WorldWideScience

Sample records for scale cross-sectional survey

  1. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Telephone-Based eHealth Literacy Scale Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Paige, Samantha R; Tennant, Bethany; Alber, Julia M; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, Don; Grossman, Suzanne

    2017-10-26

    Only a handful of studies have examined reliability and validity evidence of scores produced by the 8-item eHealth literacy Scale (eHEALS) among older adults. Older adults are generally more comfortable responding to survey items when asked by a real person rather than by completing self-administered paper-and-pencil or online questionnaires. However, no studies have explored the psychometrics of this scale when administered to older adults over the telephone. The objective of our study was to examine the reliability and internal structure of eHEALS data collected from older adults aged 50 years or older responding to items over the telephone. Respondents (N=283) completed eHEALS as part of a cross-sectional landline telephone survey. Exploratory structural equation modeling (E-SEM) analyses examined model fit of eHEALS scores with 1-, 2-, and 3-factor structures. Subsequent analyses based on the partial credit model explored the internal structure of eHEALS data. Compared with 1- and 2-factor models, the 3-factor eHEALS structure showed the best global E-SEM model fit indices (root mean square error of approximation=.07; comparative fit index=1.0; Tucker-Lewis index=1.0). Nonetheless, the 3 factors were highly correlated (r range .36 to .65). Item analyses revealed that eHEALS items 2 through 5 were overfit to a minor degree (mean square infit/outfit values information for respondents at similar points on the latent continuum. Test information curves suggested that eHEALS may capture more information about older adults at the higher end of the latent continuum (ie, those with high eHealth literacy) than at the lower end of the continuum (ie, those with low eHealth literacy). Item reliability (value=.92) and item separation (value=11.31) estimates indicated that eHEALS responses were reliable and stable. Results support administering eHEALS over the telephone when surveying older adults regarding their use of the Internet for health information. eHEALS scores best

  3. Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stephanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Borreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabate, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samson, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. General working population. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant. The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial.

  4. Development of a community commitment scale with cross-sectional survey validation for preventing social isolation in older Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ayumi; Tadaka, Etsuko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Itoi, Waka; Imamatsu, Yuki

    2012-10-24

    Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of "belonging" and "socializing" in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach's alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions "belonging" and "socializing", among the local volunteers and general

  5. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Ayumi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC, but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008 and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions

  6. The Impact of Combat Deployment on Health Care Provider Burnout in a Military Emergency Department: A Cross-Sectional Professional Quality of Life Scale V Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Joshua N; April, Michael D; Thaxton, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Compassion fatigue is a problem for many health care providers manifesting as physical, mental, and spiritual exhaustion. Our objective was to evaluate the association between prior combat deployment and compassion fatigue among military emergency medicine providers. We conducted a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey of health care providers assigned to the San Antonio Military Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine. We used the Professional Quality of Life Scale V survey instrument that evaluates provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction. Outcomes included burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction raw scores. Scores were compared between providers based on previous combat deployments using two-tailed independent sample t tests and multiple regression models. Surveys were completed by 105 respondents: 42 nurses (20 previously deployed), 30 technicians (11 previously deployed), and 33 physicians (16 previously deployed). No statistically significant differences in burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores were detected between previously deployed providers versus providers not previously deployed. There was no association between previous combat deployment and emergency department provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Assessing the functional disability of rural elderly population from North-West India using activity of daily living scale: A cross-sectional survey

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    Parveen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.

  8. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  9. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

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    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  10. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-02-09

    To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Survey response rate of 51% (102/199). Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS) and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS). Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors); similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  11. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potentia...

  12. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO 2 fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments

  13. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  14. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

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    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  15. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Mehmet; Akan, Hülya; Izbirak, Güldal; Tanriöver, Özlem; Tilev, Sırma Mine; Yildiz, Anil; Tektaş, Simge; Vitrinel, Ayça; Hayran, Osman

    2010-12-19

    Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  16. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Penny A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Morleo, Michela; Harkins, Corinne; Briant, Linford; Bellis, Mark A

    2011-08-23

    A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years) of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'). Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking); 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect); and 'price inelastic' (no change for either). Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect) the most common outcome (62%). Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30) or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41) were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57%) while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve public support for policy change. Such policy should also recognise that alcohol is an addictive drug, and the population may be prepared to pay more to drink the amount they now feel they need.

  17. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  18. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  19. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  20. Authors' perceptions of electronic publishing: two cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, Sara; Barratt, Helen; Smith, Jane

    2004-06-05

    To evaluate how acceptable authors find the BMJ's current practice of publishing short versions of research articles in the paper journal and a longer version on the web and to determine authors' attitudes towards publishing only abstracts in the paper journal and publishing unedited versions on bmj.com once papers have been accepted for publication. Two cross sectional surveys. General medical journal. Survey 1: corresponding authors of a consecutive sample of published BMJ research articles that had undergone the ELPS (electronic long, paper short) process. Survey 2: corresponding authors of consecutive research articles submitted to BMJ. Response rates were 90% (104/115) in survey 1 and 75% (213/283) in survey 2. ELPS is largely acceptable to BMJ authors, but there is some concern that electronic information is not permanent and uncertainty about how versions are referenced. While authors who had experienced ELPS reported some problems with editors shortening papers, most were able to rectify these. Overall, 70% thought that the BMJ should continue to use ELPS; 49% thought that publishing just the abstract in the printed journal with the full version only on bmj.com was unacceptable; and 23% thought it unacceptable to post unedited versions on bmj.com once a paper had been accepted for publication. It is acceptable to authors to publish short versions of research articles in the printed version of a general medical journal with longer versions on the website. Authors dislike the idea of publishing only abstracts in the printed journal but are in favour of posting accepted articles on the website ahead of the printed version.

  1. Cross-sectional serological survey of human fascioliasis in haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  2. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agnamey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216. The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%, 42 kDa (64%, 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%. This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  3. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the 'Productive Ward'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark; Wells, John S G; Butterworth, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Quality improvement (QI) Programmes, like the Productive Ward: Releasing-time-to-care initiative, aim to 'engage' and 'empower' ward teams to actively participate, innovate and lead quality improvement at the front line. However, little is known about the relationship and impact that QI work has on the 'engagement' of the clinical teams who participate and vice-versa. This paper explores and examines the impact of a large-scale QI programme, the Productive Ward, on the 'work engagement' of the nurses and ward teams involved. Using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), we surveyed, measured and analysed work engagement in a representative test group of hospital-based ward teams who had recently commenced the latest phase of the national 'Productive Ward' initiative in Ireland and compared them to a control group of similar size and matched (as far as is possible) on variables such as ward size, employment grade and clinical specialty area. 338 individual datasets were recorded, n=180 (53.6%) from the Productive Ward group, and n=158 (46.4%) from the control group; the overall response rate was 67%, and did not differ significantly between the Productive Ward and control groups. The work engagement mean score (±standard deviation) in the Productive group was 4.33(±0.88), and 4.07(±1.06) in the control group, representing a modest but statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.013, independent samples t-test). Similarly modest differences were observed in all three dimensions of the work engagement construct. Employment grade and the clinical specialty area were also significantly related to the work engagement score (pengagement (the vigour, absorption and dedication) of ward-based teams. The use and suitability of the UWES as an appropriate measure of 'engagement' in QI interventions was confirmed. The engagement of nurses and front-line clinical teams is a major component of creating, developing and sustaining a culture of improvement. Copyright

  4. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  5. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in the general population: scale structure, reliability, measurement invariance and normative data : A cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; Smits, N.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; De Vet, H.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization with separate scales. The 4DSQ has extensively been validated in clinical samples, especially from primary care settings. Information about measurement

  6. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in the general population : scale structure, reliability, measurement invariance and normative data: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; Smits, N.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization with separate scales. The 4DSQ has extensively been validated in clinical samples, especially from primary care settings. Information about

  7. Attitudes toward plagiarism among pharmacy and medical biochemistry students – cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...

  8. A cross-sectional survey on the lifestyle and healthseeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of practice of a healthy lifestyle, to assess the health education provided to patients with diabetes and to determine the prevalence of obesity among Basotho patients with diabetes. Design: A cross-sectional study enrolled 192 patients between November ...

  9. Experimental validation of lead cross sections for scale and MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Moving spent nuclear fuel between facilities often requires the use of lead-shielded casks. Criticality safety that is based upon calculations requires experimental validation of the fuel matrix and lead cross section libraries. A series of critical experiments using a high-enriched uranium-aluminum fuel element with a variety of reflectors, including lead, has been identified. Twenty-one configurations were evaluated in this study. The fuel element was modelled for KENO V.a and MCNP 4a using various cross section sets. The experiments addressed in this report can be used to validate lead-reflected calculations. Factors influencing calculated k eff which require further study include diameters of styrofoam inserts and homogenization

  10. The associations between work-life balance behaviours, teamwork climate and safety climate: cross-sectional survey introducing the work-life climate scale, psychometric properties, benchmarking data and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Chadwick, Whitney A; Rehder, Kyle J; Bae, Jonathan; Bokovoy, Joanna; Doram, Keith; Sotile, Wayne; Adair, Kathryn C; Profit, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Improving the resiliency of healthcare workers is a national imperative, driven in part by healthcare workers having minimal exposure to the skills and culture to achieve work-life balance (WLB). Regardless of current policies, healthcare workers feel compelled to work more and take less time to recover from work. Satisfaction with WLB has been measured, as has work-life conflict, but how frequently healthcare workers engage in specific WLB behaviours is rarely assessed. Measurement of behaviours may have advantages over measurement of perceptions; behaviours more accurately reflect WLB and can be targeted by leaders for improvement. 1. To describe a novel survey scale for evaluating work-life climate based on specific behavioural frequencies in healthcare workers.2. To evaluate the scale's psychometric properties and provide benchmarking data from a large healthcare system.3. To investigate associations between work-life climate, teamwork climate and safety climate. Cross-sectional survey study of US healthcare workers within a large healthcare system. 7923 of 9199 eligible healthcare workers across 325 work settings within 16 hospitals completed the survey in 2009 (86% response rate). The overall work-life climate scale internal consistency was Cronbach α=0.790. t-Tests of top versus bottom quartile work settings revealed that positive work-life climate was associated with better teamwork climate, safety climate and increased participation in safety leadership WalkRounds with feedback (pwork setting. The work-life climate scale exhibits strong psychometric properties, elicits results that vary widely by work setting, discriminates between positive and negative workplace norms, and aligns well with other culture constructs that have been found to correlate with clinical outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Thoma, Reinhard; Weiss, Thomas; Wolfe, Frederick; Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-05-18

    Consumer surveys provide information on effectiveness and side effects of medical interventions in routine clinical care. A report of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumers has not been carried out in Europe. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. Participants diagnosed with FMS rated the effectiveness and side effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological FMS interventions on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being most efficacious (harmful). The questionnaire was distributed by the German League for people with Arthritis and Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. 1661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years, mean duration since FMS diagnosis 6.8 years) were analysed. The most frequently used therapies were self-management strategies, prescription pain medication and aerobic exercise. The highest average effectiveness was attributed to whole body and local warmth therapies, thermal bathes, FMS education and resting. The highest average side effects were attributed to strong opioids, local cold therapy, gamma-amino-butyric acid analogues (pregabalin and gabapentin), tramadol and opioid transdermal systems. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS, and challenges the strong recommendations for drug therapies given by FMS-guidelines.

  12. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India ... (e, 3e) process; five-fold differential cross-section; scaling; helium isoelec- tronic ions. ... ration and experimental control of the target and the intensity related problems make the measurements extremely difficult. The scaling laws of ...

  13. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Clarke

    Full Text Available There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life.Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016. Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life.There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610. Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%. Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, p<0.010, and older age (OR = 1.09 per decade, p<0.010. Negative predictors: living with children (OR = 0.72, p<0.010 and being of "black" race/ethnicity (OR = 0.45, p<0.001.Public opinion was uniform between GB and USA, but markedly heterogeneous. Despite contemporaneous capacitous consent providing an essential legal safeguard in most jurisdictions, there was a high prevalence of preference for "measures to end my life peacefully" when

  14. A cross-sectional survey of parental care-seeking behavior for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Baba Abdulkadir

    2016-03-11

    Mar 11, 2016 ... Material and methods: The study is a secondary analysis of 2013 Demographic ... data for Nigeria, which was a cross-sectional survey conducted nationwide to .... excludes no medical care, pharmacies, shops and traditional.

  15. Cross-section library and processing techniques within the SCALE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of each of the SCALE system features involved in problem-dependent cross section processing is presented. These features include criticality libraries, shielding libraries, the Standard Composition Library, the SCALE functional modules: BONAMI-S, NITAWL-S, XSDRNPM-S, ICE-S, and the Material Information Processor. The automated procedure for cross-section processing is described with examples. 15 refs

  16. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  17. Estimation of error in using born scaling for collision cross sections involving muonic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodden, C.D.; Monkhorst, H.J.; Szalewicz, K.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative estimate is obtained for the error involved in using Born scaling to calcuated excitation and ionization cross sections for collisions between muonic ions. The impact parameter version of the Born Approximation is used to calculate cross sections and Coulomb corrections for the 1s→2s excitation of αμ in collisions with d. An error of about 50% is found around the peak of the cross section curve. The error falls to less than 5% for velocities above 2 a.u

  18. The l-mixing cross section of Rydberg states of atomic Rb and the scaling LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Chen Aiqiu; Li Baiwen

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of impulse approximate method, a kind of analytical wavefunctions based on a potential model was used to calculate the l mixing cross section of thermal collision of Rydberg states of atomic Rb with rare gas (He, Ne). The results were compared with the experimental results and other theoretical values. These results show that there exists a kind of scaling law for the l mixing cross section of Rydberg alkali atoms

  19. From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections across energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formaggio, J. A.; Zeller, G. P.

    2012-09-01

    Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low energy nuclear interactions, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available.

  20. NSLINK, Coupling of NJOY Cross-Sections Generator Code to SCALE-3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leege, P.F.A

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NSLINK (NJOY - SCALE - LINK) is a set of computer codes to couple the NJOY cross-section generation code to the SCALE-3 code system (using AMPX-2 master library format) retaining the Nordheim resolved resonance treatment option. 2 - Method of solution: The following module and codes are included in NSLINK: XLACSR: This module is a stripped-down version of the XLACS-2 code. The module passes all l=0 resonance parameters as well as the contribution from all other resonances to the group cross-sections, the contribution from the wings of the l=0 resonances, the background cross-section and possible interference for multilevel Breit-Wigner resonance parameters. The group cross-sections are stored in the appropriate 1-D cross-section arrays. The output file has AMPX-2 master format. The original NJOY code is used to calculate all other data. The XLACSR module is included in the NJOY code. MILER: This code converts NJOY output (GENDF format) to AMPX-2 master format. The code is an extensively revised version of the original MILER code. In addition, the treatment of thermal scattering matrices at different temperatures is included. UNITABR: This code is a revised version of the UNITAB code. It merges the output of XLACSR and MILER in such a way that contributions from the bodies of the l=0 resonances in the resolved energy range, calculated by XLACSR, are subtracted from the 1-D group cross-section arrays for fission (MT=18) and neutron capture (MT=102). The l=0 resonance parameters and the contributions from the bodies of these resonances are added separately (MT=1023, 1022 and 1021). The total cross-section (MT=1), the absorption cross- section (MT=27) and the neutron removal cross-section (MT=101) values are adjusted. In the case of Bondarenko data, infinite dilution values of the cross-sections (MT=1, 18 and 102) are changed in the same way as the 1-D cross-section. The output file of UNITABR is in AMPX-2 master format and

  1. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of State Self-Esteem Scale: an analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey of patients in the first four months after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Janita P C; Thompson, David R; Chang, Anne M; Woo, Jean

    2012-11-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the State Self-Esteem Scale in stroke patients. Self-esteem is seen to enhance peoples' ability to cope with disease: low self-esteem may inhibit participation in rehabilitation and thus result in poor health and social outcomes. Although the Chinese version of the State Self-Esteem Scale has been used as an outcome measure for stroke rehabilitation, no study has examined its factor structure in this patient group. A cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 265 Chinese stroke patients (mean age 71·4, SD 10·3 years), with a minimum score of 18 out of a possible 30 for the Mini Mental State Exam recruited from two regional rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong. An exploratory factor analysis and an internal consistency analysis of the State Self-Esteem Scale were conducted. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the State Self-Esteem Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale to determine convergent validity. The final factor solution comprised a three-factor model with correlated constructs and accounted for 49·5% of the total variance. Significant negative correlations were found between the Geriatric Depression Scale and the State Self-Esteem Scale subscale scores (r-0·31 to -0·55, p Self-Esteem Scale had acceptable convergent validity. The new three-factor structure had higher Cronbach's alphas when compared with the original three-factor structure. The State Self-Esteem Scale appears to be a useful measure for assessing state self-esteem in stroke patients. To establish the concurrent, discriminative and construct validities, the factor structure of the SSES could be further developed and tested. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2009-10-01

    Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns

  3. Renormalisation scale uncertainty in the DIS 2+1 jet cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, G.

    1994-05-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering 2+1 jet cross-section is a useful observable for precision tests of QCD, e.g. measuring the strong coupling constant α s . A consistent analysis requires a good understanding of the theoretical uncertainties and one of the fundamental ones in QCD is due to the renormalisation scheme and scale ambiguity. Different methods, which have been proposed to resolve the scale ambiguity, are applied to the 2+1 jet cross-section and the uncertainty is estimated. It is shown that the uncertainty can be made smaller by choosing the jet definition in a suitable way. (orig.)

  4. Availability and quality of anti-malarials among private sector outlets in Myanmar in 2012: results from a large, community-based, cross-sectional survey before a large-scale intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Hnin Su Su; Chen, Ingrid; White, Chris; Sudhinaraset, May; McFarland, Willi; Littrell, Megan; Montagu, Dominic; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-14

    Global malaria control efforts are threatened by the spread and emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 2012, the widespread sale of partial courses of artemisinin-based monotherapy was suspected to take place in the highly accessed, weakly regulated private sector in Myanmar, posing potentially major threats to drug resistance. This study investigated the presence of artemisinin-based monotherapies in the Myanmar private sector, particularly as partial courses of therapy, to inform the targeting of future interventions to stop artemisinin resistance. A large cross-sectional survey comprised of a screening questionnaire was conducted across 26 townships in Myanmar between March and May, 2012. For outlets that stocked anti-malarials at the time of survey, a stock audit was conducted, and for outlets that stocked anti-malarials within 3 months of the survey, a provider survey was conducted. A total of 3,658 outlets were screened, 83% were retailers (pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers) and 17% were healthcare providers (private facilities and health workers). Of the 3,658 outlets screened, 1,359 outlets (32%) stocked at least one anti-malarial at the time of study. Oral artemisinin-based monotherapy comprised of 33% of self-reported anti-malarials dispensing volumes found. The vast majority of artemisinin-based monotherapy was sold by retailers, where 63% confirmed that they sold partial courses of therapy by cutting blister packets. Very few retailers (5%) had malaria rapid diagnostic tests available, and quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy was virtually nonexistent among retailers. Informal private pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers should be targeted for interventions to improve malaria treatment practices in Myanmar, particularly those that threaten the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance.

  5. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  6. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  7. Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2010-02-01

    This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or or=15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA.

  8. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the SuperScaling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, M. V., E-mail: martin.inrne@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Megias, G. D.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); González-Jiménez, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J. M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-25

    SuperScaling model (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current π{sup +} production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The SuSA charged-current π{sup +} results are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux-averaged double-differential cross sections. The SuSA model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region are used for predictions of charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Results are also compared with the T2K experimental data for inclusive scattering.

  9. Dynamic radar cross section measurements of a full-scale aircraft for RCS modelling validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schalkwyk, Richard F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process followed in generating a high fidelity reference data set for radar cross section (RCS) modelling validation for a full-scale aircraft, is presented. An overview of two dynamic RCS measurement campaigns, involving both...

  10. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. A cross-sectional internet-based patient survey of the management strategies for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Shah, Nipam; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Almost half of the patients with gout are not prescribed urate-lowering therapy (ULT) by their health care provider and >50 % use complementary and alternative therapies. Diet modification is popular among gout patients due to known associations of certain foods with gout flares. The interplay of the use of dietary supplements, diet modification, and ULT adherence in gout patients is not known. Despite the recent interest in diet and supplements, there are limited data on their use. Our objective was to assess ULT use and adherence and patient preference for non-pharmacological interventions by patients with gout, using a cross-sectional survey. People who self-reported physician-diagnosed gout during their visit to a gout website ( http://gouteducation.org ) were invited to participate in a brief anonymous cross-sectional Internet survey between 08/11/2014 to 04/14/2015 about the management of their gout. The survey queried ULT prescription, ULT adherence, the use of non-pharmacological interventions (cherry extract, diet modification) and the likelihood of making a lifelong diet modification for gout management. A total of 499 respondents with a mean age 56.3 years were included; 74% were males and 74% were White. Of these, 57% (285/499) participants were prescribed a ULT for gout, of whom 88% (251/285) were currently taking ULT. Of those using ULT, 78% (97/251) reported ULT adherence >80%. Gender, race, and age were not significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving a ULT prescription or ULT adherence >80%. Fifty-six percent of patients with gout preferred ULT as a lifelong treatment for gout, 24% preferred cherry extract and 16% preferred diet modification (4% preferred none). Men had significantly lower odds of preferring ULT as the lifelong treatment choice for gout vs. other choices (p = 0.03). We found that 38.3% participants were highly motivated to make a lifelong dietary modification to improve their gout (score of 9-10 on a 0

  12. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, Nathan T.; Skutnik, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of "1"5"4Eu and "1"5"5Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the "1"5"4Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a typical

  13. Scaling relations in elastic scattering cross sections between multiply charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross sections of bare ions from hydrogen are calculated using the eikonal approximation. The results satisfy a scaling relation involving the scattering angle, the ion charge and a factor related to the ion mass. A semiclassical explanation in terms of a distant collision hypothesis for small scattering angle is proposed. A unified picture of related scaling rules found in direct processes is discussed. (author)

  14. Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Wright, R.Q.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment

  15. Social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Ogihara, Atsushi; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weijue; Huang, Liu; Zhang, Baodan; Zhang, Xueni; Xu, Liangwen; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas. A cross-sectional design was used and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 1471 participants using the intercept method at the provincial hospital in Zhejiang in 2016. Antenatal depression was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social capital was assessed by the Chinese version of Social Capital Assessment Questionnaire (C-SCAQ). The prevalence of antenatal depression was assessed among Chinese primiparas in their third trimesters. The antenatal depression prevalence among sub-groups with lower social trust (ST), social reciprocity (SR), social network (SN), and social participation (SP) were significantly higher than those among higher score sub-groups. In the fully adjusted model, primiparas' antenatal depression was significantly associated with ST, SR, SN, and SP. Compared to the structural social capital, the cognitive social capital was a more crucial dimension to the prevalence of antenatal depression. For future community pregnancy health care management programs in China, it might be beneficial to add more social capital related intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Mohan Roy; Karunakaran, Vidhukumar; Prabhakaran, Anil; Jayakumar, Krishnannair Lalithamma

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above), having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7%) had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6%) of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients. PMID:28066004

  18. A cross-sectional survey on consequences of nurses' burnout: moderating role of organizational politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Basim, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether perceptions of organizational politics (defined as self-serving behaviours at the expense of others) influence the prospective associations between nurses' burnout and its consequences, namely, intention to quit and neglect of work. Researchers have previously investigated relationships between nurses' burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics in different research models and from different perspectives. As far as we know, no studies have considered whether nurses' perceptions of organizational politics moderate the influence of burnout. A cross-sectional survey using self-report questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaire from a sample of 456 nurses from six private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey in March 2015. Four different previously designed scales were used to measure research variables (burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics). Following confirmatory validity and reliability analyses of data collection instruments, descriptive statistics for each research variable were analysed. Structural regression models were created to assess relationships among variables. Burnout resulted in intention to quit and neglect. Intention to quit partially mediated the association between burnout and neglect. Burnout gave rise to intention to quit slightly more strongly in nurses who had greater perceptions of organizational politics. This study uncovers and emphasizes the moderating role of perceptions of organizational politics in consequences of burnout. This may help hospital managers and nurses to improve costs, efficiency, satisfaction and productivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychosocial Factors of Dietitians' Intentions to Adopt Shared Decision Making Behaviours: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Sarah-Maude; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Légaré, France; Lapointe, Annie; Turcotte, Stéphane; Desroches, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While shared decision making (SDM) promotes health-related decisions that are informed, value-based and adhered to, few studies report on theory-based approaches to SDM adoption by healthcare professionals. We aimed to identify the factors influencing dietitians' intentions to adopt two SDM behaviours: 1) present dietary treatment options to patients and 2) help patients clarify their values and preferences. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour among 428 randomly selected dietitians working in clinical practice across the Province of Quebec, Canada. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple regression analyses to determine the variables that explained the variance in intention to perform the behaviours. Results A total of 203 dietitians completed the questionnaire. Their ages were from 23 to 66 and they had been practising dietetics for 15.4±11.1 years (mean ± SD). On a scale from 1 to 7 (from strongly disagree to strongly agree), dietitians' intentions to present dietary treatment options and to clarify their patients' values and preferences were 5.00±1.14 and 5.68±0.74, respectively. Perceived behavioural control (β = 0.56, ρadopt the two SDM behaviours studied. Factors influencing intention were different for each behaviour, except for perceived behavioural control which was common to both behaviours. Thus, perceived behavioural control could be a key factor in interventions aiming to encourage implementation of SDM by dietitians. PMID:23700484

  20. Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of midwives: analysis of a multinational cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Ziakova, Katarina; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata; Nedvedova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between turnover intentions and job satisfaction among hospital midwives from seven countries and to determine how the related variables differ between countries. Studies investigating professional turnover and job satisfaction among midwives are limited in scope. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to investigate the intended turnover and job satisfaction relationship among 1190 hospital midwives in European and Asian countries. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included questions regarding the leaving intentions of midwives and the McCloskey/Mueller satisfaction scale. Midwives were least satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and professional opportunities and with the balance between family and work. Significant differences were found in all domains of job satisfaction according to midwives' intentions to leave their current workplace in hospital or profession of midwife, and to work abroad. There are some general satisfying and dissatisfying elements for the profession of midwife across different countries. The results highlight the importance of understanding midwives' leaving intentions and related factors across different countries. To prevent midwife turnover, health-care managers should gain greater insight into the early stage of midwives' turnover intention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychosocial and professional characteristics of burnout in Swiss primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Catherine; Bouvier Gallacchi, Martine; Künzi, Beat; Bovier, Patrick

    2005-02-19

    To measure the prevalence of burnout and explore its professional and psychosocial predictors among Swiss primary care practitioners. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to measure burnout, work-related stressors, professional and psychosocial characteristics among a representative sample of primary care practitioners. Answers to the Maslach burnout inventory were used to categorize respondents into moderate and high degree of burnout. 1784 physicians responded to the survey (65% response rate) and 1755 questionnaires could be analysed. 19% of respondents had a high score for emotional exhaustion, 22% had a high score for depersonalisation/cynicism and 16% had a low score for professional accomplishment; 32% had a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism scale (moderate degree of burnout) and 4% had scores in the range of burnout in all three scales (high degree of burnout). Predictors of moderate burnout were male sex, age 45-55 years and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, health-insurance-related work, difficulties to balance professional and private life, changes in the health care system and medical care uncertainty. A high degree of burnout was associated with male sex, practicing in a rural area, and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, patient's expectations, difficulties to balance professional and private life, economic constraints in relation to the practice, medical care uncertainty and difficult relations with non-medical staff at the practice. About one third of Swiss primary care practitioners presented a moderate or a high degree of burnout, which was mainly associated with extrinsic work-related stressors. Medical doctors and politicians in charge of redesigning the health care system should address this phenomenon to maintain an efficient Swiss primary care physician workforce in the future.

  2. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri; Deeksha Mehta; Sridharan Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities...

  3. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Ndetei, David M; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. METHODS: Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students' career intentions, motivations, medical sc...

  4. Burnout among public doctors in Hong Kong: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Christina F Y; Yuen, S K; Cheung, Andy

    2012-06-01

    The stressful life of doctors makes them prone to burnout. We evaluated the prevalence of burnout among Hong Kong public hospital doctors and correlated burnout with job characteristics, working hours, stressors, and stress-relieving strategies. Cross-sectional survey. Hong Kong. One thousand doctors were randomly sampled from the Hong Kong Public Doctors' Association registry. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires with postage-paid envelopes were mailed twice in early 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey was used for burnout assessment. According to this scale, burnout is defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Correlation analysis, as well as univariate and multivariate analyses, were performed to assess factors associated with high degrees of burnout. RESULTS. A total of 226 questionnaires were analysed, of which 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. They were younger and needed to work shifts, and their median year of practice was 8.5. High-burnout doctors worked similar hours per week to non-high-burnout doctors (mean ± standard deviation, 56.2 ± 12.7 vs 54.7 ± 10.9; P=0.413) and reported suicidal thoughts more often (9.9% vs 2.6%; P=0.033). Moreover, 52.2% of high-burnout doctors were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs. 'Excessive stress due to global workload' and 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' were the most significant stressors associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, while 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' and 'poor job security' correlated with low personal accomplishment. A high proportion of public doctors who responded to our survey endured high burnout. Trainees with some experience were at heightened risk. Stressors identified in this study should be addressed, so as to improve job satisfaction.

