La «théorie des systèmes de développement» (developmental systems theory-TDS est une théorie qui s’est considérablement développée et qui a pris beaucoup d’ampleur. Cette théorie n’accepte pas le concept d’essence biologique ce qui pose un défi important à la distinction nature/culture. Une des conséquences de cet apport théorique est que le scepticisme des féministes face à la biologie de l’évolution n’est plus justifié car la biologie ne comporte plus les contraintes essentialistes qui s’avéraient contentieuses. En effet, certaines féministes ont déjà trouvé des applications utiles pour la TDS et nous avançons que les féministes doivent maintenant élargir l’utilisation de la
Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.
Kondraske, George V
2010-01-01
General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).
Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots
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Pedro U. Lima
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior T?cnico (ISR/IST in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for "Society of Robots" and "Soccer Robots", the case study where we are testing our population of robots. Designing soccer robots is a very challenging problem, where the robots must act not only to shoot a ball towards the goal, but also to detect and avoid static (walls, stopped robots and dynamic (moving robots obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past and current research in soccer robotics includes cooperative sensor fusion for world modeling, object recognition and tracking, robot navigation, multi-robot distributed task planning and coordination, including cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behavior-based architectures for real time task execution of cooperating robot teams.
Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots
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Pedro U. Lima
2004-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior Técnico (ISR/IST in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for “Society of Robots” and “Soccer Robots”, the case study where we are testing our population of robots. Designing soccer robots is a very challenging problem, where the robots must act not only to shoot a ball towards the goal, but also to detect and avoid static (walls, stopped robots and dynamic (moving robots obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past and current research in soccer robotics includes cooperative sensor fusion for world modeling, object recognition and tracking, robot navigation, multi-robot distributed task planning and coordination, including cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behavior-based architectures for real time task execution of cooperating robot teams.
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Gruemmer, Frank; Speth, Josef [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) FZ-Juelich, D52425 Juelich (Germany)
2006-07-15
We review Migdal's theory of finite Fermi systems and its application to the structure of nuclei. The theory is an extension of Landau's theory of interacting Fermi systems. In the first part the basic formulae are derived within the many-body Green functions approach. The theory is applied to isovector electric giant resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei. The parameterizations of the renormalized effective ph-interaction and the effective operators are discussed. It is shown that the number of free parameters is restricted by conservation laws. We also present an extension of Migdal's theory, where the low-lying phonons are considered in a consistent manner. The extended theory is again applied to the same isovector electric giant resonances and to the analysis of ({alpha}, {alpha}') reaction data. We point out that the extended theory is the appropriate framework for self-consistent nuclear structure calculations starting from effective Lagrangians and Hamiltonians. (topical review)
Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications
Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco
2013-06-01
[17], von Neumann [18], Krylov [19]3 and Asonov and Sinai [20] on ergodic theory. Lyapunov exponents quantify exponential sensitivity to initial conditions and provide direct access to the entropy production in ergodic systems via the Pesin theory [21]. Further advances have been made possible by the introduction of proper physical invariant measures for certain dissipative systems due to Sinai [22], Ruelle [23] and Bowen [24, 25]. However, it was necessary to wait until the end of the 1970s before the independent works of Shimada and Nagashima [26] and Benettin et al [27] introduced the numerical algorithms required to compute Lyapunov exponents beyond the largest one. The availability of such algorithms and also, at about the same time, of those necessary for the computation of fractal dimensions and entropies by Grassberger and Procaccia [28], made possible the study of chaotic behavior in physically relevant models. Lyapunov analysis, applied to experimental systems [29], was also made possible by a combination of these numerical methods with ideas from nonlinear time series analysis [30]. As a result, it is nowadays widely recognized that Lyapunov exponents are a central tool of chaos theory, crucial for characterizing a number of interesting physical properties including dynamical entropies and fractal dimensions [31]. Their pivotal role in modern dynamical systems theory has been established by a fruitful exchange between a rigorous (and beautiful) mathematical theory and the algorithmic approaches essential for understanding many physical phenomena. From the 1990s to the present, with the concomitant progress in both theoretical understanding and computer capabilities, there has been a progressive shift of interest from low dimensional towards high dimensional systems. This shift towards dynamics characterized by many degrees of freedom, possibly spatially organized and/or with several characteristic temporal scales, has been accompanied by the need for
Chen, Huey T
2016-12-01
Theories of program and theories of evaluation form the foundation of program evaluation theories. Theories of program reflect assumptions on how to conceptualize an intervention program for evaluation purposes, while theories of evaluation reflect assumptions on how to design useful evaluation. These two types of theories are related, but often discussed separately. This paper attempts to use three theoretical perspectives (reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis) to interface them and discuss the implications for evaluation practice. Reductionism proposes that an intervention program can be broken into crucial components for rigorous analyses; systems thinking view an intervention program as dynamic and complex, requiring a holistic examination. In spite of their contributions, reductionism and systems thinking represent the extreme ends of a theoretical spectrum; many real-world programs, however, may fall in the middle. Pragmatic synthesis is being developed to serve these moderate- complexity programs. These three theoretical perspectives have their own strengths and challenges. Knowledge on these three perspectives and their evaluation implications can provide a better guide for designing fruitful evaluations, improving the quality of evaluation practice, informing potential areas for developing cutting-edge evaluation approaches, and contributing to advancing program evaluation toward a mature applied science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems
Galla, Tobias
2006-04-01
It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the
Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration
Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard
1978-01-01
Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)
Walloth, Christian
2016-01-01
This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...
A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems
Wang, Pei
2017-09-01
Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.
System of marketing deciding support based on game theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gordana Dukić
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Quantitative methods and models can be applied in numerous spheres of marketing deciding. The choice of optimal strategy in product advertising is one of the problems that the marketing-management often meets. The use of models developed within the framework of game theory makes significantly easier to find out the solutions of conflict situations that appear herewith. The system of deciding support presented in this work is based on the supposition that two opposed sides take part in the game. With the aim of deciding process promotion, the starting model incorporates computer simulation of percentile changes in the market share that represent elements of payment matrix. The supposition is that the random variables that represent them follow the normal division. It is necessary to carry out the evaluation of their parameters because of relevant data. Information techniques, computer and the adequate program applications take the special position in solving and analysis of the suggested model. This kind of their application represents the basic characteristic of the deciding support system.
Towards understanding the behavior of physical systems using information theory
Quax, Rick; Apolloni, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.
2013-09-01
One of the goals of complex network analysis is to identify the most influential nodes, i.e., the nodes that dictate the dynamics of other nodes. In the case of autonomous systems or transportation networks, highly connected hubs play a preeminent role in diffusing the flow of information and viruses; in contrast, in language evolution most linguistic norms come from the peripheral nodes who have only few contacts. Clearly a topological analysis of the interactions alone is not sufficient to identify the nodes that drive the state of the network. Here we show how information theory can be used to quantify how the dynamics of individual nodes propagate through a system. We interpret the state of a node as a storage of information about the state of other nodes, which is quantified in terms of Shannon information. This information is transferred through interactions and lost due to noise, and we calculate how far it can travel through a network. We apply this concept to a model of opinion formation in a complex social network to calculate the impact of each node by measuring how long its opinion is remembered by the network. Counter-intuitively we find that the dynamics of opinions are not determined by the hubs or peripheral nodes, but rather by nodes with an intermediate connectivity.
Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models
Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz
2017-01-01
The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuhlemann, Verena [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2013-10-28
Matrix-vector multiplication is the key operation in any Krylov-subspace iteration method. We are interested in Krylov methods applied to problems associated with the graph Laplacian arising from large scale-free graphs. Furthermore, computations with graphs of this type on parallel distributed-memory computers are challenging. This is due to the fact that scale-free graphs have a degree distribution that follows a power law, and currently available graph partitioners are not efficient for such an irregular degree distribution. The lack of a good partitioning leads to excessive interprocessor communication requirements during every matrix-vector product. Here, we present an approach to alleviate this problem based on embedding the original irregular graph into a more regular one by disaggregating (splitting up) vertices in the original graph. The matrix-vector operations for the original graph are performed via a factored triple matrix-vector product involving the embedding graph. And even though the latter graph is larger, we are able to decrease the communication requirements considerably and improve the performance of the matrix-vector product.
Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D.
Słyk, Edyta; Roth, Roland; Bryk, Paweł
2016-06-22
We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim's first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT.
Gravitation theory - Empirical status from solar system experiments.
Nordtvedt, K. L., Jr.
1972-01-01
Review of historical and recent experiments which speak in favor of a post-Newtonian relativistic gravitational theory. The topics include the foundational experiments, metric theories of gravity, experiments designed to differentiate among the metric theories, and tests of Machian concepts of gravity. It is shown that the metric field for any metric theory can be specified by a series of potential terms with several parameters. It is pointed out that empirical results available up to date yield values of the parameters which are consistent with the prediction of Einstein's general relativity.
Quasi-neutral theory of epidemic outbreaks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar A Pinto
Full Text Available Some epidemics have been empirically observed to exhibit outbreaks of all possible sizes, i.e., to be scale-free or scale-invariant. Different explanations for this finding have been put forward; among them there is a model for "accidental pathogens" which leads to power-law distributed outbreaks without apparent need of parameter fine tuning. This model has been claimed to be related to self-organized criticality, and its critical properties have been conjectured to be related to directed percolation. Instead, we show that this is a (quasi neutral model, analogous to those used in Population Genetics and Ecology, with the same critical behavior as the voter-model, i.e. the theory of accidental pathogens is a (quasi-neutral theory. This analogy allows us to explain all the system phenomenology, including generic scale invariance and the associated scaling exponents, in a parsimonious and simple way.
Causal Fermion Systems as a Candidate for a Unified Physical Theory
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-01-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction.
A Test for Theoretical Integration: Systems Theory Framework and Dialogical Self
McIlveen, Peter
2007-01-01
The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is presented as an integrating and organising concept for the predominant theories of career. In order to test the integrative capacity of the STF, this research merges the STF's theoretical element of story with the Theory of Dialogical Self's model of personality. Implications for the practice of career…
Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems.
Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Sandberg, Henrik
2017-03-06
In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Solar system constraints on multifield theories of modified dynamics
Sanders, R. H.
2006-01-01
Any viable theory of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) as modified gravity is likely to require fields in addition to the usual tensor field of General Relativity. For these theories, the MOND phenomenology emerges as an effective fifth force probably associated with a scalar field. Here, I
Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory
Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.
2003-01-01
This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.
Navigation in small-world networks: a scale-free continuum model
Franceschetti, M.; Meester, R.W.J.
2006-01-01
The small-world phenomenon, the principle that we are all linked by a short chain of intermediate acquaintances, has been investigated in mathematics and social sciences. It has been shown to be pervasive both in nature and in engineering systems like the World Wide Web. Work of Jon Kleinberg has
Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?
Pellegrini, Dario W.
2009-01-01
This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and…
General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All.
Chen, David; Stroup, Walter
1993-01-01
Suggests using general system theory as a unifying theoretical framework for science and technology education for all. Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics, the ability to represent the relationship between microlevel and…
Designing sociotechnical systems with cognitive work analysis: putting theory back into practice.
Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A
2015-01-01
Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is a framework of methods for analysing complex sociotechnical systems. However, the translation from the outputs of CWA to design is not straightforward. Sociotechnical systems theory provides values and principles for the design of sociotechnical systems which may offer a theoretically consistent basis for a design approach for use with CWA. This article explores the extent to which CWA and sociotechnical systems theory offer complementary perspectives and presents an abstraction hierarchy (AH), based on a review of literature, that describes an 'optimal' CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design system. The optimal AH is used to assess the extent to which current CWA-based design practices, uncovered through a survey of CWA practitioners, aligns with sociotechnical systems theory. Recommendations for a design approach that would support the integration of CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design values and principles are also derived.
Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurakin Alexei
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies.
Affect Theory and Autoethnography in Ordinary Information Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan
2016-01-01
This paper uses philosophical theories of affect as a lens for exploring autoethnographic renderings of everyday experience with information technology. Affect theories, in the paper, denote a broad trend in post-humanistic philosophy that explores sensation and feeling as emergent and relational...... precognitive forces that impinge on a body and its capacity to act. A necessarily truncated account of affect theory, and three autoethnographic vignettes are presented to complement the philosophical exposition and to provide reflections on possible empirical tactics for affective research in IS. Inspired...
Xue, Jingxin
The article aims to completely, systematically and objectively analyze the current situation of Entrepreneurship Education in China with Ecological Systems Theory. From this perspective, the author discusses the structure, function and its basic features of higher education entrepreneur services network system, and puts forward the opinion that every entrepreneurship organization in higher education institution does not limited to only one platform. Different functional supporting platforms should be combined closed through composite functional organization to form an integrated network system, in which each unit would impels others' development.
Fernandez, Charles; Soize, Christian; Gagliardini, Laurent
2009-01-01
The fuzzy structure theory was introduced 20 years ago in order to model the effects of complex subsystems imprecisely known on a master structure. This theory was only aimed at structural dynamics. In this paper, an extension of that theory is proposed in developing an elastoacoustic element useful to model sound-insulation layers for computational vibroacoustics of complex systems. The simplified model constructed enhances computation time and memory allocation because the number of physical and generalized degrees of freedom in the computational vibroacoustic model is not increased. However, these simplifications introduce model uncertainties. In order to take into account these uncertainties, the nonparametric probabilistic approach recently introduced is used. A robust simplified model for sound-insulation layers is then obtained. This model is controlled by a small number of physical and dispersion parameters. First, the extension of the fuzzy structure theory to elastoacoustic element is presented. Second, the computational vibroacoustic model including such an elastoacoustic element to model sound-insulation layer is given. Then, a design methodology to identify the model parameters with experiments is proposed and is experimentally validated. Finally, the theory is applied to an uncertain vibroacoustic system.
Systemic appraisal optimism and Austrian business cycle theory
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Miller, Robert C.B
2012-01-01
Austrian business cycle theory (ABCT) has focused on the effect of interest rates set below the natural rate, leading to unwarranted attempts by businessmen to make more elaborate roundabout structures than can be completed...
Modified Penna bit-string network evolution model for scale-free networks with assortative mixing
Kim, Yup; Choi, Woosik; Yook, Soon-Hyung
2012-02-01
Motivated by biological aging dynamics, we introduce a network evolution model for social interaction networks. In order to study the effect of social interactions originating from biological and sociological reasons on the topological properties of networks, we introduce the activitydependent rewiring process. From the numerical simulations, we show that the degree distribution of the obtained networks follows a power-law distribution with an exponentially decaying tail, P( k) ˜ ( k + c)- γ exp(- k/k 0). The obtained value of γ is in the range 2 networks. Moreover, we also show that the degree-degree correlation of the network is positive, which is a characteristic of social interaction networks. The possible applications of our model to real systems are also discussed.
Certified Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) Solving for System Verification
2017-01-01
instrumentation in the theory solvers as well as additional deduction rules and axioms beyond Boolean resolution. More generally, SMT proofs typically have a...module is built by the functor module. One can see the bit vector structure (a Coq record) by using the destruct tactic (in Coq ’s proof editing mode...Oliveras, and C. Tinelli, “Splitting On Demand in SAT Modulo Theories,” in Proc. 13th int. conf. on logic for programming, artificial intelligence
Transport through correlated systems with density functional theory
Kurth, S.; Stefanucci, G.
