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Sample records for scaffolded mind higher

  1. We're Losing Our Minds: Rethinking American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Richard P.; Hersh, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America is being held back by the quality and quantity of learning in college. This is a true educational emergency! Many college graduates cannot think critically, write effectively, solve problems, understand complex issues, or meet employers' expectations. We are losing our minds--and endangering our social, economic, and scientific leadership.…

  2. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top......-down' emotion regulation strategy, while others suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'bottom-up' emotion regulation strategy. Current discrepancies might derive from the many different descriptions and applications of mindfulness. The present review aims to discuss current descriptions...... of mindfulness and the relationship existing between mindfulness practice and most commonly investigated emotion regulation strategies. Recent results from functional neuro-imaging studies investigating mindfulness training within the context of emotion regulation are presented. We suggest that mindfulness...

  3. Mindfulness practice as a teaching-learning strategy in higher education: A qualitative exploratory pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jasna K; McCay, Elizabeth; Beanlands, Heather; Schindel Martin, Lori; Martin, Jennifer; Binder, Marni

    2017-03-01

    Students in higher education are experiencing stress and anxiety, such that it impedes their academic success and personal wellbeing. Brief mindfulness meditation and lovingkindness meditation are two aspects of mindfulness practice that have the potential to decrease students' feelings of anxiety and stress, and increase their sense of wellbeing and capacity for compassion for self and for others. To explore how undergraduate and graduate students experience brief instructor-guided mindfulness practice; specifically, on their feelings of stress and anxiety, and their sense of wellbeing. Qualitative exploratory pilot study. Fifty-two graduate and undergraduate students in different disciplines within a community services faculty of an urban university. Brief (five-minute) instructor-guided mindfulness practices were offered over eight weeks at the beginning and end of classes. Participating students were asked to also engage in individual home practice of five to fifteen-minute mindful breathing four to five times a week and to keep a log of their experiences. At end of term, individual and group feedback (N=13) was elicited from participating students. Six of the seven instructors who guided the mindfulness practices shared their experiences of the mindfulness activities. Students reported an increased sense of calm, and a decreased feeling of anxiety. Lovingkindness meditation was mostly perceived as a positive way to close the class. Their instructors also observed that the brief mindful breathing practice at start of class helped students become more grounded and focused before engaging in the course content. Challenges encountered focused on the need to provide more in-depth information about mindfulness, as it relates to higher education teaching-learning contexts, to both students and participating instructors. Implications for education suggest further research that includes fuller experiential training of participating instructors, as well as provision of

  4. Speaking His Mind. Five Years of Commentaries on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    This collection of speeches by Stephen Trachtenberg, President and Professor of Public Administration at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., covers a wide variety of subjects important to higher education. Speeches include: "Reason and Heart Together" (remarks on the occasion of his inauguration as President of the…

  5. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...

  6. The advantage of higher-order theory of mind in the game of limited bidding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerd, H.; Verheij, B.; van Eijck, J.; Verbrugge, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Higher-order theory of mind is the ability to recursively model mental states of other agents. It is known that adults in general can reason adequately at the second order (covering attributions like "Alice knows that Bob knows that she wrote a novel under pseudonym"), but there are cognitive limits

  7. Higher Ratios of Hyaluronic Acid Enhance Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human MSCs in a Hyaluronic Acid–Gelatin Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Pfeifer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs seeded on specific carrier materials are a promising source for the repair of traumatic cartilage injuries. The best supportive carrier material has not yet been determined. As natural components of cartilage’s extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid and collagen are the focus of biomaterial research. In order to optimize chondrogenic support, we investigated three different scaffold compositions of a hyaluronic acid (HA-gelatin based biomaterial. Methods: Human MSCs (hMSCs were seeded under vacuum on composite scaffolds of three different HA-gelatin ratios and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 21 days. Cell-scaffold constructs were assessed at different time points for cell viability, gene expression patterns, production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM and for (immuno-histological appearance. The intrinsic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta uptake of empty scaffolds was evaluated by determination of the TGF-beta concentrations in the medium over time. Results: No significant differences were found for cell seeding densities and cell viability. hMSCs seeded on scaffolds with higher ratios of HA showed better cartilage-like differentiation in all evaluated parameters. TGF-beta uptake did not differ between empty scaffolds. Conclusion: Higher ratios of HA support the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on a HA-gelatin composite scaffold.

  8. Mindfulness in higher education: awareness and attention in university students increase during and after participation in a mindfulness curriculum course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Meppelink, R.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a mindfulness course in the curriculum of international students (n = 104) from 16 different countries at the University of Amsterdam. The curriculum consisted of seven weekly lectures, as well as studying scientific articles on mindfulness research and gaining

  9. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    into a functionally coordinate unit. A genetic scaffolding accounts for the inherited invariance of pattern formation during the embryo’s growth. At higher level, cells behave as agents endowed with the capacity to interpret any scaffolding variation as signs. The full hierarchy of a multi-level scaffolding...

  10. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills through computer-based scaffolding in problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Ju

    This multiple paper dissertation addressed several issues in Problem-based learning (PBL) through conceptual analysis, meta-analysis, and empirical research. PBL is characterized by ill-structured tasks, self-directed learning process, and a combination of individual and cooperative learning activities. Students who lack content knowledge and problem-solving skills may struggle to address associated tasks that are beyond their current ability levels in PBL. This dissertation addressed a) scaffolding characteristics (i.e., scaffolding types, delivery method, customization) and their effects on students' perception of optimal challenge in PBL, b) the possibility of virtual learning environments for PBL, and c) the importance of information literacy for successful PBL learning. Specifically, this dissertation demonstrated the effectiveness of scaffolding customization (i.e., fading, adding, and fading/adding) to enhance students' self-directed learning in PBL. Moreover, the effectiveness of scaffolding was greatest when scaffolding customization is self-selected than based on fixed-time interval and their performance. This suggests that it might be important for students to take responsibility for their learning in PBL and individualized and just-in-time scaffolding can be one of the solutions to address K-12 students' difficulties in improving problem-solving skills and adjusting to PBL.

  11. Higher-order theory of mind in negotiations under incomplete information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Hermanes; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart; Boella, Guido; Elkind, Edith; Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Dignum, Frank; Purvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind refers to the ability to reason explicitly about unobservable mental content such as beliefs, desires, and intentions of others. People are known to make use of theory of mind, and even reason about what other people believe about their beliefs. Although it is unknown why such a

  12. Protein engineering of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with higher interaction with Ca phosphate based scaffold used for osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Shojaei, Sahar; Bahrami, Naghmeh; Mohamadnia, Abdolreza; Shojaei, Pegah; Bahrami, Naeim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the recombinant bonemorphogenetic protein 2 (RHBMP-2) with higher substantively and solubility for use in calcium phosphate scaffolds for better release in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast cells. Using bioinformatics tools, two mutations (p. L10D and p. S12E) were chosen and applied in BMP2 CDS sequence to increase interaction with calcium derived composite. The new recombinant mutated sequence (BMP2mut ) was synthesized and then subcloned to expression vector pBV220. Experimental data regarded functional protein expression in E. coli. Since no modification was made in the active sites of proteins namely β-sheets and α-helixes, not only was there any change in the specific activity occurred in the specific activity of the enzyme in comparison to its commercial counterpart, but also mesenchymal osteogenesis occurred more efficient on biphasic CaP scaffold model. As we hypothesized, use of negatively charged amino acids such as aspartate and glutamate in protein loops increased the interactions of BMP2-Ca2+ and resulted in its slower and more sustained released from CaP scaffolds compare to commercial RHBMP2. Our data suggested that new BMP2mut have greater osteoinductive capacity than RHBMP2 in the same time and dose than RHBMP2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2799-2805, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exploring personality traits, mindfulness and sense of coherence of women working in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research shows that personality traits (PT, mindfulness (MI and sense of coherence (SOC are connected to psychological well-being and of importance to Human Resource Management (HRM.Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the relationship between PT, MI and SOC of women working in South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs.Motivation for study: The study explores the relationships of PT, MI and SOC in women in HEIs to contribute to a deeper understanding of these relationships within the HRM context, particularly with regard to training and development in HEIs.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, survey-based research design was used to address the research objective. Both snowball and convenience sampling were utilised to obtain the sample (n = 125. The sample was derived from the Higher Education Resource Services network. The Life Orientation Questionnaire, Freiburger MI Inventory and Big Five PT Questionnaire were utilised and showed acceptable levels of reliability. Exploratory factor analysis with either a direct oblimin or varimax rotation was used to investigate the factor structure of the questionnaires (λ < 1 were used, because one of the questionnaires had not been used in the South African context before. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Spearman/ Pearson correlations, canonical correlations and multiple regressions were used to determine the relationship between the variables.Main findings: The results showed a significant relationship between the components PT, MI and SOC. It appears that PT plays a significant role in influencing MI and SOC.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how PT, MI and SOC interrelate and need to become aware of the impact of these positive psychological constructs on women in HEIs.Contribution: These findings contribute new knowledge that can be used to create healthy HEIs

  14. The Serenity of the Meditating Mind: A Cross-Cultural Psychometric Study on a Two-Factor Higher Order Structure of Mindfulness, Its Effects, and Mechanisms Related to Mental Health among Experienced Meditators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M.; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. Results The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. Conclusions A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies. PMID:25330072

  15. The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. METHODS: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891 and a Spanish (n = 393 meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. RESULTS: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

  16. The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

  17. Agent-based models for higher-order theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart; Kamiński, Bogumił; Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based models are a powerful tool for explaining the emergence of social phenomena in a society. In such models, individual agents typically have little cognitive ability. In this paper, we model agents with the cognitive ability to make use of theory of mind. People use this ability to reason

  18. Higher-order theory of mind in the Tacit Communication Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, de Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart

    2015-01-01

    To understand and predict the behavior of others, people regularly reason about others' beliefs, goals, and intentions. People can even use this theory of mind recursively, and form beliefs about the way others in turn reason about the beliefs, goals, and intentions of others. Although the

  19. The Learning of Mind Mapping in Higher Education: A Comparative Study Between Universidad de Córdoba and Università di Roma-La Sapienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose Mind Mapping as a technique which enhances holistic learning or whole brain learning in higher education. The dynamics performed in the learning and application of Mind Mapping is part of a participatory approach in the classroom as an element of the learning process. The research approach follows a quantitative methodology. The results reflect the views of students about the learning of Mind Mapping and its effectiveness in the study. The findings indicate that mental maps can be used with any type of material, making it a tool applicable to any university degree course.

  20. The Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence, Mindfulness, and Transformational Leadership among Public Higher Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseke, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, researchers have grown increasingly interested in the effect of spirituality on a person's ability to lead others. The spiritual leadership literature has expanded to include the role of spirituality in particular leadership settings, such as higher education, and within particular leadership types, particularly…

  1. Mindfulness as an Intervention for Recalling Information from a Lecture as a Measure of Academic Performance in Higher Education: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca Iranzo; Egan, Helen; Cook, Amy; Mantzios, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Higher education students experience heightened levels of stress and anxiety, and report experiencing negative thoughts and emotions, which influence information retention and recall. In a randomized experiment, we assigned participants to either a mindfulness meditation or an audiobook listening condition, and recorded the information recalled…

  2. Semiotic scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    implies that genes do not control the life of organisms, they merely scaffold it. The nature-nurture dynamics is thus far more complex and open than is often claimed. Contrary to physically based interactions, semiotic interactions do not depend on any direct causal connection between the sign vehicle......Life processes at all levels (from the genetic to the behavioral) are coordinated by semiotic interactions between cells, tissues, membranes, organs, or individuals and tuned through evolution to stabilize important functions. A stabilizing dynamics based on a system of semiotic scaffoldings...... (the representamen) and the effect. Semiotic interaction patterns therefore provide fast and versatile mechanisms for adaptations, mechanisms that depend on communication and “learning” rather than on genetic preformation. Seen as a stabilizing agency supporting the emergence of higher-order structure...

  3. Conociendo mindfulness [Knowing mindfulness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta Montañés Sánchez; Juan Montañés Rodríguez; Marta Parra Delgado; Raquel Bartolomé Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    ... on the effectiveness of mindfulness in improving the symptoms of people with different physical and psychological problems. Mindfulness is to provide full consciousness to the reality of the present moment with a basic attitude of acceptance...

  4. ?MIND? IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba

    2002-01-01

    The place of mind in the philosophical systems of India is briefly discussed. The philosophies selected are - Vedas, Upanishads, Six systems of philosophies (saddarsanas), Gita and materialistic school of Carvaaka. That mind is of subtle physical nature and that self is postulated as higher than mind in the hierarchy is being pointed out. Mind can be man's own friend to elevate him or his foe debasing him. Modern neuro - science and the ancient materialistic schools do not subscribe to the ex...

  5. The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

  6. Using the Interactive Whiteboard to Scaffold a Metalanguage: Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) can be effectively used to teach higher order thinking skills to primary preservice teachers in the history classroom. The case study finds that skills such as analysis, evaluation and inference constitute a valuable metalanguage that needs to be explicitly taught to preservice…

  7. Conociendo mindfulness [Knowing mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Montañés Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Actualmente, sobre todo en la última década de nuestro siglo, han surgido un gran número de investigaciones sobre la eficacia de mindfulness en la mejora de los síntomas de personas que presentan diferentes problemas físicos y psíquicos. Mindfulness consiste en prestar conciencia plena a la realidad del momento presente con una actitud básica de aceptación. En el presente artículo se realiza una introducción a mindfulness, destacando diferentes definiciones y formas de conceptualizarlo y profundizando en los mecanismos psicoterapéuticos que subyacen a la práctica de mindfulness.Abstract:Currently, especially in the last decade of our century, have emerged a lot of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness in improving the symptoms of people with different physical and psychological problems. Mindfulness is to provide full consciousness to the reality of the present moment with a basic attitude of acceptance. This paper presents an introduction to mindfulness, highlighting different definitions and ways of conceptualizing and deeper into the mechanisms underlying psychotherapeutic practice of mindfulness.

  8. 'Mind' in Indian philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Venkoba

    2002-10-01

    The place of mind in the philosophical systems of India is briefly discussed. The philosophies selected are - Vedas, Upanishads, Six systems of philosophies (saddarsanas), Gita and materialistic school of Carvaaka. That mind is of subtle physical nature and that self is postulated as higher than mind in the hierarchy is being pointed out. Mind can be man's own friend to elevate him or his foe debasing him. Modern neuro - science and the ancient materialistic schools do not subscribe to the existence of self. An integrated approach extending beyond the mind in psychiatric care is suggested. Scientific and technological advances do not necessarily preclude a transcendent (spiritual) dimension to the total care.

  9. Concerning mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1993-08-01

    The nature of the human mind is addressed from a neurological viewpoint. First from reported observations on subjects born blind with congenital cataract, who acquired vision after surgery, the concept of the primacy of somatosensation is developed. Therefrom some principles of the organization of higher sensory functions in the dominant parietal, occipital and temporal lobes are deduced. Sentience is traced to somatosensation. Some characteristics of the mind and of thinking are described. The non-existence of the unconscious is inferred. The question of free will is approached. Using neurological experience it is demonstrated that a good case for operation of a free will is difficult to establish. Positing the absence of a free will may be beneficial in the analysis and management of behavior. Finally the opportunity to study the nature and mechanism of the emotions in clinical neurology is outlined.