  5. Burden of Surgical Conditions in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Nationwide Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.

  6. Filipino therapists' experiences and attitudes of interprofessional education and collaboration: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Michael Palapal

    2017-11-01

    For the past more than 50 years, the World Health Organisation has acknowledged through empirical findings that health workers that learn together work together effectively to provide the best care for their patients. This study aimed to: (1) describe the perceived extent of interprofessional education (IPE) experience among Filipino occupational therapists (OTs), physical therapists (PTs), and speech-language-pathologists (SLPs); (2) identify their attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC); and (3) compare their attitudes towards IPC according to: prior IPE experience, classification of IPE experience, profession, years of practice, and practice setting. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a two-part questionnaire was sent to Filipino OTs, PTs, and SLPs working in the Philippines via an online survey application. The first part of the survey contained eight items of demographic information and the second part contained the 14-item Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS). Findings revealed that among the Filipino OT, PT and SLP respondents (n = 189), 70.9% had prior experience on IPE. Moreover, the three most commonly used IPE teaching-learning strategies were case discussion (clinical setting), small group discussion, didactics, and case discussion (community setting), while the use of didactics and case discussion (community setting) yielded more agreeable attitudes towards IPC. Among the 14 items in the ATHCTS, 11 were rated with agreeability and three items with neutrality. For professional variables, only the practice setting variable yielded a statistically significant finding confirming those working in the academia to be more agreeable towards IPC compared to other settings. However, years of practice and professional background variables both yielded no statistically significant difference implying no association between years of practice and attitude towards IPC and a homogenous composition among respondents, respectively

  7. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males ( P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years ( P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope ( r = 0.65, P mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. Factors associated with domestic violence: a cross-sectional survey among women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-02-14

    This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (p<0.0001). Financially dependent women and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Abused women were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (p<0.0001) and had completed at least primary or secondary education (p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of abused women reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.

  9. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  10. Self-efficacy and Associated Factors in Patients With Temporary Ostomies: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xi; Qin, Fang; Zhen, Li; Ye, Xinmei; Kuang, Yinyi; Zhu, Mulan; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    To examine stoma self-efficacy (SE) and its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social support in patients with temporary ostomies. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 150 patients from 5 hospitals in Guangdong province, China, who had been living with a temporary ostomy for at least 1 month. Cross-sectional survey. Respondents completed a questionnaire that included ostomy-related sociodemographic and clinical data, and Chinese language versions of several validated instruments, the Stoma Self-efficacy Scale (C-SSES), City of Hope-Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire (C-COH-QOL-OQ), and Perceived Social Support Scale (C-PSSS). Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 122 (81.3%) were returned, and 111 (74%) had sufficiently complete responses to be included in the final analysis. The average score from the C-SSES was 78.55 ± 14.72 (mean ± standard deviation) for total stoma SE; 85.6% of respondents showed low or moderate self-efficacy related to ostomy care. The scores from the C-SSES were 39.36 ± 7.72 for stoma care SE and 23.33 ± 6.69 for social SE. Stoma care SE was significantly associated with HRQOL domains, psychological well-being (B = 2.09, P ostomies reported low or moderate levels of SE, suggesting the need to focus on HRQOL aspects of psychological and social well-being, as well as social support. We hypothesize that interaction with other ostomy patients, especially those with long-term enterostomy experience or those trained through ostomy organizations, may improve stoma SE.

  11. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  12. Role of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder: A cross-sectional survey among health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Philip De; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the influence of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and the relationship with symptom severity, depression and substance use or abuse, in health sciences' students . This was a cross-sectional survey of 112 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) year students from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. The self-reported Social Anxiety Spectrum questionnaire was used to assess for SAD. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was adapted to a version called the E-SPIN (Ethnic-SPIN) in order to evaluate the effects of ethnicity. Two sub-questions per stem question were included to assess whether SAD symptoms in social interactions were ethnicity dependent. Substance use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and depression with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Of 112 students who completed the E-SPIN questionnaire, 54.4% (n = 61) met criteria for SAD, with significantly more females than males meeting criteria. Ethnicity had a significant effect on SAD symptomatology, but there was no effect of ethnicity on the rates of drug and alcohol abuse in students with and without SAD. Overall significantly more students with SAD met criteria for depression compared with students without the disorder. Among university students, SAD is prevalent regardless of whether interactions are with individuals of the same or different ethnic group. However, ethnicity may be an important determinant of social anxiety for some ethnic groups. SAD was significantly associated with major depression but not significantly associated with drug or alcohol abuse.

  13. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

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    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  14. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

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    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  15. Workplace bullying among nurses and their related factors in Japan: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Mami; Suzuki, Miho; Takai, Yukari; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between workplace bullying and workplace environment factors among nurses in Japan. Workplace bullying among nurses is increasing globally and occurs more frequently than among other professions. However, there is little information on the impact of workplace environment factors on nurse bullying in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were 1152 nurses recruited at seminars or training courses outside of their workplaces in Tokyo. Workplace bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Participants were considered to have been 'bullied' if they reported experiencing at least one negative act on a daily or weekly basis. Workplace environment factors were measured using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, which comprises five domains: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relationships. A total of 898 (78·0%) questionnaires were returned, of which 825 (71·6%) were analysed. Altogether, 153 (18·5%) nurses were considered 'bullied.' The three most frequent negative acts reported as occurring on a weekly or daily basis were 'someone withholding information which affects your performance' (6·7%), 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload' (4·4%) and 'being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage)' (3·6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that 'bullied' were associated with low scores on two work environment domains: nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses and staffing and resource adequacy. Effective nurse manager leadership and support as well as appropriate staffing management may positively influence workplace bullying among nurses in Japan. Authentic leadership styles and allowing nurses to easily request days off might also be important

  16. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  17. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  18. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Cross-sectional fluctuation scaling in the high-frequency illiquidity of Chinese stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Gao, Xing-Lu; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-03-01

    Taylor's law of temporal and ensemble fluctuation scaling has been ubiquitously observed in diverse complex systems including financial markets. Stock illiquidity is an important nonadditive financial quantity, which is found to comply with Taylor's temporal fluctuation scaling law. In this paper, we perform the cross-sectional analysis of the 1 min high-frequency illiquidity time series of Chinese stocks and unveil the presence of Taylor's law of ensemble fluctuation scaling. The estimated daily Taylor scaling exponent fluctuates around 1.442. We find that Taylor's scaling exponents of stock illiquidity do not relate to the ensemble mean and ensemble variety of returns. Our analysis uncovers a new scaling law of financial markets and might stimulate further investigations for a better understanding of financial markets' dynamics.

  20. Burden of heart failure on patients from China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson JDS

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available James DS Jackson,1 Sarah E Cotton,1 Sara Bruce Wirta,2 Catia C Proenca,3 Milun Zhang,4 Raquel Lahoz,5 Frederico J Calado5 1Real World Research, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 2Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Wellmera AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research and Access Strategy, Novartis Pharma China, Beijing, China; 5Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Purpose: Little evidence exists on the burden that chronic heart failure (HF poses specifically to patients in China. The objective of this study, therefore, was to describe the burden of HF on patients in China.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of cardiologists and their patients with HF was conducted. Patient record forms were completed by 150 cardiologists for 10 consecutive patients. Patients for whom a patient record form was completed were invited to complete a patient questionnaire.Results: Most of the 933 patients (mean [SD] age 65.8 [10.2] years; 55% male; 80% retired included in the study received care in tier 2 and 3 hospitals in large cities. Patients gave a median score of 4 on a scale from 1 (no disruption to 10 (severe disruption to describe how much HF disrupts their everyday life. Patients in paid employment (8% missed 10% of work time and experienced 29% impairment in their ability to work due to HF in the previous week. All aspects of patients’ health-related quality of life (QoL were negatively affected by their condition. Mean ± SD utility calculated by the 3-level 5-dimension EuroQol questionnaire was 0.8±0.2, and patients rated their health at 70.3 (11.5 on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Patients incurred costs associated with HF treatment, travel, and professional caregiving services.Conclusion: HF is associated with poor health-related QoL and considerable disruption in patients’ lives. Novel and improved therapies

  1. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  2. [Attendance for Using Internet-Based Support After Inpatient Treatment - A Cross-Sectional Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Gräder, Nicola; Dahlmann, Hannah; Berger, Mathias; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-05-01

    Examination of the attendance for using internet-based measures after inpatient treatment. Cross-sectional-survey in former inpatients (N = 247). 44.9 % are willing to use measures via videoconference, 34.7 % via Chat, 50.0 % via E-Mail and 38.0 % as onlinetherapy. Attendance is lower in older age groups. Benefits regarding the introduced measures are seen mainly in the flexibility and disadvantages in the impersonal character. A relevant share of especially younger patients is willing to use internet-based measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Nerrière, Eléna; Chan Chee, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results ...

  4. Integrated surgical academic training in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Natalie S; Glasbey, James C; McElnay, Philip J; Bhangu, Aneel; Gokani, Vimal J; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore variations in the provision of integrated academic surgical training across the UK. This is an online cross-sectional survey (consisting of 44 items with a range of free-text, binomial and 5-point Likert scale responses) developed by the Association of Surgeons in Training. A self-reported survey instrument was distributed to academic surgical trainees across the UK (n=276). 143 (51.9%) responses were received (81% male, median age: 34 years), spanning all UK regions and surgical specialties. Of the 143 trainees, 29 were core trainees (20.3%), 99 were specialty trainees (69.2%) and 15 (10.5%) described themselves as research fellows. The structure of academic training varied considerably, with under a third of trainees receiving guaranteed protected time for research. Despite this, however, 53.1% of the respondents reported to be satisfied with how their academic training was organised. Covering clinical duties during academic time occurred commonly (72.7%). Although most trainees (n=88, 61.5%) met with their academic supervisor at least once a month, six (4.2%) never had an academic supervisory meeting. Most trainees (n=90, 62.9%) occupied a full-time rota slot and only 9.1% (n=13) described their role as 'supernumerary'. Although 58.7% (n=84) of the trainees were satisfied with their clinical competence, 37.8% (n=54) felt that clinical time focused more on service provision than the acquisition of technical skills. 58 (40.6%) had experienced some form of negative sentiment relating to their status as an academic trainee. Integrated academic training presents unique challenges and opportunities within surgery. This survey has identified variation in the quality of current programmes, meaning that the future provision of integrated surgical academic training should be carefully considered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  5. Transportation assimilation revisited: New evidence from repeated cross-sectional survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of “transportation assimilation” among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. Methods and results Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U.S. and public transit ridership among immigrants. I first run regressions separately in four data sets: I regress public transit ridership on the length of stay, controlling for other individual and geographic variables. I then compare the magnitudes of the relationship in four regressions. To study how the rate of transportation assimilation changes over time, I pool the data set and regress public transit ridership on the length of stay and its interactions with year dummies to compare the coefficients across surveys. Results confirm the conclusion of transportation assimilation: as the length of stay in the U.S. increases, an immigrant’s public transit use decreases. However, the repeated cross-section analysis suggests the assimilation rate has been decreasing in the past few decades. Conclusions This paper finds evidence of transportation assimilation: immigrants become less likely to ride public transit as the length of stay in the U.S. increases. The assimilation rate, however, has been decreasing over time. This paper finds that the rate of public transit ridership among new immigrants upon arrival, the geographic distribution of immigrants, and the changing demographics of the U.S. immigrants play roles in affecting the trend of transportation assimilation. PMID:29668676

  6. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation--A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Professionals in Primary Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal S Taggar

    Full Text Available Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF in primary care has been recommended; however, the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs are not known. This study aimed to determine the opinions of HCP about the feasibility of implementing screening within a primary care setting.A cross-sectional mixed methods census survey of 418 HCPs from 59 inner-city practices (Nottingham, UK was conducted between October-December 2014. Postal and web-surveys ascertained data on existing methods, knowledge, skills, attitudes, barriers and facilitators to AF screening using Likert scale and open-ended questions. Responses, categorized according to HCP group, were summarized using proportions, adjusting for clustering by practice, with 95% C.Is and free-text responses using thematic analysis.At least one General Practitioner (GP responded from 48 (81% practices. There were 212/418 (51% respondents; 118/229 GPs, 67/129 nurses [50 practice nurses; 17 Nurse Practitioners (NPs], 27/60 healthcare assistants (HCAs. 39/48 (81% practices had an ECG machine and diagnosed AF in-house. Non-GP HCPs reported having less knowledge about ECG interpretation, diagnosing and treating AF than GPs. A greater proportion of non-GP HCPs reported they would benefit from ECG training specifically for AF diagnosis than GPs [proportion (95% CI GPs: 11.9% (6.8-20.0; HCAs: 37.0% (21.7-55.5; nurses: 44.0% (30.0-59.0; NPs 41.2% (21.9-63.7]. Barriers included time, workload and capacity to undertake screening activities, although training to diagnose and manage AF was a required facilitator.Inner-city general practices were found to have adequate access to resources for AF screening. There is enthusiasm by non-GP HCPs to up-skill in the diagnosis and management of AF and they may have a role in future AF screening. However, organisational barriers, such as lack of time, staff and capacity, should be overcome for AF screening to be feasibly implemented within primary care.

  7. Scaling law for (e, 2e) cross sections for isoelectronic hydrogen- and alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, L U; Hervieux, P-A

    2003-01-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for (e, 2e) processes on the valence electrons of H-, Li-, Na- and K-like positive ions are calculated for asymmetric coplanar geometries and intermediate incident energies. Although the proper boundary conditions are not respected, both the long-range Coulomb interaction in the initial and final channels, and the short-range effects, are taken into account in the Coulomb Born approximation through the use of two effective charges. The latter are obtained within the framework of the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approximation which is also used for describing the bound state wavefunctions. An approximate scaling law for the TDCSs is predicted for the ionization of sequences of isoelectronic ions, provided the incident and ejected energies are properly scaled. The calculations illustrate that the scaling is generally well verified, in particular for increasing ionicity within a sequence. Moreover, as one moves from the H- to K-like sequences, more TDCS structure is observed. Two main peaks are always situated close to the direction of the momentum transfer and opposite direction, although with strong shifts. Contrary to what is observed for the ionization of outer-shells electrons in neutral atoms, the dominant peak of all cross sections is in the opposite direction to the momentum transfer, a signature of strong elastic scattering from the nucleus

  8. Generation of SCALE 6 Input Data File for Cross Section Library of PWR Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Cho, Dong Keun

    2010-11-01

    In order to obtain the cross section libraries of the Korean Pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel (SF), SCALE 6 code input files have been generated. The PWR fuel data were obtained from the nuclear design report (NDR) of the current operating PWRs. The input file were prepared for 16 fuel types such as 4 types of Westinghouse 14x14, 3 types of OPR-1000 16x16, 4 types of Westinghouse 16x16, and 6 types of Westinghouse 17x17. For each fuel type, 5 kinds of fuel enrichments have been considered such as 1.5, 2.0 ,3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 wt%. In the SCALE 6 calculation, a ENDF-V 44 group was used. The 25 burnup step until 72000 MWD/T was used. A 1/4 symmetry model was used for 16x16 and 17x17 fuel assembly, and 1/2 symmetry model was used for 14x14 fuel assembly The generated cross section libraries will be used for the source-term analysis of the PWR SF

  9. Modernization of the NESTLE-CANDU reactor simulator and coupling to scale-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, S.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the NESTLE computer code for CANDU applications, herein referred as the NESTLE-CANDU or NESTLE-C program, was developed under sponsorship by the CNSC as a “stand-alone” program. In fact, NESTLE-C emerged from the original version of NESTLE, applicable to light water reactors, which was written in FORTRAN 77 to solve the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). Accordingly, NESTLE-C can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems for CANDU reactor fuel arrangements and geometries. This article reports a recent conversion of the NESTLE-C code to the Fortran 90 standard, in addition, we highlight other code updates carried out to modularize and modernize NESTLE-C in a manner consistent with the latest updates performed with the parent NESTLE code for light water reactor (LWR) applications. Also reported herein, is a simulation of a CANDU reactor employing 37-element fuel bundles, which was carried out to highlight the SCALE to NESTLE-C coupling developed for two-group collapsed and bundle homogenized cross-section generation. The results presented are consistent with corresponding simulations that employed HELIOS generated cross-sections. (author)

  10. Modernization of the NESTLE-CANDU reactor simulator and coupling to scale-processed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Maldonado, G.I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The original version of the NESTLE computer code for CANDU applications, herein referred as the NESTLE-CANDU or NESTLE-C program, was developed under sponsorship by the CNSC as a “stand-alone” program. In fact, NESTLE-C emerged from the original version of NESTLE, applicable to light water reactors, which was written in FORTRAN 77 to solve the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). Accordingly, NESTLE-C can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems for CANDU reactor fuel arrangements and geometries. This article reports a recent conversion of the NESTLE-C code to the Fortran 90 standard, in addition, we highlight other code updates carried out to modularize and modernize NESTLE-C in a manner consistent with the latest updates performed with the parent NESTLE code for light water reactor (LWR) applications. Also reported herein, is a simulation of a CANDU reactor employing 37-element fuel bundles, which was carried out to highlight the SCALE to NESTLE-C coupling developed for two-group collapsed and bundle homogenized cross-section generation. The results presented are consistent with corresponding simulations that employed HELIOS generated cross-sections. (author)

  11. A survey of cross-section sensitivity analysis as applied to radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.

    1977-01-01

    Cross section sensitivity studies revolve around finding the change in the value of an integral quantity, e.g. transmitted dose, for a given change in one of the cross sections. A review is given of the principal methodologies for obtaining the sensitivity profiles-principally direct calculations with altered cross sections, and linear perturbation theory. Some of the varied applications of cross section sensitivity analysis are described, including the practice, of questionable value, of adjusting input cross section data sets so as to provide agreement with integral experiments. Finally, a plea is made for using cross section sensitivity analysis as a powerful tool for analysing the transport mechanisms of particles in radiation shields and for constructing models of how cross section phenomena affect the transport. Cross section sensitivities in the shielding area have proved to be highly problem-dependent. Without the understanding afforded by such models, it is impossible to extrapolate the conclusions of cross section sensitivity analysis beyond the narrow limits of the specific situations examined in detail. Some of the elements that might be of use in developing the qualitative models are presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To determine the incidence of - and illnesses commonly associated with - catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household's total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure.

  13. Professional satisfaction of family physicians in Pakistan--results of a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hiba; Shah, Nasir; Anwer, Fahad; Akhtar, Hina; Abro, Mairaj Anwar; Khan, Asma

    2014-04-01

    To assess the level of professional satisfaction amongst family physicians of Pakistan and to identify the factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. The study was part of a larger national survey for "Status of PostgraduateTraining and Continuing Medical Education of Family Physicians in Pakistan" which was a cross-sectional, postal survey of family physicians conducted over 10 months between November 2009 and September 2010. The main outcome variables were professional satisfaction, as well as reasons for professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. Of the total 1200 survey forms distributed, 288 (24%) were received back. The mean age of the participants was 37 +/- 9 years with a range between 26 and 72 years. Of the total, 226 (78.5%) were males. Overall, 213 (74%) family physicians were satisfied with their profession. The factors significantly associated with professional dissatisfaction included the participants opinion that they were not respected by the public (OR: 11.6, C.I: 1.9-71.5); as well as regretting being a doctor (OR:62.9, C.I: 8.4-469.8). Most of the family physicians had professional satisfaction, but a minority had regrets about being a doctor and were dissatisfied over how their profession affected their family life. Further research may be needed to study work-life balance amongst family physicians of Pakistan.

  14. Estimating health expectancies from two cross-sectional surveys: The intercensal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guillot

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Health expectancies are key indicators for monitoring the health of populations, as well as for informing debates about compression or expansion of morbidity. However, current methodologies for estimating them are not entirely satisfactory. They are either of limited applicability because of high data requirements (the multistate method or based on questionable assumptions (the Sullivan method. This paper proposes a new method, called the "intercensal" method, which relies on the multistate framework but uses widely available data. The method uses age-specific proportions "healthy" at two successive, independent cross-sectional health surveys, and, together with information on general mortality, solves for the set of transition probabilities that produces the observed sequence of proportions healthy. The system is solved by making realistic parametric assumptions about the age patterns of transition probabilities. Using data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS and from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, the method is tested against both the multistate method and the Sullivan method. We conclude that the intercensal approach is a promising framework for the indirect estimation of health expectancies.

  15. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  16. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  17. A cross-sectional survey to assess community attitudes to introduction of Human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen; Ryan, Philip; Roberton, Don; Baghurst, Peter

    2007-06-01

    A vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been licensed recently in the United States of America and Australia. The aim of this study was to assess community attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine in the State of South Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by computer-aided telephone interviews in February 2006. The survey assessed adult and parental attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine to provide protection against a sexually transmitted disease caused by HPV and against cervical cancer. Two thousand interviews were conducted in metropolitan and rural households. Two per cent of respondents knew that persistent HPV infection caused cervical cancer and a further 7% were aware that the cause was viral. The majority of adults interviewed (83%) considered that both men and women should receive HPV vaccine and 77% of parents agreed that they would have their child/children immunised. Parents were mainly concerned about possible side effects of the vaccine (66%), with only 0.2% being concerned about discussing a sexually transmitted disease with their children and 5% being concerned that use of the vaccine may lead to promiscuity. Our findings suggest that public health education campaigns for HPV vaccination will find a majority of parents receptive to their children being vaccinated, but attention must be paid to appropriate explanation about HPV infection as the cause of cervical cancer and education about the safety of the HPV vaccine.

  18. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  19. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  20. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  1. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-05-07

    To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential

  2. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  3. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  4. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  5. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Burnout in emergency department healthcare professionals is associated with coping style: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, M; Doody, K; Murray, J; LeBlanc-Duchin, D; Fraser, J; Atkinson, P R

    2015-09-01

    Ineffective coping may lead to impaired job performance and burnout, with adverse consequences to staff well-being and patient outcomes. We examined the relationship between coping styles and burnout in emergency physicians, nurses and support staff at seven small, medium and large emergency departments (ED) in a Canadian health region (population 500,000). Linear regression with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate the effect of coping style on levels of burnout in a cross-sectional survey of 616 ED staff members. CISS measures coping style in three categories: task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping; MBI, in use for 30 years, assesses the level of burnout in healthcare workers. Task-oriented coping was associated with decreased risk of burnout, while emotion-oriented coping was associated with increased risk of burnout. Specific coping styles are associated with varied risk of burnout in ED staff across several different types of hospitals in a regional network. Coping style intervention may reduce burnout, while leading to improvement in staff well-being and patient outcomes. Further studies should focus on building and sustaining task-oriented coping, along with alternatives to emotion-oriented coping. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  8. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  9. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pweight management counseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  12. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for preventing adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Robert; Pignone, Michael P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-05-11

    The utility value attributed to taking pills for prevention can have a major effect on the cost-effectiveness of interventions, but few published studies have systematically quantified this value. We sought to quantify the utility value of taking pills used for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional survey. Central North Carolina. 708 healthcare employees aged 18 years and older. Utility values for taking 1 pill/day, assessed using time trade-off, modified standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods. Mean age of respondents was 43 years (19-74). The majority of the respondents were female (83%) and Caucasian (80%). Most (80%) took at least 2 pills/day. Mean utility values for taking 1 pill/day using the time trade-off method were: 0.9972 (95% CI 0.9962 to 0.9980). Values derived from the standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods were 0.9967 (0.9954 to 0.9979) and 0.9989 (95% CI 0.9986 to 0.9991), respectively. Utility values varied little across characteristics such as age, sex, race, education level or number of pills taken per day. The utility value of taking pills daily in order to prevent an adverse CVD health outcome is approximately 0.997. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  14. Perceptions of genetic discrimination among people at risk for Huntington's disease: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Veenstra, Gerry; Friedman, Jan M; Creighton, Susan; Currie, Lauren; Paulsen, Jane S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-06-09

    To assess the nature and prevalence of genetic discrimination experienced by people at risk for Huntington's disease who had undergone genetic testing or remained untested. Cross sectional, self reported survey. Seven genetics and movement disorders clinics servicing rural and urban communities in Canada. 233 genetically tested and untested asymptomatic people at risk for Huntington's disease (response rate 80%): 167 underwent testing (83 had the Huntington's disease mutation, 84 did not) and 66 chose not to be tested. Self reported experiences of genetic discrimination and related psychological distress based on family history or genetic test results. Discrimination was reported by 93 respondents (39.9%). Reported experiences occurred most often in insurance (29.2%), family (15.5%), and social (12.4%) settings. There were few reports of discrimination in employment (6.9%), health care (8.6%), or public sector settings (3.9%). Although respondents who were aware that they carried the Huntington's disease mutation reported the highest levels of discrimination, participation in genetic testing was not associated with increased levels of genetic discrimination. Family history of Huntington's disease, rather than the result of genetic testing, was the main reason given for experiences of genetic discrimination. Psychological distress was associated with genetic discrimination (PGenetic discrimination was commonly reported by people at risk for Huntington's disease and was a source of psychological distress. Family history, and not genetic testing, was the major reason for genetic discrimination.

  15. Child obesity service provision: a cross-sectional survey of physiotherapy practice trends and professional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Nikki; Choy, Nancy Low; Leong, Gary M; Hughes, Roger; Hing, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored current physiotherapy practice trends for management of children who are overweight or obese. The professional needs of physiotherapists working with this population were also assessed, including the perceived need for physiotherapy clinical guidelines for prevention and management of children with obesity. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with questionnaires purposefully distributed through 13 key physiotherapy services throughout Australia. Snowball sampling resulted in completed questionnaires from 64 physiotherapists who provided services to children. Half (n=33, 52%) of respondents provided services specifically to overweight or obese children. Of those providing services, one-quarter had prior training specific to working with this population. Most used multi-disciplinary models (n=16, 76%) and provided under 5h of obesity-related services each week (n=29, 88%). Half (n=16, 49%) used body mass index as an outcome measure but more (n=25, 76%) used bodyweight. Only 14 (42%) assessed motor skills. The majority of respondents (n=57, 89%) indicated a need for physiotherapy guidelines to best manage overweight and obese children. Professional development priorities included: 'Educating children and families', 'Assessment methods' and 'Exercise prescription' for overweight and obese children. This data provides workforce intelligence to guide future professional training and inform development of clinical guidelines for physiotherapists in prevention and management of children with obesity and related chronic disease.

  16. Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Zhen, Yan; Lu, Li; Dong, Zhou Xu; Jun, Ye Xu; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2010-02-01

    The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

  17. Productivity loss of caregivers of schizophrenia patients: a cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Mori, Yasuhiro; Mahlich, Jörg

    2018-04-27

    When a family member is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it causes stress to the caregiver that can eventually result in missed work days and lower work performance. This study aims at revealing productivity costs for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of caregivers was conducted and resulted in 171 respondents. The assessment of work productivity included calculating the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism and total productivity costs. This was accomplished using the "Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire" (WPAI). A relative majority of caregivers in the sample provided care for their spouse (47%), 18% cared for their brother or sister and 16% provided care for their child. Per capita productivity costs totaled JPY 2.42 million, with JPY 2.36 million (97%) of that amount being due to presenteeism. The burden on caregivers is substantial enough to warrant structured support programs aimed at maintaining careers' physical and mental health, helping them provide more effective care to schizophrenia patients and eventually increase productivity at work.

  18. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey's emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-06-29

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Cross-sectional survey study. Country of Turkey. Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians' personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians' opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Our results indicated that ED physicians' experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey’s emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Setting Country of Turkey. Participants Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians’ personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians’ opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. Results A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Conclusions Our results indicated that ED physicians’ experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. PMID:28663323

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  1. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  2. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  4. Status of problem based learning in postgraduate anesthesia teaching: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a specialized branch of medicine with a very narrow margin of error. Incorporation of problem-based learning (PBL in anesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills. It also helps in developing a broader prospective of clinical case scenarios. Case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all PBL methods in anesthesia PG teaching. Materials and Methods: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey among 62 anesthesia residents from various medical institutions in a city of Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the current status of PBL by assessing the student satisfaction with CBD in anesthesia PG teaching, educational objectives accomplished with CBD and effectiveness of teaching curriculum in PG teaching with suggested modifications, if any. Result and Conclusion: We observed that CBD is lacking in many important key areas of PBL e.g., formulation of objectives, communication on the content and direction of PBL, facilitation skills, supplementation of inadequacies of CBD. However, CBD seems to be a valid method of PBL in terms of the educational objectives accomplished with it but increased motivation for learning is required. Majority of the students felt that PG teaching curriculum should be centralized, with increased emphasis on open interactive sessions regarding its effectiveness.