2017-10-01
We present recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) for applications in the field of quantum transport, with particular emphasis on transport through strongly correlated systems. We review the foundations of the popular Landauer-Büttiker(LB) + DFT approach. This formalism, when using approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential with steps at integer occupation, correctly captures the Kondo plateau in the zero bias conductance at zero temperature but completely fails to capture the transition to the Coulomb blockade (CB) regime as the temperature increases. To overcome the limitations of LB + DFT, the quantum transport problem is treated from a time-dependent (TD) perspective using TDDFT, an exact framework to deal with nonequilibrium situations. The steady-state limit of TDDFT shows that in addition to an xc potential in the junction, there also exists an xc correction to the applied bias. Open shell molecules in the CB regime provide the most striking examples of the importance of the xc bias correction. Using the Anderson model as guidance we estimate these corrections in the limit of zero bias. For the general case we put forward a steady-state DFT which is based on one-to-one correspondence between the pair of basic variables, steady density on and steady current across the junction and the pair local potential on and bias across the junction. Like TDDFT, this framework also leads to both an xc potential in the junction and an xc correction to the bias. Unlike TDDFT, these potentials are independent of history. We highlight the universal features of both xc potential and xc bias corrections for junctions in the CB regime and provide an accurate parametrization for the Anderson model at arbitrary temperatures and interaction strengths, thus providing a unified DFT description for both Kondo and CB regimes and the transition between them.
Transport through correlated systems with density functional theory.
Kurth, S; Stefanucci, G
2017-10-18
We present recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) for applications in the field of quantum transport, with particular emphasis on transport through strongly correlated systems. We review the foundations of the popular Landauer-Büttiker(LB) + DFT approach. This formalism, when using approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential with steps at integer occupation, correctly captures the Kondo plateau in the zero bias conductance at zero temperature but completely fails to capture the transition to the Coulomb blockade (CB) regime as the temperature increases. To overcome the limitations of LB + DFT, the quantum transport problem is treated from a time-dependent (TD) perspective using TDDFT, an exact framework to deal with nonequilibrium situations. The steady-state limit of TDDFT shows that in addition to an xc potential in the junction, there also exists an xc correction to the applied bias. Open shell molecules in the CB regime provide the most striking examples of the importance of the xc bias correction. Using the Anderson model as guidance we estimate these corrections in the limit of zero bias. For the general case we put forward a steady-state DFT which is based on one-to-one correspondence between the pair of basic variables, steady density on and steady current across the junction and the pair local potential on and bias across the junction. Like TDDFT, this framework also leads to both an xc potential in the junction and an xc correction to the bias. Unlike TDDFT, these potentials are independent of history. We highlight the universal features of both xc potential and xc bias corrections for junctions in the CB regime and provide an accurate parametrization for the Anderson model at arbitrary temperatures and interaction strengths, thus providing a unified DFT description for both Kondo and CB regimes and the transition between them.
An extension of the Dirac and Gotay-Nester theories of constraints for Dirac dynamical systems
Cendra, Hernán; Etchechoury, María; Ferraro, Sebastián J.
2012-01-01
This paper extends the Gotay-Nester and the Dirac theories of constrained systems in order to deal with Dirac dynamical systems in the integrable case. Integrable Dirac dynamical systems are viewed as constrained systems where the constraint submanifolds are foliated, the case considered in Gotay-Nester theory being the particular case where the foliation has only one leaf. A Constraint Algorithm for Dirac dynamical systems (CAD), which extends the Gotay-Nester algorithm, is developed. Evolut...
Large-scale free surface measurement for the analysis of ship waves in a towing tank
Gomit, Guillaume; Chatellier, Ludovic; Calluaud, Damien; David, Laurent; Fréchou, Didier; Boucheron, Romuald; Perelman, Olivier; Hubert, Christian
2015-10-01
This paper is presenting an optical method for free surface measurement of a stationary flow suitable for large-scale experiments in a large towing tank. The new measurement device is based on the projection of laser beams on the surface of the fluid and on the use of a stereoscopic system. The principle of the method is to detect the impact of the laser beams on the air/water interface in order to determine the height of the surface by triangulation for a given number of positions. This method is applied to the measurement of the stationary wave field around a ship model at 1/10th scale. The paper also emphasizes that for low Froude numbers, (( F L = U/√( gL), where U is the ship velocity and L the ship length), the effects of the scale on the flow characteristics are limited. These scale effects are studied by comparison with measurements taken in a smaller towing tank around the same ship model at scale 1/77.5. The free surface and the velocity field near the hull at the two scales are compared.
Tsai, Chung-Hung
2014-05-07
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Tsai, Chung-Hung
2014-01-01
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung-Hung Tsai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noriaki Kamiya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We define Hermitian (ϵ,δ-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and prove a structure theorem. We also give some examples of triple systems that are generalizations of the u(N⊕u(M and sp(2N⊕u(1 Hermitian 3-algebras. We apply a *-generalized Jordan triple system to a field theory and obtain a Chern-Simons gauge theory. We find that the novel Higgs mechanism works, where the Chern-Simons gauge theory reduces to a Yang-Mills theory in a certain limit.
Linear operators and linear systems an analytical approach to control theory
Partington, Jonathan R
2004-01-01
This book presents an introduction to the common ground between operator theory and linear systems theory. Suitable for students of functional analysis, this book also acts as an introduction to a mathematical approach to systems and control for graduate students in departments of applied mathematics or engineering.
Azaola, Marta Cristina
2012-01-01
The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…
Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses
The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...
Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon
2008-01-01
The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…
Incomplete information system and rough set theory models and attribute reductions
Yang, Xibei
2012-01-01
This study of the theory of generalizations of rough-set models in incomplete information systems discusses not only the regular attributes but also the criteria in these systems, and presents practical approaches to computing a number of reducts.
A Theory of Cheap Control in Embodied Systems.
Montúfar, Guido; Ghazi-Zahedi, Keyan; Ay, Nihat
2015-09-01
We present a framework for designing cheap control architectures of embodied agents. Our derivation is guided by the classical problem of universal approximation, whereby we explore the possibility of exploiting the agent's embodiment for a new and more efficient universal approximation of behaviors generated by sensorimotor control. This embodied universal approximation is compared with the classical non-embodied universal approximation. To exemplify our approach, we present a detailed quantitative case study for policy models defined in terms of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines. In contrast to non-embodied universal approximation, which requires an exponential number of parameters, in the embodied setting we are able to generate all possible behaviors with a drastically smaller model, thus obtaining cheap universal approximation. We test and corroborate the theory experimentally with a six-legged walking machine. The experiments indicate that the controller complexity predicted by our theory is close to the minimal sufficient value, which means that the theory has direct practical implications.
Solvable Relativistic Hydrogenlike System in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M.
2014-01-01
he classical Kepler problem, as well as its quantum mechanical version, the hydrogen atom, enjoys a well-known hidden symmetry, the conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, which makes these problems superintegrable. Is there a relativistic quantum field theory extension that preserves...... this symmetry? In this Letter we show that the answer is positive: in the nonrelativistic limit, we identify the dual conformal symmetry of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with the well-known symmetries of the hydrogen atom. We point out that the dual conformal symmetry offers a novel way to compute...