  10. Mind the Gap: Privileging Epistemic Access to Knowledge in the Transition from Leaving Certificate Music to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, music at Leaving Certificate level has come under increasing focus in media and higher education discourse as an easy option. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the musical knowledge and skills needed in the transition to higher music education within the Irish context. This paper addresses the perceived gap in…

  11. Minding the Gap? Young People's Accounts of Taking a Gap Year as a Form of Identity Work in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A Gap Year is a break in an educational career, principally taken between leaving school and beginning university. Previous research on the Gap Year has suggested it is a form of social class positioning or forum for undertaking transitions in identity during young adulthood. This paper extends this research into the context of higher education…

  12. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  13. Mind the Gap: An Initial Analysis of the Transition of a Second Level Curriculum Reform to Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, Michael; Faulkner, Fiona; Breen, Cormac; PRENDERGAST, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article details an initial analysis of the transition of a second level curriculum reform to higher education in Ireland. The reform entitled ‘Project Maths’ involved changes to what second level students learn in mathematics, how they learn it, and how they are assessed. Changes were rolled out nationally on a phased basis in September 2010. Students who were taught and assessed through the new curriculum first entered third level education in September 2012. It is important that third ...

  14. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  15. When Traits Match States: Examining the Associations between Self-Report Trait and State Mindfulness following a State Mindfulness Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.

  16. Teaching and assessing mind maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wright

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of literacy interventions in higher education is to develop students’ competencies so they could cope with the literacy demands of their academic studies. One such competency is mind mapping. The literature provides strong arguments that mind mapping provides students with valuable organisational and heuristic tools and offers guidelines on how to draw mind maps. The issue of assessing mind maps is, however, generally absent. This paper explores the characteristics of effective mind maps, their benefits and importance at all levels of education, as well as the issue of whether or not they should be assessed. It seems that too little attention has been paid to the value of mind mapping in higher education; and that the assessment of mind maps requires further debate by those with an interest in creative teaching at tertiary level.

  17. If you know what I mean : Agent-based models for understanding the function of higher-order theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Hermanes Albertus

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people often reason about the goals, beliefs, and intentions of others.¬ When you read a book, for example, you make use of this so-called theory of mind to identify with the protagonist, and understand that this person may have goals that are different from your own. People can

  18. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  19. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguo Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  20. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Yue, Caizhen; He, Weijie; Yu, Jia-yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time. PMID:29081754

  1. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Yue, Caizhen; He, Weijie; Yu, Jia-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept-the "mindful self"-and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one's self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  2. Writing in Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Theiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the “extended mind” thesis, a significant portion of human cog-nition does not occur solely inside the head, but literally extends beyond the brain into the body and the world around us (Clark & Chalmers 1998; Clark 2003, 2008; Wilson 1995, 2004; Rowlands 1999, 2010; Menary 2007, 2012; Sutton 2010; Theiner 2011. One way to understand this thesis is that as human beings, we are particularly adept at creating and recruiting environmental props and scaffolds (media, tools, artifacts, symbol systems for the purpose of solving problems that would otherwise lie beyond our cognitive reach. We manipulate, scaffold, and re-design our environments in ways that transform the nature of difficult tasks that would baffle our unaided biological brains (e.g., math, logic, sequential problem-solving into simpler types of problems that we are naturally much better equipped to solve. A central tenet of the “extended mind” thesis, then, is that “much of what matters for human-level intelligence is hidden not in the brain, nor in the technology, but in the complex and iterated interactions and collaborations between the two” (Clark 2001: 154. Over the past fifteen years or so, the “extended mind” thesis has become a hot ticket in the philosophy of mind. As with all great ideas, the thesis was hardly conceived ex nihilo, but builds on, and re-articulates many earlier strands of thought. Unfortunately, many of those cognate strands have become marginalized in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, and do not receive the amount of attention they deserve. Part of what we hope to accomplish with this special issue is to reverse this trend, and to rekindle the dialogue between the “extended mind” thesis and its historical predecessors.

  3. Scaffolder - software for manual genome scaffolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of next-generation short-read sequencing data can result in a fragmented non-contiguous set of genomic sequences. Therefore a common step in a genome project is to join neighbouring sequence regions together and fill gaps. This scaffolding step is non-trivial and requires manually editing large blocks of nucleotide sequence. Joining these sequences together also hides the source of each region in the final genome sequence. Taken together these considerations may make reproducing or editing an existing genome scaffold difficult. Methods The software outlined here, “Scaffolder,” is implemented in the Ruby programming language and can be installed via the RubyGems software management system. Genome scaffolds are defined using YAML - a data format which is both human and machine-readable. Command line binaries and extensive documentation are available. Results This software allows a genome build to be defined in terms of the constituent sequences using a relatively simple syntax. This syntax further allows unknown regions to be specified and additional sequence to be used to fill known gaps in the scaffold. Defining the genome construction in a file makes the scaffolding process reproducible and easier to edit compared with large FASTA nucleotide sequences. Conclusions Scaffolder is easy-to-use genome scaffolding software which promotes reproducibility and continuous development in a genome project. Scaffolder can be found at http://next.gs.

  4. Calming the Monkey Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliuk, Kendra; Chorney, David

    2017-01-01

    Many of today's students are experiencing higher levels of stress and anxiety in school. The need for competitive grades, the desire to be seen as perfect in a digital society, and parental pressures are only some of the reasons that students are experiencing more stress. This increased stress has lead to an overworked mind for many youth, dubbed…

  5. Mindfulness-Based Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexander R; Klepin, Heidi D; Porges, Stephen W; Rejeski, W Jack

    2016-12-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for cancer survivors, including for those undergoing active cancer treatments. However, to date most evidence has emerged from interventions that have promoted moderate to vigorous physical activity. In this conceptual review, we argue that attention should be given to the entire continuum of physical activity from reducing sedentary behavior to increasing higher levels of physical activity when possible. In addition, considerable evidence in the cancer literature supports the value of mindfulness-based interventions as a means of helping patients and survivors cope with the variety of threats that accompany this disease. Based on the success of these two areas of research, we argue for conceptualizing and promoting physical activity as Mindfulness-Based Movement, using Polyvagal Theory as a theoretical framework to understand the role and value of Mindfulness-Based Movement as a potential intervention for cancer care and control.

  6. Mindfulness meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...

  7. Efter mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....

  8. Mindful Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti Balle

    2012-01-01

    PhD thesis in Health and Social Sciences This thesis is based on the following papers: PAPER 1: Tharaldsen, K. B. ; Bru, E. (2011): Validation of the mindful coping scale. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 16(1), 87-103. URL: http://www.swetswise.com/eAccess/viewAbstract.do?articleID=156339744 PAPER 2: Tharaldsen, K. B. ; Bru, E. ; Wilhelmsen, I. (2011): Mindful coping and mental health among adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 13(2), 21-31. PAP...

  9. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMaiese

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some theorists have argued that cognitive agents engineer their environment to sustain and amply their cognitive abilities, and also that elements of the surrounding world sometimes play a crucial role in evoking and sustaining emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective scaffolding and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily-affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modulation of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, affective scaffolds can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition.

  10. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, pMindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mind Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how an urban renewal project created a playground for the mind, inspiring the study of science, math, and technology. The area's use of its natural surroundings to inspire curiosity and evoke an interest in learning by stimulating the senses is described. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  12. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  13. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  14. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  15. Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review: the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachlos, E; Czernuszka, J T

    2003-06-30

    Tissue engineering is a new and exciting technique which has the potential to create tissues and organs de novo. It involves the in vitro seeding and attachment of human cells onto a scaffold. These cells then proliferate, migrate and differentiate into the specific tissue while secreting the extracellular matrix components required to create the tissue. It is evident, therefore, that the choice of scaffold is crucial to enable the cells to behave in the required manner to produce tissues and organs of the desired shape and size. Current scaffolds, made by conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, are generally foams of synthetic polymers. The cells do not necessarily recognise such surfaces, and most importantly cells cannot migrate more than 500 microm from the surface. The lack of oxygen and nutrient supply governs this depth. Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) uses layer-manufacturing strategies to create physical objects directly from computer-generated models. It can improve current scaffold design by controlling scaffold parameters such as pore size, porosity and pore distribution, as well as incorporating an artificial vascular system, thereby increasing the mass transport of oxygen and nutrients into the interior of the scaffold and supporting cellular growth in that region. Several SFF systems have produced tissue engineering scaffolds with this concept in mind which will be the main focus of this review. We are developing scaffolds from collagen and with an internal vascular architecture using SFF. Collagen has major advantages as it provides a favourable surface for cellular attachment. The vascular system allows for the supply of nutrients and oxygen throughout the scaffold. The future of tissue engineering scaffolds is intertwined with SFF technologies.

  16. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  17. Ascribing minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, I explain how we just "ascribe" "attribute" to social actors--in a fast and automatic way and without complex reasoning--mental representations on the basis of "scripts," "roles," role-signs, tool use and functions, categories and prejudices, and several heuristics; or by default. How scripts and roles must be filled in with the actors' mental attitudes. How social interaction systematically requires assumptions about the other's mind. How sometimes in the subject those mental attitudes are not only unconscious but actually implicit; just potential or tacit (non-activated), or just the non-intended or non-understood function of his behavior/role. However, what really matters is that we assume that those beliefs and goals are there, and we act "as if" it were so. I finally claim that this mechanism of mind ascription while reading the behavior or the signs of the roles and scripts is the basis of a fundamental form of communication: Behavioral Implicit Communication.

  18. Oculometric variations during mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. Each subject performed ten 20-minute sessions, for total duration of about 4 hours. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p< 0.01 for both subjects. Our findings contradict previous research showing a higher baseline pupil size during mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictors of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments versus breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0.001; subject 2, p< 0.05. Feelings of well being were also positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0

  19. Mindfully in Love: A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Mindfulness and Relationship Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne McGill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is an individual practice, where one has a heightened awareness of the present moment. An extensive research literature finds links between trait mindfulness and individual-level physical and mental health benefits. A limited but growing amount of research focuses on the association between mindfulness and romantic relationship satisfaction. Though there have been comprehensive reviews, no study has statistically tested the magnitude of the association between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction. Better understanding the value of this practice for relationships can serve to inform community educators and practitioners focused on promoting healthy family relationships. This study used a meta-analytic technique focused on 12 effect sizes from 10 different studies, and found that the relationship between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction was statistically significant with an overall effect size of .27. This finding suggests that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with higher levels of relationship satisfaction; therefore, educators can reasonably consider level of mindfulness as an education target.

  20. The dynamics of scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geert, P. L. C.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we have reinterpreted a relatively standard definition of scaffolding in the context of dynamic systems theory. Our main point is that scaffolding cannot be understood outside the context of a dynamic approach of learning and (formal or informal) teaching. We provide a dynamic

  1. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...

  2. Intrusive thoughts: linking spontaneous mind wandering and OCD symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Purdon, Christine; Smilek, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    One recent line of research in the literature on mind wandering has been concerned with examining rates of mind wandering in special populations, such as those characterized by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dysphoria, and schizophrenia. To best conceptualize mind wandering in studies examining special populations, it has recently been suggested that researchers distinguish between deliberate and spontaneous subtypes of this experience. Extending this line of research on mind wandering in special populations, in a large non-clinical sample (N = 2636), we examined how rates of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering vary with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results indicate that, whereas deliberate mind wandering is not associated with OCD symptomatology, spontaneous mind wandering is, with higher reports of spontaneous mind wandering being associated with higher reports of OCD symptoms. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding both mind wandering and OCD.

  3. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  4. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Elena; Amaratunga, Kavitha; Wright, Bernice; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kumari, Veena

    2016-09-01

    Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991), a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness). Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe), describing (Describe), acting with awareness (Awareness), non-judging of (Non-judgment) and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity) facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  5. The MindfulBreather: Motion Guided Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Mole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, humans have focused their attention on the breath to develop mindfulness, but finding a scientific way to harness mindful breathing has proven elusive. Existing attempts to objectively measure and feedback on mindfulness have relied on specialist external hardware including electroencephalograms or respirometers that have been impractical for the majority of people learning to meditate. Consequently, training in the key skill of breath-awareness has lacked practical objective measures and guidance to enhance training. Here, we provide a brief technology report on an invention, The MindfulBreather® that addresses these issues. The technology is available to download embedded in a smartphone app that targets, measures and feedbacks on mindfulness of breathing in realtime to enhance training. The current article outlines only the technological concept with future studies quantifying efficacy, validity and reliability to be reported elsewhere. The MindfulBreather works by generating Motion Guided Mindfulness through interacting gyroscopic and touchscreen sensors in a three phase process: Mindfulness Induction (Phase I gives standardized instruction to users to place their smartphone on their abdomen, breathe mindfully and to tap only at the peak of their inhalation. The smartphone’s gyroscope detects periodic tilts during breathing to generate sinusoidal waveforms. Waveform-tap patterns are analyzed to determine whether the user is mindfully tapping only at the correct phase of the breathing cycle, indicating psychobiological synchronization. Mindfulness Maintenance (Phase II provides reinforcing pleasant feedback sounds each time a breath is mindfully tapped at the right time, and the App records a mindful breath. Lastly, data-driven Insights are fed back to the user (Phase III, including the number of mindful breaths tapped and breathing rate reductions associated with parasympathetic engagement during meditation. The new MGM

  6. The MindfulBreather: Motion Guided Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Tom B; Galante, Julieta; Walker, Iona C; Dawson, Anna F; Hannah, Laura A; Mackeith, Pieter; Ainslie, Mark; Jones, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    For millennia, humans have focused their attention on the breath to develop mindfulness, but finding a scientific way to harness mindful breathing has proven elusive. Existing attempts to objectively measure and feedback on mindfulness have relied on specialist external hardware including electroencephalograms or respirometers that have been impractical for the majority of people learning to meditate. Consequently, training in the key skill of breath-awareness has lacked practical objective measures and guidance to enhance training. Here, we provide a brief technology report on an invention, The MindfulBreather® that addresses these issues. The technology is available to download embedded in a smartphone app that targets, measures and feedbacks on mindfulness of breathing in realtime to enhance training. The current article outlines only the technological concept with future studies quantifying efficacy, validity and reliability to be reported elsewhere. The MindfulBreather works by generating Motion Guided Mindfulness through interacting gyroscopic and touchscreen sensors in a three phase process: Mindfulness Induction (Phase I) gives standardized instruction to users to place their smartphone on their abdomen, breathe mindfully and to tap only at the peak of their inhalation. The smartphone's gyroscope detects periodic tilts during breathing to generate sinusoidal waveforms. Waveform-tap patterns are analyzed to determine whether the user is mindfully tapping only at the correct phase of the breathing cycle, indicating psychobiological synchronization. Mindfulness Maintenance (Phase II) provides reinforcing pleasant feedback sounds each time a breath is mindfully tapped at the right time, and the App records a mindful breath. Lastly, data-driven Insights are fed back to the user (Phase III), including the number of mindful breaths tapped and breathing rate reductions associated with parasympathetic engagement during meditation. The new MGM technology is then

  7. Preparation and characterization of bionic bone structure chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhen; Nie, Jingyi; Zhang, Qirong; Li, Youliang; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional oriented chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were prepared via in situ precipitation method in this research. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the scaffolds with acicular nano-HA had the spoke-like, multilayer and porous structure. The SEM of osteoblasts which were polygonal or spindle-shaped on the composite scaffolds after seven-day cell culture showed that the cells grew, adhered, and spread well. The results of X-ray powder diffractometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer showed that the mineral particles deposited in the scaffold had phase structure similar to natural bone and confirmed that particles were exactly HA. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation indicated the composite scaffolds showed a higher degree of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell compared with the pure CS scaffolds and the CS/HA10 scaffold was the highest one. The CS/HA scaffold also had a higher ratio of adhesion and alkaline phosphate activity value of osteoblasts compared with the pure CS scaffold, and the ratio increased with the increase of HA content. The ALP activity value of composite scaffolds was at least six times of the pure CS scaffolds. The results suggested that the composite scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility. The compressive strength of CS/HA15 increased by 33.07% compared with the pure CS scaffold. This novel porous scaffold with three-dimensional oriented structure might have a potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  8. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  9. Microfibrous silver-coated polymeric scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kalakonda, Parvathalu.