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dental practitioners in Davangere, Karnataka: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Veeresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite numerous advances in dentistry many occupational health problems still persist in modern dentistry, of which the most common is a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD and pain is the most common symptom of MSD. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among the dental practitioners in Davangere and the prevalence of pain in different anatomic location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 70 dental practitioners residing in Davangere city. A self-designed questionnaire containing eight questions was self-administered to all the available dentists at their place of work. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain among the dentists was found to be 34.71%, and they reported a higher frequency of pain in the neck region (71%. Conclusions: Among the dentists practicing in Davangere, there was relatively lower prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain and the most common site of pain was neck region.

  6. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training.

  7. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrière Eléna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  8. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Nerrière, Eléna; Chan Chee, Christine

    2006-04-21

    Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men) or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  9. Attitudes of Mexican anesthesiologists to indicate preoperative fasting periods: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava-Ocampo Alejandro A

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, guidelines for fasting periods, or any audits on this topic are unavailable, and therefore the attitudes of anesthesiologists for recommending preoperative fasting periods are unknown. Material and methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of anesthesiologists subscribed to the Annual Updated Course, organized by the Sociedad Mexicana de Anestesiologia in 2000. The response rate was 31.4%. Results Most respondents were general anesthesiologists, with 5 or more years experience in a clinical post, were working in both public and private hospitals, and were performing anesthetic procedures on both pediatric and adult patients and in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Approximately 23% of the respondents considered natural fruit juices to be clear liquids. For a pediatric patient ingesting breast milk 1 h before undergoing a surgical procedure, 45% thought that surgery should be delayed for 3h, followed by those delaying the surgical procedure for 6 to 8 h. Our results show that more than 50% of the anesthesiologists had better defined attitudes for fasting milk and clear liquids in patients of 6 month or under than for older children and adults. However, due to the poor definition or pre-operative fasting, using clear liquids, in all other patient groups, several patients are allowed to go without oral clear liquids administration for prolonged periods. Conclusion Preoperative fasting periods recommended by Mexican anesthesiologists differ from international guidelines.

  10. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury in Norway: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Erling F. Solheim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two research questions are addressed: 1 What predicts employment among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Norway? 2 How do the employed compare with the non-employed in their job motivation, labour discrimination, quality of life, everyday coping, health and pain suffering? We use a cross-sectional survey from 2012. With a 51% response rate, 320 Norwegians aged 21–66 years with SCI participated. After injury, 69.5% were employed, and 44.5% remained employed at the time of the interview. There was no gender difference in employment. Among men and women, age at onset of SCI, ability to continue working in the same organisation and education was associated with employment. For men paraplegia and vocational rehabilitation were also significant. Occupational class was non-significant among both men and women. Job motivation and work ability could have affected past employment, and both the employed and non-employed supported the statement that employers discriminate against wheelchair users.

  11. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  12. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  13. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Keon Hoon; Cho, Dae Seong; Lee, Jinmoo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Khaled, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa; Siddig, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali; Abdelrazig, Hana; Awadelkareem, Sarah; Elshafie, Azza Tag Eldin; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Amin, Mutamad

    2017-09-12

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. A school-based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control program. The mapping data will also be used for overviewing

  14. Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity

  15. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  16. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1-2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients.

  17. Premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K; Chen, P C Y; Lee, K K; Kaur, J

    2006-06-01

    Sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents is a major concern, especially with the worry of HIV/AIDS. This study was done to determine the prevalence of sexual intercourse among secondary school students aged 12 to 19 years in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the self-administered questionnaire (translated version of the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance in Bahasa Malaysia). The study showed that 5.4 percent of the total sample were reported to have had sexual intercourse. The proportion among male students who had had sex was higher (8.3 percent) compared with female students (2.9 percent). The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. One percent of students reported that they had been pregnant or had made someone else pregnant. Adolescent sexual intercourse was significantly associated with (1) socio-demographical factors (age, gender); (2) environmental factors (staying with parents); and (3) substance use (alcohol use, cigarette smoking, drug use), even after adjustment for demographical factors. The survey showed that 20.8 percent of respondents had taken alcohol, 14.0 percent had smoked cigarettes, 2.5 percent had tried marijuana, 1.2 percent had tried ecstasy pills, 2.6 percent had tried glue sniffing, 0.7 percent had tried heroin, and 0.7 percent had intravenous drugs. Prevalence of sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents was relatively low compared to developed countries. However, certain groups of adolescents tend to be at higher risk of engaging in sexual intercourse. This problem should be addressed early by targeting these groups of high-risk adolescents.

  18. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  20. Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

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    Boakye Isaac

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia. The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to identify potential risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia. Methods A cross-sectional house-to-house survey of P. falciparum parasitaemia, clinical malaria, anaemia, anthropometric indices, and intestinal helminths was conducted in April-May 2005. Data collection included child and household demographics, mosquito avoidance practices, distance to nearest health facility, child's travel history, symptoms, and anti-malarial use. Risk factors for P. falciparum and anaemia (Hb Results In total, 296 children were tested from 184 households. Prevalences of P. falciparum, clinical malaria, anaemia, and stunting were significantly higher in Moshie Zongo (37.8%, 16.9%, 66.2% and 21.1%, respectively compared to Manhyia (12.8%, 3.4%, 34.5% and 7.4%. Of 197 children tested for helminths, four were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Population attributable risks (PAR% of anaemia were 16.5% (P. falciparum and 7.6% (malnutrition. Risk factors for P. falciparum infection were older age, rural travel, and lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors for anaemia were P. falciparum infection, Moshie Zongo residence, male sex, and younger age. Conclusion Heterogeneities in malariometric indices between neighbouring Kumasi communities are consistent over time. The low helminth prevalence, and the twofold higher PAR% of anaemia attributable to P. falciparum infection compared to malnutrition, indicate the importance of malaria as a cause of anaemia in this urban population.

  1. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

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    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  2. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  3. Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics.

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    Birks, Melanie; Ralph, Nicholas; Cant, Robyn; Hillman, Elspeth; Chun Tie, Ylona

    2015-01-01

    Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education. This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire. Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority. While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of

  4. Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand

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    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable

  5. Perspectives of Oncology Nurses on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Gok Metin, Zehra; Izgu, Nur; Karadas, Canan; Arikan Donmez, Ayse

    In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants. We found that more than half of nurses (54.0%) surveyed had no information on CAM modalities. Most oncology nurses (81.1%) used audiovisual media sources to obtain CAM information. Many nurses (81.3%) reported not using any CAM in cancer care, and only 26.8% recommended CAM to patients. Most nurses used CAM to accelerate wound healing (19.7%) and to manage symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea (8.8%) and anxiety (7.9%). Music (52.8%), massage (49.6%), and exercise (48.8%) were stated to be beneficial. Important barriers to use CAM for patients with cancer involved a lack of knowledge (60.6%); needing physician approval to apply any CAM methods to patients (52.1%); legal and institutional issues (47.2%); and limited educational, training, or certificate programs (44.1%). There is a need for increased knowledge about CAM by oncology nurses, considering their vital role in symptom management of patients with cancer. This can be achieved through solving legal and institutional problems, structured and comprehensive education/training programs, and the integration of CAM therapy into cancer care guidelines.

  6. Codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour in the UK and Ireland: an online cross-sectional survey.

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    Kimergård, A; Foley, M; Davey, Z; Dunne, J; Drummond, C; Deluca, P

    2017-09-01

    Codeine misuse and dependence poses a clinical and public health challenge. However, little is known about dependence and treatment needs in the UK and Ireland. To characterize codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour. An online cross-sectional survey advertised on Facebook, Twitter, health and drug websites and e-mail circulars. The survey collected data on demographics and codeine use amongst adults from the UK and Ireland. The Severity of Dependence Scale measured the level of codeine dependence. The sample of 316 respondents had a mean age of 35.3 years (SD = 12.3) and 67% were women. Of the 316 respondents, 54 scored ≥5 on the Severity of Dependence Scale indicating codeine dependence (17.1%). Our study found that codeine dependence is a problem with both prescribed and 'over-the-counter' codeine. Codeine dependence was associated with daily use of codeine, faking or exaggerating symptoms to get a prescription for codeine and 'pharmacy shopping' ( P addiction treatment demand through increased identification and referrals in primary care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  8. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

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    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  9. Factors influencing blood donation: a cross-sectional survey in Guangzhou, China.

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    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H; He, B; Rong, X

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine major factors that influence blood donation in China. Factors affecting blood donation often vary in various populations. This cross-sectional study used self-administered, standardised, structured questionnaires to survey selected donors and non-donors in Guangzhou, China between 10 December 2013 and 25 June 2014. Among the 1080 questionnaires collected, 1034 (95·7%) questionnaires were valid for this analysis, including 602 donors and 432 non-donors. Results revealed that helping patients (n = 405, 68·2%) was the main objective of blood donation, and self-perception of poor health (n = 138, 33·1%) was the main reason for not donating. Responses to questions raised by donors and inquiring about a donor's physical condition were thought to be the most important blood donation routines (n = 302, 65·5%). For non-donors, 90·3% (n = 390) expressed their intention to donate blood in the future, and usage of blood (n = 182, 46·7%) was the most asked question. Prepaid cellular phone cards were the most popular incentives. Raising the awareness of blood donation was the most effective way of enhancing blood donation programmes, and television ads and the internet were the most effective means. Helping patients was the main objective of blood donation in China. However, self-perception of poor health was a major barrier to donating blood. Raising the awareness of blood donation in combination with multiple aspects of campaigns that target different populations with potential blood donors is critical. Television and the internet are the most effective tools for promotion of and recruitment for blood donation. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  11. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

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    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  12. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  13. Bullying of medical students in Pakistan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Syed Ahmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies from other countries have shown that bullying, harassment, abuse or belittlement are a regular phenomenon faced not only by medical students, but also junior doctors, doctors undertaking research and other healthcare professionals. While research has been carried out on bullying experienced by psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees in Pakistan no such research has been conducted on medical students in this country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on final year medical students in six medical colleges of Pakistan. The response rate was 63%. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported that they had faced bullying or harassment during their medical education, about 28% of them experiencing it once a month or even more frequently. The overwhelming form of bullying had been verbal abuse (57%, while consultants were the most frequent (46% perpetrators. Students who were slightly older, males, those who reported that their medical college did not have a policy on bullying or harassment, and those who felt that adequate support was not in place at their medical college for bullied individuals, were significantly more likely to have experienced bullying. CONCLUSION: Bullying or harassment is faced by quite a large proportion of medical students in Pakistan. The most frequent perpetrators of this bullying are consultants. Adoption of a policy against bullying and harassment by medical colleges, and providing avenues of support for students who have been bullied may help reduce this phenomenon, as the presence of these two was associated with decreased likelihood of students reporting having being bullied.

  14. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  15. Health professional students' rural placement satisfaction and rural practice intentions: A national cross-sectional survey.

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    Smith, Tony; Sutton, Keith; Pit, Sabrina; Muyambi, Kuda; Terry, Daniel; Farthing, Annie; Courtney, Claire; Cross, Merylin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire. Key dependent variables were placement satisfaction and rural practice intention. Descriptive variables were age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) background, location of placement, healthcare discipline, year of study and type and length of placement. A total of 3328 students responded. The sample was predominantly female (79%), the mean age was 26.0 years and 1.8% identified as ATSI. Most placements (69%) were >2 but ≤12 weeks, 80% were in Modified Monash 3, 4 or 5 geographical locations. Public hospitals and community health made up 63% of placements. Students satisfied with their placement had 2.33 higher odds of rural practice intention. Those satisfied with Indigenous cultural training, workplace supervision, access to education resources and accommodation had higher odds of overall satisfaction and post-placement rural practice intention. The majority of students were highly satisfied with their placement and the support provided by rural clinicians and the UDRHs. UDRHs are well placed to provide health professional students with highly satisfactory placements that foster rural practice intention. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Social support contributes to resilience among physiotherapy students: a cross sectional survey and focus group study.

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    Bíró, Éva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Kósa, Karolina

    2016-06-01

    The present study, taking a resource-oriented approach to mental health, aimed at investigating mental resilience and its determinants among undergraduate physiotherapy students using quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey supplemented by 2 focus groups. One university in Hungary. 130 physiotherapy students at years 1, 2, and 3. Sense of coherence, a measure of dynamic self-esteem, as well as social support from family and peers were used to assess mental well-being. A screening instrument for psychological morbidity and perceived stress were used as deficiency-oriented approaches. Student opinions were gathered on positive and negative determinants of mental health. Resilience was lower [mean difference 4.8 (95% CI -3.4; 13.1)], and the occurrence of psychological morbidity (32.5% vs. 0%) was higher among female compared to male students. However, the proportion of students fully supported by their peers was higher among females (63% vs. 37.5%). Female students, unlike their male counterparts, experienced higher stress compared to their peers in the general population. Social support declined as students progressed in their studies though this proved to be the most important protective factor for their mental well-being. Results were fed back to the course organizers recommending the implementation of an evidence-based method to improve social support as delineated by the Guide to Community Preventive Services of the US the outcomes of which are to be seen in the future. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Domestic violence in a UK abortion clinic: anonymous cross-sectional prevalence survey.

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    Motta, Silvia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Bewley, Susan

    2015-04-01

    To measure the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) experienced by women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in a UK abortion clinic. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all women aged over 16 years accessing a TOP clinic in inner London between 20 May 2012 and 2 July 2012. The main outcome measures were: distribution of questionnaires, response rate, lifetime prevalence of abuse, past-year prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, prevalence of physical abuse during current pregnancy, relationship of lifetime abuse to number of terminations, and receptivity to DV services. Questionnaires were distributed to 46% (383/828) of women accessing the clinic. Response rate was 50% (190/383). Lifetime prevalence of abuse was 16%. Past-year prevalence of physical abuse was 11% and sexual abuse was 4%. Prevalence of physical abuse during the current pregnancy was 4%. Prevalence of lifetime abuse was lower in women having a first termination (12%) versus one (20%) or two or more previous terminations (24%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.192). The majority (75%) of participants expressing an opinion on the possibility of having a support service for DV in the abortion clinic setting were positive, unrelated to their personal experience, but some concerns were raised about implementation. In order to provide effective support for women, services require a needs assessment of their local population. Asking women presenting for abortion about DV, even anonymously, is challenging but feasible. Future work should be directed to women's unmet safety needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Predictors of home death of home palliative cancer care patients: a cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Fujita, Junko; Tsujimura, Mayuko; Sumikawa, Yuka; Hayashi, Yayoi

    2011-11-01

    To identify factors influencing the place of death among home palliative cancer care patients, focusing on the role of nurses in terms of pre- and post-discharge from hospital to home care settings. A cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted at 1000 randomly selected homecare agencies in Japan. The questionnaires were completed by primary community nurses of home palliative patients just after their discharge. A total of 568 responses were analyzed (effective response rate, 69%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following independent factors of place of death among those patients: desire for home death at referral by both patient and family caregiver; caregiver relationship to patient as daughter or daughter-in-law; totally bedridden functional status of patient; patient not suffering from depression and/or anxiety at referral; patients and caregivers duly informed about the dying process/death in detail, as well as instructed by community nurses about pain management and how to treat/prevent bedsores in home care settings. This study demonstrated the importance of both the hospital and community nurses' role in increasing the patients' chance of dying at home. Hospital nurses should support early transfer to home palliative care according to their assessment of the desire of patient/family caregiver for home death, the patients' clinical status, and caregivers' ability to provide patient care at home. Community nurses should inform patients/family caregiver in detail about the dying process/death just after discharge, relieve patient pain, treat/prevent bedsores, and instruct family caregivers on their symptom control. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

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    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  1. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

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    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  2. Relationship between parental locus of control and caries experience in preschool children - cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencová, Erika; Pikhart, Hynek; Broukal, Zdenek; Tsakos, Georgios

    2008-06-12

    Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, pcontrol of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.

  3. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  4. Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey

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    Breedveld Boudewijn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages of behaviour change were investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese Dutch adults aged 25–35 years was conducted. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of Body Mass Index (BMI, demographic factors and psychosocial variables from the TPB with the intention to prevent weight gain. Differences in BMI, demographic and psychosocial factors between PAPM-stages were explored using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results Eighty-five percent of respondents intended to prevent weight gain. Age, attitudes and risk perceptions related to weight gain were the strongest correlates of intention (age: OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.04–1.20; attitude OR = 7.91, 95%CI: 5.33–11.74; risk perception OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.11–1.38. Significant differences were detected between the PAPM-stages in almost all variables. Notably, perceived behavioural control was lowest among people who had decided to prevent weight gain. Conclusion Messages to influence attitudes towards the prevention of weight gain and risk perception may affect people who are not yet motivated to prevent weight gain. Interventions increasing people's perceived behavioural control in overcoming barriers to prevent weight gain may help people to act on their intentions.

  5. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey.

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    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Ndetei, David M; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-01-15

    Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students' career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students' attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were "quite likely", and 25% were "definitely not" considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p school, experience of psychiatric enrichment activities (special studies modules and university psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry.Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally.

  6. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, K M; Christensen, H

    2000-12-16

    To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Cross sectional survey. 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content-concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability-conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7. 5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects.

  7. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22–93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0.002). There were no sex-specific significant differences regarding LS-incidence at the L4 level. We found no significant differences of risk of LS between nulliparous or multiparous women (L4 P = 0.54/L5 P = 0.35). Furthermore, we found no significant relationship between age at menopause and LS-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  8. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Practice nurses' workload, career intentions and the impact of professional isolation: A cross-sectional survey

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    Watt Graham CM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329. Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination. Results There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate. Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3% felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5% intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years. Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024 and nursing teams (p = 0.003; were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002 or personal (p Conclusions A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help

  10. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

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    Crabb Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  11. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Venous thromboembolism in medical outpatients - a cross-sectional survey of risk assessment and prophylaxis.

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    Lawall, Holger; Matthiessen, Andreas; Hohmann, Volker; Bramlage, Peter; Haas, Sylvia; Schellong, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The degree of thromboprophylaxis in medical outpatients is low despite a substantial risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This may be attributable to difficulties in assessing risk. Assessment tools like the Haas' scorecard aid in determining the need for thromboprophylaxis. We aimed at evaluating how the use of this tool may aid physicians in appropriately using anticoagulants. This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional survey of acute medically ill patients with limited mobility treated by general practitioners and internists. Risk assessment for VTE by the treating physician was compared to calculated risk. Of 8,123 patients evaluated between August 2006 and April 2008, 7,271 fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. Mean age was 69.4 ± 13.6 years, and 45.2% were male. Of these 82.8% were high risk based on their acute medical condition, 37.9% based on their underlying chronic condition. Immobilisation, heart failure, pneumonia, age, obesity, and major varicosis were the most frequently encountered risk factors. The agreement between the Haas' scorecard and physician indicated risk was high. At least 94.1% of patients with high risk received adequate anticoagulation mostly as low molecular weight heparins for a mean duration of 15.1 ± 30.5 days. There is a substantial risk for VTE in medical outpatients. Using a simple structured scorecard resulted in an overall appropriate risk assessment and high degree of anticoagulation. The scorecard may provide a tool to improve the overall awareness for VTE risk in medical outpatients, substantially improving the degree of prophylaxis in a patient population with largely underestimated risk.

  13. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

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    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  14. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID

  15. Honorary and ghost authorship in high impact biomedical journals: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislar, Joseph S; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B; Deangelis, Catherine D

    2011-10-25

    To assess the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors in six leading general medical journals in 2008 and compare this with the prevalence reported by authors of articles published in 1996. Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. International survey of journal authors. Sample of corresponding authors of 896 research articles, review articles, and editorial/opinion articles published in six general medical journals with high impact factors in 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Nature Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, and PLoS Medicine. Self reported compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for all authors on the selected articles. A total of 630/896 (70.3%) corresponding authors responded to the survey. The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship or ghost authorship, or both, was 21.0% (95% CI 18.0% to 24.3%), a decrease from 29.2% reported in 1996 (P = 0.004). Based on 545 responses on honorary authorship, 96 articles (17.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 21.0%)) had honorary authors (range by journal 12.2% to 29.3%), a non-significant change from 1996 (19.3%; P = 0.439). Based on 622 responses on ghost authorship, 49 articles (7.9% (6.0% to 10.3%)) had ghost authors (range by journal 2.1% to 11.0%), a significant decline from 1996 (11.5%; P = 0.023). The prevalence of honorary authorship was 25.0% in original research reports, 15.0% in reviews, and 11.2% in editorials, whereas the prevalence of ghost authorship was 11.9% in research articles, 6.0% in reviews, and 5.3% in editorials. Evidence of honorary and ghost authorship in 21% of articles published in major medical journals in 2008 suggests that increased efforts by scientific journals, individual authors, and academic institutions are essential to promote responsibility, accountability, and transparency in authorship, and to maintain integrity in scientific publication.

  16. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  17. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  18. A cross-sectional survey on nursing students' attitude towards research

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    Samia Saud Al Furaikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing research promotes optimum care for patients through evidence-based nursing practice. Students' attitude towards research motivates them to engage in research, develop research skills and apply research findings in clinical settings to promote positive patient outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards research component in order to discover implications for the best practices in teaching/learning process. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional investigation was carried out with purposively selected n = 186, level 5–8 students at the College of Nursing-A, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Al-Ahsa from 2016 to 2107. With informed, voluntary consent, data on students' attitudes towards research were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 32 items on a Likert scale of strongly agree (4 to strongly disagree (1 with the scores ranging from 32 to 128. Analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Results: The overall attitude towards research was positive with a mean score (68.4 ± 6.580. Most of the students (78% regarded that research is useful for the nursing profession. Positive attitude towards research was demonstrated by 68% of the nursing students, 61% reported that research plays an important role in professional and personal life, whereas the highest proportion of students (71% perceived research as a difficult, complicated, stressful subject and 64% reported statistical difficulty. Conclusion: Although many of the students have a favourable attitude towards the research process and acknowledge its usefulness and benefit to the nursing profession, many of them perceived their research course as stressful. Most of them reported having negative feelings and anxiety towards the research process. Incorporating research course(s into the curriculum at the pre-university level and

  19. Exploring the missing link - Empathy among dental students: An institutional cross-sectional survey

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    Vikram Pal Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS, interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser′s criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient′s shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent  ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01. The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12 and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19 dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.

  20. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Postpartum nurses' perceptions of barriers to screening for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional survey

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    Guillery Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a human rights violation that is pervasive worldwide, and is particularly critical for women during the reproductive period. IPV includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Nurses on in-patient postpartum units are well-positioned to screen women for IPV, yet low screening rates suggest that barriers to screening exist. The purpose of this study was to (a identify the frequency of screening for IPV, (b the most important barriers to screening, (c the relationship between the barriers to screening and the frequency of screening for types of abuse, and (d to identify other factors that contribute to the frequency of screening for IPV. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 96 nurses from postpartum inpatient units in three Canadian urban hospitals. The survey included the Barriers to Abuse Assessment Tool (BAAT, adapted for postpartum nurses (PPN. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression models were used to predict barriers to screening for each type of IPV. Results The frequency of screening varied by the type of abuse with highest screening rates found for physical and emotional abuse. According to the BAAT-PPN, lack of knowledge was the most important barrier to screening. The BAAT-PPN total score was negatively correlated with screening for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Using OLS regression models and after controlling for demographic characteristics, the BAAT-PPN explained 14%, 12%, and 11% of the variance in screening for physical, sexual and emotional abuse, respectively. Fluency in the language of the patient was negatively correlated with screening for each type of abuse. When added as Step 3 to OLS regression models, language fluency was associated with an additional decrease in the likelihood of screening for physical (beta coefficient = -.38, P P = .05, and emotional abuse (beta coefficient = -.48, P Conclusions Our findings support an inverse

  2. Nursing home administrators’ perspectives on a study feedback report: a cross sectional survey

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    Boström Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is part of the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC program of research, a multi-level and longitudinal research program being conducted in 36 nursing homes in three Canadian Prairie Provinces. The overall goal of TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. The purpose of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs from facility administrators’ perspectives on the usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of selected data from the TREC survey. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. The feedback reports were developed in collaboration with participating facility administrators. FARs presented results in four contextual areas: workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, and staff burnout. Six weeks after FARs were mailed to each administrator, we conducted structured telephone interviews with administrators to elicit their evaluation of the FARs. Administrators were also asked if they had taken any actions as a result of the FAR. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis for open-ended questions, were used to summarize findings. Results Thirty-one facility administrators (representing thirty-two facilities participated in the interviews. Six administrators had taken action and 18 were planning on taking action as a result of FARs. The majority found the four contextual areas addressed in FAR to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. They liked the comparisons made between data from years one and two and between their facility and other TREC study sites in their province. Twenty-two indicated that they would like to receive information on additional areas such as aggressive behaviours of residents and information sharing. Twenty-four administrators indicated that FARs contained enough information, while eight

  3. Predictors of hospitalized patients' intentions to prevent healthcare harm: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R; Anderson, O; Vincent, C; Miles, K; Sevdalis, N

    2012-04-01

    Patients can play an important role in reducing healthcare harm but little is known about the factors that may affect patients' willingness to participate. In order to encourage the 'active' patient it is critical that we gain a deeper understanding of the antecedents of safety-relevant behaviours. Doing this will enable the implementation of effective interventions aimed at supporting patients to work with healthcare professionals in ensuring safe care. To examine predictors of patients' intentions to engage in two safety behaviours: (1) reminding healthcare staff to wash their hands and; (2) notifying healthcare staff if they are not wearing a hospital identification bracelet. Cross-sectional survey study. A purposive sampling method was employed to recruit 80 medical and surgical hospital inpatients aged 18-80 (mean 48) from one inner city London teaching hospital. A 42 item survey that measured the extent that patients' control beliefs, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and perceived susceptibility and severity towards a hospital-acquired infection or a misidentification error could predict their intentions to ask doctors/nurses about their hand washing compliance or notify doctors/nurses if they are not wearing a hospital identification bracelet. Data was analysed using multiple regression analysis. Control beliefs, normative beliefs and perceived severity were the strongest predictors of patients' intentions to participate in both behaviours. The regression models accounted for a smaller percentage of the variance in patients' intentions to ask doctors/nurses if they have washed their hands (42%/37%) than notifying staff if they were not wearing an identification bracelet (54%/56%). If patients understand why a behaviour is beneficial, they perceive it as acceptable to participate in and that they have control over the decision to engage in the behaviour, we hypothesise that more patients will intend to participate in that behaviour. When designing

  4. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

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    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  6. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  7. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country...

  8. Changes in Hypertension Treatment in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia: Improvements Observed Between 2 Cross-Sectional Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mozheyko, Maria; Eregin, Sergey; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Tobe, Sheldon; Campbell, Norman; Riahi, Farhad; Hughes, David

    2013-01-01

    This prospective before-and-after survey of hypertensive patients visiting government-run outpatient health facilities in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia assessed blood pressure (BP)–related endpoints following initiation of a comprehensive health system improvement program for hypertension. Two cross-sectional surveys, one at baseline and the other approximately 1 year after program initiation, evaluated the primary measure of BP control rate. Secondary measures included mean BP levels and di...

  9. Cross-sectional Survey of Long-Term Care Facilities in the Rockaway Peninsula: Preparedness and Response During Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lynn; Tedeschi, Christopher; Subaiya, Saleena

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have described the challenges experienced by long-term care facilities (LTCFs) following Hurricane Sandy. This study examined LTCF preparedness and experiences during and after the storm. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to assess LTCF demographics, preparation, and post-storm resources. Surveys were conducted at LTCFs located on the Rockaway Peninsula of New York City. All LTCFs located in a heavily affected area were approached. Of 29 facilities, 1 had closed, 5 did not respond, 9 declined to participate, and 14 participated, yielding a response rate of 50% for open facilities. Twenty-one percent of the facilities had preparations specifically for hurricanes. More than 70% of the facilities had lost electricity, heat, and telephone service, and one-half had evacuated. Twenty-one percent of the facilities reported not receiving any assistance and over one-half reported that relief resources did not meet their needs. Many LTCFs lacked plans specific to such a large-scale event. Since nearly all of the LTCFs in the region were affected, preexisting transportation and housing plans may have been inadequate. Future preparation could include hazard-specific planning and reliance on resources from a wider geographic area. Access to electricity emerged as a top priority. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:194-200).