Suter, Esther; Goldman, Joanne; Martimianakis, Tina; Chatalalsingh, Carole; DeMatteo, Dale J; Reeves, Scott
2013-01-01
Authors have commented on the limited use of theory in the interprofessional field and its critical importance to advancing the work in this field. While social psychological and educational theories in the interprofessional field are increasingly popular, the contribution of organizational and systems theories is less well understood. This paper presents a subset of the findings (those focused on organizational/systems approaches) from a broader scoping review of theories in the organizational and educational literature aimed to guide interprofessional education and practice. A detailed search strategy was used to identify relevant theories. In total, we found 17 organizational and systems theories. Nine of the theories had been previously employed in the interprofessional field and eight had potential to do so. These theories focus on interactions between different components of organizations which can impact collaboration and practice change. Given the primarily educational focus of the current research, this paper offers new insight into theories to support the design and implementation of interprofessional education and practice within health care environments. The use of these theories would strengthen the growing evidence base for both interprofessional education and practice--a common need for its varied stakeholders.
An Ecological Theory of Orientation and the Vestibular System.
Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Riccio, Gary E.
1988-01-01
Evidence is presented negating the theory that gravitoinertial force is perceived. It is suggested that spatial orientation is based on information derived from patterns of motion of the organism, the surface of support, and compensatory actions of the organism. Recommendations for further research are outlined. (SLD)
The Theory and Implementation of Electronic Voting Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Groth, Jens; Salomonsen, Gorm
2002-01-01
We describe the theory behind a practical voting scheme based on homomorphic encryption. We give an example of an ElGamal-style encryption scheme, which can be used as the underlying cryptosystem. Then, we present efficient honest verifier zero-knowledge proofs that make the messages in the voting...
Social Choice Theory as a Foundation for Multiagent Systems
Endriss, U.; Müller, J.P.; Weyrich, M.; Bazzan, A.L.C.
2014-01-01
Social choice theory is the study of mechanisms for collective decision making. While originally concerned with modelling and analysing political decision making in groups of people, its basic principles, arguably, are equally relevant to modelling and analysing the kinds of interaction taking place
Time-Dependent (Current) Density Functional Theory for Periodic Systems
Kootstra, F.; Boeij, P.L. de; Leeuwen, R. van; Snijders, J.G.
2002-01-01
In this article we review time-dependent density functional theory for calculating the static and frequency-dependent dielectric function ε(ω) of nonmetallic crystals. We show that a real-space description becomes feasible for solids by using a combination of a lattice-periodic (microscopic) scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perumalla, Kalyan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alam, Maksudul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-10-01
A novel parallel algorithm is presented for generating random scale-free networks using the preferential-attachment model. The algorithm, named cuPPA, is custom-designed for single instruction multiple data (SIMD) style of parallel processing supported by modern processors such as graphical processing units (GPUs). To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first to exploit GPUs, and also the fastest implementation available today, to generate scale free networks using the preferential attachment model. A detailed performance study is presented to understand the scalability and runtime characteristics of the cuPPA algorithm. In one of the best cases, when executed on an NVidia GeForce 1080 GPU, cuPPA generates a scale free network of a billion edges in less than 2 seconds.
Information theory in systems biology. Part I: Gene regulatory and metabolic networks.
Mousavian, Zaynab; Kavousi, Kaveh; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali
2016-03-01
"A Mathematical Theory of Communication", was published in 1948 by Claude Shannon to establish a framework that is now known as information theory. In recent decades, information theory has gained much attention in the area of systems biology. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of those contributions that have applied information theory in inferring or understanding of biological systems. Based on the type of system components and the interactions between them, we classify the biological systems into 4 main classes: gene regulatory, metabolic, protein-protein interaction and signaling networks. In the first part of this review, we attempt to introduce most of the existing studies on two types of biological networks, including gene regulatory and metabolic networks, which are founded on the concepts of information theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comment on the three-body theory for period changes in RS CVn systems
Van Buren, D.
1986-01-01
In the three-body theory for period variations in RS CVn systems, the timing residuals are interpreted as light-travel time differences as the eclipsing system moves about the barycenter of the triple. These residuals can require a larger orbit than Kepler's law allows, given the time scale of the period variations. For only two of eight systems investigated, SV Cam and V471 Tau, is the theory plausible in that the inferred barycentric motion of the binary is smaller than the orbit of the third body, and the inferred properties of the third body are both reasonable and consistent with its remaining hidden. The theory is thus not a general theory for period changes. Observational testing of the theory is straightforward and may lead to the detection of 'brown dwarfs' associated with eclipsing systems through their kinematic effects.
Noyes, Jane; Brenner, Maria; Fox, Patricia; Guerin, Ashleigh
2014-05-01
To report a novel review to develop a health systems model of successful transition of children with complex healthcare needs from hospital to home. Children with complex healthcare needs commonly experience an expensive, ineffectual and prolonged nurse-led discharge process. Children gain no benefit from prolonged hospitalization and are exposed to significant harm. Research to enable intervention development and process evaluation across the entire health system is lacking. Novel mixed-method integrative review informed by health systems theory. DATA CINAHL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, PubMed, citation searching, personal contact. REVIEW Informed by consultation with experts. English language studies, opinion/discussion papers reporting research, best practice and experiences of children, parents and healthcare professionals and purposively selected policies/guidelines from 2002-December 2012 were abstracted using Framework synthesis, followed by iterative theory development. Seven critical factors derived from thirty-four sources across five health system levels explained successful discharge (new programme theory). All seven factors are required in an integrated care pathway, with a dynamic communication loop to facilitate effective discharge (new programme logic). Current health system responses were frequently static and critical success factors were commonly absent, thereby explaining ineffectual discharge. The novel evidence-based model, which reconceptualizes 'discharge' as a highly complex longitudinal health system intervention, makes a significant contribution to global knowledge to drive practice development. Research is required to develop process and outcome measures at different time points in the discharge process and future trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of integrated health system discharge models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Toward a Theory of Curriculum for Use in Designing Intelligent Instructional Systems.
1987-08-03
is thus a first step toward a theory of curriculum that can inform the design of such systems. To-illustrate one way in which such a theory can...curriculum therefore may cover primarily decontextualized theory and device-specific operating algorithms. No effort appears to have gone into...either by setting the values of variables to which the simulation program refers or by including specializing information in a message it sends to
Odd Systems in Deformed Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov Theory in Continuum
Li, Lu-Lu; Meng, Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui
2012-04-01
In order to describe the exotic nuclear structure in unstable odd-A or odd-odd nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov theory in continuum is extended to incorporate the blocking effect due to the odd nucleon. For a microscopic and self-consistent description of pairing correlations, continuum, deformation, blocking effects, and the extended spatial density distribution in exotic nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov equations are solved in a Woods—Saxon basis in which the radial wave functions have a proper asymptotic behavior at large r. The formalism and numerical details are provided. The code is checked by comparing the results with those of spherical relativistic continuum Hartree Bogoliubov theory in the nucleus 19O. The prolate deformed nucleus 15C is studied by examining the neutron levels and density distributions.
A theory of stochastic systems part I: Stochastic automata
d' Argenio, P.R.; Katoen, Joost P.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of a model for symbolically representing probabilistic transition systems, an extension of labelled transition systems for the modelling of general (discrete as well as continuous or singular) probability spaces. These transition systems are
Applying systems-centered theory (SCT) and methods in organizational contexts: putting SCT to work.
Gantt, Susan P
2013-04-01
Though initially applied in psychotherapy, a theory of living human systems (TLHS) and its systems-centered practice (SCT) offer a comprehensive conceptual framework replete with operational definitions and methods that is applicable in a wide range of contexts. This article elaborates the application of SCT in organizations by first summarizing systems-centered theory, its constructs and methods, and then using case examples to illustrate how SCT has been used in organizational and coaching contexts.
Brain scale-free properties in awake rest and NREM sleep: a simultaneous EEG/fMRI study.