    2017-07-07

    Electrospun scaffolds of poly(glycerol sebacate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS/PCL) have been used for engineered tissues due to their desirable thermal and mechanical properties as well as their tunable degradability. In this paper, we fabricated micro-fibrous scaffolds from a composite of PGS/PCL using a standard electrospinning method and coated them with silver (Ag). The low temperature coating method prevented substrate melting and the Ag coating decreases the pore size and increases the diameter of fibers which resulted in enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. We further compared the mechanical properties of the composite fibrous scaffolds with different thicknesses of Ag coated scaffolds. The composite fibrous scaffold with a 275 nm Ag coating showed higher tensile modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without any post-processing treatment. Lastly, potential controlled release of the Ag coating from the composite fibrous scaffolds could present interesting biomedical applications.

  10. Mindful Eating With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K

    2017-05-01

    IN BRIEF This article provides a description of mindfulness and mindful eating and addresses the application of mindful eating as a component of diabetes self-management education. Mindful eating helps individuals cultivate awareness of both internal and external triggers to eating, interrupt automatic eating, and eat in response to the natural physiological cues of hunger and satiety. Mindful eating interventions have been effective in facilitating improvement in dysregulated eating and dietary patterns. Through practice over time, eating mindfully can interrupt habitual eating behaviors and provide greater regulation of food choice. More research is needed to determine the long-term impact of mindful eating programs.

  11. Chemical crosslinking of biopolymeric scaffolds: Current knowledge and future directions of crosslinked engineered bone scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Kamali, Amir; Moshiri, Ali; Baharvand, Hossien; Daemi, Hamed

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue scaffolds made from either natural or synthetic polymers are employed to promote bone healing. However, lack of sufficient or poor mechanical properties such as low integrity and stability reduces their medical applications. Crosslinking, defined as induction of chemical or physical links among polymer chains, is a simple method generally used to modify mechanical, biological and degradation properties of hydrogels. Although crosslinking through chemical reactions improves the mechanical properties of bone substitutes, most of the reagents used for this aim demonstrate undesirable effects and may exert toxic reactions. Glutaraldehyde is a widely-used chemical crosslinker with unique ability to crosslink a wide variety of biomaterials; however, many contradictory views have been recently raised on its cytotoxic effects. By keeping this limit in mind, green chemicals or natural crosslinking agents have been shown to provide desired improvements in mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. Therefore, developing more efficient crosslinking materials and methods are desirable to obtain crosslinked scaffolds with perfect properties in bone tissue engineering from different biopolymers such as collagen, gelatin, cellulose, chitosan, alginate, etc. In this review, we focused on developed or developing modalities used to improve mechanical properties of various bone scaffolds and matrices based on common crosslinking reagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modification of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, the creation of an affective niche can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition.

  13. Electrophysiological Correlates of Reading the Single- and Interactive-Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu-Wei; Lin, Chong-De; Wu, Jie; Shen, De-Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one-person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory of mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity, and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC) over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700- to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal–central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind. PMID:21845178

  14. Improvement of PHBV scaffolds with bioglass for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    Full Text Available Polymer scaffold systems consisting of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV have proven to be possible matrices for the three-dimensional growth of chondrocyte cultures. However, the engineered cartilage grown on these PHBV scaffolds is currently unsatisfactory for clinical applications due to PHBV's poor hydrophilicity, resulting in inadequate thickness and poor biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage. It has been reported that the incorporation of Bioglass (BG into PHBV can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites. In this study, we compared the effects of PHBV scaffolds and PHBV/BG composite scaffolds on the properties of engineered cartilage in vivo. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were seeded into PHBV scaffolds and PHBV/BG scaffolds. Short-term in vitro culture followed by long-term in vivo transplantation was performed to evaluate the difference in cartilage regeneration between the cartilage layers grown on PHBV and PHBV/BG scaffolds. The results show that the incorporation of BG into PHBV efficiently improved both the hydrophilicity of the composites and the percentage of adhered cells and promoted cell migration into the inner part the constructs. With prolonged incubation time in vivo, the chondrocyte-scaffold constructs in the PHBV/BG group formed thicker cartilage-like tissue with better biomechanical properties and a higher cartilage matrix content than the constructs in the PHBV/BG group. These results indicate that PHBV/BG scaffolds can be used to prepare better engineered cartilage than pure PHBV.

  15. Improvement of PHBV Scaffolds with Bioglass for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Sun, Junying; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Polymer scaffold systems consisting of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) have proven to be possible matrices for the three-dimensional growth of chondrocyte cultures. However, the engineered cartilage grown on these PHBV scaffolds is currently unsatisfactory for clinical applications due to PHBV’s poor hydrophilicity, resulting in inadequate thickness and poor biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage. It has been reported that the incorporation of Bioglass (BG) into PHBV can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites. In this study, we compared the effects of PHBV scaffolds and PHBV/BG composite scaffolds on the properties of engineered cartilage in vivo. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were seeded into PHBV scaffolds and PHBV/BG scaffolds. Short-term in vitro culture followed by long-term in vivo transplantation was performed to evaluate the difference in cartilage regeneration between the cartilage layers grown on PHBV and PHBV/BG scaffolds. The results show that the incorporation of BG into PHBV efficiently improved both the hydrophilicity of the composites and the percentage of adhered cells and promoted cell migration into the inner part the constructs. With prolonged incubation time in vivo, the chondrocyte-scaffold constructs in the PHBV/BG group formed thicker cartilage-like tissue with better biomechanical properties and a higher cartilage matrix content than the constructs in the PHBV/BG group. These results indicate that PHBV/BG scaffolds can be used to prepare better engineered cartilage than pure PHBV. PMID:23951190

  16. Novel nanofibrous spiral scaffolds for neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Xiaojun

    2008-12-01

    Due to several drawbacks associated with autografts and allografts, tissue-engineering approaches have been widely used to repair peripheral nerve injuries. Most of the traditional tissue-engineered scaffolds in use are either tubular (single or multi-lumen) or hydrogel-based cylindrical grafts, which provide limited surface area for cell attachment and regeneration. Here, we show a novel poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) microsphere-based spiral scaffold design with a nanofibrous surface that has enhanced surface areas and possesses sufficient mechanical properties and porosities to support the nerve regeneration process. These scaffolds have an open architecture that goes evenly throughout the scaffolds hence leaving enough volume for media influx and deeper cell penetration into the scaffolds. The in vitro tests conducted using Schwann cells show that the nanofibrous spiral scaffolds promote higher cell attachment and proliferation when compared to contemporary tubular scaffolds or nanofiber-based tubular scaffolds. Also, the nanofiber coating on the surfaces enhances the surface area, mimics the extracellular matrix and provides unidirectional alignment of cells along its direction. Hence, we propose that these scaffolds could alleviate some drawbacks in current nerve grafts and could potentially be used in nerve regeneration.

  17. Microporous Nanofibrous Fibrin-based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Linnes, Michael L.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2008-01-01

    The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size, pore interconnection, and calcium phosphate deposition was developed. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds were fabricated using sphere-templating methods. Composite scaffolds were created by solution deposition of calcium phosphate on fibrin surfaces or by direct incorporation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). The SEM results showed that fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure. Osteoblast-like cells, obtained from murine calvaria, attached, spread and showed a polygonal morphology on the surface of the biomaterial. Multiple cell layers and fibrillar matrix deposition were observed. Moreover, cells seeded on mineralized fibrin scaffolds exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity as well as osteoblast marker gene expression compared to fibrin scaffolds and nHA incorporated fibrin scaffolds (0.25 g and 0.5 g). All types of scaffolds were degraded both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these scaffolds promoted bone formation in a mouse calvarial defect model and the bone formation was enhanced by addition of rhBMP-2. PMID:18640716

  18. Mindful feeding and child dietary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emley, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Maija B; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between mindful feeding as a novel construct and parent-reported child dietary intake. Participants (N=497) were parents of children ages 2.9 to 7.5 recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents were primarily non-Hispanic white (79%) and female (76%). Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between parental mindful feeding (i.e., parent mental and emotional presence while feeding a child) and their children's dietary intake. Mindful feeding accounted for 5.1% of the unadjusted variance in child fruit and vegetable intake. Mindful feeding accounted for 4.2% of the unadjusted variance in child added sugar consumption after accounting for relevant covariates. Specifically, higher parental mindful feeding predicted higher fruit and vegetable intake and lower sugar intake among children. Mindful feeding was associated with almost all indicators of healthier child diet, indicating great potential for this approach to improve child health. If incorporated into general or health-focused interventions for parents, mindfulness could significantly improve child health outcomes. Further development and validation of the Mindful Feeding Questionnaire is also recommended, as it could become a useful survey tool to assess for this construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BAM! Body and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit BAM! Body and Mind Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . BAM! Body and Mind Diseases Disease Detectives Immune Platoon Learn ...

  20. Mind Your Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unnecessary risks. Keep your blood pressure under control. Mind Your Risks ® . KNOW YOUR RISKS Scientists around the ... also reduce risk of dementia. ABOUT THE CAMPAIGN Mind Your Risks® is a public health campaign that ...

  1. Mindfulness for psychosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness treatments and research have burgeoned over the past decade. With psychosis, progress has been slow and likely held back by clinicians' belief that mindfulness may be harmful for this client group...

  2. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  3. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  4. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovac, Dajana, E-mail: dmilovac@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C. [Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Ivankovic, Marica [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gallego Ferrer, Gloria [Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Valencia (Spain); Ivankovic, Hrvoje [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 μm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

  6. Multimodal ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds and blood oxygen saturation in and around the scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Yahfi; Avti, Pramod; Sun, John; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    higher PA signal intensity compared with the surrounding tissue and PLGA scaffolds. In vivo blood oxygen saturation maps around and within the PLGA scaffolds could be obtained by PA imaging. There was no significant difference in oxygen saturation for the PLGA scaffolds at the two time points. The blood oxygen saturation maps complemented the histological analysis of neovascularization of the PLGA scaffolds.

  7. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  8. Mind, brain and person:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Pluralism in the mind-body debate is reviewed in relation to the concept of a person, and mathematical representations are formulated to capture the relation between mind, body and person. Results: Monism, dualism and a conjunctive approach to mind .... mental and physical, cultural, spiritual, religious, or good and.

  9. Macromolecular multi-chromophoric scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, E.; Schwartz, Erik; Le Gac, Stephane; le Gac, Severine; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    This critical review describes recent efforts in the field of chromophoric scaffolding. The advances in this research area, with an emphasis on rigid scaffolds, for example, synthetic polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nucleic acids, and viruses, are presented (166 references).

  10. The protective effects of brief mindfulness meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Welhaf, Matthew S; Srour, Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Mindfulness meditation has gained a great deal of attention in recent years due to the variety of physical and psychological benefits, including improved working memory, decreased mind wandering and reduced impact of stress on working memory. The current study examined a 1-week at home mindfulness meditation intervention compared to an active control intervention. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation does not increase working memory or decrease mind wandering but does prevent stress related working memory impairments. Mindfulness meditation appears to alter the factors that impair working memory such that the negative impact of mind wandering on working memory was only evident at higher levels of negative affect. The use of cognitive mechanism words in narratives of stressful events did not differ by condition but predicted poorer working memory in the control condition. The results support the use of an at home mindfulness meditation intervention for reducing stress-related impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the architecture of tissue engineering scaffolds on cell seeding and culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Barradas, Ana M C; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2010-11-01

    The advance of rapid prototyping techniques has significantly improved control over the pore network architecture of tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, we have assessed the influence of scaffold pore architecture on cell seeding and static culturing, by comparing a computer designed gyroid architecture fabricated by stereolithography with a random pore architecture resulting from salt leaching. The scaffold types showed comparable porosity and pore size values, but the gyroid type showed a more than 10-fold higher permeability due to the absence of size-limiting pore interconnections. The higher permeability significantly improved the wetting properties of the hydrophobic scaffolds and increased the settling speed of cells upon static seeding of immortalised mesenchymal stem cells. After dynamic seeding followed by 5 days of static culture gyroid scaffolds showed large cell populations in the centre of the scaffold, while salt-leached scaffolds were covered with a cell sheet on the outside and no cells were found in the scaffold centre. It was shown that interconnectivity of the pores and permeability of the scaffold prolonged the time of static culture before overgrowth of cells at the scaffold periphery occurred. Furthermore, novel scaffold designs are proposed to further improve the transport of oxygen and nutrients throughout the scaffolds and to create tissue engineering grafts with a designed, pre-fabricated vasculature. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nance; Rezzadeh, Kameron S.; Lee, Justine C.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal regenerative medicine emerged as a field of investigation to address large osseous deficiencies secondary to congenital, traumatic, and post-oncologic conditions. Although autologous bone grafts have been the gold standard for reconstruction of skeletal defects, donor site morbidity remains a significant limitation. To address these limitations, contemporary bone tissue engineering research aims to target delivery of osteogenic cells and growth factors in a defined three dimensional space using scaffolding material. Using bone as a template, biomimetic strategies in scaffold engineering unite organic and inorganic components in an optimal configuration to both support osteoinduction as well as osteoconduction. This article reviews the various structural and functional considerations behind the development of effective biomimetic scaffolds for osteogenesis and highlights strategies for enhancing osteogenesis. PMID:26413557

  13. Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mikkel Willum; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical...... cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For the second case, we investigate how the development of new...... in both mathematical cognition and in the development of mathematics itself, but mathematical cognition cannot itself be reduced to the use of semiotic scaffolding....

  14. In vivo Degradation of Three-Dimensional Silk Fibroin Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhong; Rudym, Darya D.; Walsh, Ashley; Abrahamsen, Lauren; Kim, Hyeon-Joo; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kirker-Head, Carl; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds prepared from regenerated silk fibroin using either an all aqueous process or a process involving an organic solvent, hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) have shown promise in cell culture and tissue engineering applications. However, their biocompatibility and in vivo degradation has not been fully established. The present study was conducted to systematically investigate how processing method (aqueous vs. organic solvent) and processing variables (silk fibroin concentration and pore size) affect the short-term (up to 2 months) and long-term (up to 1 year) in vivo behavior of the protein scaffolds in both nude and Lewis rats. The samples were analyzed by histology for scaffold morphological changes and tissue ingrowth, and by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for immune responses. Throughout the period of implantation, all scaffolds were well-tolerated by the host animals and immune responses to the implants were mild. Most scaffolds prepared from the all aqueous process degraded to completion between two and six months, while those prepared from organic solvent (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)) process persisted beyond one year. Due to widespread cellular invasion throughout the scaffold, the degradation of aqueous-derived scaffolds appears to be more homogeneous than that of HFIP-derived scaffolds. In general and especially for the HFIP-derived scaffolds, a higher original silk fibroin concentration (e.g. 17%) and smaller pore size (e.g. 100–200 µm) resulted in lower levels of tissue ingrowth and slower degradation. These results demonstrate that the in vivo behavior of the three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds is related to the morphological and structural features that resulted from different scaffold preparation processes. The insights gained in this study can serve as a guide for processing scenarios to match desired morphological and structural features and degradation time with tissue-specific applications. PMID

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...... polymerase chain reaction for 10 osteogenic markers. The 500-microm scaffolds had increased proliferation rates and accommodated a higher number of cells (shown by DNA content, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy). Thus the porosity of a 3D microporous biomaterial may be used to steer h......MSC in a particular direction. We found that dynamic spinner flask cultivation of hMSC/scaffold constructs resulted in increased proliferation, differentiation and distribution of cells in scaffolds. Therefore, spinner flask cultivation is an easy-to-use inexpensive system for cultivating hMSCs on small...