  10. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

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    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  11. Public knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Al-Nafisi, Hala

    2014-11-04

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is estimated to cause 46% of all mortalities in Kuwait. To design effective primary and secondary prevention programs, an assessment of a population's prior CVD knowledge is of paramount importance. There is scarcity of data on the existing CVD knowledge among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was performed to assess the level of knowledge towards CVD types, warning symptoms of heart attack or stroke, and CVD risk factors. It also explored public views on the community pharmacists' role in CVD prevention and management. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 900 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. The response rate was 90.7%. Respondents' knowledge about types of CVD, heart attack or stroke symptoms was low. Almost 60% of respondents did not know any type of CVD, and coronary heart disease was the commonest identified type (29.0%). Two-fifths of participants were not aware of any heart attack symptoms, and the most commonly known were chest pain (50.4%) and shortness of breath (48.0%). Approximately half of respondents did not recognize any stroke symptoms, and the most commonly recognized were 'confusion or trouble speaking' (36.4%) and 'numbness or weakness' (34.7%). Respondents' knowledge regarding CVD risk factors was moderate. The commonest factors identified by over four-fifths of participants were smoking, obesity, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of better level of CVD knowledge were females, age 50-59 years, high level of education, regular eating of healthy diet, and had a family history of CVD. Most of respondents only identified the role that pharmacists had to play is to help patients manage their medications, with a minimal role in other aspects of CVD prevention

  12. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

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    Conall H Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%, 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%. The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4 per 10 years, the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3 as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7. Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  13. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders--a cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria E H; Nordholm, Lena A

    2008-08-05

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082) responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683-693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM) instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical) professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders and investigated background variables were that

  14. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Fall Prevalence among Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P

    2017-03-11

    Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may

  15. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Conall H; Baker, Stephen; Lau, Colleen L; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Hens, Niel; Lowry, John H; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Cano, Jorge; Jenkins, Kylie; Mulholland, E Kim; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John

    2017-07-01

    Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%)), 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%)). The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) per 10 years), the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3) as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7). Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  16. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  17. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  18. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  19. Career intentions of PhD students in nursing: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, XiaoLing; Luo, ZhongChen; Lou, Ting; Pang, Jin; Tang, SiYuan

    2018-05-01

    Despite the rapid growth of Chinese nursing PhD programs, little is known about the career intentions of students in this field. To investigate the career intentions of nursing PhD students. Online cross-sectional survey. Nursing PhD students at Chinese universities. An online questionnaire was designed and the data were analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of the participants was 31.53 ± 4.92 years, and most were female (89.9%), married (74.2%), and had been employed previously (69.7%). Most intended to work in the city where their family lived (34.8%) or near their previous workplace (32.6%). Most (60.7%) desired to work in an educational institution (e.g., a university or college). The most common expected salary was 8000-11,999 RMB/month. The work benefits perceived as indispensable were "Five Insurances and One Fund" (77.5%), good educational resources for children (59.6%), financial allowances for PhD graduates (52.8%), staff dormitories/housing subsidies (50.6%), and tenure (50.6%). Nursing education (75.3%) and research (70.8%) were the most favored fields. The key job characteristics were the opportunity to put strengths to fullest use (79.8%), time to conduct research (60.7%), and work-life balance (51.7%). The key research conditions included a good research incentive mechanism (77.5%), a Basic Scientific Research Foundation (68.5%), opportunity to apply to conduct research projects (66.3%), and the nursing team's atmosphere regarding research (64.0%), and 91.0% were eager to study abroad (e.g., as part of an international exchange). Nursing PhD students would like to work in their hometown or near their previous workplace. Most preferred working in an educational institution, and the most popular fields were nursing education and research (rather than clinical care), despite the high demand of hospital management for nursing PhD graduates. Flexible work, high-quality research conditions, a certain salary, work benefits, and training were key

  20. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  1. Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities.

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    Marleen E Hendriks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara State, Nigeria; Nandi district, Kenya; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Greater Windhoek, Namibia, between 2009-2011. Representative population-based samples were drawn in Nigeria and Namibia. The Kenya and Tanzania study populations consisted of specific target groups. Within a final sample size of 5,500 households, 9,857 non-pregnant adults were eligible for analysis on hypertension. Of those, 7,568 respondents ≥ 18 years were included. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension in each of the populations under study. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 19.3% (95%CI:17.3-21.3 in rural Nigeria, 21.4% (19.8-23.0 in rural Kenya, 23.7% (21.3-26.2 in urban Tanzania, and 38.0% (35.9-40.1 in urban Namibia. In individuals with hypertension, the proportion of grade 2 (≥ 160/100 mmHg or grade 3 hypertension (≥ 180/110 mmHg ranged from 29.2% (Namibia to 43.3% (Nigeria. Control of hypertension ranged from 2.6% in Kenya to 17.8% in Namibia. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 ranged from 6.1% (Nigeria to 17.4% (Tanzania and together with age and gender, BMI independently predicted blood pressure level in all study populations. Diabetes prevalence ranged from 2.1% (Namibia to 3.7% (Tanzania. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was the most frequently observed risk factor for CVD in both urban and rural communities in SSA and will contribute to the growing burden of CVD in SSA. Low levels of control of hypertension are alarming. Strengthening of health

  2. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

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    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  3. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years' stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65-2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00-32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16-11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35-8.46), respectively. The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be beneficial to minimise climate change attributed health

  4. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  5. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

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    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  6. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

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    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  7. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-10-14

    This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47.9%) children were included in the analyses. Linear regression analyses showed that children with current eczema symptoms had higher SDQ scores (mean difference, 95% CI) of emotional problems (0.26, 0.12 to 0.39), conduct problems (0.19, 0.09 to 0.29) and hyperactivity problems (0.32, 0.16 to 0.48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0.72), conduct problems (0.22, 0.11 to 0.33), hyperactivity problems (0.44, 0.26 to 0.61) and peer problems (0.14, 0.01 to 0.26), compared with children without current symptoms of the relevant disease. For most associations, parental socioeconomic position did not modify the effect. Children with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

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    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  9. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices: a cross-sectional comparative survey in Norway and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J

    2015-08-01

    This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the

  10. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

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    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Na; Sun, Wei; Chi, Tie-Shuang; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2010-12-01

    Doctors, the major workforce in hospitals, are doing heavy emotional and physical work which may lead to depressive symptoms. However, in China, few studies are available pertaining to the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors among Chinese doctors in public hospitals. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September/October 2008. The study population comprised of 1,890 doctors registered and working in the 20 national hospitals in Liaoning province, northeast of China. A questionnaire that comprised depressive symptoms assessed by the Chinese Version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), demographic factors, work conditions, occupational stress, and coping strategies was distributed to these doctors. A total of 1,488 effective respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 78.7%). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors related to depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among doctors was 65.3%. Multivariate logistic analyses showed that high role insufficiency (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.66-2.78), worse doctor-patient relationship (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.62-2.64), having a chronic disease (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.31-2.27), serious role boundary (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.21-2.00), and role overload (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.11-1.81) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; whereas adequate rational coping (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45-0.76) and social support (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.98) were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Most Chinese doctors probably have depressive symptoms. Role insufficiency, doctor-patient relationship, and rational coping seemed to be crucial in relation to depressive symptoms. Efficient interventions such as taking further education course, improving communications with patients, and improving the ability

  12. Gender Discrimination among Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Madeeh Hashmi, Ali; Rehman, Amra; Butt, Zeeshan; Awais Aftab, Muhammad; Shahid, Aimen; Abbas Khan, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and magnitude of gender discrimination experienced by undergraduate medical students, and its repercussions on their academic performance and emotional health. Methodology: A cross sectional study of 500 medical and dental students studying at a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Majority (78%) of students reported being victims of gender discrimination. Females were the main perpetrators (70.8%).Most common forms were denied opportuniti...

  13. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Peihang Sun; Xue Zhang; Yihua Sun; Hongkun Ma; Mingli Jiao; Kai Xing; Zheng Kang; Ning Ning; Yapeng Fu; Qunhong Wu; Mei Yin

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern ...

  14. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Brenner, M Harvey; Theorell, Töres; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-09-29

    The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of "no compulsory redundancy". Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD 6 ) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological wellbeing of workers. If downsizing is unavoidable, it should be

  15. A cross sectional, observational survey to assess levels and predictors of psychological wellbeing in adults with epidermolysis bullosa

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    Emma Dures

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24, were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively. In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group.

  16. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. Methods A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of “no compulsory redundancy”. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6 and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological

  17. Is the ICU staff satisfied with the computerized physician order entry? A cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Martins, Paulo Sergio; Pizzo, Vladimir; Souza, Ivens Augusto; Schettino, Guilherme de Paula Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with a computerized physician order entry and to compare the concept of the computerized physician order entry relevance among intensive care unit healthcare workers. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey to assess the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with the computerized physician order entry in a 30-bed medical/surgical adult intensive care unit using a self-administered questionnaire. The questions used for grading satisfaction levels were answered according to a numerical scale that ranged from 1 point (low satisfaction) to 10 points (high satisfaction). Results The majority of the respondents (n=250) were female (66%) between the ages of 30 and 35 years of age (69%). The overall satisfaction with the computerized physician order entry scored 5.74±2.14 points. The satisfaction was lower among physicians (n=42) than among nurses, nurse technicians, respiratory therapists, clinical pharmacists and diet specialists (4.62±1.79 versus 5.97±2.14, pdigitalization decreased the workload and contributed to the intensive care unit quality with a user-friendly and accurate system and that digitalization provided concise information within a reasonable time frame. PMID:24770682

  18. Coping behavior and risk and resilience stress factors in French regional emergency medicine unit workers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, A I; Sturzu, L M; Picard, J P; Druot, F; Grama, F; Bobirnac, G

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has the highest workload in a hospital, offering care to patients in their most acute state of illness, as well as comforting their families and tending to stressful situations of the physical and psychological areal. Method. A cross-sectional survey of 366 Emergency Unit staff members including medical doctors, medical residents, medical nurses and ward aids, was undergone. Study participants came from four periphery hospitals in the Moselle Department of Eastern France with similar workforce and daily patient loads statistics. The instruments used were the Perceived Stress Scale PSS-10 and the Brief COPE questionnaire. Conclusions. Perceived work overload and overall stress is strongly related to work hours and tend to have a stronger influence on doctors than on the nursing staff. Substance use is a common coping method for medical interns, consistent with prior research. The regular assessment of the ED staff perception of stress and stress related factors is essential to support organizational decisions in order to promote a better work environment and better patient care.

  19. Dental Fear Survey: A Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Portuguese Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Antônio Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS, previously translated to the Brazilian Portuguese language and validated. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 1,256 undergraduates from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was carried out. The DFS and a questionnaire about previous dental experiences were self-administered. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, principal components analysis (PCA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Results. PCA identified a three-factor structure. CFA confirmed the multidimensionality of the Brazilian version of the DFS. A modified model of the Brazilian version of the DFS fits better than the hypothesized model. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total DFS scale was 0.95. Conclusion. The DFS demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. These results supported the reliability and validity of the DFS among Brazilian undergraduates.

  20. [Is the ICU staff satisfied with the computerized physician order entry? A cross-sectional survey study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Martins, Paulo Sergio; Pizzo, Vladimir; Souza, Ivens Augusto; Schettino, Guilherme de Paula Pinto

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with a computerized physician order entry and to compare the concept of the computerized physician order entry relevance among intensive care unit healthcare workers. We performed a cross-sectional survey to assess the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with the computerized physician order entry in a 30-bed medical/surgical adult intensive care unit using a self-administered questionnaire. The questions used for grading satisfaction levels were answered according to a numerical scale that ranged from 1 point (low satisfaction) to 10 points (high satisfaction). The majority of the respondents (n=250) were female (66%) between the ages of 30 and 35 years of age (69%). The overall satisfaction with the computerized physician order entry scored 5.74±2.14 points. The satisfaction was lower among physicians (n=42) than among nurses, nurse technicians, respiratory therapists, clinical pharmacists and diet specialists (4.62±1.79 versus 5.97±2.14, phealthcare workers were satisfied, albeit not entirely, with the computerized physician order entry. The overall users' satisfaction with computerized physician order entry was lower among physicians compared to other healthcare professionals. The factors associated with satisfaction included the belief that digitalization decreased the workload and contributed to the intensive care unit quality with a user-friendly and accurate system and that digitalization provided concise information within a reasonable time frame.

  1. A Group of 500 Women Whose Health May Depart Notably From the Norm: Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Christoph; Minford, Eunice J; McHardy, Vanessa; Keep, Jane

    2017-11-23

    Longitudinal studies of women's health often seek to identify predictors of good health. Research has shown that following simple guidelines can halve women's mortality. The ongoing Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) shows that Australian women are getting better at reducing their smoking and alcohol use, and are generally diligent about attending recommended health screenings, but are becoming less successful at dealing with obesity. There are communities of women who live unusually healthy lives (Rosetans, Seventh-Day Adventists, traditional Japanese women), but their lifestyles are unlikely to be adopted widely. Universal Medicine (UM) is a complementary-to-medicine approach that emphasizes personal empowerment and the importance of menstrual health symptoms. This survey investigates whether the approximately 500 women associated with UM exhibit health status significantly above the norm. As part of this investigation, questions for a newly developed menstrual attitudes questionnaire will also be evaluated. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of women in a UM cohort was designed with the help of three focus groups of women at three life stages: in menses, peri-menopausal, and menopausal. The menstrual attitudes portion of the survey incorporates the insights of these women regarding female health issues. The survey also includes 41 questions taken from the ALSWH. Focus groups generated additional questions about symptoms experienced and attitudes toward female health issues. ALSWH questions, including a range of health scales like the Short Form 36 (SF-36), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Control Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and the Multi-Item Summed Score for Perceived Stress, along with questions about experienced major health events, were investigated and incorporated if considered suitable. The validity of the menstrual attitudes questionnaire will be evaluated with Cohen's kappa. ALSWH

  2. A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Nizar A M; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia. We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS) and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out. Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84). Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57) and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29). Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were -0.118 (P = 0.03), -0.014 (P = 0.81) and 0.242 (P < 0.001) respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = -0.111, P = 0.033) and marital status (β = -0.124, P = 0.018) were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001) and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001) were positively associated with the CIUS score. Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients.

  3. A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar A. M. Kutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia. Objectives: We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12. Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out. Results: Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84. Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57 and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29. Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were −0.118 (P = 0.03, −0.014 (P = 0.81 and 0.242 (P < 0.001 respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = −0.111, P = 0.033 and marital status (β = −0.124, P = 0.018 were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001 and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001 were positively associated with the CIUS score. Conclusions: Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients.

  4. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Amr; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Koppel, Cristina; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-05-19

    Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient's data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents' mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation applications (61/101, 60.4%) were the most commonly

  5. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient’s data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. Results With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents’ mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation

  6. Perceptions of genetic discrimination among people at risk for Huntington?s disease: a cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Yvonne; Veenstra, Gerry; Friedman, Jan M; Creighton, Susan; Currie, Lauren; Paulsen, Jane S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the nature and prevalence of genetic discrimination experienced by people at risk for Huntington?s disease who had undergone genetic testing or remained untested. Design Cross sectional, self reported survey. Setting Seven genetics and movement disorders clinics servicing rural and urban communities in Canada. Participants 233 genetically tested and untested asymptomatic people at risk for Huntington?s disease (response rate 80%): 167 underwent testing (83 had the Huntingt...

  7. The association between patients? beliefs about medicines and adherence to drug treatment after stroke: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sj?lander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING: Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires were sent to 989 patient...

  8. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi; Gaurav Sharma; Avneet Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to Oct...

  9. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children:a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15?years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnair...

  10. Leadership training in a family medicine residency program: Cross-sectional quantitative survey to inform curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Erin; Moore, Ainsley; Schabort, Inge

    2017-03-01

    To assess the current status of leadership training as perceived by family medicine residents to inform the development of a formal leadership curriculum. Cross-sectional quantitative survey. Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, in December 2013. A total of 152 first- and second-year family medicine residents. Family medicine residents' attitudes toward leadership, perceived level of training in various leadership domains, and identified opportunities for leadership training. Overall, 80% (152 of 190) of residents completed the survey. On a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = neutral, 7 = strongly agree), residents rated the importance of physician leadership in the clinical setting as high (6.23 of 7), whereas agreement with the statement "I am a leader" received the lowest rating (5.28 of 7). At least 50% of residents desired more training in the leadership domains of personal mastery, mentorship and coaching, conflict resolution, teaching, effective teamwork, administration, ideals of a healthy workplace, coalitions, and system transformation. At least 50% of residents identified behavioural sciences seminars, a lecture and workshop series, and a retreat as opportunities to expand leadership training. The concept of family physicians as leaders resonated highly with residents. Residents desired more personal and system-level leadership training. They also identified ways that leadership training could be expanded in the current curriculum and developed in other areas. The information gained from this survey might facilitate leadership development among residents through application of its results in a formal leadership curriculum. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. Diagnosis and management practices for gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia: Cross-sectional survey of the multidisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloncelli, Nina; Barnett, Adrian; Pelly, Fiona; de Jersey, Susan

    2018-04-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy disorders; however, if well managed, women with GDM experience similar pregnancy outcomes to those without. Currently, there is limited evidence on actual management practices across Australia or how multidisciplinary teams interact to optimise care. To examine the current screening, diagnostic, task and role perceptions and management practices, as reported by members of the GDM multidisciplinary team. A 64-item electronic survey containing multiple choice, Likert scale and open-ended questions was developed for this cross-sectional observational study and advertised through health professional organisations and Queensland Health facilities in May and June, 2017. The 183 survey respondents included 45 diabetes educators, 43 dietitians, 21 endocrinologists/diabetes specialists, 14 obstetricians and 21 midwives. Although almost 90% reported using updated diagnostic guidelines, less than two-thirds used GDM management guidelines. While 68% reported using the same blood glucose targets for GDM management, there was variation to what criteria prompted the commencement of medication to control blood glucose levels. There was a good consensus concerning the health professional responsible for tasks such as medical nutrition therapy, gestational weight gain and self-blood glucose monitoring education and ultrasound use. Other tasks appeared to be the role of almost any member of the GDM multidisciplinary team. The survey results indicate there is a need for consistent evidence on how to best manage GDM and that role identity, access to specialist knowledge and best practice need to be clearly defined within GDM models of care. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. A cross-sectional ecological study of spatial scale and geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert E S; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A

    2014-11-26

    Measuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation. Spatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. Four variants of the dissimilarity index were used to estimate geographic inequality in access to both services using large and small area units in each country through a cross-sectional, ecological study. Inequality was greatest for piped water in South Africa in 2001 (based on 53 areas (N) with a median population (MP) of 657,015; D = 0.5599) and lowest for access to an improved water source in Uganda in 2008 (N = 56; MP = 419,399; D = 0.2801). For sanitation, inequality was greatest for those lacking any facility in Kenya in 2009 (N = 158; MP = 216,992; D = 0.6981), and lowest for access to an improved facility in Uganda in 2002 (N = 56; MP = 341,954; D = 0.3403). Although dissimilarity index values were greater for smaller areal units, when study countries were ranked in terms of inequality, these ranks remained unaffected by the choice of large or small areal units. International comparability was limited due to definitional and temporal differences between censuses. This five-country study suggests that patterns of inequality for broad regional units do often reflect inequality in service access at a more local scale. This implies household surveys designed to estimate province-level service coverage can provide valuable insights into geographic inequality at lower levels. In comparison with household surveys, censuses facilitate inequality assessment at different spatial scales, but pose challenges in harmonising water and sanitation typologies across countries.

  13. Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of interprofessional education across 13 healthcare professions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Goto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rapid aging of the population, collaboration among the various medical professions throughout the country is becoming increasingly indispensable in Japan. To promote collaboration in medical care, it is necessary to introduce the concept of collaboration to students at an early stage of their professional education. Despite this need, there are no core medical, healthcare and welfare education curricula in Japan that include interprofessional education (IPE. Therefore, the status of IPE in Japanese schools of medicine and other healthcare-related services is unclear. Methods: We sent 3,430 questionnaires to 13 schools of medicine and related healthcare providers: doctors, nurses, physical therapists, registered dieticians, dentists, dental hygienists, social workers, pharmacists, occupational therapists, clinical psychologists, medical administrators, certified care workers, and speech therapists. The items addressed implementation rate of IPE, teaching methods and grading methods. Results: Of the 3,430 surveys distributed, 572 completed surveys were returned (response rate 17%. Of the completed surveys, 493 qualified as valid, resulting in a final response rate of 14%. Only 19% (n = 93 of the analysed medical educational institutions included IPE instruction in their curricula. Conclusion: While many educational institutions were conducting IPE, there were important inter-institutional differences with respect to attitudes towards IPE, teaching methods, and evaluation methods. This study was unprecedented in scale, and provides important basic information for the future development of IPE in Japan.

  16. Harm reduction and viral hepatitis C in European prisons: a cross-sectional survey of 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Rob; Stumo, Samya R; Halford, Rachel; Werling, Klára; Reic, Tatjana; Stöver, Heino; Robaeys, Geert; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-05-11

    Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings. Results from the cross-sectional survey were compared to the data from available reports and the peer-reviewed literature to determine the overall degree to which European countries implement evidence-based HCV recommendations in prison settings. Patient groups in nine countries (36%) identified prisoners as a high-risk population target for HCV testing/screening. Twenty-one countries (84%) provide HCV treatment in prisons. However, the extent of coverage of these treatment programs varies widely. Two countries (8%) have NSPs officially available in prisons in all parts of the country. Eleven countries (44%) provide OST in prisons in all parts of the country without additional requirements. Despite the existence of evidence-based recommendations, infectious disease prevention measures such as harm reduction programs are inadequate in European prison settings. Harm reduction, HCV testing/screening, and treatment should be scaled up in prison settings in order to progress towards eliminating HCV as a public health threat.

  17. Factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Abbas; Soivong, Pratum; Lasuka, Duangruedee; Juntasopeepun, Phanida

    2017-12-01

    This cross-sectional design study aimed to describe quality of life and examine factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 280 older adults from ten villages in two southern districts. The results demonstrate that the majority of the participants reported an overall moderate score of quality of life. Moreover, participants' sleep problems, depression, religiosity, and activities of daily living were negatively correlated with quality of life whereas social support and health service availability were positively correlated with quality of life. Implementing intervention programs upon the significant related factors to improve older adults' quality of life is recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Suicide Ideation: Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Survey of Working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Witt, Katrina; LaMontagne, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial working factors such as job control, job demands, job insecurity, supervisor support, and workplace bullying as risk factors for suicide ideation. We used a logistic analytic approach to assess risk factors for thoughts of suicide in a cross-sectional sample of working Australians. Potential predictors included psychosocial job stressors (described above); we also controlled for age, gender, occupational skill level, and psychological distress. We found that workplace bullying or harassment was associated with 1.54 greater odds of suicide ideation (95% confidence interval 1.64 to 2.05) in the model including psychological distress. Results also suggest that higher job control and security were associated with lower odds of suicide ideation. These results suggest the need for organizational level intervention to address psychosocial job stressors, including bullying.

  19. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  20. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Feasibility online survey to estimate physical activity level among the students studying professional courses: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Bhumika; Samuel, Asir John; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the physical activity (PA) level among the professional college students in North India. One hundred three professional college students in the age group of 18-25 years were recruited by simple random sampling for this cross-sectional online survey. The survey was advertised on the social networking sites (Facebook, WhatsApp) through a link www.surveymonkey.com/r/MG-588BY. A Short Form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for this survey study. The questionnaire included total 8 questions on the basis of previous 7 days. The questionnaire consists of 3 main categories which were vigorous, moderate and high PA. Time spent in each activity level was multiplied with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), which has previously set to 8.0 for vigorous activity, 4.0 for moderate activity, 3.3 for walking, and 1.5 for sitting. By multiplying MET with number of days and minutes performed weekly, amount of each activity level was calculated and measured as MET-min/wk. Further by adding MET minutes for each activity level, total MET-min/wk was calculated. Total number of 100 students participated in this study, and it was shown that all professional course students show different levels in PA. The total PA level among professional college students, which includes, physiotherapy, dental, medical, nursing, lab technician, pharmacy, management, law, engineering, were 434.4 (0-7,866), 170.3 (0-1,129), 87.7 (0-445), 102.8 (0-180), 469 (0-1,164), 0 (0-0), 645 (0-1,836), 337 (0-1,890), 396 (0-968) MET-min/wk respectively. PA levels among professional college students in North India have been established.

  2. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  3. The relationship between workplace learning and midwives' and nurses' self-reported competence: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Masako; Sato, Yoko; Niitani, Mayumi; Uemura, Chizuru

    2015-12-01

    Nurses have to maintain and improve their nursing competence in order to provide the best patient care possible. Workplace learning has the potential to improve nursing competence. Previous studies have examined the effect of training on competence development. However, the effects of other aspects of learning, such as learning from practice, feedback, reflection, and from others have not been investigated previously. Furthermore, it is uncertain what methods of learning nurses with different clinical experience adopt and how these learning methods relate to their self-reported competence. The objectives of this study were to identify the methods of learning used by less and more experienced nurses, and to explore what methods of workplace learning would be associated with the self-reported competence of both groups of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was utilised. The study was conducted at two university-affiliated hospitals in Japan. A convenience sample of 954 nurses/midwives (hereafter referred to as nurses), who were involved in direct patient care, were recruited and 494 nurses returned usable questionnaires. A survey method was used to collect data. The Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, the Learning Experience Scale and the Japanese version of Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, along with demographic questions, were included in the questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between learning and nurses' self-evaluation of competence. This analysis was carried out for less experienced nurses (≤5 years of clinical experience) and experienced nurses (>5 years of experience). The results showed that learning was correlated with the levels of competence that nurses considered they had. When the specific types of learning were examined in relation to self-reported competence, there were a similarity and differences between less and more experienced nurses. For both groups of nurses, learning through

  4. Measurement of the High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross Section and Limits on Quark-Electron Compositeness Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, S.; Mostafa, M.; Piegaia, R.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Motta, H. da; Oliveira, E.; Santoro, A.; Lima, J.G.; Oguri, V.; Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Ducros, Y.; Beri, S.B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kohli, J.M.; Singh, J.B.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Acharya, B.S.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.R.; Gupta, A.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Mondal, N.K.; Narasimham, V.S.; Parua, N.; Shankar, H.C.; Park, Y.M.; Choi, S.; Kim, S.K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Pawlik, B.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Belyaev, A.; Dudko, L.V.; Ermolov, P.; Karmanov, D.; Leflat, A.; Manankov, V.; Merkin, M.; Shabalina, E.; Abramov, V.; Babintsev, V.V.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bojko, N.I.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Denisov, S.P.; Dyshkant, A.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Galyaev, A.N.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Mayorov, A.A.; Babukhadia, L.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Aihara, H.; Barberis, E.; Clark, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Drell-Yan cross section at high dielectron invariant mass using 120 pb -1 of data collected in p bar p collisions at √ (s) =1.8 TeV by the D0 Collaboration during 1992 - 1996. No deviation from standard model expectations is observed. We use the data to set limits on the quark-electron compositeness scale. The 95% confidence level lower limits on the compositeness scale vary between 3.3 and 6.1thinspthinspTeV depending on the assumed form of the effective contact interaction. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. The Physician Attrition Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Risk Factors for Reduced Job Satisfaction Among US Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theresa N; Pearcy, Chris P; Khorgami, Zhamak; Agrawal, Vaidehi; Taubman, Kevin E; Truitt, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    A physician shortage is on the horizon, and surgeons are particularly vulnerable due to attrition. Reduced job satisfaction leads to increased job turnover and earlier retirement. The purpose of this study is to delineate the risk factors that contribute to reduced job satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of US surgeons was conducted from September 2016 to May 2017. Screening for job satisfaction was performed using the abridged Job in General scale. Respondents were grouped into more and less satisfied using the median split. Twenty-five potential risk factors were examined that included demographic, occupational, psychological, wellness, and work-environment variables. Overall, 993 respondents were grouped into more satisfied (n = 502) and less satisfied (n = 491) cohorts. Of the demographic variables, female gender and younger age were associated with decreased job satisfaction (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008). Most occupational variables (specialty, experience, academics, practice size, payment model) were not significant. However, increased average hours worked correlated with less satisfaction (p = 0.008). Posttraumatic stress disorder, burnout, wellness, all eight work-environment variables, and unhappiness with career choice were linked to reduced job satisfaction (p = 0.001). A surgeon shortage has serious implications for health care. Job satisfaction is associated with physician retention. Our results suggest women and younger surgeons may be at increased risk for job dissatisfaction. Targeted work-environment interventions to reduce work-hours, improve hospital culture, and provide adequate financial reimbursement may promote job satisfaction and wellness.

  6. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iori Kisu

    Full Text Available Uterus transplantation (UTx is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility.A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old, after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening.Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8% and mothers (19.0% were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4% and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0% as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against.Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy.

  7. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Soeda, Etsuko; Kurihara, Yuki; Okushima, Miho; Yamaguchi, Ami; Nakagawa, Eriko; Umene, Kiyoko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility. A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old), after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening. Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8%) and mothers (19.0%) were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4%) and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0%) as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against. Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy.