Lei, Xu; Wang, Yulin; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao
2015-03-01
Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed that spontaneous activity in the brain has scale-invariant properties, as indicated by a frequency spectrum that follows a power-law distribution. However, current knowledge about the exact relationship between scaling properties in EEG and fMRI signals is very limited. To address this question, we collected simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in healthy individuals during resting wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. For either of these conditions, we found that both EEG and fMRI power spectra followed a power-law distribution. Furthermore, the EEG and fMRI scaling exponents were highly variable across subjects, and sensitive to the choice of reference and nuisance variables in EEG and fMRI data, respectively. Interestingly, the EEG exponent of the whole brain selectively corresponded to the fMRI exponent of the thalamus during NREM sleep. Together, our findings suggest that scale-free brain activity is characterized by robust temporal structures and behavioral significance. This motivates future studies to unravel its physiological mechanisms, as well as its relevance to behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Aggarwal
2012-01-01
Full Text Available One of the most important steps in spectral analysis is filtering, where window functions are generally used to design filters. In this paper, we modify the existing architecture for realizing the window functions using CORDIC processor. Firstly, we modify the conventional CORDIC algorithm to reduce its latency and area. The proposed CORDIC algorithm is completely scale-free for the range of convergence that spans the entire coordinate space. Secondly, we realize the window functions using a single CORDIC processor as against two serially connected CORDIC processors in existing technique, thus optimizing it for area and latency. The linear CORDIC processor is replaced by a shift-add network which drastically reduces the number of pipelining stages required in the existing design. The proposed design on an average requires approximately 64% less pipeline stages and saves up to 44.2% area. Currently, the processor is designed to implement Blackman windowing architecture, which with slight modifications can be extended to other widow functions as well. The details of the proposed architecture are discussed in the paper.
The Implications of Complex Adaptive Systems Theory for C2
2006-06-01
adaptive mechanisms operating in CAS that we wish to infuence , whether they are our own systems, benign or neutral systems that we need to interact with...logistic systems individual humans government and NGOs the media and public opinion adversaries/allies civil infrastructure What makes these systems
Traversa, Fabio L; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Bonani, Fabrizio
2013-04-26
Floquet theory is a powerful tool in the analysis of many physical phenomena, and extended to spatial coordinates provides the basis for Bloch's theorem. However, in its original formulation it is limited to linear systems with periodic coefficients. Here, we extend the theory by proving a theorem for the general class of systems including linear operators commuting with the period-shift operator. The present theorem greatly expands the range of applicability of Floquet theory to a multitude of phenomena that were previously inaccessible with this type of analysis, such as dynamical systems with memory. As an important extension, we also prove Bloch's theorem for nonlocal potentials.
M. Tops (Mattie); M.A.S. Boksem (Maarten); M. Quirin (Markus); H. IJzerman (Hans); S.L. Koole (Sander)
2014-01-01
textabstractIn the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the "default mode network" (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral
THE APPLICATION OF GRAPH THEORY AND AUTOMATA TO SOLVE DYNAMICS PROBLEMS STEINEBACH SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. S. Raspopov
2010-05-01
Full Text Available On the basis of conducted analysis of scientific literature it is noted that the theorems and algorithms used in theories of graphs and automata can serve as a basis for the refinement and development of generally accepted theories and methods in the mechanics of beam systems.
Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: Systems Theory, ADHD and Kant
Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián
2018-01-01
We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist…
Wannier-Stark ladder in the linear absorption of a random system with scale-free disorder
Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Malyshev, V.A.
We study numerically the linear optical response of a quasiparticle moving on a one-dimensional disordered lattice in the presence of a linear bias. The random site potential is assumed to be long-range correlated with a power-law spectral density S(k)similar to 1/k(alpha), alpha > 0. This type of
BMN gauge theory as a quantum mechanical system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beisert, N.; Kristjansen, C.; Plefka, J.
2003-01-01
We rigorously derive an effective quantum mechanical Hamiltonian from N = 4 gauge theory in the BMN limit. Its eigenvalues yield the exact one-loop anomalous dimensions of scalar two-impurity BMN operators for all genera. It is demonstrated that this reformulation vastly simplifies computations. E.......g., the known anomalous dimension formula for genus one is reproduced through a one-line calculation. We also efficiently evaluate the genus two correction, finding a non-vanishing result. We comment on multi-trace two-impurity operators and we conjecture that our quantum-mechanical reformulation could...... be extended to higher quantum loops and more impurities....
Applications of nonlinear systems theory to control design
Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro
1988-01-01
For most applications in the control area, the standard practice is to approximate a nonlinear mathematical model by a linear system. Since the feedback linearizable systems contain linear systems as a subclass, the procedure of approximating a nonlinear system by a feedback linearizable one is examined. Because many physical plants (e.g., aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center) have mathematical models which are close to feedback linearizable systems, such approximations are certainly justified. Results and techniques are introduced for measuring the gap between the model and its truncated linearizable part. The topic of pure feedback systems is important to the study.
The Foundation Role for Theories of Agency in Understanding Information Systems Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Johnston
2002-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that theories of agency form a foundation upon which we can build a deeper understanding of information systems design. We do so by firstly recognising that information systems are part of purposeful sociotechnical systems and that consequently theories of agency may help in understanding them. We then present two alternative theories of agency (deliberative and situational, mainly drawn from the robotics and artificial intelligence disciplines, and in doing so, we note that existing information system design methods and ontological studies of those methods implicitly adhere to the deliberative theory of agency. We also note that while there are advantages in specific circumstances from utilising the situated theory of agency in designing complex systems, because of their differing ontological commitments, such systems would be difficult to analyse and evaluate using ontologies currently used in information systems. We then provide evidence that such situational information systems can indeed exist, by giving a specific example (the Kanban system, which has emerged from manufacturing practice. We conclude that information systems are likely to benefit from creating design approaches supporting the production of situational systems.
Statistical Teleodynamics: Toward a Theory of Emergence.
Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
2017-10-24
The central scientific challenge of the 21st century is developing a mathematical theory of emergence that can explain and predict phenomena such as consciousness and self-awareness. The most successful research program of the 20th century, reductionism, which goes from the whole to parts, seems unable to address this challenge. This is because addressing this challenge inherently requires an opposite approach, going from parts to the whole. In addition, reductionism, by the very nature of its inquiry, typically does not concern itself with teleology or purposeful behavior. Modeling emergence, in contrast, requires the addressing of teleology. Together, these two requirements present a formidable challenge in developing a successful mathematical theory of emergence. In this article, I describe a new theory of emergence, called statistical teleodynamics, that addresses certain aspects of the general problem. Statistical teleodynamics is a mathematical framework that unifies three seemingly disparate domains-purpose-free entities in statistical mechanics, human engineered teleological systems in systems engineering, and nature-evolved teleological systems in biology and sociology-within the same conceptual formalism. This theory rests on several key conceptual insights, the most important one being the recognition that entropy mathematically models the concept of fairness in economics and philosophy and, equivalently, the concept of robustness in systems engineering. These insights help prove that the fairest inequality of income is a log-normal distribution, which will emerge naturally at equilibrium in an ideal free market society. Similarly, the theory predicts the emergence of the three classes of network organization-exponential, scale-free, and Poisson-seen widely in a variety of domains. Statistical teleodynamics is the natural generalization of statistical thermodynamics, the most successful parts-to-whole systems theory to date, but this generalization is
On Building Social System Theory: A Personal History
Parsons, Talcott
1970-01-01
He discusses the development of a pattern-variable scheme as a theoretical framwork for the analysis of social systems, social action in general, personalities, and of cultural systems. His primary intellectual role models are: Weber, Durkheim, and Freud. (SE)
Smart modeling and simulation for complex systems practice and theory
Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Ito, Takayuki; Tang, Xijin
2015-01-01
This book aims to provide a description of these new Artificial Intelligence technologies and approaches to the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field such as the platforms and/or the software tools for smart modeling and simulating complex systems. These tasks are difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches due to the complex relationships of components and distributed features of resources, as well as the dynamic work environments. In order to effectively model the complex systems, intelligent technologies such as multi-agent systems and smart grids are employed to model and simulate the complex systems in the areas of ecosystem, social and economic organization, web-based grid service, transportation systems, power systems and evacuation systems.