  16. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  17. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  18. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  19. Preparation and characterization of highly porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds for soft tissue applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Kazuro L.; Sacks, Michael S.; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    In the engineering of soft tissues, scaffolds with high elastance and strength coupled with controllable biodegradable properties are necessary. To fulfill such design criteria we have previously synthesized two kinds of biodegradable polyurethaneureas, namely poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and poly(ether ester urethane)urea (PEEUU) from polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane and putrescine. PEUU and PEEUU were further fabricated into scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. The effect of polymer solution concentration, quenching temperature and polymer type on pore morphology and porosity was investigated. Scaffolds were obtained with open and interconnected pores having sizes ranging from several μm to more than 150 μm and porosities of 80–97%. By changing the polymer solution concentration or quenching temperature, scaffolds with random or oriented tubular pores could be obtained. The PEUU scaffolds were flexible with breaking strains of 214% and higher, and tensile strengths of approximately 1.0 MPa, whereas the PEEUU scaffolds generally had lower strengths and breaking strains. Scaffold degradation in aqueous buffer was related to the porosity and polymer hydrophilicity. Smooth muscle cells were filtration seeded in the scaffolds and it was shown that both scaffolds supported cell adhesion and growth, with smooth muscle cells growing more extensively in the PEEUU scaffold. These biodegradable and flexible scaffolds demonstrate potential for future application as cell scaffolds in cardiovascular tissue engineering or other soft tissue applications. PMID:15626443

  20. Comparison of various types of collagenous scaffolds applied for embryonic nerve cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek; Pietrucha, Krystyna; Kudzin, Marcin; Mader, Krystyna; Szymański, Jacek; Szczepanowska, Alicja

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to confirm whether collagen-based scaffolds using different cross-linking methods are suitable elaborate environments for embryonic nerve cell culture. Three 3D sponge-shaped porous scaffolds were composed using collagen alone, collagen with chondroitin sulphate modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, and collagen cross-linked by 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC). Embryonic nerve cells from rats were applied to the scaffolds and stained with bisbenzimide to study cell entrapment within the scaffolds. The metabolic activity of the cells cultured in the scaffolds was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The majority of cells were differentiated into neurocytes or oligodendrocytes. Collagen and collagen-chondroitin sulphate scaffolds entrapped a low number of cells. The highest cell density was found in the collagen-DAC scaffold. Moreover, in collagen-DAC scaffolds, the metabolic activity was markedly higher than in the other samples. Although all used scaffolds are suitable for the culture of embryonic nerve cells, the collagen-DAC scaffold properties are the most favorable. This scaffold entraps the highest number of cells and constitutes a favorable environment for their culture. Hence, the Col-DAC scaffold is recommended as an effective carrier for embryonic nerve cells. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  2. Application of polyethyleneimine-modified scaffolds to the regeneration of cartilaginous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Ku, I-Nan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the physicochemical and biophysical properties of three-dimensional scaffolds modified using polyethyleneimine (PEI) and applied these scaffolds to the cultivation of bovine knee chondrocytes (BKCs). PEI was crosslinked in the bulk or on the surface of the ternary scaffolds comprising polyethylene oxide, chitin and chitosan. The results revealed that when the concentration of PEI was less than 300 microg/mL, the cytotoxicity of a scaffold was on the same order in the two method of modification. An increase in the concentration of PEI favored the adhesion of BKCs. When the amount of PEI in scaffolds is fixed, the surface-modified scaffolds exhibited a higher adhesion efficiency of BKCs than the bulk-modified scaffolds. For the regeneration of cartilaginous components, a higher amount of PEI in a scaffold yielded larger amounts of proliferated BKCs, secreted glycosaminoglycans, and produced collagen. In addition, the formation of neocartilage in the surface-modified scaffolds was more effective than that in the bulk-modified scaffolds. These tissue-engineered scaffolds, modified by an appropriate concentration of PEI, can be potentially applied to cartilage repair in clinical trials. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol.

  3. Mindfulness - en implicit utopi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    The field of mindfulness and meditation has met growing interest in the western world during the last decades. Mindfulness aims to develop a friendly, accepting and mindful awareness in the present moment. Critiques have argued that this aim is deployed in a new kind of management technology where...... mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...

  4. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...... well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  5. Development of porous Ti6Al4V/chitosan sponge composite scaffold for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Miao [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, Xiang, E-mail: Xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite scaffold consisting of porous Ti6Al4V part filled with chitosan sponge was fabricated using a combination of electron beam melting and freeze-drying. The mechanical properties of porous Ti6Al4V part were examined via compressive test. The ultimate compressive strength was 85.35 ± 8.68 MPa and the compressive modulus was 2.26 ± 0.42 GPa. The microstructure of composite scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The chitosan sponge filled in Ti6Al4V part exhibited highly porous and well-interconnected micro-pore architecture. The osteoblastic cells were seeded on scaffolds to test their seeding efficiency and biocompatibility. Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. The biological response of osteoblasts on composite scaffolds was superior in terms of improved cell attachment, higher proliferation, and well-spread morphology in relation to porous Ti6Al4V part. These results suggest that the Ti6Al4V/chitosan composite scaffold is potentially useful as a biomedical scaffold for orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A novel composite scaffold with sufficient mechanical properties and favorable cell affinity environment was developed. • Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. • The osteoblasts on composite scaffolds showed well-spread morphology, improved cell attachment and higher proliferation.

  6. The Extended Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andy; Chalmer, Dave

    1998-01-01

    Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the intuitive demarcations of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words "just ain't in the head", and hold that this externalism about meaning carries over into an externalism about mind. We propose to pursue a third position. We will advocate an externalism about mind, but o...

  7. A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul D.

    1978-01-01

    The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

  8. Mindfulness Interventions in Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe how mindfulness is used in physical rehabilitation, identify implications for occupational therapy practice, and guide future research on clinical mindfulness interventions. A systematic search of four literature databases produced 1,524 original abstracts, of which 16 articles were included. Although only 3 Level I or II studies were identified, the literature included suggests that mindfulness interventions are helpful for patients with musculoskeletal and chronic pain disorders and demonstrate trends toward outcome improvements for patients with neurocognitive and neuromotor disorders. Only 2 studies included an occupational therapist as the primary mindfulness provider, but all mindfulness interventions in the selected studies fit within the occupational therapy scope of practice according to the American Occupational Therapy Association’s Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process. Higher-level research is needed to evaluate the effects of mindfulness interventions in physical rehabilitation and to determine best practices for the use of mindfulness by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:27089297

  9. Development of Collagen/Demineralized Bone Powder Scaffolds and Periosteum-Derived Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilairat Leeanansaksiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL and demineralized bone powder (DBP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75–125 µm, 125–250 µm, and 250–500 µm. DBP was homogeneously mixed with type I collagen and three-dimensional scaffolds were constructed, applying chemical crosslinking and lyophilization. Upon culture with human periosteum-derived cells (PD cells, osteogenic differentiation of PD cells was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and calcium assay kits. The physical properties of the COL/DBP scaffolds were obviously different from COL scaffolds, irrespective of the size of DBP. In addition, PD cells cultured with COL scaffolds showed significantly higher cell adhesion and proliferation than those with COL/DBP scaffolds. In contrast, COL/DBP scaffolds exhibited greater osteoinductive potential than COL scaffolds. The PD cells with COL/DBP scaffolds possessed higher ALP activity than those with COL scaffolds. PD cells cultured with COL/DBP scaffolds with 250–500 mm particle size yielded the maximum calcium deposition. In conclusion, PD cells cultured on the scaffolds could exhibit osteoinductive potential. The composite scaffold of COL/DBP with 250–500 mm particle size could be considered a potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  10. Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christina L M; Updegraff, John A

    2012-02-01

    Research on the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness training applied in psychotherapy is still in its infancy (Erisman & Roemer, 2010). For instance, little is known about the extent and processes through which mindfulness practice improves emotion regulation. This experience sampling study assessed the relationship between mindfulness, emotion differentiation, emotion lability, and emotional difficulties. Young adult participants reported their current emotional experiences 6 times per day during 1 week on a PalmPilot device. Based on these reports of emotions, indices of emotional differentiation and emotion lability were composed for negative and positive emotions. Mindfulness was associated with greater emotion differentiation and less emotional difficulties (i.e., emotion lability and self-reported emotion dysregulation). Mediational models indicated that the relationship between mindfulness and emotion lability was mediated by emotion differentiation. Furthermore, emotion regulation mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both negative emotion lability and positive emotion differentiation. This experience sampling study indicates that self-reported levels of mindfulness are related to higher levels of differentiation of one's discrete emotional experiences in a manner reflective of effective emotion regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Scaffolding Student Participation in Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschkovich, Judit N.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding can be used to describe various types of adult guidance, in multiple settings, across different time scales. This article clarifies what we mean by scaffolding, considering several questions specifically for scaffolding in mathematics: What theoretical assumptions are framing scaffolding? What is being scaffolded? At…

  12. Improving bone marrow stromal cell attachment on chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds by an immobilized RGD peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Zhiwei; Yan Jinglong; Zhuang Jinpeng [Fourth Department of Orthopedics, First Hospital Affiliated to Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li Baoqiang [Institutes for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Yanming, E-mail: quzhiwei2@163.co [First Department of Orthopedics, Heilongjiang Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases Hospital, Harbin 150500 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Ample cell adhesion to scaffolds is essential for effective bone tissue engineering. Chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) scaffolds with channel-shaped and spherically shaped pore morphologies were prepared via in situ compositing hybridization in combination with lyophilization. The sizes of channel-shaped and spherically shaped pores of the CS/HA scaffolds were 150-650 {mu}m and 3-15 {mu}m, respectively. The RGD peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp) was bound to the surface of CS/HA scaffolds via physical adsorption. More than 63% of RGD present in a PBS solution spontaneously adsorbed onto CS/HA scaffolds. High numbers of viable bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were observed by confocal and fluorescence microscopy for cells cultured on CS/HA scaffolds with and without RGD for 3 days. BMSCs on CS/HA scaffolds with RGD (RGD-CS/HA) were incubated for 4 h under standard culture conditions, and the degree of cell adhesion was calculated. Cell adhesion to RGD-CS/HA scaffolds with different RGD concentrations was 71.6% and 80.7%, respectively. This was 30.9% and 47.5% higher than adhesion to the CS/HA scaffold without RGD, respectively. BMSCs cultured on the scaffolds for 14 days with osteogenic supplements expressed 103% higher alkaline phosphatase on the RGD-CS/HA scaffold (0.001 97 {+-} 0.000 31 U/L/ng), than on the unmodified scaffold (0.000 97 {+-} 0.000 25 U/L/ng) (p < 0.01), indicating that a RGD peptide significantly promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on CS/HA scaffolds. The results of this study indicate that RGD-CS/HA scaffolds promote initial cell adhesion, spread and differentiation toward an osteogenic phenotype.

  13. Microwell scaffolds for the extrahepatic transplantation of islets of Langerhans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijke Buitinga

    Full Text Available Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver has the potential to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the suboptimal microenvironment for islets in the liver is likely to be involved in the progressive islet dysfunction that is often observed post-transplantation. This study validates a novel microwell scaffold platform to be used for the extrahepatic transplantation of islet of Langerhans. Scaffolds were fabricated from either a thin polymer film or an electrospun mesh of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT block copolymer (composition: 4000PEOT30PBT70 and were imprinted with microwells, ∼400 µm in diameter and ∼350 µm in depth. The water contact angle and water uptake were 39±2° and 52.1±4.0 wt%, respectively. The glucose flux through electrospun scaffolds was three times higher than for thin film scaffolds, indicating enhanced nutrient diffusion. Human islets cultured in microwell scaffolds for seven days showed insulin release and insulin content comparable to those of free-floating control islets. Islet morphology and insulin and glucagon expression were maintained during culture in the microwell scaffolds. Our results indicate that the microwell scaffold platform prevents islet aggregation by confinement of individual islets in separate microwells, preserves the islet's native rounded morphology, and provides a protective environment without impairing islet functionality, making it a promising platform for use in extrahepatic islet transplantation.

  14. Cell proliferation on three-dimensional chitosan-agarose-gelatin cryogel scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sumrita; Kumar, Ashok

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering is a potential approach for the repair of damaged tissues or organs like skin, cartilage, bone etc. Approach utilizes the scaffolds constructed from natural or synthetic polymers fabricated by the available fabrication technologies. This study focuses on the fabrication of the scaffolds using a novel technology called cryogelation, which synthesizes the scaffolds at sub-zero temperature. We have synthesized a novel scaffold from natural polymers like chitosan, agarose and gelatin in optimized ratio using the cryogelation technology. The elasticity of the scaffold was confirmed by rheological studies which supports the utility of the scaffolds for skin and cardiac tissue engineering. Proliferation of different cell types like fibroblast and cardiac cells was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent microscopy. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was tested by MTT assay with specific cell type, which showed higher proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds when compared to the two dimensional culture system. Cell proliferation of C(2)C(12) and Cos 7 cells on these scaffolds was further analysed biochemically by alamar blue test and Hoechst test. Biochemical and microscopic analysis of the different cell types on these scaffolds gives an initial insight of these scaffolds towards their utility in skin and cardiac tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sport, mindfulness en boeddhisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2016-01-01

    Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil

  16. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  17. Time Distortions in Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Vatakis, A.; Allman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Time Distortions in Mind brings together current research on temporal processing in clinical populations to elucidate the interdependence between perturbations in timing and disturbances in the mind and brain. For the student, the scientist, and the stepping-stone for further research.

  18. Mindfulness in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Papies, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially in the past decade but, until now, it has typically been approached from a clinical perspective. This volume is the first to take a social-psychological approach to mindfulness research. It provides theoretical and methodological guidance

  19. Mindfulness at Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter Brian; Dufour, G; Galante, Julieta; English, E

    2016-01-01

    The University of Cambridge and the National Institute for Health Research and Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (NIHR CLAHRC), East of England, are currently undertaking research into the effectiveness of mindfulness as a way of combatting student stress. In this article, various stakeholders in the project describe its purpose, its focus, and the delivery of mindfulness sessions to students.

  20. Mindfulness and Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Ellen; Burpee, Leslie C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among mindfulness, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal similarity. All 95 subjects responded to a questionnaire measuring each of these variables, and an additional series of demographic variables. A significant positive relationship was found between mindfulness and marital satisfaction, with no statistically significant relationship found between perceived spousal similarity and marital satisfaction. There was a stronger correlation between ...

  1. Mindfulness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  2. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  3. Fringe Mind Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using

  4. Mind, brain and person:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The dualism of the mathematician and philosopher, Descartes, holds that the mind and body are both substances, but while the body is extended in space, and is thus a material substance, the mind is an unextended, or spiritual substance. Psychophysical dualism rejects the idea of two distinct substances, but adheres to a ...

  5. Mindfulness as a moderator in expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Alvin; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2011-09-01

    Randomized, controlled studies have documented positive physical and psychological effects of writing about traumatic stress. Some of these studies have shown that individual differences play an important role, with participants responding differently to the intervention based on their personal characteristics. In the present expressive writing experiment, the trait of mindfulness was examined as a potential moderator. Seventy-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either expressive writing (n = 37) or a control group (n = 39). Main effects favoring expressive writing were found, and these were qualified by significant interactions with mindfulness. Specifically, individuals with higher mindfulness scores responded better to expressive writing, experiencing greater physical and psychological benefits than individuals with lower mindfulness scores. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, L.; Hopthrow, T.; Randsley de Moura, G.

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via ...