  8. Alcohol and other substance use among medical and law students at a UK university: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogowicz, Paul; Ferguson, Jennifer; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kamali, Farhad; Kaner, Eileen; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2018-03-01

    To examine the use of alcohol and other substances among medical and law students at a UK university. Anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey of first, second and final year medical and law students at a single UK university. 1242 of 1577 (78.8%) eligible students completed the questionnaire. Over half of first and second year medical students (first year 53.1%, second year 59.7%, final year 35.9%) had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score suggestive of an alcohol use disorder (AUDIT≥8), compared with over two-thirds of first and second year law students (first year 67.2%, second year 69.5%, final year 47.3%). Approximately one-quarter of medical students (first year 26.4%, second year 28.4%, final year 23.7%) and over one-third of first and second year law students (first year 39.1%, second year 42.4%, final year 18.9%) reported other substance use within the past year. Over one-third of medical students (first year 34.4%, second year 35.6%, final year 46.3%) and approximately half or more of law students (first year 47.2%, second year 52.7%, final year 59.5%) had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety score suggestive of a possible anxiety disorder. Study participants had high levels of substance misuse and anxiety. Some students' fitness to practice may be impaired as a result of their substance misuse or symptoms of psychological distress. Further efforts are needed to reduce substance misuse and to improve the mental well-being of students. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Soeda, Etsuko; Kurihara, Yuki; Okushima, Miho; Yamaguchi, Ami; Nakagawa, Eriko; Umene, Kiyoko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility. Methods A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old), after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening. Results Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8%) and mothers (19.0%) were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4%) and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0%) as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against. Conclusion Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy. PMID:27203855

  10. Postgraduate nurses' self-assessment of clinical competence and need for further training. A European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Finnbakk, Elisabeth; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Roodbol, Petrie; Ward, Helen; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2018-03-01

    Nursing practice requires application of knowledge, skills and values in various combinations and has undergone substantial changes the last decades. An increased focus on inter-professional collaboration and possible new and more independent roles for nurses are described. A variety of programs have been developed in order to educate registered nurses (RN) to meet the changes and demands in health and nursing care throughout the world. The aims were to 1) describe nurses' self-assessment of clinical competence and need for further training, and 2) explore possible differences between nurses in specialist vs master's programs. A cross-sectional survey design was applied. 97 nurses in postgraduate programs from five countries responded (response rate 45%). A revised version of the Professional Nurse Self-Assessment Scale of clinical core competencies (PROFFNurseSASII) was used for data collection. Independent student t-test and regression analyses were carried out. The respondents rated their competence highest in taking full responsibility, cooperation with other health professionals and in acting ethically. Items where they considered themselves needing further training most were competence on medications, interaction and side effects and differential diagnoses. For all items, nurses in master's programs rated their competence higher than nurses in the specialist programs. Nurses in specialist programs rated their need for more training for all items higher than nurses in master's degree programs, and for 47 out of the 50 items these differences were statistically significant. Even though the nurses rated their competence high for important competence aspects such as taking responsibility and cooperation with other health professionals, it is worrying that their need for further training was highest for effects and interaction of various types of medications. Further studies are needed to conclude if and how master's education improves patient outcome. Copyright

  11. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal complaints among dentists in India: A national cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya K Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD had been previously reported to have a high prevalence among dentists in different parts of the world. Aims: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-reported WRMSD among dental professionals in India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 646 dentists (response rate of 82.97% was done using self-administered questionnaire which consisted of 27 items based on Nordic questionnaire for screening WRMSDs. Additional items of the questionnaire were added after preliminary content validation from six experienced dentists. Participant socio-demographic characteristics, work-related physical load characteristics, musculoskeletal symptom characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analysis used: All data were analyzed descriptively using percentiles and association between work-related physical load and WRMSD prevalence was done using Chi-square test. Results: All 536 dentists had at least one work-related musculoskeletal symptom in the previous year with an overall period prevalence rate of 100%. The type of symptoms present were pain (99.06%, stiffness (3.35%, fatigue (8.39%, discomfort (12.87%, clicks/sounds (4.1%, and other neurogenic (20.14%. The regions of symptoms were neck (75.74%, wrist/hand (73.13%, lower back (72.01%, shoulder (69.4%, hip (29.85%, upper back (18.65%, ankle (12.31%, and elbow (7.46%. Number of regions affected were two (82.83%, three (51.86%, four, or more (15.11%. Recurrent symptoms were present in 76.11%. Strong association was noted between sustained work postures and symptom regions for pain in WRMSD. Conclusion: The study found an overall one-year period prevalence rate of 100% for WRMSDs among Indian dentists. Measures for improving education and ergonomic evaluations are indicated on a large scale to prevent decline in work performance and incidence of WRMSDs among Indian dentists.

  12. Job strain: a cross-sectional survey of dementia care specialists and other staff in Swedish home care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Linda; Borell, Lena; Edvardsson, David; Rosenberg, Lena; Boström, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of older persons worldwide live at home with various functional limitations such as dementia. So, home care staff meet older persons with extensive, complex needs. The staff's well-being is crucial because it can affect the quality of their work, although literature on job strain among home care staff is limited. To describe perceived job strain among home care staff and to examine correlations between job strain, personal factors, and organizational factors. The study applied a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were dementia care specialists who work in home care (n=34) and other home care staff who are not specialized in dementia care (n=35). The Strain in Dementia Care Scale (SDCS) and Creative Climate Questionnaire instruments and demographic variables were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including regression modeling) were applied. The regional ethical review board approved the study. Home care staff perceived job strain - particularly because they could not provide what they perceived to be necessary care. Dementia care specialists ranked job strain higher (m=5.71) than other staff members (m=4.71; p =0.04). Job strain (for total score and for all five SDCS factors) correlated with being a dementia care specialist. Correlations also occurred between job strain for SDCS factor 2 (difficulties understanding and interpreting) and not having Swedish as first language and SDCS factor 5 (lack of recognition) and stagnated organizational climate. The study indicates that home care staff and particularly dementia care specialists perceived high job strain. Future studies are needed to confirm or reject findings from this study.

  13. Usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopathic therapists – A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher Max

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent years the market for homeopathic education media has increasingly diversified with old (books, seminars and new media (video-seminars, pc-programs, homeo-wiki and internet-courses. However, little is known about homeopaths’ preferences in using educational media and their requirements of this topic. Aim This survey was designed to gain a better understanding of the usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopaths. Methods 192 homeopathic practitioners (GPs and health practitioners at a educational conference were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire covering the topics “formal education and context of work” (9 items, “homeopathic practise and usage (24 items, “utilization of educational media” (9 items and “favoured attributes for educational media” (11 items. Results Out of 192 homeopaths who attended the conference, 118 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61.5%. For their continuing homeopathic education they predominantly indicated to use books (scale value from 0 = never to 2 = always: 1.72 and seminars (1.54 whereas journals (0.98 and the internet (0.65 were used less often. The most favoured attributes concerning medical education media were reliability (1.76, relevance for clinical practice (1.74 and user friendliness (1.6. Less favoured attributes were inexpensiveness (1.1, graphical material (0.92 and interactivity (0.88. Conclusions The survey illustrates the current situation of medical education media in homeopathy. Although there are parallels to earlier research conducted in conventional GPs, homeopaths are more likely to refer to classical media. New education tools should be designed according to these preferences.

  14. Prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedy, D K; Sidebotham, M; Gamble, J; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, J

    2017-01-09

    The health and wellbeing of midwives are important considerations for workforce retention and quality care. The occurrence and relationships among mental health conditions such as burnout and depression have received little attention. We investigated the prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives. An online survey was conducted in September 2014. Participants were recruited through the Australian College of Midwives and professional networks. The survey sought personal and professional details. Standard measures included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) (Personal, Work and Client subscales), and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The sample was collapsed into two groups according to DASS clinical cut-offs (normal/mild versus moderate/severe/extreme). Effect size statistics were calculated and judged according to Cohen's guidelines. One thousand thirty-seven surveys were received. Respondents were predominantly female (98%), with an average age of 46.43 years, and 16.51 years of practice. Using a CBI subscale cut-off score of 50 and above (moderate and higher), 64.9% (n = 643) reported personal burnout; 43.8% (n = 428) reported work-related burnout; and 10.4% (n = 102) reported client-related burnout. All burnout subscales were significantly correlated with depression, anxiety and stress, particularly personal and work-related burnout with Spearman's rho correlations ranging from .51 to .63 (p stress (22.1%) symptoms. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significant differences between groups with depression (r = .43), anxiety (r = .41) and stress (r = 48) having a medium size effect on burnout. Prevalence of personal and work-related burnout in Australian midwives was high. The physical and psychological exhaustion associated with the different types of burnout were reflected in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Further research is needed to support the personal well-being of

  15. The association of alcohol and smoking with CKD in a Japanese nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayako; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Kuragano, Takahiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol contribute to CKD. Recent cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption attenuates the decline of the GFR and smoking has been previously shown to be associated with CKD. However, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption on CKD is not entirely clear. To examine whether there is evidence to assume that smoking is an effective modifier of the association between CKD and alcohol consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of a population of people who presented for a health checkup under a program that targets the insured population aged ≧40 years using data from the Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. Of the 506 807 participants aged ⩾40 years, 292 013 (57.6%) were included in the present analysis. Outcomes were kidney dysfunction, as an eGFR of smoking might have modified the potential benefits of alcohol to prevent CKD.

  16. Violence against children perpetrated by peers: A cross-sectional school-based survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated with both physical and emotional violence were similar and overlapping, and included exposure to interparental violence, having an attitude supportive of violence against children from school staff, not living with biological parents, working for payment, and higher SDQ score. However, we found that younger age, sharing sleeping area with an adult and achieving a higher educational performance score, were specifically associated with physical violence. On the other hand, being female, walking to school, reporting disability and eating one meal on the previous day, were particularly associated with emotional violence. Interventions to reduce peer violence should focus on family contexts, school environments and those with poor socio-economic status may need extra support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Gender Discrimination among Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeeh Hashmi, Ali; Rehman, Amra; Butt, Zeeshan; Awais Aftab, Muhammad; Shahid, Aimen; Abbas Khan, Sahar

    2013-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and magnitude of gender discrimination experienced by undergraduate medical students, and its repercussions on their academic performance and emotional health. A cross sectional study of 500 medical and dental students studying at a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Majority (78%) of students reported being victims of gender discrimination. Females were the main perpetrators (70.8%).Most common forms were denied opportunities (63%), followed by neglecting students' needs (44.3%), and unethical talk (43.6%). Most common places of gender discrimination were teachers' offices (43.7%) and lecture halls (37.2%). Most of the perpetrators were clerical staff (48%) and professors (43%).Gender discrimination did not affect the academic performance of most victims (62.6%). The most common emotional responses were anger (57.6%), frustration (46.7%) and helplessness (40.3%). 52.4% of students said that gender discrimination still continues and the majority (83.3%) did not report the problem to college authorities. RESULTS demonstrate that gender discrimination is widely prevalent in undergraduate medical education. Females are both the main victims as well as the main perpetrators. In most cases gender discrimination does not affect academic performance but does cause emotional distress.

  18. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, pheadache subtypes (15.1% vs 2.8%, OR 25, pheadache subtypes of different severity (mild, moderate, severe), only mild headache was significantly more prevalent in constipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, pheadache and chronic functional constipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  19. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peihang; Zhang, Xue; Sun, Yihua; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Xing, Kai; Kang, Zheng; Ning, Ning; Fu, Yapeng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2017-01-19

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence ( p gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  20. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence (p < 0.05 for all correlations. Additionally, age, professional title, and occupation were correlated with non-physical violence, which critically affected doctors. Thus, gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  1. Are activity limitations associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in stroke patients? A cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    stroke patients were invited to complete four activity limitations measurements: Barthel Index, mobility velocity, mobility distance, mobility aids and one LUTS measurement: the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire. Of 519 stroke patients, 482 subjects were eligible. Results......Objective. To assess self-reported activity limitations in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify their association with prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby...... time that activity limitations are closely related to LUTS in stroke patients and that rehabilitation should also be directed towards the treatment of LUTS....

  2. Longitudinal Weight Calibration with Estimated Control Totals for Cross Sectional Survey Data: Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) collects information on a sample of individuals in the United States with PhD degrees. A significant portion of the sampled individuals appear in multiple survey years and can be linked across time. Survey weights in each year are created and adjusted for oversampling and…

  3. Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo, Rosauro; Maculuve, Sonia; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Calderón, Enrique J.; Esteva, Cristina; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo; Vieites, Begoña; Friaza, Vicente; Lozano-Dominguez, María del Carmen; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique

    2018-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers attending Manhiça District Hospital upon delivery. Information on maternal risk factors was ascertained. Dried umbilical cord (DUC) samples were collected in filter paper for CMV, B19V and EV detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) to test for CMV by RT-PCR. Maternal blood samples and placental biopsy samples were also obtained to investigate CMV maternal serology, HIV status and immunopathology. Results From September 2014 to January 2015, 118 mothers/newborn pairs were recruited. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 31.4% (37/118). CMV RT-PCR was positive in 3/115 (2.6%) of DUC samples and in 3/96 (6.3%) of NPA samples obtained from neonates. The concordance of the RT-PCR assay through DUC with their correspondent NPA sample was moderate (Kappa = 0.42 and pCMV IgG. RT-PCR of EV and B19V in DUC were both negative in all screened cases. No histological specific findings were found in placental tissues. No risk factors associated to vertical transmission of these viral infections were found. Conclusions This study indicates the significant occurrence of vertical transmission of CMV in southern Mozambique. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the true burden, clinical relevance and consequences of congenital infections with such pathogens in resource-constrained settings. PMID:29538464

  4. Educational and economic determinants of food intake in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional survey

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    Padrão Patricia D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of Portuguese adults (20977 women and 18663 men. Participants were distributed in four categories according to years of education (≤4, 5–9, 10–12, and >12 and income (≤314 euros, 315–547 euros, 548–815 euros, and >815 euros. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the magnitude of the association between food groups and education/income, adjusting for confounders. Results In both genders, the odds favouring milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption, increased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years; the odds favouring wine, and spirits consumption decreased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years. In males, the odds favouring starchy foods and meat consumption decreased significantly with income, while for milk, the odds increased with higher income (those having >815 euros compared to those with ≤314 euros. Conclusions The low and high income groups are or tend to be similar in regard to several food groups consumption, and access to education/information appears to be the key element to a better food pattern as indicated by higher frequency of milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption.

  5. Perceptions and Practices in Parents of Saudi Children with Asthma: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shaheen, Amani; AlFayyad, Isamme; Nofal, Abdullah; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; AlMadaney, May; Heena, Humariya

    2018-02-21

    To acquire more precise data on perceptions and practices adopted by Saudi parents of asthmatic children regarding asthma and its management. A cross-sectional study was conducted through 2015 on 292 parents of children (aged 3-15 years) with asthma visiting the outpatient clinics and the emergency departments (ED) of two tertiary care medical centers in Riyadh city, using a self-administered questionnaire. Out of 292 parents who participated in this study, 60.2% reported that their children had previously difficulty in sleeping at night due to an asthma attack. The majority (70.4%) of parents was worried about adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids, and 58.8% of participants were worried about other inhaler adverse effects, whereas 29.0% believed that their child would develop a dependency on asthma medications. Around 82% reported visiting the pediatric emergency department for asthma treatment and 61.2% of participants reported going to the routine physician follow-up visits. Family income was significantly associated with parental concerns about the adverse effects of inhaled medications and corticosteroids as well as drug dependency (p = 0.044, p = 0.033, and p = 0.001, respectively). One hundred and seventy (57%) of the children used inhaled β-agonists while only 39 (13.3%) were using inhaled corticosteroids. Participated parents had misperceptions regarding the use of asthma medications and thus adopted ineffectual practices in its management. Therefore, to enhance asthma care and compliance in children, it is essential to develop different comprehensive parental education programs.

  6. Work aggravated asthma in Great Britain: a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Lisa; Sumner, Jade; Delic, Julian; Henneberger, Paul; Fishwick, David

    2018-04-12

    Work aggravated asthma (WAA), asthma made worse by but not caused by workplace exposures, can have a negative impact on personal, social, financial and societal costs. There is limited data on prevalence levels of WAA in Great Britain (GB). The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WAA in GB, and to assess its potential causes.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional postal questionnaire study was carried out. A total of 1620 questionnaires were sent to three populations of adults with asthma. The questionnaire recorded; demographic details, current job, self-reported health status, presence of asthma and respiratory symptoms, duration and severity of symptoms and medication requirements. Questions relating to work environment and employers' actions were included, and each participant completed an assessment of health-related quality of life using the EuroQol Research Foundation EQ-5D. There were 207 completed questionnaires; response rates were 6% primary care, 45% secondary care and 71% Asthma UK. This represented a 13% overall response rate. Self-reported prevalence of WAA was 33% (95% CI 24.4-41.6%). In all, 19% of workers had changed their job because of breathing problems. Workers with WAA reported higher levels of work-related stress. Quality of life using the EQ-5D utility index was lower in those with WAA. WAA is a common problem in asthmatics in GB. This result is in keeping with international prevalence rates. Further research could assist the understanding of the most significant aggravants to asthma at work and help define appropriate interventions by workplaces.

  7. Medical Students' Opinions About the Commercialization of Healthcare: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaner, M Murat; Balcioglu, Harun; Vatansever, Kevser

    2016-06-01

    There are serious concerns about the commercialization of healthcare and adoption of the business approach in medicine. As market dynamics endanger established professional values, healthcare workers face more complicated ethical dilemmas in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of medical students to accept the assertions of commercialized healthcare and the factors affecting their level of agreement, factors which could influence their moral stance when market demands conflict with professional values. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three medical schools in Turkey. The study population consisted of first-, third-, and sixth-year students, and 1,781 students participated in total. Students were asked to state if they agreed with the assertions of commercialized healthcare. Of all students, 87.2 per cent agreed with at least one of the assertions, and one-fifth (20.8 per cent) of them agreed with more than half of the assertions. First-year students significantly agreed more with some assertions than third- and sixth-year students. Being female, having mid-level family income, choosing medicine due to idealistic reasons, and being in the third or sixth years of medical study increased the probability of disagreement. Also, studying in a medical school that included integrated lectures on health policies, rights related to health, and health inequities, along with early field visits, increased the probability of disagreement. This study suggests that agreement with the assertions of commercialized healthcare might be prevalent among students at a considerable level. We argue that this level of agreement is not compatible with best practice in professional ethics and indicates the need for an educational intervention in order to have physicians who give priority to patients' best interests in the face of market demands.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of quality of life in colostomates: a report from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoubi Bahar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the complications that colostomies may cause, patient self-assessments of their social, emotional, physical, sexual and functional conditions may help their surgeons to evaluate the impact of their interventions or use supplementary methods to maintain patient functional status or decrease its loss to the minimum level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Quality of Life in Iranian patients with colostomies and to compare the age and gender differences among them. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 to evaluate the quality of life of 96 patients who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer and had permanent colostomies. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancers Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess patient Quality of Life. Results The mean scores for the functional subscales were as follows: Physical Function, 70.9 (±2.2; Role Function, 68.4 (±2.6; Emotional Function, 56.9 (±2.7; Cognitive Function, 68.7 (± 2.6; and Social Function, 64.2 (±3.3. The EORTC questionnaires showed significant differences between males and females. Males had better body image scores. Sexual Function and Sexual Enjoyment were impaired in both males and females, but males had significantly higher scores and better roles in Physical and Sexual Functions. More sexual enjoyment problems in older ages were observed in both males and females. Conclusion Having a colostomy was associated with a high level of emotional and sexual function impairment. The differing challenges between males and females should encourage us to design sex-specific interventions that improve the quality of life in this group of patients.

  9. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

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    Starkuviene Skirmante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the effects of unemployment on mental health.

  10. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  11. Pregabalin Use Among Users of Illicit Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Brendan J; Steinert, Tilman; Jaeger, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    The antiepileptic drug pregabalin is one of the best-selling pharmaceutical products worldwide. There are increasing concerns about its potential for misuse and dependence especially among patients with former or current substance use disorders (SUDs). Our objective was to clarify the extent and pattern of pregabalin use as well as motives and predictors in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with patients on a detoxification ward for illicit drugs at the Center for Psychiatry, Südwürttemberg, Ravensburg in southern Germany from August 2012 until July 2013. We used an extensive questionnaire, part of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and urine samples. Of the 253 participating patients, 56% had used pregabalin at least once. Of these, 92% had acquired it at least in part from illegal sources. The main motives for the use of pregabalin were the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms, the augmentation of other psychotropic substances, and the psychotropic effects of pregabalin itself. Predictors for pregabalin use were opioid and sedative use as well as younger age. The criteria of dependency according to DSM-IV was met by 11% of pregabalin users and 13% of urine samples were positive for pregabalin. Use of pregabalin is common among users of illicit drugs in large parts of southern Germany, with motives for use, acquisition, and mode of use suggesting misuse. The mode of use, especially intake of high doses and concomitant use of other drugs, poses a serious risk to this population, including the development of dependency.

  12. Women's and men's negative experience of child birth-A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2018-04-01

    A negative birth experience may influence both women and men and can limit their process of becoming a parent. This study aimed to analyze and describe women's and men's perceptions and experiences of childbirth. A cross-sectional study of women and their partners living in one Swedish county were recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up two months after birth. Women (n=928) and men (n=818) completed the same questionnaire that investigated new parents' birth experiences in relation to socio-demographic background and birth related variables. Women (6%) and men (3%) with a negative birth experiences, experienced longer labours and more often emergency caesarean section compared to women (94%) and men (97%) with a positive birth experience. The obstetric factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience were emergency caesarean and was found in women (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-10.8) and men (OR 4.5, Cl 95% 1.4-17.3). In addition, pain intensity and elective caesarean section were also associated with a negative birth experiences in women. Feelings during birth such as agreeing with the statement; 'It was a pain to give birth' were a strong contributing factor for both women and men. A negative birth experience is associated with obstetric factors such as emergency caesarean section and negative feelings. The content of negative feelings differed between women and men. It is important to take into account that their feelings differ in order to facilitate the processing of the negative birth experience for both partners. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organisational and individual support for nurses' ethical competence: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikkeus, Tarja; Suhonen, Riitta; Katajisto, Jouko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Nurses' ethical competence has been identified as a significant factor governing high quality of care. However, nurses lack support in dealing with ethical problems, and therefore managerial support for nurses' ethical competence is needed. This study aimed to analyse, from the perspective of nurse and nurse leaders, the level of nurses' and nurse leaders' ethical competence, perceptions of support for nurses' ethical competence at the organisational and individual levels and background factors associated with this support. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was employed. The Ethical Competence and Ethical Competence Support questionnaires were used to measure the main components. Descriptive statistics and multifactor analysis of variance were used for data analysis. The participants were 298 nurses and 193 nurse leaders working in specialised (48%/52%), primary (43%/36%) or private healthcare (5%/7%) in Finland. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. Nurses estimated their own ethical competence to be at an average level, whereas nurse leaders estimated their own competence at a high level. Nurses' and nurse leaders' perceptions of provided support for nurses' ethical competence was not at a high level. The positive agreement percentage related to organisational support was 44% among nurses and 51% among nurse leaders. The positive agreement percentage related to individual support was lower, that is, 38% among nurses and 61% among nurse leaders. University education had a positive association with some items of individual support. Despite the findings that ethical competence was estimated at a high level among nurse leaders, perceptions of support for nurses' ethical competence were not at a satisfactory level. At the organisational level, nurse leaders need to inform of ethical procedures and practices in orientation; encourage multidisciplinary ethics discussions and collaboration; and support

  14. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China.

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    Lingping Zhu

    Full Text Available The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder.A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36-76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder.A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05. Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15 (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.095, p = 0.025 and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228-5.422, p = 0.012 were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001.Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder.

  15. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

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    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  16. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2015-01-01

    For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hairong; Jiang, Anli; Shen, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Given the complexity of caring work, recent studies have focused on the professional quality of life of oncology nurses. China, the world's largest developing country, faces heavy burdens of care for cancer patients. Chinese oncology nurses may be encountering the negative side of their professional life. However, studies in this field are scarce, and little is known about the prevalence and predictors of oncology nurses' professional quality of life. To describe and explore the prevalence of predictors of professional quality of life (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction) among Chinese oncology nurses under the guidance of two theoretical models. A cross-sectional design with a survey. Ten tertiary hospitals and five secondary hospitals in Shanghai, China. A convenience and cluster sample of 669 oncology nurses was used. All of the nurses worked in oncology departments and had over 1 year of oncology nursing experience. Of the selected nurses, 650 returned valid questionnaires that were used for statistical analyses. The participants completed the demographic and work-related questionnaire, the Chinese version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale for Nurses, the Chinese version of the Jefferson Scales of Empathy, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory brief version. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the predictors of the main research variables. Higher compassion fatigue and burnout were found among oncology nurses who had more years of nursing experience, worked in secondary hospitals and adopted passive coping styles. Cognitive empathy, training and support from organizations were identified as significant protectors, and 'perspective taking' was the strongest predictor of compassion satisfaction, explaining 23.0% of

  18. Factors Affecting Learning Among Undergraduate Nursing Students: Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Linu Sara George

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing education expects the students to be competent enough to render quality care for their patients in hospital as well as community setting. To reach the level of expected competency, the students must undergo vigorous training during their undergraduate education. The learning experience of the students is influenced by many factors. Aim: To identify the factors, affecting learning as perceived by the students. Materials and Methods: This descriptive survey was conducted among 414 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in selected Nursing Colleges. Background information was collected using Demographic Proforma and the factors affecting learning were identified using Likert Scale. Factors were identified by exploratory factor analysis using extraction method of principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Results: Majority (73.7% of the samples were between 22-25 years of age, 93.2% were females, most (38.9% were studying in the fourth year of nursing, 50% of the students enrolled in the study had chosen nursing as a career due to job security in future, 58.7% students did not spent time every day for their studies and majority (89.1% had English as their medium of instruction in Pre-university college. Factor analysis identified five factors (Learning environment, Supportive services, Teacher characteristics, Learner challenges and Personal factors that affect the student learning. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that perception of students do have an influence on factors affecting learning. The study findings will help the faculty members to bring in changes for the best learning outcome.