Applying queueing theory to single machine systems subject to interruptions.
Wu, K.; McGinnis, L.F.; Zwart, A.P.
2011-01-01
Queueing models are commonly applied to quantify the performance of production systems. Prior research has usually focused on deriving queueing models for a specific type of interruptions. However, machines generally suffer multiple types of interruptions in practical manufacturing systems. To
Designs for Environmental Scanning Systems: Tests of a Contingency Theory
Masoud Yasai-Ardekani; Paul C. Nystrom
1996-01-01
This study compared the relationships between organizational context and the designs of environmental scanning systems for organizational with effective and ineffective scanning systems. The study analyzed data from over 100 North American business organizations. Results indicate that organizations with effective scanning systems tend to align their scanning designs with the requirements of their context. On the other hand, the results show that organizations with ineffective scanning systems...
Dynamical Systems Theory for Transparent Symbolic Computation in Neuronal Networks
Carmantini, Giovanni Sirio
2017-01-01
In this thesis, we explore the interface between symbolic and dynamical system computation, with particular regard to dynamical system models of neuronal networks. In doing so, we adhere to a definition of computation as the physical realization of a formal system, where we say that a dynamical system performs a computation if a correspondence can be found between its dynamics on a vectorial space and the formal system’s dynamics on a symbolic space. Guided by this definition, we characterize...
Parental Choice in Israel's Educational System: Theory vs. Praxis.
Yonah, Yossi
2000-01-01
In the last two decades, the Israeli educational system has transformed from a state controlled and financed bureaucratic system into a decentralized, partly locally controlled, and increasingly privately financed system. Argues that these changes cater to the educational interest of middle and upper middle classes and undermine the principle of…
Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach
Polderman, Jan W.; Willems, J.C.
1998-01-01
This is a book about modelling, analysis, and control of linear time-invariant systems. The book uses what is called the behavioral approach towards mathematical modelling. Thus a system is viewed as a dynamical relation between manifest and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical systems
Developing open systems using theories and models of the world
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kokar, M.M.; Korona, Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper considers an open system as such that can deal with inputs that were not anticipated by the designer. Using an ATR system as an example, we show how the combination of logic with software engineering techniques allowed us to improve the performance of the system.
Incorporating Learning Theory into Existing Systems Engineering Models
2013-09-01
Jossey-Bass. Barker, B. (2003). Determining systems engineering effectiveness: Conference on systems intergration . Hoboken, NJ: Steven Institute of...measuring and predcting the degradation of aging system and how it can be achieved. Georgia Tech Research Institute, Logistic and Maintenance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roelien Goede
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Information systems and in particular data warehouses are very expensive systems to develop. It is therefore not advisable to experiment with ideas too different from current practices. This makes it difficult to apply prescriptive theories in an existing field. From theoretical considerations one might want to develop a data warehouse according to another method such as critical systems thinking methodology. It is however very difficult to persuade data warehouse practitioners to attempt such an experiment. This might be because they would rather adhere to known practices or that they are not sufficiently knowledgeable on critical systems thinking (or any other prescriptive theory to apply it to such an expensive project. This paper describes a method in which prescriptive theories may be used descriptively to analyse their applicability in a specific field of application. The proposed method is used to understand the practices of the data warehouse discipline from the perspectives of the systems thinking discipline. It is also indicated how this method could be used in other studies where the behaviour of participants is viewed from a point of view of which the detail are unknown to the participants. Keywords: Data warehousing, Systems thinking, Prescriptive theory, Descriptive theory, Interpretative research. Disciplines: Information technology, systems theory, data warehousing, hermeneutics
Computer Assistance for "Discovering" Formulas in System Engineering and Operator Theory
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Helton J.W; Foias M.C
1999-01-01
The objective of this paper is two-fold. First we present a methodology for using a combination of computer assistance and human intervention to discover highly algebraic theorems in operator, matrix, and linear systems engineering theory...
A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elsukova Tatiana Vasilevna
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This article analyzes the techniques and methods of inventory management company with the information of a management accounting system based on the principles of the theory of constraints, both financial and non-financial.
Studies on the formulation of thermodynamics and stochastic theory for systems far from equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1995-12-31
We have been working for some time on the formulation of thermodynamics and the theory of fluctuations in systems far from equilibrium and progress in several aspects of that development are reported here.
Elsukova Tatiana Vasilevna
2014-01-01
This article analyzes the techniques and methods of inventory management company with the information of a management accounting system based on the principles of the theory of constraints, both financial and non-financial.
The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Escovar, Emily; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod
2016-01-01
The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory describes a profile of traits that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, and are thought to encompass a continuum that includes typically developing (TD) individuals...
A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frances R. Westley
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling's adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado's model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Sharifzadeh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.
Bergman, Lars R.
2015-01-01
Molenaar's (2015) article concerns Developmental Systems Theory (DST) in relation to behavior genetics and he presents implications of DST for empirical research, especially the need for subject-specific studies. In this commentary, the article is discussed from a broader developmental science perspective, particularly regarded through the lens of…
Employing Interpretive Research to Build Theory of Information Systems Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce Rowlands
2003-05-01
Full Text Available This paper provides guidance and an example for carrying out research using an interpretive framework. Until quite recently, there has been little available in the IS literature to guide the interpretive researcher to build theory of IS practice. While structured as a typical research paper, this paper is different in that the focus is on conceptual issues and the research methods rather than the findings. Unlike positivist research, there is no accepted general model for communicating interpretive research. Similarly, few guidelines exist for conducting the inductive process central to interpretive research. Throughout the paper, issues relating to the choice and application of the methods in terms of conducting inductive research are discussed. Overall, the focus provides an in-depth discussion of the particular interpretive research that I undertook so that other researchers can read of an example that may be similar to their own and therefore guide their work.
Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated
Dorrah, Hassen Taher
2014-01-01
This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially...
Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor's later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples of female adult sexual abuse survivors are also explored, with insight from the intersection of systems and attachment theories.
Modern theory of dynamical systems a tribute to Dmitry Victorovich Anosov
Katok, Anatole; Hertz, Federico Rodriguez
2017-01-01
This volume is a tribute to one of the founders of modern theory of dynamical systems, the late Dmitry Victorovich Anosov. It contains both original papers and surveys, written by some distinguished experts in dynamics, which are related to important themes of Anosov's work, as well as broadly interpreted further crucial developments in the theory of dynamical systems that followed Anosov's original work. Also included is an article by A. Katok that presents Anosov's scientific biography and a picture of the early development of hyperbolicity theory in its various incarnations, complete and partial, uniform and nonuniform.
Ma, Fei; Yao, Bing
2017-10-01
It is always an open, demanding and difficult task for generating available model to simulate dynamical functions and reveal inner principles from complex systems and networks. In this article, due to lots of real-life and artificial networks are built from series of simple and small groups (components), we discuss some interesting and helpful network-operation to generate more realistic network models. In view of community structure (modular topology), we present a class of sparse network models N(t , m) . At the moment, we capture the fact the N(t , 4) has not only scale-free feature, which means that the probability that a randomly selected vertex with degree k decays as a power-law, following P(k) ∼k-γ, where γ is the degree exponent, but also small-world property, which indicates that the typical distance between two uniform randomly chosen vertices grows proportionally to logarithm of the order of N(t , 4) , namely, relatively shorter diameter and lower average path length, simultaneously displays higher clustering coefficient. Next, as a new topological parameter correlating to reliability, synchronization capability and diffusion properties of networks, the number of spanning trees over a network is studied in more detail, an exact analytical solution for the number of spanning trees of the N(t , 4) is obtained. Based on the network-operation, part hub-vertex linking with each other will be helpful for structuring various network models and investigating the rules related with real-life networks.