  7. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  8. Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy. PMID:20570700

  9. The many facets of mindfulness and the prediction of change following mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Michael J; Grassetti, Stevie N; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Shorey, Ryan C; Pohlig, Ryan; Baime, Michael J

    2017-08-16

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) promotes numerous psychological benefits, but few studies have identified for whom MBSR is most effective. The current study tested the hypothesis that lower baseline mindfulness invites more "room to grow" and, thus, predicts greater improvement during MBSR. We examined three facets of mindfulness (awareness, acceptance, decentering) among 131 MBSR participants prior to enrollment, to test the hypothesis that lower baseline mindfulness predicts greater improvements in perceived stress, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) following MBSR. Lower acceptance and decentering predicted greater decreases in perceived stress. Higher awareness, acceptance, and decentering predicted greater increases in PA. Higher awareness predicted greater reductions in NA. Lower decentering predicted greater reductions in NA. Findings partly supported the hypothesis that lower baseline mindfulness predicts greater improvement following MBSR and emphasize the importance of assessing multiple mindfulness facets given their unique, contrasting relations to outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fabrication and in vitro characterization of bioactive glass composite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Stevens, Molly M; Woodruff, Maria A

    2013-12-01

    Here we fabricate and characterize bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. 45S5 Bioglass® (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) were incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) and fabricated into 3D bioactive composite scaffolds utilizing additive manufacturing technology. We show that composite scaffolds (PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG) can be reproducibly manufactured with a scaffold morphology highly resembling that of PCL scaffolds. Additionally, micro-CT analysis reveals BG particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the scaffolds. Mechanical data suggested that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds have higher compressive Young's modulus compared to PCL scaffolds at similar porosity (∼75%). After 1 day in accelerated degradation conditions using 5M NaOH, PCL/SrBG, PCL/45S5 and PCL lost 48.6 ± 3.8%, 12.1 ± 1% and 1.6 ± 1% of the original mass, respectively. In vitro studies were conducted using MC3T3 cells under normal and osteogenic conditions. All scaffolds were shown to be non-cytotoxic, and supported cell attachment and proliferation. Our results also indicate that the inclusion of bioactive glass (BG) promotes precipitation of calcium phosphate on the scaffold surfaces which leads to earlier cell differentiation and matrix mineralization when compared to PCL scaffolds. However, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, no significant difference in osteoblast differentiation was found between PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG scaffolds. These results suggest that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds show potential as next generation bone scaffolds.

  11. Semiotic scaffolding of multicellularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and animals this individuation process poses very different challenges in the three kingdoms of plants, fungi and animals, and the solutions found to these differences are discussed. In the same time as multicellularity ushered life into the epoch of mortality it logically also led to the appearance...... semiotic scaffoldings had to be invented in order to prevent this. While a unicellular self may go on to live practically forever, the multicellular self most often must run through an individuation process ending in the death of the individual. Due to basic differences in cells of plants, fungi...

  12. Physics of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  13. PHYSICS OF THE MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to turn psychology into hard science? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics... and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into hard sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  14. Nonwoven scaffolds for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Elaine R.; Tronci, Giuseppe; Yang,Xuebin; Wood, David J.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Developing successful scaffolds requires clinicians to adopt a multidisciplinary approach in order to understand and stimulate the natural bone regeneration process. A variety of natural and synthetic biomaterials, including naturally extracted, chemically functionalised collagen and synthetic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), can be manufactured into fibres, enabling the formation of nonwoven scaffolds. Many different nonwoven architectures and structural features can then be introduced, dep...

  15. Mindfulness y creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    Palau Valero, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Este trabajo realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre el efecto que ejerce la práctica del mindfulness sobre el pensamiento creativo. Después de explicar y contextualizar los conceptos de mindfulness y creatividad, se analizarán las variables de tipo afectivo que esperamos afecten a la creatividad influidas por el mindfulness, como son la emoción, bienestar, afecto, personalidad, estrés, ansiedad y atención. Estas v...

  16. Tissue engineering scaffolds electrospun from cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-22

    Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Diagnosis, Scaffolding and Transfer: A Tale of Two Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Helping students learn from their own mistakes can help them develop habits of mind while learning physics content. Based upon cognitive apprenticeship model, we asked students to self-diagnose their mistakes and learn from reflecting on their problem solution. Varying levels of scaffolding support were provided to students in different groups to diagnose their errors on two context-rich problems that students originally solved in recitation quizzes. Here, we discuss students' cognitive engagement in the two self-diagnosis activities and transfer tasks with different scaffolds.

  18. Self-Diagnosis, Scaffolding and Transfer: A Tale of Two Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew; Cohen, Elisheva; Singh, Chandralekha; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2009-11-01

    Helping students learn from their own mistakes can help them develop habits of mind while learning physics content. Based upon cognitive apprenticeship model, we asked students to self-diagnose their mistakes and learn from reflecting on their problem solution. Varying levels of scaffolding support were provided to students in different groups to diagnose their errors on two context-rich problems that students originally solved in recitation quizzes. Here, we discuss students' cognitive engagement in the two self-diagnosis activities and transfer tasks with different scaffolds.

  19. Association of maternal scaffolding to maternal education and cognition in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean R; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Schrader, Ron; Fuller, Janell

    2013-01-01

    Parental behaviour described as 'scaffolding' has been shown to influence outcomes in at-risk children. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal verbal scaffolding in toddlers born preterm and full term. The scaffolding behaviour of mothers of toddlers born preterm and healthy full term was compared during a 5-min videotaped free play session with standardized toys. We compared two types of scaffolding and their associations with socio-demographic, neonatal medical factors and cognition. The mothers of toddlers born full term used more complex scaffolding. Maternal education was associated with complex scaffolding scores for the preterm children only. Specifically, the preterm children who were sicker in the neonatal period, and whose mothers had higher education, used more complex scaffolding. In addition, children born preterm, who had less days of ventilation, had higher cognitive scores when their mothers used more complex scaffolding. Similarly, cognitive and scaffolding scores were higher for children born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive styles of toddlers born preterm compared with full term. Teaching parents play methods that support early problem-solving skills may support a child's method of exploration and simultaneously their language development. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  1. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Maji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30 showed a maximum compressive strength of 2.2±0.1 MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue.

  3. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  4. Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

  5. PHBV/PAM Scaffolds with Local Oriented Structure through UV Polymerization for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100 μm increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance.

  6. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  7. Mindful of a gap

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This short paper is a contribution to a debate entitled 'burning issues on teaching and learning about mental health'. The argument is that Mindfulness, which is increasingly being given attention by the helping professions as a demonstrably powerful tool in assisting mental health and well being, can be of great assistance to social workers. An argument is made for teaching Mindfulness techniques to social work students, with reference to research which evaluates such a programme. The Be...

  8. MINDFULNESS AND SPORT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Mañas; Jesús del Águila; Clemente Franco; Mª Dolores Gil; Consolación Gil

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness in sports is a recent field. While sport psychology relied mainly on “second wave” cognitive-behavioural interventions for the last four decades, a new approach has recently been developed in sport psychology including mindfulness: a “third wave” approach. This new approach assumes that ideal performance is a state that is not based on self-control or change in behaviour, but rather a state that arises from recognition and acceptance of thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. Pr...

  9. On Minds' Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Crocco, Prof M

    2004-01-01

    A confluence of clues from a range of academic topics suggests that minds localization in nature consists of relativistically moving microphysical particles, whose motion is physiologically modulated. Here those clues are shown to imply that the localization of the operations of observers (minds or existentialities) in nature are the actions carriers of a force field, which action carriers are slightly slowed from near-c speed motion by electroneurobiological variations in brain physiology – ...

  10. Mind Wandering, Sleep Quality, Affect and Chronotype: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18–50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be

  11. Morphological and Cell Growth Assessment in Near Dense Hydroxyapatite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Edith Wiria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results on the morphology of low porosity hydroxyapatite scaffold and its compatibility as a substrate for osteoblast cells. Although having low porosity, the hydroxyapatite scaffold was found to be capable of sustaining cell growth and thus assisting bone ingrowth. Due to the low porosity nature, the scaffold provides higher strength and therefore more suitable for applications with load-bearing requirements such as spinal spacer. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds are prepared via powder processing techniques, using a combination of wet mixing, powder compaction, and sintering processes. The scaffold porosity is estimated via image analysis and micro-CT, which detect porosity level of approximately 16% and pore size of 13 μm. Cell culture investigation demonstrates that the hydroxyapatite substrate is able to provide favourable cell attachment and collagen matrix production, as compared to the commonly used cell culture control substrates. These results indicate that despite the low porosity in the hydroxyapatite scaffolds, they do not hinder being a preferred substrate to provide conducive environment osteoblast cell growth.

  12. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

  13. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration. PMID:23593566

  14. Design and characterization of microcapsules-integrated collagen matrixes as multifunctional three-dimensional scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesizing Results From Empirical Research on Computer-Based Scaffolding in STEM Education: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R; Walker, Andrew E; Kim, Nam Ju; Lefler, Mason

    2017-04-01

    Computer-based scaffolding assists students as they generate solutions to complex problems, goals, or tasks, helping increase and integrate their higher order skills in the process. However, despite decades of research on scaffolding in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, no existing comprehensive meta-analysis has synthesized the results of these studies. This review addresses that need by synthesizing the results of 144 experimental studies (333 outcomes) on the effects of computer-based scaffolding designed to assist the full range of STEM learners (primary through adult education) as they navigated ill-structured, problem-centered curricula. Results of our random effect meta-analysis (a) indicate that computer-based scaffolding showed a consistently positive (ḡ = 0.46) effect on cognitive outcomes across various contexts of use, scaffolding characteristics, and levels of assessment and (b) shed light on many scaffolding debates, including the roles of customization (i.e., fading and adding) and context-specific support. Specifically, scaffolding's influence on cognitive outcomes did not vary on the basis of context-specificity, presence or absence of scaffolding change, and logic by which scaffolding change is implemented. Scaffolding's influence was greatest when measured at the principles level and among adult learners. Still scaffolding's effect was substantial and significantly greater than zero across all age groups and assessment levels. These results suggest that scaffolding is a highly effective intervention across levels of different characteristics and can largely be designed in many different ways while still being highly effective.

  16. The mind in process: meaning of Chinese Philosophy of mind on mind Ecology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Philosophy directly concerns the issue of mind. There is not only Theory of Mind-Nature, but also many scholars regard Confucianism as the Mind Studies, so that some see Chinese Philosophy as Philosophy of Mind. Human mind is seen as an absolute subject, dominates and concerns everything in the universe, moreover possesses characters of wholeness, introversion, and functions of praxis for growing and developing, so it is not entity of western metaphysics but a being in pro...

  17. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mind, esprit, psychologie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Laugier

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L’A. examine quelques raisons de la difficulté à délimiter un domaine français de la philosophie de l’esprit qui soit l’équivalent de la « philosophy of mind » : définir la « philosophie de l’esprit » aujourd’hui nécessiterait une réflexion préalable sur le statut de l’esprit, et sur les enjeux philosophiques et historiques de la constitution d’une « philosophy of mind », plutôt que l’acceptation non critique de théories du « mental ». L’A. tente de définir le domaine de la « philosophy of mind » et son statut historique et théorique, en revenant aux origines de la philosophie analytique et de la définition de l’esprit (chez Frege et Wittgenstein par la logique et l’usage du langage.The A. studies a few reasons for the difficulties currently encountered by translating the English phrase « philosophy of mind » into French : instead of inventing the artificial expression « Philosophie de l’esprit », and uncritically accepting contemporary theories of mind, it might be better to try to understand what philosophy of mind is and how is was constituted, historically and theoretically. A way to accomplish this may be to return to the origins of analytical philosophy and to Frege’s and Wittgenstein’s conception of the mind as entirely defined by logic, language and its use.

  19. Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Effects of Stress among Adolescents: Rumination as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Reilly, Laura C.; Dickson, Kelsey S.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Updegraff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with greater psychological and physical health. However, the majority of this research has been conducted with adults; research is only beginning to examine the effects of mindfulness among adolescents. Further, research into adolescent mindfulness has typically…

  20. Mindfulness for unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    Undersøgelsen af, hvordan interventionsforløbet Mindfulness for unge virkede, er baseret på kvalitative interview med 24 elever i 9. klasse, som har deltaget i Mindfulness for unge i 8 uger. Resultater: Det fælles mindfulnessforløb i klassen har lært mange af eleverne at kunne bruge deres bevidste...... opmærksomhed til at forholde sig til deres situation, tilstand og muligheder, så de udvikler deres ressourcer i stedet for at blive fanget i afmagt og stress. Det er oplevelser og erfaringer med de praktiske mindfulness-øvelser, der har været særlig betydningsfuldt. Overordnet ser Mindfulness for unge ud til...... at kunne bidrage til at forebygge stress i skolen for en del elever, når mindfulness-instruktørens undervisning følges op og faciliteres af en mindfulnesspraktiserende lærer, der kender klassen og eleverne godt. Interesse og opbakning fra skolens ledelse og elevernes familier er også væsentligt...

  1. Citation patterns and trends of systematic reviews about mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Fazia, Teresa; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Morandi, Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    We performed a citation analysis of the literature about mindfulness aimed at describing the most significant topics and the impact of more relevant papers. We classified 128 systematic reviews about mindfulness-based intervention retrieved in Scopus according to their object, the population included and the type of mindfulness proposed. The citation counting was reported. The cumulative citation numbers per chronological years and article life were analyzed thorough a linear regression model. 1) We observed a general increase in the number of reviews published from 2003 to 2016; 2) two reviews collected the 33% of the overall citations; 3) citation counting for clinical and mixed population collected the 90% of total citations; 4) clinical reviews had higher cumulative citation per publication/year growth. As mindfulness research advances, higher attention should be given to the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions work so as to provide fruitful insights for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  3. Bioinspired scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, Silvia; Madry, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Osteochondral defects are difficult to treat because the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone have dissimilar characteristics and abilities to regenerate. Bioinspired scaffolds are designed to mimic structural and biological cues of the native osteochondral unit, supporting both cartilaginous and subchondral bone repair and the integration of the newly formed osteochondral matrix with the surrounding tissues. The aim of this review is to outline fundamental requirements and strategies for the development of biomimetic scaffolds reproducing the unique and multifaceted anatomical structure of the osteochondral unit. Recent progress in preclinical animal studies using bilayer and multilayer scaffolds, together with continuous gradient scaffolds will be discussed and placed in a translational perspective with data emerging from their clinical application to treat osteochondral defects in patients.

  4. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  5. Decellularized scaffold of cryopreserved rat kidney retains its recellularization potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldeep Chani

    Full Text Available The multi-cellular nature of renal tissue makes it the most challenging organ for regeneration. Therefore, till date whole organ transplantations remain the definitive treatment for the end stage renal disease (ESRD. The shortage of available organs for the transplantation has, thus, remained a major concern as well as an unsolved problem. In this regard generation of whole organ scaffold through decellularization followed by regeneration of the whole organ by recellularization is being viewed as a potential alternative for generating functional tissues. Despite its growing interest, the optimal processing to achieve functional organ still remains unsolved. The biggest challenge remains is the time line for obtaining kidney. Keeping these facts in mind, we have assessed the effects of cryostorage (3 months on renal tissue architecture and its potential for decellularization and recellularization in comparison to the freshly isolated kidneys. The light microscopy exploiting different microscopic stains as well as immuno-histochemistry and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated that ECM framework is well retained following kidney cryopreservation. The strength of these structures was reinforced by calculating mechanical stress which confirmed the similarity between the freshly isolated and cryopreserved tissue. The recellularization of these bio-scaffolds, with mesenchymal stem cells quickly repopulated the decellularized structures irrespective of the kidneys status, i.e. freshly isolated or the cryopreserved. The growth pattern employing mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated their equivalent recellularization potential. Based on these observations, it may be concluded that cryopreserved kidneys can be exploited as scaffolds for future development of functional organ.