  19. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  20. Determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xi; Zhen, Li; Zhu, Mulan; Kuang, Yinyi; Qin, Fang; Ye, Xinmei; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    2017-02-01

    To identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy. Anterior resection with temporary enterostomy is the preferred treatment for patients with rectal cancer, which may impair patients' quality of life. So far, most studies have focused on quality of life in patients with permanent enterostomy, but few studies have looked at that in those with temporary enterostomy. Self-efficacy may determine quality of life in these patients, but few studies have identified determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. Multicentre, cross-sectional survey and regression analysis to identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. A convenience sample of patients undergoing temporary enterostomy at five hospitals in Guangdong Province (China) were surveyed at least four weeks after stoma surgery using validated Chinese versions of internationally recognised questionnaires, including a Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale and the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire. Backward multiple regression analysis was performed to identify whether quality of life was determined by self-efficacy and other clinico-demographic characteristics. Of the 180 questionnaires distributed, 149 (82·8%) were returned, and 135 (75%) were used in the final analysis. Mean global quality of life was 5·40 ± 1·58, and mean global self-efficacy was 79·59 ± 20·21. Significant determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life were identified (β = 0·62, p < 0·01). Quality of life was determined by type of enterostomy (β = 0·18, p = 0·01) and payment method (β = 0·14, p = 0·03). Quality of life may be determined by self-efficacy, type of enterostomy and payment method, after temporary enterostomy. Promoting stoma-related self-efficacy in patients with temporary enterostomy may improve their quality of life. Healthcare providers should focus on quality of life in those either with temporary loop ileostomy or entirely

  1. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-07-05

    In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 +/- 8.8 and 14.2 +/- 9.5 respectively, p unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the

  2. Antecedents of hospital nurses' intention to leave the organization: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea; Manganelli, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Leadership and perceived organizational support inspire trust in the leader and in the organization. Consequently, these aspects may contribute to a reduction in job burnout among nurses and, in the end, of the intention on their part to leave the hospital. It is crucial to develop models in order to simultaneously test the correlations between these relevant psychosocial variables, so that complexity of the nursing work environment may be better understood. We expected to give support to and to further corroborate results in the literature linking perceived leadership style – and particularly servant leadership – perceived organizational support, trust in the leader and in the organization, job burnout among nurses and their subsequent intention to leave the hospital. Cross-sectional study. Two Italian large size public hospitals. Two samples including both graduates and non-graduates members of the nursing staff. Overall mean age was equal to 42.06 years while the general mean for tenure was 12.99 years. Data were collected in 2012. A regression model with latent variables was tested via structural equation modeling using LISREL. The multi-sample procedure was also applied in order to test invariance of results between the two samples. Servant leadership was positively associated with trust in the leader and perceived organizational support was positively associated with trust in the organization. Trust in the leader and trust in the organization displayed a negative correlation with the emotional exhaustion and cynicism factors of job burnout, and a positive correlation with the professional efficacy factor. Furthermore, trust scores mediated the effects of servant leadership and perceived organizational support on job burnout factors. The cynicism factor was negatively associated with intention to leave the organization and it also mediated the effects of both trust in the leader and servant leadership on intention to leave. On the other hand, trust in the

  3. Postnatal care utilization among urban women in northern Ethiopia: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Genet; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Gidey, Gebreamlak; Abrha, Kidan

    2018-05-30

    Postnatal care service enables health professionals to identify post-delivery problems including potential complications for the mother with her baby and to provide treatments promptly. In Ethiopia, postnatal care service is made accessible to all women for free however the utilization of the service is very low. This study assessed the utilization of postnatal care services of urban women and the factors associated in public health facilities in Mekelle city, Tigrai Region, Northern Ethiopia. A facility based cross sectional study design was used to assess post natal service utilization. Using simple random sampling 367 women who visited maternal and child health clinics in Mekelle city for postnatal care services during January 27 to April 2014 were selected. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. A binary and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the outcome variables. P-value less than 0.05 is used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of women who utilized postnatal care service was low (32.2%). Women who were private employees and business women were more likely to utilize postnatal care services (AOR = 6.46, 95% CI: 1.91-21.86) and (3.35, 95% CI: 1.10-10.19) respectively compared to house wives., Women who had history of one pregnancy were more likely to utilize the service (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.06-9.57) compared to women who had history of four and above pregnancies. Women who had knowledge of postnatal care service were also more likely to utilize postnatal care service (AOR = 14.46, 95% CI: 7.55-27.75) than women who lacked knowledge about the services. Postnatal care utilization in the study area is low. Knowledge on postnatal care services and occupation of women had positive impact on postnatal care service utilization. The Mekelle city administration health office and other stakeholders should support and encourage urban health extension workers and

  4. Poor stroke risk perception despite moderate public stroke awareness: insight from a cross-sectional national survey in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Melikoki, Vasiliki; Perifanos, George; Perlepe, Kalliopi; Gioulekas, Fotios; Karagiannaki, Anastasia; Tsantzali, Ioanna; Lazarou, Chrysanthi; Beradze, Nikolaos; Poulianiti, Evdoxia; Poulikakou, Matina; Palantzas, Theofanis; Kaditi, Stavrina; Perlepe, Fay; Sidiropoulos, George; Papageorgiou, Kyriaki; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Vemmos, Konstantinos; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-01

    Although stroke is the fourth cause of death in Western societies, public stroke awareness remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to estimate stroke risk perception and stroke awareness in Greece through a cross-sectional telephone survey. A trained interview team conducted this cross-sectional telephone survey between February and April 2014 using an online structured questionnaire. Participants were selected using random digit dialing of landline and mobile telephone numbers with quota sampling weighted for geographical region based on the most recent General Population Census (2011). Between February and April 2014, 723 individuals (418 women [58%], 47.4 ± 17.8 years) agreed to respond. Among all respondents, 642 (88.8%) were able to provide at least 1 stroke risk factor; 673 respondents (93.08%) were able to provide correctly at least 1 stroke symptom or sign. When asked what would they do in case of acute onset of stroke symptoms, 497 (68.7%) responded that they would either call the ambulance or visit the closest emergency department. Only 35.3%, 18.9%, 17.2%, 20.7%, and 15.0% of respondents with atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and current smoking, respectively, considered themselves as being in high risk for stroke. Stroke risk perception in Greece is low despite moderate public stroke awareness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, K; Bishop, JF; Cross, HL; Chondros, P; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, JD

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 20...

  6. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation ( Z ′ 3 / ) exp [ − Z ′ ( r 1 + r 2 ) ] , Z ′ = Z − ( 5 / 16 ) for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and Z ′ 2 scaling of energies. The scaling law is ...

  7. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  8. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Elmore, PharmD, BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee’s online behavior, and what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee.Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP’s management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would “very likely” or “likely” result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively.Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials.Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation

  9. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Skelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee's online behavior, and what types online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee. Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP's management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would "very likely" or "likely" result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively. Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials. Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation. Additional

  10. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  11. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals' contact with victims of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-08-20

    (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals' knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey. Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential victims of human trafficking, but lack knowledge and confidence in

  12. Job strain: a cross-sectional survey of dementia care specialists and other staff in Swedish home care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg L

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linda Sandberg,1 Lena Borell,1 David Edvardsson,2,3 Lena Rosenberg,1 Anne-Marie Boström1,4,5 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Nursing, Umea University, Umea, Sweden; 4Theme Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Nursing, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Haugesund, Norway Introduction: An increasing number of older persons worldwide live at home with various functional limitations such as dementia. So, home care staff meet older persons with extensive, complex needs. The staff’s well-being is crucial because it can affect the quality of their work, although literature on job strain among home care staff is limited. Aim: To describe perceived job strain among home care staff and to examine correlations between job strain, personal factors, and organizational factors. Methods: The study applied a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were dementia care specialists who work in home care (n=34 and other home care staff who are not specialized in dementia care (n=35. The Strain in Dementia Care Scale (SDCS and Creative Climate Questionnaire instruments and demographic variables were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including regression modeling were applied. The regional ethical review board approved the study. Results: Home care staff perceived job strain – particularly because they could not provide what they perceived to be necessary care. Dementia care specialists ranked job strain higher (m=5.71 than other staff members (m=4.71; p=0.04. Job strain (for total score and for all five SDCS factors correlated with being a dementia care specialist. Correlations also occurred between job strain for SDCS factor 2 (difficulties understanding and interpreting and not having Swedish as

  13. Are elderly people with co-morbidities involved adequately in medical decision making when hospitalised? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiréhn Ann-Britt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical decision making has long been in focus, but little is known of the preferences and conditions for elderly people with co-morbidities to participate in medical decision making. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the preferred and the actual degree of control, i.e. the role elderly people with co-morbidities wish to assume and actually had with regard to information and participation in medical decision making during their last stay in hospital. This study was a cross-sectional survey including three Swedish hospitals with acute admittance. The participants were patients aged 75 years and above with three or more diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and three or more hospitalisations during the last year. Methods We used a questionnaire combined with a telephone interview, using the Control Preference Scale to measure each participant's preferred and actual role in medical decision making during their last stay in hospital. Additional questions were asked about barriers to participation in decision making and preferred information seeking role. The results are presented with descriptive statistics with kappa weights. Results Of the 297 elderly patients identified, 52.5% responded (n = 156, 46.5% male. Mean age was 83.1 years. Of the respondents, 42 of 153 patients said that they were not asked for their opinion (i.e. no shared decision making. Among the other 111 patients, 49 had their exact preferred level of participation, 37 had less participation than they would have preferred, and 23 had more responsibility than they would have preferred. Kappa statistics showed a moderate agreement between preferred and actual role (κw = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.69. Most patients wanted to be given more information without having to ask. There was no correlation between age, gender, or education and preferred role. 35% of the patients agreed that they experienced some of

  14. The association between patients' beliefs about medicines and adherence to drug treatment after stroke: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta

    2013-09-24

    Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. Questionnaires were sent to 989 patients to assess their perceptions about stroke (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Brief IPQ), beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaires, BMQ) and adherence to treatment (Medication Adherence Report Scale, MARS) 3 months after stroke onset. Only patients living at home were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was self-reported adherence as measured on MARS. MARS scores were dichotomised into adherent/non-adherent. Background and clinical data from the Swedish Stroke register were included. 811 patients were still living at home and 595 answered the questionnaire. Complete MARS data were available for 578 patients and 72 (12.5%) of these were classified as non-adherent. Non-adherent patients scored lower on positive beliefs as measured on BMQ-necessity (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.98) and BMQ-benefit (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87), and higher on negative beliefs as measured on BMQ-concern (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21), BMQ-overuse (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.45), and BMQ-harm (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24). The Brief IPQ showed that non-adherent patients believed their current treatment to be less useful (p=0.001). This study showed associations between beliefs of Swedish patients with stroke about medicines and adherence. Positive beliefs were less common and negative more common among non-adherent. To improve adherence, patients' beliefs about medicines should be considered.

  15. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MENSTRUAL CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS AND PERCEIVED BODY IMAGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY OF POLISH FEMALE ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Trambacz-Oleszak, Sylwia

    2016-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of negative body perceptions among adolescent girls and the tendency towards wishing to be thinner have become a cultural norm in Western culture. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to developing a negative body image due to physical and sexual changes occurring during puberty. This study aimed to evaluate the association between different measures of body image perceptions and different phases of the menstrual cycle after controlling for weight status and other potential confounders in Polish adolescent girls aged 12-18 years. Three-hundred and thirty participants of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009, normally cycling and with no eating disorders, completed a background questionnaire and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and their anthropometric measurements were collected. The dependent outcome variables were measures of body image (actual body image, ideal body image and ideal-self discrepancy) and dichotomous body image perception (satisfied versus dissatisfied) adjusted for other predictor factors: socio-demographic variables, menstrual history and cycle phases, and weight status. One-way ANOVA indicated that weight status, age at menarche and menstrual cycle phase were associated with actual body image and rate of ideal-self discrepancy. Ideal body image was associated with weight status and menstrual cycle phase. General logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of body dissatisfaction and all potential predictor variables. The final selected model of the multiple logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination procedure revealed that adjusted for other factors, negative body image was significantly associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle (p trend=0.033) and increasing body weight status (p trend=0.0007). The likelihood of body dissatisfaction was greatest during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.06, 5.32) and among girls in

  16. Are elderly people with co-morbidities involved adequately in medical decision making when hospitalised? A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Anne W; Andersson, Lars; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2011-08-18

    Medical decision making has long been in focus, but little is known of the preferences and conditions for elderly people with co-morbidities to participate in medical decision making. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the preferred and the actual degree of control, i.e. the role elderly people with co-morbidities wish to assume and actually had with regard to information and participation in medical decision making during their last stay in hospital.This study was a cross-sectional survey including three Swedish hospitals with acute admittance. The participants were patients aged 75 years and above with three or more diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and three or more hospitalisations during the last year. We used a questionnaire combined with a telephone interview, using the Control Preference Scale to measure each participant's preferred and actual role in medical decision making during their last stay in hospital. Additional questions were asked about barriers to participation in decision making and preferred information seeking role. The results are presented with descriptive statistics with kappa weights. Of the 297 elderly patients identified, 52.5% responded (n = 156, 46.5% male). Mean age was 83.1 years. Of the respondents, 42 of 153 patients said that they were not asked for their opinion (i.e. no shared decision making). Among the other 111 patients, 49 had their exact preferred level of participation, 37 had less participation than they would have preferred, and 23 had more responsibility than they would have preferred. Kappa statistics showed a moderate agreement between preferred and actual role (κw = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.69). Most patients wanted to be given more information without having to ask. There was no correlation between age, gender, or education and preferred role. 35% of the patients agreed that they experienced some of the various barriers to decision making that they

  17. Cross-sectional survey of Good Samaritan behaviour by physicians in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Garneau, William M; Harris, Dean M; Viera, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the responses of physicians to providing emergency medical assistance outside of routine clinical care. We assessed the percentage who reported previous Good Samaritan behaviour, their responses to hypothetical situations, their comfort providing specific interventions and the most likely reason they would not intervene. Setting Physicians residing in North Carolina. Participants Convenience sample of 1000 licensed physicians. Intervention Mailed survey. Design Cross-secti...

  18. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge qu...

  19. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Álvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students...

  20. Smartphone Usage Patterns by Canadian Neurosurgery Residents: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda-Smith, Michelle Masayo; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Ahmed, Uzair S; Bergeron, David; Bigder, Mark; Dakson, Ayoub; Elliott, Cameron A; Guha, Daipayan; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Tso, Michael; Wang, Bill; Fortin, David

    2018-03-01

    Smartphones and their apps are used ubiquitously in medical practice. However, in some cases their use can be at odds with current patient data safety regulations such as Canada's Personal Health Information Protection Act of 2004. To assess current practices and inform mobile application development, we sought to better understand mobile device usage patterns among Canadian neurosurgery residents. Through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative, an online survey characterizing smartphone ownership and usage patterns was developed and sent to all Canadian neurosurgery resident in April of 2016. Questionnaires were collected and completed surveys analyzed. Of 146 eligible residents, 76 returned completed surveys (52% response rate). Of these 99% of respondents owned a smartphone, with 79% running on Apple's iOS. Four general mobile uses were identified: 1) communication between members of the medical team, 2) decision support, 3) medical reference, and 4) documentation through medical photography. Communication and photography were areas where the most obvious breaches in the Canadian Personal Health Information Protection Act were noted, with 89% of respondents taking pictures of patients' radiologic studies and 75% exchanging them with Short Message System. Hospital policies had no impact on user behaviors. Smartphones are used daily by most neurosurgery residents. Identified usage patterns are associated with perceived gains in efficacy and challenges in privacy and data reliability. We believe creating and improving workflows that address these usage patterns has a greater potential to improve privacy than changing policies and enforcing regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibiotic use as a tragedy of the commons: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kieran S; Blumberg, Seth; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Ackley, Sarah; Sippl-Swezey, Nicolas; Lietman, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Many believe antibiotic use results in a tragedy of the commons, since overuse may lead to antibiotic resistance and limiting use would benefit society. In contrast, mass antibiotic treatment programs are thought to result in community-wide benefits. A survey was conducted to learn the views of infectious disease experts on the individual- and societal-level consequences of antibiotic use. The survey instrument was designed to elicit opinions on antibiotic use and resistance. It was sent via SurveyMonkey to infectious disease professionals identified through literature searches. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. A total of 1,530 responses were received for a response rate of 9.9%. Nearly all participants believed antibiotic use could result in a tragedy of the commons, at least in certain circumstances (96.0%). Most participants did not believe mass antibiotic treatment programs could produce societal benefits in an antibiotic-free society (91.4%) or in the United States (94.2%), though more believed such programs would benefit antibiotic-free societies compared to the United States (P antibiotic use can result in a tragedy of the commons and do not believe that mass treatment programs benefit individuals or society.

  2. The relatives' perspective on advanced cancer care in Denmark. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna T; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten A

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve advanced cancer care, evaluations are necessary. An important element of such evaluations is the perspective of the patient's relatives who have the role of being caregivers as well as co-users of the health care system. The aims were to investigate the scale structure of the ...

  3. Pain as a reason for primary care visits: Cross-sectional survey in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median pain score was eight on a scale of 0-10 (interquartile range: 6-8). Respondents experienced limitations in a number of activities of daily living as a result of pain. Conclusion: Pain is a central problem in public primary care settings in the EC Province and must therefore be a priority area for primary care research.

  4. The casualty chain inventory: a new scale for measuring peritraumatic responses: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandvik Leiv

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritraumatic psychological- and sensory impressions in victims of civilian accidents are only partly understood. This study scrutinizes the level and duration of perceived psychological threat at scene of injury as well as in hospital (the casualty chain measured by the Casualty Chain Inventory (CCI. The purpose of the study was to assess and validate the CCI, and to examine the correlations between the new instrument and stress responses measured by the Impact of Event Scale (IES and the Post-traumatic Stress Scale-10 (PTSS-10 Methods Three hundred and fifteen injured, conscious, hospitalised patients were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. The CCI consists of eight items including sensory impressions and well-known psychological responses to trauma. Results The internal consistency of the CCI was solid (Cronbach's alpha: .83-.85. A factor analysis revealed two components, "perception" and "dissociation". The instrument correlates significantly with the Impact of Event Scale (r = 0.47 - 0.54 and the Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10 (r = 0.32 - 0.50. The explained variance is high both at the scene of injury (61% and in the hospital (65%. Dissociation and perception either used as a two-factor solution or as a sum score measured in the hospital, gave the strongest prediction for later psychological distress. Conclusions The CCI appears to be a useful screening instrument for, at an early state, identifying patients hospitalized after a physical incident at risk for subsequent psychological distress.

  5. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e,2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: mksrific@iitr.ernet.in. MS received 18 June 2004; revised 4 September 2004; accepted 8 October 2004. Abstract. A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (e, 2e) process on helium ..... Education. References. [1] H Ehrhardt, M ...

  6. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. It is based on treating the targets as having one active electron moving in the effective Coulomb field of the atomic core with an effective charge ' = − 5/8. This effective charge is also used in the description of ...

  7. Knowledge of binge eating disorder: a cross-sectional survey of physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina, Dylan; Herman, Barry K; Frye, Carla B; Shillington, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED)--now a designated disorder in the DSM-5--is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED), affecting 2-3% of the US population. This survey of US physicians assesses how BED is diagnosed, treated and referred. Internists, family practitioners, obstetrics/gynecologist (OB/GYNs) and psychiatrists were randomly selected from a nationally-representative panel. Participants completed an online survey and reviewed case vignettes consistent with DSM-5-defined BED, then answered questions to elicit whether they would assess for psychiatric conditions including EDs. Those reporting they would screen and who correctly identified BED in vignettes received additional questions about BED diagnosis, treatment, and referral patterns. Of 278 physicians surveyed, 96% were board-certified and 87% had practiced >10 years. 23% were psychiatrists, 27% family practitioners, 31% internists and 19% OB/GYNs. 92% were 'somewhat likely' to screen for ED after reviewing DSM-5-consistent vignettes. 206 (74%) correctly identified BED. Of these, 33% and 68% reported they proactively screen eating habits for all patients and obese patients, respectively. 10% reported not screening eating habits even in the presence of ED symptoms. Fewer than half reported using DSM criteria in Diagnosing BED, and 56 (27%) did not recognize BED to be a discreet ED. Although ED awareness is improving, understanding BED as a distinct ED is lacking, which may result in low rates of screening and diagnosis. This study illustrates how taking a complete patient history (including probing BED characteristics) may be an effective first-line strategy for clinicians to facilitate optimal care for these patients.

  8. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Alvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations and for administrative procedures. The

  9. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...

  10. CLINICAL REABILITATION OF UPPER LIMB IN CHRONIC STROKE IN PORTUGAL A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 77% of stroke survivors have upper limb dysfunction. The scientific evidence for interventions in upper limb rehabilitation in stroke has shown variable results. To improve health care treatments in this domain it is needed to know what modalities are actually being used by physiotherapists. Methods: A national web-based survey focused in characterizing the profile of Portuguese physiotherapists working in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation was conducted in 237 health institutions (n= 462 physiotherapists. The recruitment was conducted from August to December 2014. Analytic and descriptive analysis were used. Results: A total of 179 physiotherapists from 64 different locations from Portugal answered the survey, with a rate of response of 38.7%. The average age of respondents was 29.25±6.4 years old and predominantly finished the graduation or bachelor degree between 2001 and 2010. More than half hadn´t carried out any specialization in neurologic rehabilitation area. The top 5 modalities most used in the rehabilitation of upper limb in acute stroke are Goal Oriented Tasks (93.4% n=141, Motor Learning (89.4% n=135, Passive Mobilization (88.7% n=134, Task Repetition (87.4% n=132 and Bobath/Neurodevelopmental Therapy (86.9% n=131. Conclusions: The main modalities used for physiotherapists in upper limb rehabilitation in acute stroke have sparse levels of evidence. It is important to alert teachers, formers, physiotherapists and students for interventions with supported scientific results.

  11. Paramedic Learning Style Preferences and Continuing Medical Education Activities: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staple, Louis; Carter, Alix; Jensen, Jan L; Walker, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Paramedics participate in continuing medical education (CME) to maintain their skills and knowledge. An understanding of learning styles is important for education to be effective. This study examined the preferred learning styles of ground ambulance paramedics and describes how their preferred learning styles relate to the elective CME activities these paramedics attend. All paramedics (n=1,036) employed in a provincial ground ambulance service were invited to participate in a survey containing three parts: demographics, learning style assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI), and elective CME activity. 260 paramedics (25%) participated in the survey. Preferred learning styles were: assimilator, 28%; diverger, 25%; converger, 24%; and accommodator, 23%. Advanced life support (ALS) providers had a higher proportion of assimilators (36%), and basic life support (BLS) providers had a higher proportion of divergers (30%). The learning style categories of CME activities attended by paramedics were: assimilators, 25%; divergers, 26%; convergers, 25%; and accommodators, 24%. These results suggest that paramedics are a diverse group of learners, and learning style differs within their demographics. Paramedics attend CME activities that complement all learning styles. Organizations providing education opportunities to paramedics should consider paramedics a diverse learning group when designing their CME programs.

  12. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Canutama Municipality in Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gonçalves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.

  13. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes-Solís Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of

  14. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  15. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  16. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rovsing, HC

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present...... survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22-93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0......-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P

  17. Cultural diversity training for UK healthcare professionals: a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Jovanovic, Ana; Sharma, Pankaj

    2008-10-01

    Healthcare inequalities within the UK based on patients' ethnicity have been found over the last five years in a large number of medical specialties. One possible explanation for this lies in ignorance of ethnic minority healthcare needs among professionals. Cultural diversity programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes including compliance, yet these are not as yet requirements for any UK healthcare professionals with the exception of psychiatrists. This paper documents the frequency, regional variation, characteristics and motivations for cultural diversity training through a questionnaire survey of the educational leads of every UK medical school, postgraduate deanery and schools of nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and pharmacy. The results showed a wide variation in teaching practices between healthcare professions and geographical regions. This study provides evidence for the need for national guidelines to incorporate cultural competency training by all UK healthcare professional training bodies.

  18. Cross-sectional online survey of research productivity in young Japanese nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yumiko; Fukahori, Hiroki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Narama, Miho; Kono, Ayumi; Atogami, Fumi; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Okaya, Keiko; Takamizawa, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the factors affecting the research productivity of young nursing faculty in Japan. An online survey targeting young nursing scholars (aged ≤ 39 years) who were members of the Japan Academy of Nursing Science was conducted from October to November 2012. Of 1634 potential respondents, 648 completed the survey (39.7%), and 400 full-time faculty of a baccalaureate degree program were selected for the analysis. The numbers of English-language and Japanese publications in the past 3 years were regressed onto personal characteristics, such as academic degree and type of university. The mean numbers of publications in English and Japanese in the past 3 years were 0.41 and 1.63, respectively. Holding a doctoral degree was significantly related to a higher number of publications in English and Japanese (e(β) = 5.78 and e(β) = 1.89, respectively). Working at a national university (e(β) = 2.15), having a research assistant (e(β) = 2.05), and the ability to read research articles in English (e(β) = 2.27) were significantly related to more English-language publications. Having the confidence to conduct quantitative research (e(β) = 1.67) was related to a larger number of Japanese publications. The lack of mentoring (e(β) = 0.97) and university workload (e(β) = 0.96) were associated with a lesser number of Japanese publications. The research productivity of young nursing faculty appeared to be quite low. Strategies to enhance research productivity in young nursing faculty, such as encouraging the achievement of a doctoral degree or enrichment of research resources, should be undertaken. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. General practitioners' views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-08

    Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as 'membership organisations' but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had 'ownership' of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  20. General practitioners’ views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Design and setting Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. Method The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. Results While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as ‘membership organisations’ but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had ‘ownership’ of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. Conclusion CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. PMID:28596217

  1. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  2. Probiotic guidelines and physician practice: a cross-sectional survey and overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, K; Ley, C; Parsonnet, J

    2017-08-24

    Probiotic use by patients and physicians has dramatically increased over the last decade, although definitive evidence is often lacking for their use. We examined probiotic-prescribing practices among health care providers (HCP) at a tertiary medical centre and compared these practices to clinical guidelines. HCP at the Stanford Medical Center received a survey on probiotic prescribing practices including choice of probiotic and primary indications. A broad overview of the literature was performed. Among 2,331 HCP surveyed, 632 responded. Of the 582 of these who routinely prescribed medications, 61% had recommended probiotic foods or supplements to their patients. Women and gastroenterologists were more likely to prescribe probiotics (odds ratio (OR): 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.1; OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-10.1, respectively). Among probiotic prescribers, 50% prescribed inconsistently or upon patient request, and 40% left probiotic choice to the patient. Common indications for probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus GG, were prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (79 and 66%, respectively). Probiotics were often prescribed for 'general bowel health' or at patient request (27 and 39% of responders, respectively). Most respondents (63%) thought an electronic medical record (EMR) pop-up would change probiotic prescribing patterns. However, a review of published guidelines and large trials found inconsistencies in probiotic indications, dosages and strain selection. Probiotic prescribing is common but lacks consistency, with choice of probiotic frequently left to the patient, even for indications with some strain-specific evidence. Implementation of EMR pop-ups/pocket guides may increase consistency in probiotic prescribing, although the lack of clear and consistent guidelines must first be addressed with large, well-designed clinical trials.

  3. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Oberoi, Avneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2014 to assess the effect of SES on the oral hygiene habits. The questionnaire included the questions related to the demographic profile and assessment of the oral hygiene habits of the study population. Results: Toothbrush and toothpaste were being used significantly (P oral hygiene practices of the patients from upper and lower middle class was found to be satisfactory whereas it was poor among patients belonging to lower and upper lower class. PMID:29242690

  4. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Oberoi, Avneet

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2014 to assess the effect of SES on the oral hygiene habits. The questionnaire included the questions related to the demographic profile and assessment of the oral hygiene habits of the study population. Toothbrush and toothpaste were being used significantly ( P oral hygiene practices of the patients from upper and lower middle class was found to be satisfactory whereas it was poor among patients belonging to lower and upper lower class.

  5. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  6. Quality of life and well-being of people receiving haemodialysis treatment in Scotland: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraifeen, Ali; McCreaddie, May; Evans, Josie M M

    2014-10-01

    End-stage renal disease is a complex, progressive and debilitating illness that affects patients' quality of life, physical and mental health, well-being, social functioning and emotional health. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in renal dialysis centres in Scotland to assess patients' health status and the impact of haemodialysis treatment on quality of life and well-being. Participants scored considerably lower than the UK general population in all domains of health-related quality of life, although mental health components were nearer to general population norms than physical health components. However, nearly half of the participants achieved a score on a general well-being questionnaire that was indicative of stress and anxiety. Increasing age was associated with better overall mental health but worse physical functioning. Increasing levels of hope and support were associated with improved general well-being. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  8. Use of tobacco and alcohol by Swiss primary care physicians: a cross-sectional survey

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    Künzi Beat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health behaviours among doctors has been suggested to be an important marker of how harmful lifestyle behaviours are perceived. In several countries, decrease in smoking among physicians was spectacular, indicating that the hazard was well known. Historical data have shown that because of their higher socio-economical status physicians take up smoking earlier. When the dangers of smoking become better known, physicians began to give up smoking at a higher rate than the general population. For alcohol consumption, the situation is quite different: prevalence is still very high among physicians and the dangers are not so well perceived. To study the situation in Switzerland, data of a national survey were analysed to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking among primary care physicians. Methods 2'756 randomly selected practitioners were surveyed to assess subjective mental and physical health and their determinants, including smoking and drinking behaviours. Physicians were categorised as never smokers, current smokers and former smokers, as well as non drinkers, drinkers (AUDIT-C Results 1'784 physicians (65% responded (men 84%, mean age 51 years. Twelve percent were current smokers and 22% former smokers. Sixty six percent were drinkers and 30% at risk drinkers. Only 4% were never smokers and non drinkers. Forty eight percent of current smokers were also at risk drinkers and 16% of at risk drinkers were also current smokers. Smoking and at risk drinking were more frequent among men, middle aged physicians and physicians living alone. When compared to a random sample of the Swiss population, primary care physicians were two to three times less likely to be active smokers (12% vs. 30%, but were more likely to be drinkers (96% vs. 78%, and twice more likely to be at risk drinkers (30% vs. 15%. Conclusion The prevalence of current smokers among Swiss primary care physicians was much lower than in the general

  9. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

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    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  10. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ola Bola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. Methods A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. Results 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively. Conclusions Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study

  11. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

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    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  12. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  13. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2011-11-04

    Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively). Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study demonstrated that exposure to inter personal violence within the last

  14. Awareness about medical research among resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional survey

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    Dattatray B Pawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Every medical practitioner should strive to contribute to the generation of evidence by conducting research. For carrying out research, adequate knowledge, practical skills, and development of the right attitude are crucial. A literature review shows that data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices toward medical research, among resident doctors in India, is lacking. Aims: This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among resident doctors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, structured, and pre-validated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: With approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee and a verbal consent, a cross-sectional survey among 100 resident doctors pursuing their second and third years in the MD and MS courses was conducted using a structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The concept of research hypothesis was known to 58% of the residents. Ninety-eight percent of the residents were aware of the procedure to obtain informed consent. Seventy-six percent agreed that research training should be mandatory. Although 88% of the residents were interested in conducting research in future, 50% had participated in research other than a dissertation project, 28% had made scientific presentations, and only 4% had publications. Lack of time (74%, lack of research curriculum (42%, and inadequate facilities (38% were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusions: Although resident doctors demonstrated a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude toward research, it did not translate into practice for most of them. There is a need to improve the existing medical education system to foster research culture among resident doctors

  15. School nurse experiences with prescription opioids in urban and rural schools: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison-Sharp, Ella; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the use of prescription opioids in schools. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the context within which school nurses encounter student opioid prescriptions; (2) assess school nurses' preferences for training and student education; and (3) explore urban-rural differences in school nurses' experiences and training preferences. A convenience sample of school nurses (n = 633) from North Carolina and South Carolina participated in a brief, anonymous, online survey. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and statistical tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) were performed to investigate urban-rural differences. Many school nurses (40.3%) had encountered a student with an opioid prescription, but only 3.6% had naloxone available in case of an overdose. Most school nurses (69.9%), especially rural school nurses, believed students would benefit from opioid education (74.9 versus 66.6%, p = 0.03). The majority of school nurses (83.9%) were interested in opioid-related training. Many school nurses encounter students with prescription opioids and would like additional opioid-related training. The potential benefits of providing naloxone access to prevent opioid-related deaths at schools should be explored.