How Decision Support Systems Can Benefit from a Theory of Change Approach.
Allen, Will; Cruz, Jennyffer; Warburton, Bruce
2017-06-01
Decision support systems are now mostly computer and internet-based information systems designed to support land managers with complex decision-making. However, there is concern that many environmental and agricultural decision support systems remain underutilized and ineffective. Recent efforts to improve decision support systems use have focused on enhancing stakeholder participation in their development, but a mismatch between stakeholders' expectations and the reality of decision support systems outputs continues to limit uptake. Additional challenges remain in problem-framing and evaluation. We propose using an outcomes-based approach called theory of change in conjunction with decision support systems development to support both wider problem-framing and outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation. The theory of change helps framing by placing the decision support systems within a wider context. It highlights how decision support systems use can "contribute" to long-term outcomes, and helps align decision support systems outputs with these larger goals. We illustrate the benefits of linking decision support systems development and application with a theory of change approach using an example of pest rabbit management in Australia. We develop a theory of change that outlines the activities required to achieve the outcomes desired from an effective rabbit management program, and two decision support systems that contribute to specific aspects of decision making in this wider problem context. Using a theory of change in this way should increase acceptance of the role of decision support systems by end-users, clarify their limitations and, importantly, increase effectiveness of rabbit management. The use of a theory of change should benefit those seeking to improve decision support systems design, use and, evaluation.
How Decision Support Systems Can Benefit from a Theory of Change Approach
Allen, Will; Cruz, Jennyffer; Warburton, Bruce
2017-06-01
Decision support systems are now mostly computer and internet-based information systems designed to support land managers with complex decision-making. However, there is concern that many environmental and agricultural decision support systems remain underutilized and ineffective. Recent efforts to improve decision support systems use have focused on enhancing stakeholder participation in their development, but a mismatch between stakeholders' expectations and the reality of decision support systems outputs continues to limit uptake. Additional challenges remain in problem-framing and evaluation. We propose using an outcomes-based approach called theory of change in conjunction with decision support systems development to support both wider problem-framing and outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation. The theory of change helps framing by placing the decision support systems within a wider context. It highlights how decision support systems use can "contribute" to long-term outcomes, and helps align decision support systems outputs with these larger goals. We illustrate the benefits of linking decision support systems development and application with a theory of change approach using an example of pest rabbit management in Australia. We develop a theory of change that outlines the activities required to achieve the outcomes desired from an effective rabbit management program, and two decision support systems that contribute to specific aspects of decision making in this wider problem context. Using a theory of change in this way should increase acceptance of the role of decision support systems by end-users, clarify their limitations and, importantly, increase effectiveness of rabbit management. The use of a theory of change should benefit those seeking to improve decision support systems design, use and, evaluation.
Won, Chang-Hee; Michel, Anthony N
2008-01-01
This volume - dedicated to Michael K. Sain on the occasion of his seventieth birthday - is a collection of chapters covering recent advances in stochastic optimal control theory and algebraic systems theory. Written by experts in their respective fields, the chapters are thematically organized into four parts: Part I focuses on statistical control theory, where the cost function is viewed as a random variable and performance is shaped through cost cumulants. In this respect, statistical control generalizes linear-quadratic-Gaussian and H-infinity control. Part II addresses algebraic systems th
Symbolic Model Checking of Stochastic Systems: Theory and Implementation
Kuntz, G.W.M.; Siegle, Markus; Valmari, Antti
2006-01-01
This paper presents IM-SPDL, a stochastic extension of the modal logic PDL, which supports the specification of complex performance and dependability requirements. The logic is interpreted over extended stochastic labelled transition systems (ESLTS), i.e. transition systems containing both immediate
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABILITY THEORY, AND THE CHALLENGE OF UNCERTAINTY
Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting fo rthe multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well s the usual physical and life science aspects. This is important...
The BRIEFER project: using expert systems as theory construction tools.
Gingerich, W J; de Shazer, S
1991-06-01
This article describes the development of BRIEFER I and BRIEFER II, expert systems that advise the therapist on selecting, designing, and developing an intervention at the end of the first therapy session. The process of developing expert systems has aided us in describing what brief therapists do, in modeling the intervention design process, and in training brief therapists.
A theory of thermodynamics for nanoscale quantum systems
Ng, N.H.Y.
2017-01-01
Thermodynamics is one of the main pillars of theoretical physics, and it has a special appeal of having wide applicability to a large variety of different physical systems. However, many assumptions in thermodynamics apply only to systems which are bulk material, i.e. consisting a large number of
Systems of innovation theory and the European Union
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borras, Susana
2004-01-01
This article asks whether it is possible to conceptualise the European Union (EU) as a system of innovation in accordance with the rich literature of institutional economics on these matters. By developing four further theoretical nodal points of the system of innovation concept, an analytical fr...
Exploring Motivational System Theory within the Context of Adult Education
Hutto, Debra Jean
2013-01-01
Adult Basic Education (ABE) and the General Equivalency Diploma (GED) programs serve those students who, for whatever reason, have left the educational system without attaining a regular high school diploma. Because of the manner in which they may have left the school system, many have negative emotions and personal agency beliefs hindering their…
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Yamamoto
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition
de Bot, K.; Lowie, W.M.; Verspoor, M.H.
In this article it is argued that language can be seen as a dynamic system, i.e. a set of variables that interact over time, and that language development can be seen as a dynamic process. Language development shows some of the core characteristics of dynamic systems: sensitive dependence on initial
Positive dynamical systems in discrete time theory, models, and applications
Krause, Ulrich
2015-01-01
This book provides a systematic, rigorous and self-contained treatment of positive dynamical systems. A dynamical system is positive when all relevant variables of a systemare nonnegative in a natural way. This is in biology, demography or economics, where the levels of populations or prices of goods are positive. The principle also finds application in electrical engineering, physics and computer sciences.
Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G
2016-03-02
Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.
Founder and Pioneer of Systems Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy: 45th Anniversary of His Death
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Branislav Lacko
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The special issue of Acta Informatica Pragensia journal is focused on the issue of systems, when experts in this field, as well as in other disciplines, commemorate the 45th anniversary of the death of the founder and pioneer of systems theory – Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The presented article summarizes his contribution to systems science.
Founder and Pioneer of Systems Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy: 45th Anniversary of His Death
Branislav Lacko
2017-01-01
The special issue of Acta Informatica Pragensia journal is focused on the issue of systems, when experts in this field, as well as in other disciplines, commemorate the 45th anniversary of the death of the founder and pioneer of systems theory – Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The presented article summarizes his contribution to systems science.
Vos, Hans J.
1994-01-01
Describes the construction of a model of computer-assisted instruction using a qualitative block diagram based on general systems theory (GST) as a framework. Subject matter representation is discussed, and appendices include system variables and system equations of the GST model, as well as an example of developing flexible courseware. (Contains…
Risk Modeling of Interdependent Complex Systems of Systems: Theory and Practice.