  6. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey Mahmood

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90 and Study 3 (N = 61, the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  7. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Lynsey; Hopthrow, Tim; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  8. Mindful Communication: Being Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Kelley, Carol

    2017-12-01

    To review how mindfulness can be elicited in and strategically managed through communication, with a goal toward enhancing the patient/family relationship in the experience of cancer care. Published, peer-reviewed literature, research reports, and Web-based resources. Mindful communication, an active process whereby the health care provider and patient /family unit are attentive to the timing, nature, and context of the dialogue exchange, helps direct care that is patient-centered, reflective, and relational. Oncology nurses using a patient-centered approach to communication will be more equipped to use mindfulness-based strategies that can potentially shift the way cancer care is delivered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The embodied mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s the study of the brain has developed from a primarily biological field to a significant interdisciplinary area with an already strong influence on the humanities and social sciences. In this article I describe fundamental elements in what I call the embodied mind paradigm and the ......Since the 1980s the study of the brain has developed from a primarily biological field to a significant interdisciplinary area with an already strong influence on the humanities and social sciences. In this article I describe fundamental elements in what I call the embodied mind paradigm...... and the new understanding of the relation between mind, body and emotions. The new paradigm challenges certain notions of constructivism in the humanities and social sciences, but also opens up very fruitful venues for new interdisciplinary research. The article deals with such possibilities in linguistics...

  10. The effects of different crossing-linking conditions of genipin on type I collagen scaffolds: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Chen, Xueying; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Naili; Dong, Li; Ma, Shaoying; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Mo; Li, Baoxing

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the properties of fabricating rat tail type I collagen scaffolds cross-linked with genipin under different conditions. The porous genipin cross-linked scaffolds are obtained through a two step freeze-drying process. To find out the optimal cross-link condition, we used different genipin concentrations and various cross-linked temperatures to prepare the scaffolds in this study. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated under dynamic compression. Additionally, the cross-linking degree was assessed by ninhydrin assay. To investigate the swelling ratio and the in vitro degradation of the collagen scaffold, the tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in a PBS solution or digestion in a type I collagenase respectively. The morphologies of the non-cross-linked scaffolds presented a lattice-like structure while the cross-linked ones displayed a sheet-like framework. The morphology of the genipin cross-linked scaffolds could be significantly changed by either increasing genipin concentration or the temperature. The swelling ratio of each cross-linked scaffold was much lower than that of the control (non-cross-linked).The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the higher temperature and genipin concentration could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The in vitro degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively elevate the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rat chondrocytes on the scaffold in vitro and by MTT. The results of MTT and the fact that the chondrocytes adhered well to the scaffolds demonstrated that genipin cross-linked scaffolds possessed an excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. Based on these results, 0.3 % genipin concentrations and 37 °C cross-linked temperatures are

  11. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chou, Chia-Fu [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  12. Design and criteria of electrospun fibrous scaffolds for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vigani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex pathophysiology of spinal cord injury may explain the current lack of an effective therapeutic approach for the regeneration of damaged neuronal cells and the recovery of motor functions. Many efforts have been performed to design and develop suitable scaffolds for spinal cord regeneration, keeping in mind that the reconstruction of a pro-regenerative environment is the key challenge for an effective neurogenesis. The aim of this review is to outline the main features of an ideal scaffold, based on biomaterials, produced by the electrospinning technique and intended for the spinal cord regeneration. An overview of the polymers more investigated in the production of neural fibrous scaffolds is also provided.

  13. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity...... in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind...

  14. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  15. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention....... However, it is expensive, obtrusive and produces huge amount of data. Besides, eye-tracking do not give access to user's mind. Capturing interface/cursor tracking may be cost effective. It is easy to install, data collection is automatic and unobtrusive and replaying the captured recording to the user...

  16. Mindfulness, Multitasking, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The ability to multitask has been typically worn like a badge of honor for all case managers. Mindfulness, on the contrary, is the new kid on the block and is proving to increase resilience and decrease stress. Research shows that multitasking lowers IQ, shrinks the gray matter, and lowers productivity by 40%. Conversely, mindfulness increases gray matter and improves regions involved with learning and memory processes, modulation of emotional control, and the process of awareness. The research leaves more questions than answers but may be a key to engaged, focused, and less-stressed staff.

  17. Polycaprolactone foam functionalized with chitosan microparticles - a suitable scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filová, E; Jakubcová, B; Danilová, I; KuŽelová Košťáková, E; Jarošíková, T; Chernyavskiy, O; Hejda, J; Handl, M; Beznoska, J; Nečas, A; Rosina, J; Amler, E

    2016-01-01

    For biodegradable porous scaffolds to have a potential application in cartilage regeneration, they should enable cell growth and differentiation and should have adequate mechanical properties. In this study, our aim was to prepare biocompatible scaffolds with improved biomechanical properties. To this end, we have developed foam scaffolds from poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) with incorporated chitosan microparticles. The scaffolds were prepared by a salt leaching technique from either 10 or 15 wt% PCL solutions containing 0, 10 and 20 wt% chitosan microparticles, where the same amount and size of NaCl was used as a porogen in all the cases. PCL scaffolds without and with low amounts of chitosan (0 and 10 wt% chitosan) showed higher DNA content than scaffolds with high amounts of chitosan during a 22-day experiment. 10 wt% PCL with 10 and 20 wt% chitosan showed significantly increased viscoelastic properties compared to 15 wt% PCL scaffolds with 0 and 10 wt% chitosan. Thus, 10 wt% PCL scaffolds with 0 wt% and 10 wt% chitosan are potential scaffolds for cartilage regeneration.

  18. Modulus of elasticity of randomly and aligned polymeric scaffolds with fiber size dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yuan, Bo; Han, Ray P S

    2017-09-20

    The stiffness of a nano-fibrous scaffold is generally enhanced due to the size-dependency of the thin nanofibers contained in the scaffold. We proposed a model that incorporates size-dependency of single nanofibers to predict the scaffold effective modulus, in which the fibers' random or orientation distribution are considered. In the model the fiber segments between rigid fiber-fiber bonds can be stretching, shearing and bending. Using deformation energy equilibrium between sum of individual fibers and the plate of nano-fibrous scaffold, the scaffold effective modulus was derived explicitly. The model was verified via finite element analysis (FEA) and published experimental results. The parametric studies revealed that the fiber diameter is the dominant parameter to stiffen the scaffold beyond the fiber density and fiber aspect ratio when the fiber diameter is reduced below the onset value of size-dependencies. As a result, the scaffold stiffness can maintain its higher value and lower decrease rate because of the size-dependency with a decreasing diameter of the nanofiber as a result of biodegradation. This inspires the idea of selecting nanofibers near the onset value of size-dependency to obtain a controlled tuning of the scaffold stiffness in the design of novel nano-fibrous scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PEDOT:PSS-Containing Nanohydroxyapatite/Chitosan Conductive Bionanocomposite Scaffold: Fabrication and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Lari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(4-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS was incorporated into nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHA/CS composite scaffolds through a freezing and lyophilization technique. The bionanocomposite conductive scaffold was then characterized using several techniques. A scanning electron microscope image showed that the nHA and PEDOT:PSS were dispersed homogeneously in the chitosan matrix, which was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The conductive properties were measured using a digital multimeter. The weight loss and water-uptake properties of the bionanocomposite scaffolds were studied in vitro. An in vitro cell cytotoxicity test was carried out using mouse fibroblast (L929 cells cultured onto the scaffolds. Using a freezing and lyophilization technique, it was possible to fabricate three-dimensional, highly porous, and interconnected PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffolds with good handling properties. The porosity was 74% and the scaffold’s conductivity was 9.72±0.78 μS. The surface roughness was increased with the incorporation of nHA and PEDOT:PSS into the CS scaffold. The compressive mechanical properties increased significantly with the incorporation of nHA but did not change significantly with the incorporation of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS-containing nHA/CS scaffold exhibited significantly higher cell attachment. The PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffold could be a potential bionanocomposite conductive scaffold for tissue engineering.

  20. Biofunctionalization of nonwoven complex oriented scaffolds with distinct differentiation molecules for the directed tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, L. V.; Krivkina, E. O.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Sevostyanova, V. V.; Burago, A. Yu.; Burkov, N. N.; Hryachkova, O. N.; Velikanova, E. A.; Matveeva, V. G.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    In our research we tested electrospun scaffolds prepared from poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PCL) with and without the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the stromal-derived growth factor-lα (SDF-lα). Chemoattractant activity of VEGF and SDF-lα was evaluated on an endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 using in vitro migration assay. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed by implanting them into the rat pericardial sac. After 4 days of culturing, we found that the number of cells migrated to the PHBV/PCL/VEGF and PHBV/PCL/SDF-lα scaffolds was 1.4 and 1.35-fold higher, respectively, compared to the PHBV/PCL scaffolds (p < 0.05). Implantation of the scaffolds for 3 months did not cause any local or systemic inflammatory reaction. Histological examination revealed active neoangiogenesis in the PHBV/PCL/VEGF scaffolds and adjacent tissues. In addition, we detected active cell infiltration and production of extracellular matrix in the PHBV/PCL/SDF-lα scaffolds. Therefore, VEGF and SDF-lα retained their bioactivity after being incorporated into the PHBV/PCL scaffolds. We suggest biofunctionalization of the PHBV/PCL scaffolds with VEGF and SDF-lα as an appropriate approach for regenerative medicine.

  1. Effects of ß-TCP scaffolds on neurogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Pressler, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds. Histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the scaffolds supported growth and differentiation of hESCs. Expression levels of neural crest related genes (AP2a, FoxD3, HNK1, P75, Sox1, Sox10) and osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, SPP1 and BGLA) on the scaffolds in osteogenic medium were significantly higher than on the scaffolds in growth and cell culture plates in osteogenic medium, respectively (pTCP scaffolds promoted differentiation of hESCs, particularly expression of genes related to neural crest stem cell and osteoblastic differentiations. Beta-TCP scaffolds could be an alternative cell culture substrate for neural crest and osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. Optimization of culture medium may be necessary to enhance lineage restriction of hESCs on the ß-TCP scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  3. Making Minds Matter: Infusing Mindfulness into School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadlock-Marlo, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for the integration of mindfulness interventions into school counseling. Mindfulness practices currently are neither widely known nor well utilized in the school counseling environment. Implementation of mindfulness in schools may help students increase academic performance, develop social…

  4. The Politics of Mindfulness. A Response to "Mindfulness, Democracy, Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…

  5. A comparison of scaffold-free and scaffold-based reconstructed human skin models as alternatives to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste

    2017-12-01

    Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM). The resulting full-thickness human skin substitutes were analysed by means of histological and immunohistochemical analyses. It was found that both the scaffold-free and the scaffold-based skin equivalents successfully mimicked the functionality and morphology of native skin, with complete epidermal differentiation (as determined by the expression of filaggrin), the presence of a continuous basement membrane expressing collagen VII, and new ECM deposition by dermal fibroblasts. On the other hand, the scaffold-free model had a thicker epidermis and a significantly higher number of Ki67-positive proliferative cells, indicating a higher capacity for self-renewal, as compared to the scaffold-based model. 2017 FRAME.

  6. Mindfulness handler ikke om individualisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden

    2013-01-01

    Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen.......Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen....

  7. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  8. Mindfulness-baseret kognitiv terapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Anne Maj; Piet, Jacob; Møller, Anne Buch

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidencebased psychotherapeutic intervention, which integrates elements of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression with the clinical application of mindfulness meditation. MBCT is currently recommended in several national clinical guidelines...

  9. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  10. Nanoclay-Enriched Poly(ɛ-caprolactone) Electrospun Scaffolds for Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Karaca, Elif; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Patel, Alpesh; Rangarajan, Kaushik; Mihaila, Silvia M.; Iviglia, Giorgio; Zhang, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal tissue engineering aims at repairing and regenerating damaged tissues using biological tissue substitutes. One approach to achieve this aim is to develop osteoconductive scaffolds that facilitate the formation of functional bone tissue. We have fabricated nanoclay-enriched electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). A range of electrospun scaffolds is fabricated by varying the nanoclay concentrations within the PCL scaffolds. The addition of nanoclay decreases fiber diameter and increases surface roughness of electrospun fibers. The enrichment of PCL scaffold with nanoclay promotes in vitro biomineralization when subjected to simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating bioactive characteristics of the hybrid scaffolds. The degradation rate of PCL increases due to the addition of nanoclay. In addition, a significant increase in crystallization temperature of PCL is also observed due to enhanced surface interactions between PCL and nanoclay. The effect of nanoclay on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibers is also evaluated. The feasibility of using nanoclay-enriched PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering applications is investigated in vitro using hMSCs. The nanoclay-enriched electrospun PCL scaffolds support hMSCs adhesion and proliferation. The addition of nanoclay significantly enhances osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on the electrospun scaffolds as evident by an increase in alkaline phosphates activity of hMSCs and higher deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix compared to PCL scaffolds. Given its unique bioactive characteristics, nanoclay-enriched PCL fibrous scaffold may be used for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:24842693

  11. Materializing Mind: The Role of Objects in Cognition and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; McGraw, John J.

    2014-01-01

    experimentation, (4) to enable the division of cognitive labor, (5) to promote confidence and trust, (6) to consolidate social structure, and (7) to support dialogical coupling. We conclude that through cultural practices the stable, “manipulable”, and public properties of objects have come to afford......If mind is investigated as the set of interactions that accomplish a cognitive task, that is, if mind is more than that which occurs inside the head, then how does the interplay of biological and environmental resources produce human cognition? Informed by active externalism, joint action......, and distributed cognition, we review and classify a set of cognitive processes mediated by material representations. Specifically, we ask how—in a range of everyday cognitive and cultural practices—we employ objects (1) to scaffold memory, (2) to alter cognitive complexity, (3) to facilitate epistemic...

  12. Minding Our Metaphors in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    If educators presuppose that brain and mind are synonymous, perhaps it is out of necessity. Such an equivalency might be required in order for mind to be accessible, knowable and a "thing" like the brain is. Such a presupposition, that mind is a thing which we can understand nonetheless rests on an insecure foundation. As suggested by…

  13. Mindful ouderschap: werkboek voor ouders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Restifo, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dit werkboek bevat de oefeningen van de cursus Mindful Parenting. Dit is een methode die u helpt om stress in de opvoeding te verminderen en de relatie tussen u en uw kind te verbeteren. Onderzoek van de Universiteit van Amsterdam heeft aangetoond dat Mindful Parenting werkt! Mindful Ouderschap:

  14. Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Chris eNoone; Brendan eBunting; Michael John Hogan

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness originated in the Buddhist tradition as a way of cultivating clarity of thought. Despite the fact that this behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments, no studies have examined the effects of mindfulness on critical thinking or the mechanisms underlying any such possible relationship. Even so, mindfulness has been suggested as being beneficial for critical thinking in higher education. Critical thinking is recognised as an important higher-order cognitive proce...

  15. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  16. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  17. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  18. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  19. Of mind and matter…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durston, S.

    2012-01-01

    I also have a second and more serious goal in mind for this address: Imagine –if you will - a child with a developmental disorder, a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD, for example. He – because ADHD is more prevalent in boys - has symptoms that make his life difficult. He

  20. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    STATEMENT Recent findings have demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly reduces pain. Given that the “gold standard” for evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions is based on appropriate placebo comparisons, it is imperative that we establish whether there is an effect supporting meditation-related pain relief above and beyond the effects of placebo. Here, we provide novel evidence demonstrating that mindfulness meditation produces greater pain relief and employs distinct neural mechanisms than placebo cream and sham mindfulness meditation. Specifically, mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief activated higher-order brain regions, including the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with decreased pain-related brain activation. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation reduces pain through unique mechanisms and may foster greater acceptance of meditation as an adjunct pain therapy. PMID:26586819

  1. Both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggressiveness via anger rumination: A multilevel mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Peters, Jessica R; Pond, Richard S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, predicts lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates state mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and state increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and state mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and state mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and state mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and state levels. Mindfulness facets predicted anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger.