  16. Correlates of sunscreen use among high school students: a cross-sectional survey

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    Coups Elliot J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. Methods The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demographic and individual difference factors, skin protection-related beliefs and outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, sunscreen cues and availability, intentions, and sunscreen use. Our analyses included multiple linear regressions and bootstrapping to test for mediation effects. Results Sunscreen use was significantly associated with female gender, greater skin sensitivity, higher perceived sunscreen benefits, higher skin protection importance, more favorable sunscreen user prototype, stronger skin protection norms, greater perceived skin protection behavioral control, and higher sunscreen self-efficacy. Intentions to use sunscreen mediated the relationships between most skin protection-related beliefs and sunscreen use. Conclusions The current study identified specific variables that can be targeted in interventions designed to increase sunscreen use among adolescents.

  17. Self-stigma by people diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety: Cross-sectional survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Al-Hadi; Musleh, Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated self-attitudes towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. A survey was conducted with 564 people with a schizophrenia, depression and anxiety who are currently being treated at a psychiatric clinic in Amman, Jordan. The research found that stigma towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety was based around three factors: preconceived stereotypes, personal responsibility/blame and the perceived inability of a patient to recover. Schizophrenia, in particular, was linked more strongly to negative stereotypes and an inability to recover and less associated to personal responsibility/blame in comparison to depression and anxiety. Three identical stigma factors emerged for each diagnosis which reflected themes identified in previous literature. People with schizophrenia are seen as more dangerous and less likely to recover than those suffering from other mental illness. Anxiety was seen most favourably by the self; it was associated with less negative stereotypes and seen as more likely to cure. Interestingly, anxiety and depression were seen almost identically. The self-perception of mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety, have important implications for the planning of anti-stigma and awareness raising programmes. By gaining a thorough understanding of these perceptions and the rationale behind them, it may be possible to develop effective, tailor-made interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sources of Information During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-04-01

    On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired. Between February 7 and 26, 2014, we conducted a survey of 690 adult residents of West Virginia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable statistical models were performed. Information about water contamination spread quickly, with 88% of respondents from the affected counties hearing about the incident on the same day it occurred. Most people received the information from local television news (73%); social media users had 120% increased odds of knowing about the recommended behaviors. People who had a favorable opinion of the source of information demonstrated better knowledge of recommended behaviors. The use of local television news during a crisis is important for timely dissemination of information. Information exposure across segments of the population differed on the basis of the population's background characteristics. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:196-206).

  19. Evaluating the late career nurse initiative: a cross-sectional survey of senior nurses in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Jeffs, Lianne; Rizk, Paul; Laporte, Daniel R; Chilcote, Autumn Marie; Bai, Yu Qing

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the late career nurse initiative on nurse perceptions of their work environment, workplace burnout, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to remain. The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care introduced the late career nurse initiative with the goal of improving the retention of front-line nurses aged 55 and over by implementing a 0.20 full-time equivalent reduction of physically or psychologically demanding duties, enabling nurses to engage in special projects for the improvement of their organisations and patient care. A sample of 902 nurses aged 55 and over from acute and long-term care facilities were surveyed using valid and reliable questionnaires. Nurses who had participated in the initiative did not differ significantly from those who had not in terms of workplace burnout, job satisfaction, length of service or intention to remain within their current organisation. The late career nurse initiative participants reported significantly higher perceptions of managers' ability, leadership and support and their level of participation in hospital affairs. The late career nurse initiative was associated with perceived differences in nurses' work environment but not outcomes. Leaders need to pay attention to how late career nurses are selected and matched to organisational projects. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice. ©Shih Gipson, John Torous, Robert Boland, Erich Conrad. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 01.11.2017.

  1. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

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    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  2. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

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    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  3. Nurse managers' perception of night-shift napping: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F; Raeda, AbuAlRub F; Esraa, Aldalqamouni A

    2017-10-04

    Night-shift work often results in sleep deprivation, and this in turn results in fatigue that jeopardizes both nurse and patient safety. Napping is considered a viable deterrent to fatigue, yet hospital administration has been slow to adopt napping. To identify nurse managers' knowledge and approval of napping practices for nurses on night shifts. Nurse managers at nine Jordanian hospitals (n = 129) were surveyed using an Arabic version of a questionnaire previously used in a Canadian study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe results, and a one-way ANOVA was used to determine if relationships existed among nurse manager's approval of napping and nurse demographic characteristics. The majority of nurse managers (61%) knew nurses were napping during breaks. However, the managers reported there was no written policy for napping. A majority thought there were more benefits to napping than drawbacks. Some 55% of nurse managers recognized fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents regarding patient safety, and 40% perceived fatigue to be a factor in staff injuries. This study supports an urgent need for shared responsibility among nursing administration, and bedside nurses to develop evidence-based programs to counteract the effects of nurse fatigue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Physical Activity Levels Among Adults in Uganda: Findings From a Countrywide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guwatudde, David; Kirunda, Barbara E; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Bahendeka, Silver K

    2016-09-01

    Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the percentage of participants meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA recommendations, and the types of intense-specific duration of PA. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to identify factors associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations. Of the 3987 participants, 3758 (94.3%) met the WHO PA recommendations. Work-related PA of moderate intensity, and travel-related PA contributed most to participants' overall weekly duration of PA, each contributing 49.6% and 25.2% respectively. The median weekly duration of all moderate-intensity PA was 1470 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 540 to 2460). Weekly duration of all vigorous-intensity PA was low with a median of 0 minutes (IQR = 0 to 1080). The median daily sedentary time was 120 minutes (IQR = 60 to 240). Factors significantly associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations were body mass index and level of education. PA levels in Uganda are high, mostly achieved through travel and work-related activities of moderate intensity.

  5. The impact of an ostomy on older colorectal cancer patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, N M; Hamaker, M E; Zimmerman, D D E; van Loon, Y T; van den Bos, F; Pronk, A; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Schiphorst, A H W

    2017-01-01

    Ostomies are being placed in 35 % of patients after colorectal cancer surgery. As decision-making regarding colorectal surgery is challenging in the older patients, it is important to have insight in the potential impact due to ostomies. An internet-based survey was sent to all members with registered email addresses of the Dutch Ostomy Patient Association. The response rate was 49 %; 932 cases were included of whom 526 were aged Ostomy-related limitations were similar in the different age groups, just as uncertainty (8-10 %) and dependency (18-22 %) due to the ostomy. A reduced quality of life was experienced least in the oldest old group (24 % vs 37 % of the elderly and 46 % of the younger respondents, p ostomy was observed. Older ostomates do not experience more limitations or psychosocial impact due to the ostomy compared to their younger counterparts. Over the years, impact becomes less distinct. Treatment decision-making is challenging in the older colorectal cancer patients but ostomy placement should not be withheld based on age alone.

  6. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  7. Are People With Chronic Diseases Interested in Using Telehealth? A Cross-Sectional Postal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in telehealth—the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management—as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. Objective This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Methods Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Results Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs

  8. Are people with chronic diseases interested in using telehealth? A cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-05-08

    There is growing interest in telehealth-the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management-as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs, access difficulties, technology

  9. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. Results A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). Conclusions The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse’s knowledge level on phlebotomy. PMID:29187796

  10. Nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2018-02-15

    In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse's knowledge level on phlebotomy.

  11. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  12. Attitude and Intention Regarding Pain Management among Chinese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min

    2017-08-01

    Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing

  13. Beliefs and behavior regarding e-cigarettes in a large cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Couraud

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although e-cigarette use is increasing dramatically, numerous concerns persist regarding toxicity and their role in smoking cessation. We assessed beliefs and behavior regarding e-cigarettes in an adult French population.The 4th French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE 4, was conducted among representative samples of 1602 laypersons (age, 40–75 years from 12 June-10 July 2014, using the quota method. Profile, beliefs and behavior were assessed by phone interviews of the participating lay population with no history of cancer (N = 1463. Tobacco use, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test and e-cigarette use were assessed.E-cigarette users represented 6% of the study lay population. E-cigarette users regarded e-cigarettes as helpful for quitting tobacco smoking and reducing the risk of lung cancer. Current dual users (e-cigarettes + cigarettes were more likely to attempt to quit than current exclusively cigarette smokers (odds ratio, 3.15 [1.74–5.70], and to consider themselves at higher risk for lung cancer (OR 3.85 [2.47–5.99]. They also considered e-cigarette vapor to be less toxic than tobacco smoke in terms of both active and passive exposure.Dual users typically consider themselves at higher risk for cancer and intend to quit smoking. Physicians should be made aware of this specific sub-population for whom e-cigarettes may be a useful trigger in the smoking cessation process. Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use, Lung neoplasms, Pulmonary disease, Risk factors, Smoke

  14. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  15. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  16. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  17. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  18. Antibiotic overusage and resistance: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Konde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most human orofacial infections originate from odontogenic infections and prescribing antibiotics has become a ubiquitous phenomenon. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the inappropriate, indiscriminate, and irrational use of antibiotics leading to antibiotic resistance as a global problem. Objective: The objective of this survey is to compare the antibiotic prescription pattern and the awareness of antibiotic resistance among Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists. Materials and methods: A hundred BDS practitioners and 100 pediatric dentists included in the study were given a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire comprised information pertaining to antibiotic prescription for most common oral conditions, commonly prescribed antibiotics, their dosage, etc. Results: The majority of the practitioners prescribed antibiotics for managing oral diseases. On comparing the prescription patterns between the BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists, there was an overprescription in the BDS group for many conditions, which was statistically significant. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug in both the groups. In the presence of an anaerobic infection, the most preferred drug was a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid with metronidazole. With regard to the duration of antibiotic prescription, 74% BDS practitioners prescribed antibiotics as a 3-day course and 60% pediatric dentists resorted to a 5-day course, which was statistically significant. The awareness regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic resistance was found to be adequate in both the groups. However, there was a general lack of awareness with regard to the guidelines for antibiotic prescribing in both the groups. Conclusion: Practitioners should prescribe antibiotics in accordance with the guidelines to curb antibiotic resistance, an emerging public health

  19. The impact of psoriasis on work-related problems: a multicenter cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sampogna, F; Romano, G V; Merolla, R; Guida, G; Gualberti, G; Paparatti, U D L; Amerio, P; Balato, N; Potenza, C

    2014-12-01

    Psoriasis can have cumulative physical and psychosocial effects preventing sufferers from achieving their full-life potential. Few studies have addressed the impact of psoriasis on work-related characteristics. To evaluate the impact of psoriasis on education prospects and work limitations in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This study was conducted in 29 dermatology centres across Italy. Information was collected by questionnaire during office visits. A total of 787 patients (64% male, aged 50 years) completed the questionnaire. At the time of the survey, mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score and disease duration were 10 and 19 years respectively. Current smokers had higher PASI scores compared to non-smokers (10.8 vs. 9.4, P = 0.02). Plaque psoriasis was the most frequently described (91.2%). Fifty-five percent of patients had limited expectations of career progression. Similarly, in 42% of cases, psoriasis reduced the prospects of improvement in employment status and 35% of patients reported having reduced earning potential. Approximately 60% of patients reported that psoriasis localized to their hands or feet caused work limitations, whilst in about 25%, it caused them to quit their job. Approximately 37% of patients reported having lost between 3-10 work days in the past 3 months due to clinical assessment or treatment. Logistic regression revealed that gender, low standard of education, number of localizations, shame, anger and self-esteem were predictors significantly associated with limitations in work. Moderate-to-severe psoriasis has a profound negative impact on the employment capacity of patients in Italy. Psoriasis also contributes to days lost from work, affects job opportunity, career prospects and revenue potential. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  1. Cross sections and oscillator strengths for electron-impact excitation of electronic states in polyatomic molecules. Application examples of the BEf- scaling model in optically-allowed transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kawahara, H.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-12-01

    Integral cross sections for optically allowed electronic-state excitations by electron impact, are reviewed for polyatomic molecules by applying the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) scaling model. Following the context of the present review, the scaling model originally proposed by Yong-Ki Kim to determine electron-impact cross sections for ionization of atoms and molecules is also summarized briefly for its wide range of applications [Electron-Impact Cross Section Database, NIST, Y.-K. Kim]. The present report not only focuses on the need for the cross-section data, but also elucidates the verification of the scaling model in the general application for atoms and molecules. Since this report is for a data base, it is summarized for data base users by citing (copying) the descriptions in the original papers and the references within those papers in the style of a textbook. (author)

  2. Anxiety and depression: A cross-sectional survey among parents of children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parents of children with cancer are experiencing high levels of psychological distress. Elevated levels of depression and anxiety following the disclosure of diagnosis affect many aspects of parents' health. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess anxiety and depression of parents of Iranian children with cancer. Settings and Design: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 148 parents of children with cancer admitted to a pediatric hospital affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz/Iran. Subjects and Methods: Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to evaluate patients' levels of anxiety and depression. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The study findings showed that the mean anxiety and depression scores were 9.63 ± 3.69 and 8.66 ± 4.59 (range score: 0–21, respectively. Additionally, 41.2% (n = 61 and 32.4% (n = 48 of participants had clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Conclusions: Parents of children with cancer experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Effective interventions are essential to improve the mental health of parents of children with cancer. These interventions may include mental health screening, psychological counseling, and training programs to cope with the problems caused by the child's disease.

  3. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73) who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40) of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively) of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62), whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20). Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the importance of that some healthy

  4. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    East Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with

  5. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straten Annemieke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73 who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40 of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62, whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20. Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the

  6. Nurse perceptions of safety climate in Australian acute hospitals: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Sze-Ee; Morello, Renata; Rifat, Sheral; Brand, Caroline; Barker, Anna

    2017-03-16

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore nurse perceptions of safety climate in acute Australian hospitals. Methods Participants included 420 nurses who have worked on 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) Short Form was used to quantify nurse perceptions of safety climate and benchmarked against international data. Generalised linear mixed models were used to explore factors that may influence safety climate. Results On average, 53.5% of nurses held positive attitudes towards job satisfaction followed by teamwork climate (50.5%). There was variability in SAQ domain scores across hospitals. The safety climate and perceptions of hospital management domains also varied across wards within a hospital. Nurses who had worked longer at a hospital were more likely to have poorer perceptions of hospital management (β=-5.2; P=0.014). Overall, nurse perceptions of safety climate appeared higher than international data. Conclusions The perceptions of nurses working in acute Victorian and New South Wales hospitals varied between hospitals as well as across wards within each hospital. This highlights the importance of surveying all hospital wards and examining the results at the ward level when implementing strategies to improve patient safety and the culture of safety in organisations. What is known about the topic? Prior studies in American nursing samples have shown that hospitals with higher levels of safety climate have a lower relative incidence of preventable patient complications and adverse events. Developing a culture of safety in hospitals may be useful in targeting efforts to improve patient safety. What does this paper add? This paper has shown that the perceptions of safety climate among nurses working in acute Australian hospitals varied between hospitals and across wards within a hospital. Only half the nurses also reported positive attitudes towards job satisfaction and teamwork climate. What are

  7. A lack of information engagement among colorectal cancer screening non-attenders: cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Kobayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NHS Cancer Screening Programmes in England now operate a policy of ‘informed choice’ about participation in cancer screening. Engagement with written information about screening is important to facilitate informed choice, although the degree to which the screening-eligible public engages with the available information is unknown. We examined the association between reading of the standard informational booklet (‘Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' and participation in the nationally organised NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1307 adults who were age-eligible for nationally organised colorectal cancer (CRC; also called bowel cancer in a population-based survey in England in 2014. Respondents were shown an image of ‘The Facts’ booklet and were asked how much of it they had read when they received their screening invitation (‘none’, ‘a little’, ‘some’, ‘most’, ‘almost all’, or ‘all’. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between screening uptake status (‘never’ vs. ‘ever’ and self-reported reading of ‘The Facts’ booklet (dichotomised to ‘none vs. ‘any’, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation-based social grade. Results Overall, 69 % of the sample (908/1307 had participated in CRC screening at least once (‘ever’ screeners. One-fifth of the sample reported that they had read ‘none’ of ‘The Facts’ booklet (22 %; 287/1307, while half reported having read ‘all’ of it (52 %; 680/1307. Reading of the booklet was strongly differential according to screening uptake status: nearly two-thirds of ‘never’ screeners had read none of ‘The Facts’ booklet (63 %; 251/399, compared to less than one in twenty ‘ever’ screeners (4 %; 36/908; adjusted OR = 39.0; 95 % CI: 26.2-58.1 for reading ‘none’ in ‘never’ vs.

  8. [A cross-sectional survey on personality disorder in mental disorder outpatients in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Hong; Xiao, Ze-Ping; Wang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Hai-Yin; Qiu, Jian-Yin; Tao, Ming-Yi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jun-Han; Wu, Yan-Ru; Jiang, Wen-Hui

    2010-08-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors for personality disorder (PD) outpatients attending in for psychiatric and psychological counseling in Shanghai. 3075 subjects were sampled by systematic sampling method from outpatients in psycho-counseling clinics and psychiatric clinics in Shanghai Mental Health Center. Based on DSM-IV criteria, personality disorders were assessed by both questionnaires (personality diagnostic questionnaire, PDQ-4+) and interviews (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis II, SCID-II). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant independent contributor to PD. 71.3% of the outpatients were found having pathological personality by using questionnaire of self rating PD scale. 982 outpatients (31.9%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder by using structured clinical interview. Younger age (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 2.1), single or divorced (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.4 - 1.9), psychological counseling outpatients (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1 - 1.3), mood and outpatients with neurosis disorders (OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.4 - 2.0) were more frequently assigned as personality disorders. Data from logistic regression analysis showed that patients of tender age, not nurtured and raised by their parents, with introvert characters were related risk factors of PD. High prevalence rate of PD was found in this sample of Chinese outpatients, especially in those psychological counseling outpatients with mood or neurosis disorders. More attention should be paid to the recognition and intervention of PD in outpatients with mental disorders.

  9. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: results of use in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-04-14

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the collection of information on

  10. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  11. Association Between Internet Use and Body Dissatisfaction Among Young Females: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Forrest, Jamie I; Kaida, Angela

    2017-02-09

    Recent research suggests Internet exposure, including Facebook use, is positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, especially among girls and young women. Canada has one of the highest Internet access rates in the world, yet no previous study has examined this relationship using nationally representative data. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between Internet use and body dissatisfaction among a national, population-based sample of Canadian females 12-29 years of age. We used cross-sectional data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Body dissatisfaction was measured using a 5-point Likert scale and defined as "very dissatisfied/dissatisfied" with one's body. The explanatory variable was time spent using the Internet per week in the past 3 months, ranging from none/20 hours. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate whether greater Internet use was associated with increasing odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, neutral, or satisfied with one's body, using very satisfied as the referent. Probability survey sampling weights were applied to all analyses. Of 2983 included participants, sampled to represent 940,786 young Canadian females, most were 20-29 years old (61.98%) and living in households with an annual income Can $80,000 or more (44.61%). The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 14.70%, and 25- to 29-year-olds were more likely than 12- to 14-year-olds to be very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their body (20.76% vs 6.34%). Few (5.01%) reported none/Internet use, over half (56.93%) reported 1-10 hours, and one-fifth (19.52%) reported spending >20 hours online per week. Adjusting for age and income, the odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, relative to very satisfied, were greater in the highest versus lowest Internet use group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.03, 95% CI 1.19-7.70). The AORs for this level of body dissatisfaction increased across increasing levels of Internet use, ranging from 0

  12. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim MH; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Background Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. Methods A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. Results In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Conclusions Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. PMID:29748164

  13. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  14. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  15. Patient safety in practical nurses' education: A cross-sectional survey of newly registered practical nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Sears, Nancy; Edge, Dana S; Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane

    2017-04-01

    Practical nurses have experienced an increasing scope of practice, including an expectation to care for complex patients and function on interdisciplinary teams. Little is known about the degree to which patient safety principles are addressed in practical nursing education. To examine self-reported patient safety competencies of practical nurses. A cross-sectional online survey (July 2014) and face-to-face interviews (June 2015). Ontario, Canada. Survey participants were practical nurses newly registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario between January 2012 and December 2013. Interview participants were faculty and students in a practical nursing program in Ontario. Survey respondents completed the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey online. Self-reported competencies in various patient safety domains were compared between classroom and clinical settings. Faculty members were interviewed about educational preparation of practical nurses and students were interviewed to provide insight into interpretation of survey questions. The survey response rate was 28.4% (n=1104/3883). Mean domain scores indicated a high level of confidence in patient safety competence (Nurses of Ontario >2years and in those who obtained their education outside of Canada. Faculty believed their approach to teaching and learning instilled a deep understanding of the limits to practical nurse autonomous practice. Practical nurses were confident in what they learned about patient safety in their educational programs. The high degree of patient safety competence may be a true reflection of practical nurses understanding of, and comfort with, the limits of their knowledge and, ultimately, the limits of their individual autonomous practice. Further exploration as to whether the questionnaire requires additional modification for use with practical nurse populations is warranted. However, this study provides the first examination of practical nurses' perspectives and

  16. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  17. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Altmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  18. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551

  19. The association of dementia with upper arm and waist circumference in seven low- and middle-income countries: the 10/66 cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Clare L; Albanese, Emiliano; Stewart, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Weight loss in dementia contributes to morbidity and mortality but the distribution of anthropometric change and its consistency between populations are less clear. Our aim was to investigate and compare the associations of dementia with waist and upper arm circumference in elders from seven low- and middle-income nations. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of 15,022 residents aged 65 years and older in Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic, China, and India. Dementia was assessed using a cross-culturally validated algorithm, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Associations with dementia and dementia severity (clinical dementia rating scale) were investigated in linear regression models, with fixed-effects meta-analyses used to investigate between-country heterogeneity. Dementia and increased dementia severity were both associated with smaller arm and waist circumferences with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and health status. Associations between dementia/clinical dementia rating and arm circumference were homogeneous between countries (Higgins I(2) 0% and 7%, respectively), whereas those with waist circumference were more heterogeneous (Higgins I(2) 67% and 62%, respectively). Although cross-sectional, our findings are consistent with prospective observations of weight loss in dementia and suggest loss of both muscle and fat-the former being consistent across different settings and the latter being more context dependent.

  20. Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of the pilot study (a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simms Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal impairment (MSI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence studies for MSI in the developing world have used varying methodologies and are seldom directly comparable. This study aimed to develop a new tool to screen for and diagnose MSI and to pilot test the methodology for a national survey in Rwanda. Methods A 7 question screening tool to identify cases of MSI was developed through literature review and discussions with healthcare professionals. To validate the tool, trained rehabilitation technicians screened 93 previously identified gold standard 'cases' and 86 'non cases'. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. A standardised examination protocol was developed to determine the aetiology and diagnosis of MSI for those who fail the screening test. For the national survey in Rwanda, multistage cluster random sampling, with probability proportional to size procedures will be used for selection of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the population. Households to be surveyed will be chosen through compact segment sampling and all individuals within chosen households will be screened. A pilot survey of 680 individuals was conducted using the protocol. Results: The screening tool demonstrated 99% sensitivity and 97% specificity for MSI, and a positive predictive value of 98%. During the pilot study 468 out of 680 eligible subjects (69% were screened. 45 diagnoses were identified in 38 persons who were cases of MSI. The subjects were grouped into categories based on diagnostic subgroups of congenital (1, traumatic (17, infective (2 neurological (6 and other acquired(19. They were also separated into mild (42.1%, moderate (42.1% and severe (15.8% cases, using an operational definition derived from the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

  1. Mammographic surveillance in the follow up of early primary breast cancer in England: A cross-sectional survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood-Haigh, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine current practice in the clinical setting at national and regional level of the use of mammographic surveillance in the follow up of patients surgically treated for early breast cancer. Method: A cross-sectional survey method was employed. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to a random selection of symptomatic breast imaging units representing all the cancer networks in England nationally, and all symptomatic breast imaging units in one cancer network regionally. Questions were designed to determine frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance for patients aged < 50 years and ≥50 years surgically treated by mastectomy or breast conserving surgery and the number of units with protocols based on the risk of local recurrence or development of a new primary breast cancer. Results: The protocols demonstrated a striking diversity in both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance; however the variation was less marked regionally. The duration of mammography for patient's aged ≥70 years surgically treated by mastectomy, demonstrated the greatest diversity (range: 0-15 years). Four protocols had regimes tailored to risk. Conclusion: The introduction of protocols based on risk of development of a local recurrence or new primary could prove cost effective by targeting mammographic surveillance to those who would benefit the most. The survey has demonstrated that a 'post-code lottery' exists for both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance in this patient group indicating an urgent need for evidence based national guidance.

  2. High rate of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenović, Miodrag; Matejić, Bojana; Vasić, Vladimir; Frost, Elizabeth; Petrović, Nataša; Simić, Dušica

    2016-03-01

    Decisions by anaesthesiologists directly impact the treatment, safety, recovery and quality of life of patients. Physical or mental collapse due to overwork or stress (burnout) in anaesthesiologists may, therefore, be expected to negatively affect patients, departments, healthcare facilities and families. To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade public teaching hospitals. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists in 10 Belgrade teaching hospitals. Burnout was assessed using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. The response rate was 76.2% (205/272) with the majority of respondents women (70.7%). The prevalence of total burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals was 6.34%. Measured level of burnout as assessed by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was 52.7, 12.2 and 28.8%, respectively. More than a quarter of the studied population responded in each category with symptoms of moderate burnout. We detected that sex, additional academic education, marital status and working conditions were risk factors for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Ageing increased the likelihood of burnout by 21.3% with each additional year. Shorter professional experience and increased educational accomplishment increased the risk of total burnout by 272%. Burnout rates in Belgrade teaching hospitals among anaesthesiologists are higher than in foreign hospitals. Emotional and/or physical breakdowns can have serious effects when these individuals care for patients in extremely stressed situations that may occur perioperatively. Causes for burnout should be examined more closely and means implemented to reverse this process.

  3. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  4. Specialty satisfaction, positive psychological capital, and nursing professional values in nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young

    2017-10-01

    Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following graduation. This study aimed to identify factors affecting specialty satisfaction in preclinical practice nursing-college students. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. A nonprobability convenience sample of 312 nursing-college students at colleges in Deajeon City, South Korea. The survey questionnaire was distributed to those who agreed to participate. Freshmen and sophomore nursing students (n=312). Participants were 312 students at colleges in Deajeon City. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS/WIN. Positive psychological capital and nursing professional values were positively correlated with specialty satisfaction. Significant predictors for specialty satisfaction included hope and optimism (as components of positive psychological capital), the roles of nursing service and originality of nursing (as nursing professional values), and aptitude/interests and job value (as motives for selecting a major). The findings suggested that nursing students' specialty satisfaction was partially linked to positive psychological capital and professional values. Therefore, the promotion of positive factors should be useful in enhancing specialty satisfaction in preclinical-practice nursing-college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient satisfaction between primary care providers and hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Wang, Pingping; Kong, Xuan; Liang, Hailun; Zhang, Xiumin; Shi, Leiyu

    2016-06-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care between primary care providers and secondary/tertiary hospitals, and to examine its association with socio-demographic characteristics and type of institution, based on self-reported survey data. Cross-sectional survey. Healthcare facilities within Jilin province, China. In total, 993 outpatients and 925 inpatients aged ≥15 years old were recruited. Patient satisfaction with the care experience. Patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care was significantly associated with type of healthcare delivery setting in Jilin, China. Seeking outpatient care from community health centers (CHCs) was significantly associated with a higher ratio of patient satisfaction. Patients of county and tertiary hospitals complained about long-waiting times, bad attitudes of health workers, high expense of treatment, and their overall satisfaction towards outpatient care was lower. In the terms of inpatient care, patients were more satisfied with treatment expense in CHCs compared with county hospitals. CHCs and hospitals face different challenges regarding patient satisfaction. Further healthcare reform in China need to adopt more measures (e.g. increasing quality of primary care, setting up a referral medical system etc.) to improve patient satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. Current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jae

    2014-02-06

    To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.