Haimes, Yacov Y
2018-01-01
The emergence of the complexity characterizing our systems of systems (SoS) requires a reevaluation of the way we model, assess, manage, communicate, and analyze the risk thereto. Current models for risk analysis of emergent complex SoS are insufficient because too often they rely on the same risk functions and models used for single systems. These models commonly fail to incorporate the complexity derived from the networks of interdependencies and interconnectedness (I-I) characterizing SoS. There is a need to reevaluate currently practiced risk analysis to respond to this reality by examining, and thus comprehending, what makes emergent SoS complex. The key to evaluating the risk to SoS lies in understanding the genesis of characterizing I-I of systems manifested through shared states and other essential entities within and among the systems that constitute SoS. The term "essential entities" includes shared decisions, resources, functions, policies, decisionmakers, stakeholders, organizational setups, and others. This undertaking can be accomplished by building on state-space theory, which is fundamental to systems engineering and process control. This article presents a theoretical and analytical framework for modeling the risk to SoS with two case studies performed with the MITRE Corporation and demonstrates the pivotal contributions made by shared states and other essential entities to modeling and analysis of the risk to complex SoS. A third case study highlights the multifarious representations of SoS, which require harmonizing the risk analysis process currently applied to single systems when applied to complex SoS. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Monte Carlo Techniques for Nuclear Systems - Theory Lectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications Group; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.
2016-11-29
These are lecture notes for a Monte Carlo class given at the University of New Mexico. The following topics are covered: course information; nuclear eng. review & MC; random numbers and sampling; computational geometry; collision physics; tallies and statistics; eigenvalue calculations I; eigenvalue calculations II; eigenvalue calculations III; variance reduction; parallel Monte Carlo; parameter studies; fission matrix and higher eigenmodes; doppler broadening; Monte Carlo depletion; HTGR modeling; coupled MC and T/H calculations; fission energy deposition. Solving particle transport problems with the Monte Carlo method is simple - just simulate the particle behavior. The devil is in the details, however. These lectures provide a balanced approach to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulation codes. The first lectures provide an overview of Monte Carlo simulation methods, covering the transport equation, random sampling, computational geometry, collision physics, and statistics. The next lectures focus on the state-of-the-art in Monte Carlo criticality simulations, covering the theory of eigenvalue calculations, convergence analysis, dominance ratio calculations, bias in Keff and tallies, bias in uncertainties, a case study of a realistic calculation, and Wielandt acceleration techniques. The remaining lectures cover advanced topics, including HTGR modeling and stochastic geometry, temperature dependence, fission energy deposition, depletion calculations, parallel calculations, and parameter studies. This portion of the class focuses on using MCNP to perform criticality calculations for reactor physics and criticality safety applications. It is an intermediate level class, intended for those with at least some familiarity with MCNP. Class examples provide hands-on experience at running the code, plotting both geometry and results, and understanding the code output. The class includes lectures & hands-on computer use for a variety of Monte Carlo calculations
Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.
Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H
2013-07-01
Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter
2016-04-01
Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. © The Author(s) 2015.
THEORY METODOLOGICAL BASIS OF LOCAL SYSTEMS OF CORPORATIVE ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.A. Pytkin
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The urgency of corporate governance systems research is caused by apparently not complete realization of these systems in the modern practice as only in an insignificant degree considers peculiarities of each single company and relies, first of all, on the experience of base systems of corporate governance in general. Such approach results in a bunch of negative effects, including formal realization of requirements of "corporate governance codes" and other similar documents. In this connection we offer the approach to designing effective local systems of corporate governance (LSCG which would consider not only the existing recommendations on corporate governance, but also the greatest possible set of external and internal factors for every separate company. This article is devoted to theoretical bases of LSCG.
Innovations in pricing of transportation systems : theory and practice.
2011-08-15
This report summarizes results from the conference titled Innovations in Pricing of : Transportation Systems on May 12 14, 2010 at the Royal Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. : The primary objective of the conference is to bring together pra...
Designing modular manufacturing systems using mass customisation theories and methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Hvilshøj, Mads; Madsen, Ole
2012-01-01
Today, manufacturing systems are developed as engineered to order (ETO) solutions tailored to produce a specific product or a limited product mix. However, such dedicated systems are not consistent with the current market demands for rapid product changes, high product variety, and customisation....... In response, modular manufacturing systems (MMS) are evolving, which are aimed to possess the required responsiveness and to be the manufacturing paradigm of mass customisation (MC). Hereby, MMS brings the development process of manufacturing systems against configured to order (CTO). Up to now, research...... on the commonalities in the basic modular approaches of MC and MMS. This paper analyses this potential and evaluates it through three conducted cases within the domain of industrial automation and robotics. Based on the results, the paper discusses the prospective to form an MMS design framework by utilising selected...
Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation
Stephan, George R.
1997-01-01
The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.
Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassen Taher Dorrah
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical
Alternative Theories of Inference in Expert Systems for Image Analysis.
1985-02-01
the literal "transfer" of information, or rules, from expert to system. Much of the relevant knowledge is (as yet) unverbalized and only implicit in...In part, this can be attributed to the pragmatic urgency of get- * ting systems up and running. In part, it may be due to a bias against numerical... pragmatic aspect, on the other. Thus, under semantics, we indicate the desirability of an explicit be- havioral specification for the requi ed inputs. For
Power system cascading risk assessment based on complex network theory
Wang, Zhuoyang; Hill, David J.; Chen, Guo; Dong, Zhao Yang
2017-09-01
When a single failure occurs in a vulnerable part of a power system, this may cause a large area cascading event. Therefore, an advanced method that can assess the risks during cascading events is needed. In this paper, an improved complex network model for power system risk assessment is proposed. Risk is defined by consequence and probability of the failures in this model, which are affected by both power factors and network structure. Compared with existing risk assessment models, the proposed one can evaluate the risk of the system comprehensively during a cascading event by combining the topological and electrical information. A new cascading event simulation module is adopted to identify the power grid cascading chain from a system-level view. In addition, simulations are investigated on the IEEE 14 bus system and IEEE 39 bus system respectively to illustrate the performance of the proposed module. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in a power grid risk assessment during cascading event.
Bioengineering Spin-Offs from Dynamical Systems Theory
Collins, J. J.
1997-03-01
Recently, there has been considerable interest in applying concepts and techniques from dynamical systems and statistical physics to physiological systems. In this talk, we present work dealing which two active topics in this area: stochastic resonance and (2) chaos control. Stochastic resonance is a phenomenon wherein the response of nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimally enhanced by the presence of a particular level of noise. Here we demonstrate that noise-based techniques can be used to lower sensory detection thresholds in humans. We discuss how from a bioengineering and clinical standpoint, these developments may be particularly relevant for individuals with elevated sensory thresholds, such as older adults and patients with peripheral neuropathy. Chaos control techniques have been applied to a wide range of experimental systems, including biological preparations. The application of chaos control to biological systems has led to speculations that these methods may be clinically useful. Here we demonstrate that the principles of chaos control can be utilized to stabilize underlying unstable periodic orbits in non-chaotic biological systems. We discuss how from a bioengineering and clinical standpoint, these developments may be important for suppressing or eliminating certain types of cardiac arrhythmias.
Special Issue on Second Generation General System Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianfranco Minati
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this editorial is to briefly introduce some papers of different nature presented by the contributors to the special issue on “Second Generation General System Theory”. These contributions have been focused on the need for building a post-Bertalanffy Systemics, based on new problems, representations, and approaches to complexity. Furthermore, such new Systemics is expected to be able to theoretically generalize new related systemic concepts and approaches introduced by different disciplines. Such a theoretical generalization is going to coincide with a new kind of interdisciplinarity. The latter should substitute the classical one, based on considering problems and solutions within a discipline as equivalent to problems and solutions within another one. This equivalence was used within the framework of general systemic concepts like Anticipation, Completeness, Feedback, Finality, Forecast, Separability, Openness, and Reversibility. The contributions contained in this special issue constitute very interesting examples of new approaches and of their possibilities of theoretical generalization. Therefore, the issue itself can be considered as a window on the new Systemics and its challenges.