  2. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, S. Hajir, E-mail: hajirb@aut.ac.ir [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for excellence Modern Textile Characterization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. - Highlights: • A new skin tissue engineering scaffold from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gum tragacanth (GT) has been developed. • These scaffolds might be an effectual simulator of the structure and composition of native skin. • Very slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. • Biodegradation, water uptake and hydrophilicity properties of these scaffolds showed that produced scaffolds were adherent. • The electrospun PCL/GT scaffold can promote the skin regeneration of full

  3. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  4. Raloxifene microsphere-embedded collagen/chitosan/β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for effective bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Lei; Cheng, Ji; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Feng, Xu

    2017-02-25

    Engineering novel scaffolds that can mimic the functional extracellular matrix (ECM) would be a great achievement in bone tissue engineering. This paper reports the fabrication of novel collagen/chitosan/β-tricalcium phosphate (CCTP) based tissue engineering scaffold. In order to improve the regeneration ability of scaffold, we have embedded raloxifene (RLX)-loaded PLGA microsphere in the CCTP scaffold. The average pore of scaffold was in the range of 150-200μm with ideal mechanical strength and swelling/degradation characteristics. The release rate of RLX from the microsphere (MS) embedded scaffold was gradual and controlled. Also a significantly enhanced cell proliferation was observed in RLX-MS exposed cell group suggesting that microsphere/scaffold could be an ideal biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Specifically, RLX-MS showed a significantly higher Alizarin red staining indicating the higher mineralization capacity of this group. Furthermore, a high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity for RLX-MS exposed group after 15days incubation indicates the bone regeneration capacity of MC3T3-E1 cells. Overall, present study showed that RLX-loaded microsphere embedded scaffold has the promising potential for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. 3D porous collagen scaffolds reinforced by glycation with ribose for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostynska, Natalia; Shankar Krishnakumar, Gopal; Campodoni, Elisabetta; Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Sprio, Simone; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Tampieri, Anna; Sandri, Monica

    2017-08-21

    In this study, ribose was proposed as a promising, non-toxic, low-cost crosslinker to enhance the structural integrity and stiffness of type I collagen matrices. The main objective was to determine the optimal conditions of glycation by ribose to fabricate 3D porous collagen scaffolds and to verify their effectiveness for use as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, by physicochemical and biological characterization. Two different crosslinking strategies were investigated including variation in the amount of ribose and the time of reaction: pre-crosslinking (PRE) and post-crosslinking (POST). All ribose-glycated collagen scaffolds demonstrated good swelling properties and interconnected porous microstructure suitable for cell growth and colonization. The POST samples were superior to PRE, in terms of porosity, degree of crosslinking, fluid uptake ability, and resistance to enzymatic digestion. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were significantly improved upon glycation when compared to non-crosslinked collagen, manifesting the best performance for POST matrices crosslinked for 5 d and in the highest amount of sugar. In vitro studies analyzing cell-material interactions revealed scaffold cytocompatibility with higher cell viability and cell proliferation as well as higher glycosaminoglycan secretion for POST scaffolds with respect to PRE. This report demonstrated the feasibility of developing 3D collagen scaffolds by ribose glycation and highlighted the POST-crosslinking strategy as being more favorable than the PRE-crosslinking to achieve scaffolds suitable for cartilage regeneration.

  6. Making time for mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, James; Blandford, Ann

    2016-12-01

    Digital mental wellbeing interventions are increasingly being used by the general public as well as within clinical treatment. Among these, mindfulness and meditation programs delivered through mobile device applications are gaining popularity. However, little is known about how people use and experience such applications and what are the enabling factors and barriers to effective use. To address this gap, the study reported here sought to understand how users adopt and experience a popular mobile-based mindfulness intervention. A qualitative semi-structured interview study was carried out with 16 participants aged 25-38 (M=32.5) using the commercially popular mindfulness application Headspace for 30-40days. All participants were employed and living in a large UK city. The study design and interview schedule were informed by an autoethnography carried out by the first author for thirty days before the main study began. Results were interpreted in terms of the Reasoned Action Approach to understand behaviour change. The core concern of users was fitting the application into their busy lives. Use was also influenced by patterns in daily routines, on-going reflections about the consequences of using the app, perceived self-efficacy, emotion and mood states, personal relationships and social norms. Enabling factors for use included positive attitudes towards mindfulness and use of the app, realistic expectations and positive social influences. Barriers to use were found to be busy lifestyles, lack of routine, strong negative emotions and negative perceptions of mindfulness. Mobile wellbeing interventions should be designed with consideration of people's beliefs, affective states and lifestyles, and should be flexible to meet the needs of different users. Designers should incorporate features in the design of applications that manage expectations about use and that support users to fit app use into a busy lifestyle. The Reasoned Action Approach was found to be a useful

  7. Mindfulness and Self-deliverance to Pure Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary (Western literature on mindfulness many authors present it as only a mental practice, which may bring one to a more successful and effective working of the mind, as well as different kinds of mental concentration. However, at least in part of Buddhist literature mindfulness is taken as an inseparable part of the Eightfold Way, and not as a means to achieve a separate mental aim. Another important emphasis of Mahayana Buddhism is that mindfulness does not aim at something new, but instead leads our awareness towards a deeper origin, which has already been present with us. While the initial form of mindfulness clings to various methods and achievements, the higher form lies bare in the present moment, always ready to reveal itself. When we are ready to let go of all that we achieve and do, we can surrender our being to the here and now.

  8. A semiotic model of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, D D

    2000-01-01

    A theory of signs is presented to arrive at a model of mind that provides a smooth transition from inanimate matter to the thinking brain. Principles of information theory and semiotics are invoked to create a conceptual scheme that can contribute to an understanding of the "mind-body problem." The thesis is pursued that in living systems, as opposed to inorganic ones, there occurs the phenomenon of semiotic transmission of information. The result is a "dualistic-materialist" position; the dualism arises from the fact that at the beginning of life a set of processes comes into being different from those of the inorganic world. This model has implications for psychology and psychoanalysis. It allows for semiotic systems at different levels--e.g., the molecular, the neural network, the language system, and higher mental functions--to be integrated. Analytic concepts such as free association, clinical technique, feedback systems, personality structure, transference, and repetition compulsions can be understood in both biological and semiotic terms. This model interdigitates with linguistic studies already done in psychoanalysis, as well as with biological models extrinsic to the field.

  9. Teaching physics novices at university: A case for stronger scaffolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lindstrøm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 a new type of tutorial, called Map Meeting, was successfully trialled with novice first year physics students at the University of Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, in first semester 2007 a large-scale experiment was carried out with 262 students who were allocated either to the strongly scaffolding Map Meetings or to the less scaffolding Workshop Tutorials, which have been run at the University of Sydney since 1995. In this paper we describe what makes Map Meetings more scaffolding than Workshop Tutorials—where the level of scaffolding represents the main difference between the two tutorial types. Using a mixed methods approach to triangulate results, we compare the success of the two with respect to both student tutorial preference and examination performance. In summary, Map Meetings had a higher retention rate and received more positive feedback from students—students liked the strongly scaffolding environment and felt that it better helped them understand physics. A comparison of final examination performances of students who had attended at least 10 out of 12 tutorials revealed that only 11% of Map Meeting students received less than 30 out of 90 marks compared to 21% of Workshop Tutorial students, whereas there were no differences amongst high-achieving students. Map Meetings was therefore particularly successful in helping low-achieving novices learn physics.

  10. Mechanical anisotropy of titanium scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegg Jasmine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical performance of an implant, e.g. for the treatment of large bone defects, depends on the implant material, anchorage, surface topography and chemistry, but also on the mechanical properties, like the stiffness. The latter can be adapted by the porosity. Whereas foams show isotropic mechanical properties, digitally modelled scaffolds can be designed with anisotropic behaviour. In this study, we designed and produced 3D scaffolds based on an orthogonal architecture and studied its angle-dependent stiffness. The aim was to produce scaffolds with different orientations of the microarchitecture by selective laser melting and compare the angle-specific mechanical behaviour with an in-silico simulation. The anisotropic characteristics of open-porous implants and technical limitations of the production process were studied.

  11. Molecular Recognition within Synaptic Scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon

    function. At the molecular level PICK1 contains both a BAR and a PDZ domain making it quite unique. Especially the specificity and promiscuity of the PICK1 PDZ domain seems to be more complicated than normally seen for PDZ domains. Also, the ability of PICK1 to form dimeric structures via its central BAR...... by the spatial architecture of the synapse itself. In this thesis, the molecular scaffolding mechanisms of PICK1 have been investigated in both isolated and near native conditions. Our findings have significantly benefitted the general understanding of how PICK1 and PDZ domain scaffolding works. In the first......-inhibitory mechanism of PICK1 and allows the N-BAR domains or the PDZ domains themselves to cluster and shape membranes. Finally, we utilized our in-solution structural knowledge to investigate the scaffolding events in context of a native cell membrane. We initially showed that we were able to qualitatively assess...

  12. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaine, Marie; San-Galli, Aurore; Trapanese, Cinzia; Bardino, Giulia; Hano, Christelle; Saint Jalme, Michel; Bouret, Sebastien; Masi, Shelly; Daunizeau, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded). However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity) or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity) are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees) engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver). Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size). Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  13. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  14. In vivo drug release behavior and osseointegration of a doxorubicin-loaded tissue-engineered scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ming; Chen, Muwan; Wang, Miao

    2016-01-01

    the plasma DOX concentrations. The evaluation of osseointegration showed increased mineralized bone formation, unmineralized collagen fibers and significantly higher alpha Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) positive areas relative to total investigated area (TA) in defects treated solely with the DESCLAYMR scaffold...... than in the DESCLAYMR_DOX; and Alkaline phosphatase activity, α-SMA/TA and bone formation were higher in the DESCLAYMR loaded with 100 μg/scaffold DOX (DOX_low) than with 400 μg/scaffold DOX (DOX_high). Our results suggest that the DESCLAYMR_DOX can be a viable candidate as a multifunctional medical...

  15. Preparation and characterization of biohybrid poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) based nanofibrous scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhi, Monireh; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Shamanian, Morteza; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2018-01-01

    Development of bioengineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is a growing area of research, especially those involving biodegradable electrospun nanofibers incorporated with ceramic nanoparticles, since they can mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native bone. In the current study, a biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds consisting of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), fibrinogen (FIB) and bredigite (BR) nanoparticles was fabricated through electrospinning. The morphological, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the resultant scaffolds were studied by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile tester, respectively. It was found that PHBV-FIB-BR scaffolds exhibited enhanced tensile strength and young modulus compared to PHBV and PHBV-FIB scaffolds. In addition, the measurements of the water contact angle suggested that incorporation of bredigite and fibrinogen into PHBV could improve the hydrophilicity of the composites. The results of bioactivity assessment performed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrated that the presence of the bredigite nanoparticles induced the nucleation and growth of apatite layer on the surface of PHBV-FIB-BR scaffold in SBF. Furthermore, the ion concentration changes of SBF solutions with composite scaffolds showed that PHBV-FIB-BR scaffolds released Ca and Si ions, which can stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The results of cell culture studies revealed the higher osteoblast proliferation, mineralization and differentiation on PHBV-FIB-BR and PHBV-FIB scaffolds than on PHBV. Our results suggest that PHBV-FIB-BR nanofibrous scaffold would be a promising candidate as a biocomposite nanofibrous scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  16. Hybrid Carbon-Based Scaffolds for Applications in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafdi, Khalid; Joseph, Robert M.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

    2012-01-01

    Current biomedical scaffolds utilized in surgery to repair soft tissues commonly fail to meet the optimal combination of biomechanical and tissue regenerative properties. Carbon is a scaffold alternative that potentially optimizes the balance between mechanical strength, durability, and function as a cell and biologics delivery vehicle that is necessary to restore tissue function while promoting tissue repair. The goals of this study were to investigate the feasibility of fabricating hybrid fibrous carbon scaffolds modified with biopolymer, polycaprolactone and to analyze their mechanical properties and ability to support cell growth and proliferation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography, and cell adhesion and cell proliferation studies were utilized to test scaffold suitability as a cell delivery vehicle. Mechanical properties were tested to examine load failure and elastic modulus. Results were compared to an acellular dermal matrix scaffold control (GraftJacket® [GJ] Matrix), selected for its common use in surgery for the repair of soft tissues. Results indicated that carbon scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical maximums and capacity to support fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in comparison with GJ. Fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was collinear with carbon fiber orientation in regions of sparsely distributed fibers and occurred in clusters in regions of higher fiber density and low porosity. Overall, fibroblast adhesion and proliferation was greatest in lower porosity carbon scaffolds with highly aligned fibers. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that the variability in maximum load of carbon scaffolds and controls were dependent on unique and separate sets of parameters. These finding suggested that there were significant differences in the functional implications of scaffold design and material properties between carbon and dermis derived scaffolds that affect scaffold utility as a tissue replacement

  17. Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Min Wang

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial and scaffold development underpins the advancement of tissue engineering. Traditional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) are weak and non-osteoconductive. For bone tissue engineering, polymer-based composite scaffolds containing bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite can be produced and used. The bioceramics can be either incorporated in the scaffolds as a dispersed secondary phase or form a thin coating on the po...

  18. Reappraisal and Mindfulness: A Comparison of Subjective Effects and Cognitive Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Robins, Clive J.; Smoski, Moria J.; Dagenbach, Jana; Leary, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness and reappraisal in reducing sad mood and whether trait mindfulness and habitual reappraisal moderated the effects. The study also compared the extent to which implementation of these strategies incurred cognitive resources. A total of 129 participants were randomly assigned to receiving training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or no training prior to undergoing an autobiographical sad mood induction. Results showed that mindfulness and reappraisal were superior to no training, and equivalent in their effects in lowering sad mood. Compared to mindfulness, reappraisal resulted in significantly higher interference scores on a subsequent Stroop test, reflecting greater depletion of cognitive resources. Higher trait mindfulness, but not habitual reappraisal, predicted greater reductions in sadness across conditions. The study suggests that although mindfulness and reappraisal are equally effective in down-regulating sad mood, they incur different levels of cognitive costs. PMID:24225174

  19. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process. PMID:26393507

  20. Multifunctional magnetic nanostructured hardystonite scaffold for hyperthermia, drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Ali; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Emadi, Rahmatollah

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia and local drug delivery have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches for killing cancer cells. The development of bioactive materials such as Hardystonite (HT) with magnetic and drug delivery properties can potentially meet this target. This new class of magnetic bioceramic can replace the widely used magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, whose long-term biocompatibility is not clear. Magnetic HT can be potentially employed to develop new ceramic scaffolds for bone surgery and anticancer therapies. With this in mind, a synthesis procedure was developed to prepare multifunctional bioactive scaffold for tissue engineering, hyperthermia and drug delivery applications. To this end, iron (Fe(3+))-containing HT scaffolds were prepared. The effect of Fe on biological, magnetic and drug delivery properties of HT scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that obtained Fe-HT is bioactive and magnetic with no magnetite or maghemite as secondary phases. The Fe-HT scaffolds obtained also possessed high specific surface areas and demonstrated sustained drug delivery. These results potentially open new aspects for biomaterials aimed at regeneration of large-bone defects caused by malignant bone tumors through a combination of hyperthermia, local drug delivery and osteoconductivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scaffolding Singaporean Students to Write Vividly in the Chinese ‘Mother Tongue’, Mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzemin Chung

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper details results from a three-year study investigating how to help students in Singapore write vivid compositions in Mandarin, the Chinese ‘mother tongue’. Mastery of the mother tongue by Singaporean students has become an important government priority in recent years. The strategies employed by this study included the use of information and communications technology (ICT mediated scaffolds such as collaborative mind maps and online peer editing to help students learn micro-writing strategies. This paper outlines the process of using various scaffolds to support students to learn and apply the action chain micro-writing strategy. A class of 31 Primary 4 from a neighbourhood school participated in this study. Findings indicated that students were very enthusiastic about writing in the ICT-mediated environment. Contrary to the teacher’s initial belief, students could be scaffolded to write action chains quickly. Findings highlighted the potential of scaffolding students in learning small chunks of writing strategy in an ICT-mediated environment that enabled them to practice these strategies in their composition writing until they could master and apply them. These micro-writing strategies gradually built up to a complex set of skills, including expressive writing. Moreover, students enjoyed working in groups and editing their peers’ work online. This showed that peers could be engaged as scaffolders in the classroom to free up the teacher’ time, allowing the teacher more time to spend with students who were not performing well.