  7. Mapping the scope of occupational therapy practice in palliative care: A European Association for Palliative Care cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Gail; Morgan, Deidre

    2018-05-01

    Occupational therapists play an integral role in the care of people with life-limiting illnesses. However, little is known about the scope of occupational therapy service provision in palliative care across Europe and factors influencing service delivery. This study aimed to map the scope of occupational therapy palliative care interventions across Europe and to explore occupational therapists' perceptions of opportunities and challenges when delivering and developing palliative care services. A 49-item online cross-sectional survey comprised of fixed and free text responses was securely hosted via the European Association for Palliative Care website. Survey design, content and recruitment processes were reviewed and formally approved by the European Association for Palliative Care Board of Directors. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Setting/respondents: Respondents were European occupational therapists whose caseload included palliative care recipients (full-time or part-time). In total, 237 valid responses were analysed. Findings demonstrated a consistency in occupational therapy practice in palliative care between European countries. Clinician time was prioritised towards indirect patient care, with limited involvement in service development, leadership and research. A need for undergraduate and postgraduate education was identified. Organisational expectations and understanding of the scope of the occupational therapy role constrain the delivery of services to support patients and carers. Further development of occupational therapy in palliative care, particularly capacity building in leadership and research activities, is warranted. There is a need for continuing education and awareness raising of the role of occupational therapy in palliative care.

  8. Implementation of the surgical safety checklist in Switzerland and perceptions of its benefits: cross-sectional survey.

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    Stéphane Cullati

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the implementation of the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC among surgeons and anaesthetists working in Swiss hospitals and clinics and their perceptions of the SSC. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society of Surgery, Switzerland, 2010. Opinions of the SSC were assessed with a 6-item questionnaire. RESULTS: 152 respondents answered the questionnaire (participation rate 35.1%. 64.7% respondents acknowledged having a checklist in their hospital or their clinic. Median implementation year was 2009. More than 8 out of 10 respondents reported their team applied the Sign In and the Time Out very often or quasi systematically, whereas almost half of respondents acknowledged the Sign Out was applied never or rarely. The majority of respondents agreed that the checklist improves safety and team communication, and helps to develop a safety culture. However, they were less supportive about the opinion that the checklist facilitates teamwork and eliminates social hierarchy between caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates that the SSC has been largely implemented in many Swiss hospitals and clinics. Both surgeons and anaesthetists perceived the SSC as a valuable tool in improving intraoperative patient safety and communication among health care professionals, with lesser importance in facilitating teamwork (and eliminating hierarchical categories.

  9. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

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    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. From Learning to Decision-Making: A Cross-Sectional Survey of a Clinical Pharmacist-Steered Journal Club

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    Sherine Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal clubs have been traditionally incorporated into academic training programs to enhance competency in the interpretation of literature. We designed a structured journal club (JC to improve skills in the interpretation of literature; however, we were not aware of how learners (interns, residents, clinical pharmacists, etc. would perceive it. We aimed to assess the perception of learners at different levels of pharmacy training. A cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered online survey was emailed to JC attendees from 2010–2014 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey questions included: introduction sessions, topic selection, JC layout, interaction with the moderator, and decision-making skills by clinical pharmacists. The response rate was 58/89 (65%; 52/54 (96% respondents believed that JC adds to their knowledge in interpreting literature. Topic selection met the core curriculum requirements for credentials exams for 16/36 (44.4%, while 16/22 (73% presenters had good to excellent interaction with the moderator. JC facilitated decision-making for 10/12 (83% of clinical pharmacists. The results suggest that clinical pharmacist-steered JC may serve as an effective tool to empower learners at different levels of pharmacy practice, with evidence-based principles for interpretation of literature and guide informed decision-making.

  11. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

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    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage

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    Raveesha R. Mugali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. Methods The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12–23 months. Results Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%, not aware of the need of vaccination (17%, no faith in vaccination (16%, mother was too busy (15%, and fear of side effects (11%. Conclusion The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  13. Health facility service availability and readiness for intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Naoko Kozuki

    Full Text Available This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care. The survey collected data on availability of equipment, supplies, and medications, and health worker knowledge and performance scores on intrapartum care simulation and actual management of real clients at a subset of facilities. We ran linear regression models to identify predictors of high simulation performance of routine delivery care and management of asphyxiated newborns across all facilities surveyed. Key supplies for infection prevention and thermal care of the newborn were found to be missing in many of the surveyed facilities. At the health center level, 75% had no clinician trained in basic emergency obstetric care or newborn care and 39% had no midwife trained in the same. We observed that there were no proportional increases in available transport and staff at a facility as catchment population increased. In simulations of management of newborns with breathing problems, health workers were able to complete a median of 10 out of 16 tasks for a full-term birth case scenario and 20 out of 30 tasks for a preterm birth case scenario. Health workers who had more years of experience appeared to perform worse. Our study provides a benchmark and highlights gaps for future evaluations and studies as Malawi continues to make strides in improving facility-based care. Further progress in reducing the burden of neonatal and fetal death in Malawi will be partly predicated on guaranteeing

  14. Health facility service availability and readiness for intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Kozuki, Naoko; Oseni, Lolade; Mtimuni, Angella; Sethi, Reena; Rashidi, Tambudzai; Kachale, Fannie; Rawlins, Barbara; Gupta, Shivam

    2017-01-01

    This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care. The survey collected data on availability of equipment, supplies, and medications, and health worker knowledge and performance scores on intrapartum care simulation and actual management of real clients at a subset of facilities. We ran linear regression models to identify predictors of high simulation performance of routine delivery care and management of asphyxiated newborns across all facilities surveyed. Key supplies for infection prevention and thermal care of the newborn were found to be missing in many of the surveyed facilities. At the health center level, 75% had no clinician trained in basic emergency obstetric care or newborn care and 39% had no midwife trained in the same. We observed that there were no proportional increases in available transport and staff at a facility as catchment population increased. In simulations of management of newborns with breathing problems, health workers were able to complete a median of 10 out of 16 tasks for a full-term birth case scenario and 20 out of 30 tasks for a preterm birth case scenario. Health workers who had more years of experience appeared to perform worse. Our study provides a benchmark and highlights gaps for future evaluations and studies as Malawi continues to make strides in improving facility-based care. Further progress in reducing the burden of neonatal and fetal death in Malawi will be partly predicated on guaranteeing properly equipped and

  15. Antiretroviral Drug Use in a Cross-Sectional Population Survey in Africa: NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

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    Fogel, Jessica M; Clarke, William; Kulich, Michal; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Breaud, Autumn; Olson, Matthew T; Marzinke, Mark A; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J; Eshleman, Susan H

    2017-02-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment benefits the treated individual and can prevent HIV transmission. We assessed ARV drug use in a community-randomized trial that evaluated the impact of behavioral interventions on HIV incidence. Samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey after a 3-year intervention period. ARV drug testing was performed using samples from HIV-infected adults at 4 study sites (Zimbabwe; Tanzania; KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto, South Africa; survey period 2009-2011) using an assay that detects 20 ARV drugs (6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 9 protease inhibitors; maraviroc; raltegravir). ARV drugs were detected in 2011 (27.4%) of 7347 samples; 88.1% had 1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± 1-2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. ARV drug detection was associated with sex (women>men), pregnancy, older age (>24 years), and study site (P < 0.0001 for all 4 variables). ARV drugs were also more frequently detected in adults who were widowed (P = 0.006) or unemployed (P = 0.02). ARV drug use was more frequent in intervention versus control communities early in the survey (P = 0.01), with a significant increase in control (P = 0.004) but not in intervention communities during the survey period. In KwaZulu-Natal, a 1% increase in ARV drug use was associated with a 0.14% absolute decrease in HIV incidence (P = 0.018). This study used an objective, biomedical approach to assess ARV drug use on a population level. This analysis identified factors associated with ARV drug use and provided information on ARV drug use over time. ARV drug use was associated with lower HIV incidence at 1 study site.

  16. Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis.

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    Justin Lessler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routine and supplemental immunization activities is usually measured by the administrative method: dividing the number of doses distributed by the size of the target population. This method leads to coverage estimates that are sometimes impossible (e.g., vaccination of 102% of the target population, and are generally inconsistent with the proportion found to be vaccinated in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. We describe a method that estimates the fraction of the population accessible to vaccination activities, as well as within-campaign inefficiencies, thus providing a consistent estimate of vaccination coverage.We developed a likelihood framework for estimating the effective coverage of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys of vaccine coverage combined with administrative data. We applied our method to measles vaccination in three African countries: Ghana, Madagascar, and Sierra Leone, using data from each country's most recent DHS survey and administrative coverage data reported to the World Health Organization. We estimate that 93% (95% CI: 91, 94 of the population in Ghana was ever covered by any measles vaccination activity, 77% (95% CI: 78, 81 in Madagascar, and 69% (95% CI: 67, 70 in Sierra Leone. "Within-activity" inefficiencies were estimated to be low in Ghana, and higher in Sierra Leone and Madagascar. Our model successfully fits age-specific vaccination coverage levels seen in DHS data, which differ markedly from those predicted by naïve extrapolation from country-reported and World Health Organization-adjusted vaccination coverage.Combining administrative data with survey data substantially improves estimates of vaccination coverage. Estimates of the inefficiency of past vaccination activities and the proportion not covered by any activity allow us to more accurately predict the results of future activities and provide insight into the ways in which vaccination programs are failing to meet their

  17. Nasal Obstruction in Children With Cleft Lip and Palate: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Utilizing the NOSE Scale.

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    Zhang, Rosaline S; Lin, Lawrence O; Hoppe, Ian C; Jackson, Oksana A; Low, David W; Bartlett, Scott P; Swanson, Jordan W; Taylor, Jesse A

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for nasal obstruction among subjects with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) utilizing the well-validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) survey. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Cleft Lip and Palate Program, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Patients, Subjects: One thousand twenty-eight surveys obtained from 456 subjects (mean age: 10.10 (4.48) years) with CL/P evaluated between January 2015 and August 2017 with at least 1 completed NOSE survey. Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation surveys completed at each annual visit. Composite NOSE and individual symptom scores. Sixty-seven percent of subjects had nasal obstruction at some point during the study period, with 49% reporting nasal obstruction at latest follow-up. subjects aged 14 years and older reported the most severe symptoms ( P = .002). Subjects with cleft lip and alveolus (CL+A) and unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) reported more severe nasal blockage than other phenotypes ( P = .021). subjects with a history of either posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) or sphincter pharyngoplasty (SP) had significantly higher NOSE scores than subjects with no history of speech surgery ( P = .006). There was no significant difference ( P > .050) in NOSE scores with regard to history of primary tip rhinoplasty, nasal stent use, or nasoalveolar molding. There are more severe nasal obstructive symptoms among subjects older than 14 years of age, with CL+A or unilateral CLP, and with a history of PPF or SP. Future studies utilizing the NOSE are needed to evaluate and address this prevalent morbidity in the CLP population.

  18. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

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    Giovino, Gary A; Mirza, Sara A; Samet, Jonathan M; Gupta, Prakash C; Jarvis, Martin J; Bhala, Neeraj; Peto, Richard; Zatonski, Witold; Hsia, Jason; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna M; Asma, Samira

    2012-08-18

    Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote

  19. Attitudes and perceptions of medical students about family medicine in Spain: protocol for a cross-sectional survey

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    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Ángel Otero

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that family medicine (FM) has become established as a specialty in the past 25 years, this has not been reflected in the inclusion of the specialty in the majority of medical schools in Spain. Almost 40% of the students will work in primary care but, in spite of this, most universities do not have an assessed placement as such. There are only specific practice periods in health centres or some student-selected components with little weight in the overall curricula. Objectives To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical students about FM in the health system and their perception about the need for specific training in FM at the undergraduate level. To explore change over time of these attitudes and perceptions and to examine potential predictive factors for change. Finally, we will review what teaching activity in FM is offered across the Spanish schools of medicine. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Each one of the different analyses will consist of two surveys: one for all the students in the first, third and fifth year of medical school in all the Spanish schools of medicine asking about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes in relation to primary care and FM. There will be an additional survey for the coordinating faculty of the study in each university about the educational activities related to FM that are carried out in their centres. The repetition of the study every 2 years will allow for an analysis of the evolution of the cohort of students until they receive their degree and the potential predictive factors. Discussion This study will provide useful information for strategic planning decisions, content and educational methodology in medical schools in Spain and elsewhere. It will also help to evaluate the influence of the ongoing changes in FM, locally and at the European level, on the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards FM in Spain. PMID:22189348

  20. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

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    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting

  1. Factors associated with Leishmania asymptomatic infection: results from a cross-sectional survey in highland northern Ethiopia.

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    Estefanía Custodio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4-15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%. The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI: 1.15 (1.03, 1.29, 2.56 (1.19, 5.48 and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71 respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI: 2.92 (1.25, 6.81, 2.71 (1.21, 6.07 and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection.

  2. International travel in the immunocompromised patient: a cross-sectional survey of travel advice in 254 consecutive patients.

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    Bialy, C; Horne, K; Dendle, C; Kanellis, J; Littlejohn, G; Ratnam, I; Woolley, I

    2015-06-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the rate of overseas travel in immunocompromised individuals attending appropriate clinics at an Australian tertiary care hospital. We also aimed to characterise health-seeking behaviour prior to travel and investigated sources of pre-travel advice, compared travel patterns and activities between three specific immunosuppressed groups, and examined pre-immunosuppression patient serology. We implemented a cross-sectional survey of patients between February and August 2012. This survey was implemented among three outpatient populations at Monash Medical Centre, an Australian tertiary care hospital. We recruited 254 immunosuppressed adults from three patient populations: human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals, renal transplant patients and rheumatology patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy. No clinical intervention was performed. In the 10 years preceding the survey, 153 (60.2%) participants reported international travel. Of these, 105 (68.6%) were immunosuppressed at the time of travel. These patients were 47.6% male and 60% Australian born. Forty per cent were visiting friends and relatives as part of their travel. Fifty-four per cent of those immunocompromised at the time of travel were going to high-risk destinations. Pathology files indicated that serological screening was frequently not performed prior to immunosuppression in the renal transplant and rheumatology groups. Immunocompromised patients often travel to high-risk destinations with limited or inadequate pre-travel preparations. Doctors caring for the immunocompromised should be aware of travel risks, suitable vaccination protocols and when to refer to specialist travel clinics. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Doctors' personal health care choices: A cross-sectional survey in a mixed public/private setting

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    Chao David VK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among Western countries, it has been found that physicians tend to manage their own illnesses and tend not have their own independent family physicians. This is recognized as a significant issue for both physicians and, by extension, the patients under their care, resulting in initiatives seeking to address this. Physicians' personal health care practices in Asia have yet to be documented. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey was conducted in Hong Kong, China. All 9570 medical practitioners in Hong Kong registered with the Hong Kong Medical Council in 2003 were surveyed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results There were 4198 respondents to the survey; a response rate of 44%. Two-thirds of respondents took care of themselves when they were last ill, with 62% of these self-medicating with prescription medication. Physicians who were graduates of Hong Kong medical schools, those working in general practice and non-members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were more likely to do so. Physician specialty was found to be the most influential reason in the choice of caregiver by those who had ever consulted another medical practitioner. Only 14% chose consultation with a FM/GP with younger physians and non-Hong Kong medical graduates having a higher likelihood of doing so. Seventy percent of all respondents believed that having their own personal physician was unnecessary. Conclusion Similar to the practice of colleagues in other countries, a large proportion of Hong Kong physicians self-manage their illnesses, take self-obtained prescription drugs and believe they do not need a personal physician. Future strategies to benefit the medical care of Hong Kong physicians will have to take these practices and beliefs into consideration.

  4. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator’s personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. Results A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Conclusions Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development. PMID:27731855

  5. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys.

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    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-07-26

    To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P = 0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P = 0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald's 829 v 785 kcal, P = 0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, PKFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices.

  6. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey.

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    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim Mh; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A; Wong, Paul Wc

    2018-05-10

    Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. ©Lucia Lin Liu, Tim MH Li, Alan R Teo, Takahiro A Kato, Paul WC Wong. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 10.05.2018.

  7. Nursing and midwifery use, perceptions and barriers to evidence-based practice: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Margaret; Attawet, Jutharat

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to explore how nurses and midwives obtain, use and embed evidence in everyday practice. The study design was cross-sectional survey method. The setting was one local health district in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. All nurses and midwives working within the local health district, with access to an email account, were invited to participate in the study. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to explore how evidence is obtained, used and embedded within the clinical setting. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages). Pearson's Chi-square tests were used for comparison between groups. There were 204 survey respondents. The findings identified that the majority (n = 157; 76.96%) of respondents obtained evidence primarily from clinical practice guidelines. The majority (n = 149; 73.04%) of respondents reportedly searched databases and used evidence related to general clinical practice. There was a statistical difference (χ = 17.069; df = 8; P = 0.029) when comparing leadership positions and other registered practitioner groups in the frequency of searching for evidence. Most respondents (n = 138; 67.65%) were confident in their ability to change practice on the basis of available evidence. Thematic analysis identified four barriers to sustaining evidence-based practice, which included: the need for time; the need for organizational and management support; the need for educational opportunities and challenges to accessing evidence. The study provided an understanding of how nurses and midwives obtain, use and embed evidence into everyday practice. More importantly, the role of leadership is significant to support a process of knowledge generation, research translation and the implementation of evidence into clinical settings.

  8. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

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    Alsobayel, Hana

    2016-09-12

    Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator's personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development.

  9. Cross-sectional survey of patients' need for information and support with medicines after discharge from hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackridge, Adam J; Rodgers, Ruth; Lee, Dan; Morecroft, Charles W; Krska, Janet

    2017-11-20

    Most patients experience changes to prescribed medicines during a hospital stay. Ensuring they understand such changes is important for preventing adverse events post-discharge and optimising patient understanding. However, little work has explored the information that patients receive about medicines or their perceived needs for information and support after discharge. To determine information that hospital inpatients who experience medicine changes receive about their medicines during admission and their needs and preferences for, and use of, post-discharge support. Cross-sectional survey with adult medical inpatients experiencing medicine changes in six English hospitals, with telephone follow-up 2-3 weeks post-discharge. A total of 444 inpatients completed surveys, and 99 of these were followed up post-discharge. Of the 444, 44 (10%) were unaware of changes to medicines and 65 (16%) did not recall discussing them with a health professional, but 305 (77%) reported understanding the changes. Type of information provided and patients' perceived need for post-discharge support differed between hospitals. Information about changes was most frequently provided by consultant medical staff (157; 39%) with pharmacists providing information least often (71; 17%). One third of patients surveyed considered community pharmacists as potential sources of information about medicines and associated support post-discharge. Post-discharge, just 5% had spoken to a pharmacist, although 35% reported medicine-related problems. In north-west England, patient inclusion in treatment decisions could be improved, but provision of information prior to discharge is reasonable. There is scope to develop hospital and community pharmacists' role in medicine optimisation to maximise safety and effectiveness of care. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Women’s Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones for Maternal and Child Health Support in Afghanistan: Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Yamin, Fazal; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2018-01-01

    Background Growing rates of global mobile subscriptions pave the way for implementation of mobile health (mHealth) initiatives, especially among hard-to-reach populations. Objective This study aimed to determine the perceptions of Afghan women regarding the use of mobile phones for maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in both rural and urban districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants’ demographic profile, mobile phone usage, and perception of respondents toward different aspects of health care delivery via mobile phones. Results Of the 240 participants, 142 (59.2%) owned mobile phones and 220 (91.7%) routinely used mobile phones. Approximately 209 (87.1%) of participants were willing to receive health messages via a mobile phone. Automated voice call was the most preferred method for sending health messages. More than 90% of the women reported that they would like to receive reminders for their children’s vaccinations and antenatal care visits. Conclusions Users’ perception was associated with mobile phone ownership, literacy level, and experience using mobile phones. In the study area, where the literacy rate is low, mHealth was well perceived. PMID:29636317

  11. Women's Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones for Maternal and Child Health Support in Afghanistan: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Fazal; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2018-04-10

    Growing rates of global mobile subscriptions pave the way for implementation of mobile health (mHealth) initiatives, especially among hard-to-reach populations. This study aimed to determine the perceptions of Afghan women regarding the use of mobile phones for maternal and child health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in both rural and urban districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants' demographic profile, mobile phone usage, and perception of respondents toward different aspects of health care delivery via mobile phones. Of the 240 participants, 142 (59.2%) owned mobile phones and 220 (91.7%) routinely used mobile phones. Approximately 209 (87.1%) of participants were willing to receive health messages via a mobile phone. Automated voice call was the most preferred method for sending health messages. More than 90% of the women reported that they would like to receive reminders for their children's vaccinations and antenatal care visits. Users' perception was associated with mobile phone ownership, literacy level, and experience using mobile phones. In the study area, where the literacy rate is low, mHealth was well perceived. ©Fazal Yamin, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Pratap Singhasivanon, Saranath Lawpoolsri. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  12. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  13. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

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    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan.

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    Ayesha Akram

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan.The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection.Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.

  15. Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Copnell, Beverley; Butler, Ashleigh E; Lau, Rosalind

    2018-01-01

    Graduate entry programs leading to registration are gaining momentum in nursing. These programs attract student cohorts with professional, cultural, gender and age diversity. As a consequence of this diversity, such accelerated programs challenge traditional pedagogical methods used in nursing and require different approaches. To date, however, there has been limited research on the learning styles of students undertaking these programs to inform academics involved in their delivery. Kolb's Experiential Learning model has been used widely in a variety of educational settings because it is based on the theory of experiential learning. More recently VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic) model has become popular. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning styles of two cohorts of graduate entry nursing students undertaking an accelerated masters-level program. This was a cross-sectional survey of two cohorts of Master of Nursing Practice students enrolled at a large Australian university. The students were more inclined toward converging (practical) and least toward concrete experience (experiencing) learning styles. The majority of students were more inclined toward kinaesthetic and least toward aural learning style. Findings have implications for academics engaged in teaching graduate entry nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A cross-sectional survey of young people attending a music festival: associations between drug use and musical preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Aitken, Campbell K

    2008-07-01

    Drug use is becoming normalised among young Australian people involved in music sub-cultures. We aimed to determine prevalences of illicit drug use in this population and associations between preferences for different music genres and recent use of particular illicit drugs. A cross-sectional questionnaire of young people (aged 16-29 years) attending a music festival. Of 939 respondents, 46% had used illicit drugs (principally cannabis) in the past month, a significantly higher proportion than among respondents to the 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (18%). Participants who favoured dance/house or rap music were more likely to have used illicit drugs recently than the remainder of the sample, while those who favoured pop or alternative music were less likely to have used drugs in the past month. These data suggest that music festival attendees use illicit drugs more commonly than their age-matched cohort in the general community, and that music festivals venues (particularly those that cater for dance/house and rap) would be appropriate places for interventions to promote safer drug use.

  17. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. The Importance of the Maternal/Self-Role Satisfaction for Reducing Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Riho; Arimoto, Azusa; Naruse, Takashi; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    Women who rear children have two types of roles: the maternal role and the self-role. Previous studies have suggested that maternal role satisfaction is related to anxiety, but the importance of self-role satisfaction in promoting the health of mothers has received less attention. The changing roles of women in society, especially in urban areas, have altered mothers' views of child-rearing. Our primary focus was on the relationship between maternal/self-role satisfaction and anxiety in mothers. To examine this, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in 2011 to 2,342 mothers attending the 18-month health checkup of their children, in 7 cities of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 881 responded (effective response rate = 38.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction were both significantly and negatively associated with anxiety. Thus, self-role satisfaction should be considered alongside maternal role satisfaction in evaluating and reducing anxiety. Health care professionals in community settings should conduct comprehensive assessments of maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction.

  19. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  20. Predicting Oral Health Behavior using the Health Promotion Model among School Students: a Cross-sectional Survey

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    Abdurrahman Charkazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available teeth and T=permanent teeth has been increasing from 1957 to 2015 years in Iran. The current survey aimed to test the power of health promotion model for predicting the oral health behavior among high-school students.  Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 482 high school students in Gorgan city, Iran. Multi-cluster sampling was used to recruit the samples. A researcher-made questionnaire based on HPM was implemented to collect data. To analyze, SPSS-18 and statistical tests, including t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and univariate and multivariate regression models were used. Results: A total of 482 high-school students including 255 (52.9% male and 227 (47.1% with mean age of 16.02 ± 0.5 were investigated. The highest and lowest prevalent positive oral health behavior were tooth brushing (73% and using fluidized oral irrigator (3.6%, respectively. Except for perceived barriers (with negative correlation, all constructs of HBM were positively related to oral health behaviors. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of oral health behavior (β=0.653 (r=0.541, P

  1. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kelleci, Meral; Dogan, Selma

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the job satisfaction, coping strategies, personal and organizational characteristics among nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey design study, 186 nurses from Cumhuriyet University Hospital completed Personal Data Form, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ways of Coping Inventory. Response rate was 74.4%. In this study, it was found that job satisfaction score of nurses showed moderate (mean: 3.46+/-0.56) was found. While nurses mostly used to employ self-confident and optimistic approaches that had already being considered as positive coping strategies with stress, yielding and helpless approaches were employed less than that. While a statistically significant positive relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of Ways of Coping Inventory "self-confident approach" and "optimistic approach", negative relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of the "helpless approach". Organizational and individual nurse characteristics were not found to be associated with job satisfaction. But, job satisfaction of the nurses who is bounded by a contract was found higher than that of permanent staff nurses (pjob satisfaction of Turkish hospital nurses was at a moderate and that of the nurses who succeeded to coping with the stress was heightened. Higher levels of job satisfaction were associated with positive coping strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of coping strategies to nurses' job satisfaction.

  2. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

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    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  3. Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among arab women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Yusra E Elobaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM. Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8% of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. CONCLUSIONS: The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening.

  4. Sexual risk taking among patients on antiretroviral therapy in an urban informal settlement in Kenya: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Ekström, Anna Mia; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Lukhwaro, Abigail; Marrone, Gaetano; Thorson, Anna

    2011-04-18

    Our intention was to analyze demographic and contextual factors associated with sexual risk taking among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Africa's largest informal urban settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a cross-sectional survey in a resource-poor, urban informal settlement in Nairobi; 515 consecutive adult patients on ART attending the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Kibera in Nairobi were included in the study. Interviewers used structured questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics, time on ART, number of sexual partners during the previous six months and consistency of condom use. Twenty-eight percent of patients reported inconsistent condom use. Female patients were significantly more likely than men to report inconsistent condom use (aOR 3.03; 95% CI 1.60-5.72). Shorter time on ART was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use. Multiple sexual partners were more common among married men than among married women (adjusted OR 4.38; 95% CI 1.82-10.51). Inconsistent condom use was especially common among women and patients who had recently started ART, i.e., when the risk of HIV transmission is higher. Having multiple partners was quite common, especially among married men, with the potential of creating sexual networks and an increased risk of HIV transmission. ART needs to be accompanied by other preventive interventions to reduce the risk of new HIV infections among sero-discordant couples and to increase overall community effectiveness.

  5. Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey

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    M G Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Results: Among the 400 respondents, 48.5% were smokers and 45.75% of students were alcoholics. Among smokers, 55.70% were house surgeon students and 23.07% were 1 st year. Significant difference was found in the percentage of tobacco consumption among medical and dental house surgeon students. The main reason for smoking was examination preparation and workload. Among alcoholics, 51.67% were house surgeon students and 21.9% were 1 st year. The main reason for alcohol consumption was to get relief from tensions. Conclusions: Final year students and house surgeons had more influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college. Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students.

  6. Knowledge and perceptions of couples' voluntary counseling and testing in urban Rwanda and Zambia: a cross-sectional household survey.

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    April L Kelley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested.We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT.Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers.Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.

  7. Public awareness and misunderstanding about DrinkWise Australia: a cross-sectional survey of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah J; Jernigan, David H; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone

    2017-08-01

    DrinkWise Australia is an alcohol industry Social Aspects/Public Relations Organisation (SAPRO). We assessed the Australian public's awareness of DrinkWise, beliefs about its funding source, and associations between funding beliefs and perceptions of DrinkWise. A total of 467 adult weekly drinkers completed an online cross-sectional survey in February 2016. Half the sample had heard of DrinkWise (48.6%); of these, the proportion aware that DrinkWise is industry funded (37.0%) was much smaller than the proportion believing it receives government funding (84.1%). Respondents who incorrectly believed DrinkWise receives government funding were more likely to hold a favourable perception of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness and respectability than those who did not believe it receives government funding (75.9% vs. 58.3%; p=0.032). The drinking population is vulnerable to believing that alcohol industry public relations organisations such as DrinkWise are government funded, which in turn is associated with more favourable perceptions of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness, and respectability. Implications for public health: Favourable perceptions of DrinkWise may enhance the industry's ability to delay or dilute potentially effective alcohol control policies. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about DrinkWise's alcohol industry funding alters the public's perception of how credible, trustworthy and respectable the organisation is. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  9. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

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    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of