  2. The distracted mind on the wheel: Overall propensity to mind wandering is associated with road crash responsibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Gil-Jardiné

    Full Text Available The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations and (ii mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015. Responsibility for the crash, mind wandering (trait/state, external distraction, alcohol use, psychotropic drug use, and sleep deprivation were evaluated. Based on questionnaire reports, 39% of respondents were classified with a mind wandering trait and 13% reported a disturbing thought just before the crash. While strongly correlated, mind wandering state and trait were independently associated with responsibility for a traffic crash (State: OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.64-3.83 and Trait: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22-2.16 respectively. Self-report of distracting thoughts therefore did not capture the entire risk associated with the propensity of the mind to wander, either because of under-reported thoughts and/or other deleterious mechanisms to be further explored.

  3. Nonviral Gene Delivery from Nonwoven Fibrous Scaffolds Fabricated by Interfacial Complexation of Polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shawn H.; Liao, I-Chien; Leong, Kam W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated a novel nonwoven fibrous scaffold as a vehicle for delivery of DNA. Fibers were formed by polyelectrolyte complexation of water-soluble chitin and alginate, and PEI–DNA nanoparticles were encapsulated during the fiber drawing process. Nanoparticles released from the fibers over time retained their bioactivity and successfully transfected cells seeded on the scaffold in a sustained manner. Transgene expression in HEK293 cells and human dermal fibroblasts seeded on the transfecting scaffolds was significant even after 2 weeks of culture compared to 3-day expression in two-dimensional controls. Fibroblasts seeded on scaffolds containing DNA encoding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) demonstrated prolonged secretion of bFGF at levels significantly higher than baseline. This work establishes the potential of this fibrous scaffold as a matrix capable of delivering genes to direct and support cellular development in tissue engineering. PMID:16497560

  4. Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  5. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Zhao

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05. Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

  6. Other minds embodied

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    I distinguish three kinds of other minds problems—conceptual, epistemological and empirical. I argue that while Merleau-Ponty believes embodiment helps with tackling the conceptual and epistemological problems, he suggests that it is of no clear use in solving (an important variant of) the empiri......I distinguish three kinds of other minds problems—conceptual, epistemological and empirical. I argue that while Merleau-Ponty believes embodiment helps with tackling the conceptual and epistemological problems, he suggests that it is of no clear use in solving (an important variant of......) the empirical problem. I sketch some considerations that could lend support to Merleau-Ponty’s claims about the conceptual and epistemological problems, without claiming that these are conclusive. I then proceed to argue that Merleau-Ponty’s take on the empirical problem is essentially correct....

  7. Science of the Mind**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, C.

    2012-01-01

    The popular concept and practice of science as an exclusively objective exercise ignores the study of rich and unavoidable subjective phenomena relating to mind. This article proposes that as a process of generating knowledge from perceptual experiences, science-skill is innate to man, which demands precision and effective management of bias, and relies on faith for communication. It manifests in man along two dimensions, one of precision and the other of need and interest. Two more dimensions influence its practice and communicability. This dimensionality accommodates scientific study of diverse human experiences, including religion and spirituality. Evolution of scientific study of mind requires complementing the existing objective techniques with development of techniques for investigating subjective and intuitive experiences. It would also benefit by borrowing concepts and methodologies from ancient Indian philosophies and spiritual practices. Swami Vivekananda's observations are presented in this connection. PMID:22654386

  8. Science of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, C

    2012-01-01

    The popular concept and practice of science as an exclusively objective exercise ignores the study of rich and unavoidable subjective phenomena relating to mind. This article proposes that as a process of generating knowledge from perceptual experiences, science-skill is innate to man, which demands precision and effective management of bias, and relies on faith for communication. It manifests in man along two dimensions, one of precision and the other of need and interest. Two more dimensions influence its practice and communicability. This dimensionality accommodates scientific study of diverse human experiences, including religion and spirituality. Evolution of scientific study of mind requires complementing the existing objective techniques with development of techniques for investigating subjective and intuitive experiences. It would also benefit by borrowing concepts and methodologies from ancient Indian philosophies and spiritual practices. Swami Vivekananda's observations are presented in this connection.

  9. Mind, esprit, psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Laugier

    2013-01-01

    L’A. examine quelques raisons de la difficulté à délimiter un domaine français de la philosophie de l’esprit qui soit l’équivalent de la « philosophy of mind » : définir la « philosophie de l’esprit » aujourd’hui nécessiterait une réflexion préalable sur le statut de l’esprit, et sur les enjeux philosophiques et historiques de la constitution d’une « philosophy of mind », plutôt que l’acceptation non critique de théories du « mental ». L’A. tente de définir le domaine de la « philosophy of mi...

  10. Designing, Prototyping and Evaluating Digital Mindfulness Applications: A Case Study of Mindful Breathing for Stress Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Hedman, Anders; Feng, Shuo; Li, Haibo; Osika, Walter

    2017-06-14

    silent and sonified HU. The mean value of HR using silent HU was significantly lower than resting baseline and sonified HU. The mean value of root mean square of differences (RMSSD) using silent HU was significantly higher than resting baseline. We found that the differences between our objective and subjective assessments were intriguing and prompted us to investigate them further. Our evaluation of HU indicated that HU could facilitate relaxed breathing and stress reduction. There was a difference in outcome between the physiological measures of stress and the subjective reports of stress, as well as a large intervariability among study participants. Our conclusion is that the use of stress reduction tools should be customized and that the design work of mindfulness technology for stress reduction is a complex process, which requires cooperation of designers, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) experts and clinicians.

  11. Metaphilosophy of Mind: how Do Minds Investigate Minds? Refutation of the Theocentric View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind. I shall then combine these distinctions to arrive at several ways of investigating the mind, the brain and cognition. On this ground, I will discuss the notion of epistemological theocentrism as outlined by Henry Allison and argue against the perspective I call theocentric philosophy of mind. From this angle I will be able to address skepticism which cannot be defeated but actually can be, as I put it, disarmed. Finally, metaphilosophy of mind based on the abovementioned distinctions elicits a perspective that is not sufficiently delineated by cognitive scientists and philosophers: empirical way of addressing the boundary questions of mind.

  12. Scaffolds for bone regeneration made of hydroxyapatite microspheres in a collagen matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholas, Rahmatullah, E-mail: rahmat.cholas@gmail.com; Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan, Sanosh, E-mail: sanosh2001@gmail.com; Gervaso, Francesca; Udayan, Gayatri; Monaco, Graziana; Sannino, Alessandro; Licciulli, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    drying • Compressive modulus of composite scaffold was higher than of pure collagen scaffold. • Cell proliferation with MG63 cells shows good biocompatiblity of composite scaffold.

  13. PENGARUH E-SCAFFOLDING DALAM THINK PAIR SHARE TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR TINGKAT TINGGI DINAMIKA PARTIKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Fauzul Albab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to examine the effect of e-learning based Think Pair Share cooperative learning model toward higher order thinking skills of students. This study was conducted at SMAN 1 Jember for X grade students and used factorial design. Two experimental groups (TPS with E-Scaffolding and TPS with scaffolding were compared with a control group (TPS. This research was carried out to 180 students. The results showed that there is a difference in high-order thinking skills among groups of students who take the e-scaffolding in the TPS, scaffolding in TPS, and TPS learning; there is a difference in high-order thinking skills among groups of students with different prior knowledge levels; and there is no interactional effect among e-scaffolding in TPS, scaffolding in TPS and TPS strategy and the student’s prior knowledge on high order thinking skills. Key words: e-scaffolding, think pair share, high order thinking, prior knowledge.                                                                                     Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pembelajaran berbasis e-learning yang terintegrasi dalam model pembelajaran kooperatif Think Pair Share (TPS dalam bentuk E-Scaffolding terhadap kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMA Negeri 1 Jember untuk siswa kelas X ini dengan menggunakan rancangan faktorial. Dua kelompok eksperimen (TPS dengan E-Scaffolding dan TPS dengan Scaffolding dibandingkan dengan sebuah kelompok kontrol (TPS. Penelitian dilaksanakan terhadap sampel sebanyak 180 siswa yang dipilih secara acak kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi antara kelompok siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran e-scaffolding dalam TPS dengan pembelajaran scaffolding dalam TPS maupun siswa dengan pembelajaran TPS; terdapat perbedaan kemampuan berpikir

  14. Mind the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsett, R.; Rienzo, C.; Rolfe, H.; Burns, H.; Robertson, B-A.; Thorpe, B.; Wall, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mind the Gap sought to improve the metacognition and academic attainment of pupils in Year 4. There were two aspects to the intervention. The first involved training teachers in how to embed metacognitive approaches in their work, and how to continue to effectively and strategically involve parents. This training took place over a day and was provided by a consultant. The second component focused on parental engagement and offered families the opportunity to participate in a series of facilit...

  15. HEARTS AND MINDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louis Martin-Vega

    2017-01-01

    ... education community. With this in mind, I am pleased to report that ASEE has been very active on the policy and advocacy fronts in the last few months, and I point to a few very specific examples. On January 17th, the ASEE Board of Directors released a statement in general support of federal investment in education, noting that engineering is an economic driver and ...

  16. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  17. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  18. [Schema therapy - ACT - mindfulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Pierre; Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    For schema therapy, significant weight is given to early experiences of social life. They lead to the creation of memories, largely implicit. These memories are reactivated in specific contexts and are often managed through dysfunctional strategies. Schema therapy seeks to modify these memories categorized as patterns. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), meanwhile, aims to transform our reactions linked to our learning history and to develop a greater flexibility taking into account what occurs in the present moment. Several techniques originate from the mindfulness tradition and seek to transform the individual into a witness of his own experience, rather than someone acting out patterns based on his learning history. Despite their different paradigms, it is possible to combine these approaches. As schemas manifest through somatic reactions, thoughts, affects, action tendencies, it becomes possible to try to change the relationship between the individual and these private experiences through the use of mindfulness, philosophical concepts and techniques derived from ACT. This is the aim of this article. Essay presenting the use of a schema mindfulness flash card to help patients tolerate intense affects generated by the activation of schemas and to attain greater adaptive flexibility (Healthy Adult mode). It is possible to integrate ACT techniques and concept to schema therapy in order to facilitate adaptive flexibility.

  19. Development of chitosan-tripolyphosphate non-woven fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu

    2012-04-01

    The fibrous scaffolds are promising for tissue engineering applications because of their close structural resemblance with native extracellular matrix. Additionally, the chemical composition of scaffold is also an important consideration as they have significant influences on modulating cell attachment, morphology and function. In this study, chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) non-woven fibrous scaffolds were prepared through wetspinning process. Interestingly, at physiological pH these scaffolds release phosphate ions, which have significant influences on cellular function. For the first time, cell viability in presence of varying concentration of sodium TPP solution was analyzed and correlated with the phosphate release from the scaffolds during 30 days incubation period. In vitro degradation of the chitosan-TPP scaffolds was higher than chitosan scaffolds, which may be due to decrease in crystallinity as a result of instantaneous ionic cross-linking during fiber formation. The scaffolds with highly interconnected porous structure present a remarkable cytocompatibility for cell growing, and show a great potential for tissue engineering applications.

  20. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  1. Nanocomposite scaffold with enhanced stability by hydrogen bonds between collagen, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Fan, Xialian; Tang, Keyong; Zheng, Xuejing; Liu, Jie; Wang, Baoshi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite scaffolds, as potential substrates for skin tissue engineering, were fabricated by freeze drying the mixture of type I collagen extracted from porcine skin and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. This procedure was performed without any cross-linker or toxic reagents to generate porosity in the scaffold. Both morphology and thermal stability of the nanocomposite scaffold were examined. The swelling behavior, mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation of the composite scaffolds were carefully investigated. Our results revealed that collagen, PVP and TiO2 are bonded together by four main hydrogen bonds, which is an essential action for the formation of nanocomposite scaffold. Using Coasts-Redfern model, we were able to calculate the thermal degradation apparent activation energy and demonstrated that the thermal stability of nanocomposites is dependent on amount of PVP incorporated. Furthermore, SEM images showed that the collagen fibers are wrapped and stabilized on scaffolds by PVP molecules, which improve the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The UTS of PVP-contained scaffold is four times higher than that of scaffold without PVP, whereas ultimate percentage of elongation (UPE) is decreased, and PVP can enhance the degradation resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bi-layer collagen/microporous electrospun nanofiber scaffold improves the osteochondral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufang; Chen, Longkun; Jiang, Yangzi; Cai, Youzhi; Xu, Guowei; Tong, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linlin; Ji, Junfeng; Shi, Peihua; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-07-01

    An optimal scaffold is crucial for osteochondral regeneration. Collagen and electrospun nanofibers have been demonstrated to facilitate cartilage and bone regeneration, respectively. However, the effect of combining collagen and electrospun nanofibers on osteochondral regeneration has yet to be evaluated. Here, we report that the combination of collagen and electrospun poly-l-lactic acid nanofibers synergistically promotes osteochondral regeneration. We first fabricated bi-layer microporous scaffold with collagen and electrospun poly-l-lactic acid nanofibers (COL-nanofiber). Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the bi-layer scaffold and their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were examined. Moreover, osteochondral defects were created in rabbits and implanted with COL-nanofiber scaffold. Cartilage and subchondral bone regeneration were evaluated at 6 and 12weeks after surgery. Compared with COL scaffold, cells on COL-nanofiber scaffold exhibited more robust osteogenic differentiation, indicated by higher expression levels of OCN and runx2 genes as well as the accumulation of calcium nodules. Furthermore, implantation of COL-nanofiber scaffold seeded with cells induced more rapid subchondral bone emergence, and better cartilage formation, which led to better functional repair of osteochondral defects as manifested by histological staining, biomechanical test and micro-computed tomography data. Our study underscores the potential of using the bi-layer microporous COL-nanofiber scaffold for the treatment of deep osteochondral defects. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huifeng; Yang, Xianyan; He, Yong; Fu, Jianzhong; Liu, Limin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2015-09-10

    The densification of pore struts in bioceramic scaffolds is important for structure stability and strength reliability. An advantage of ceramic ink writing is the precise control over the microstructure and macroarchitecture. However, the use of organic binder in such ink writing process would heavily affect the densification of ceramic struts and sacrifice the mechanical strength of porous scaffolds after sintering. This study presents a low-melt-point bioactive glass (BG)-assisted sintering strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct ink writing (extrusion-based three-dimensional printing) and to produce high-strength calcium silicate (CSi) bioceramic scaffolds. The 1% BG-added CSi (CSi-BG1) scaffolds with rectangular pore morphology sintered at 1080 °C have a very small BG content, readily induce apatite formation, and show appreciable linear shrinkage (∼21%), which is consistent with the composite scaffolds with less or more BG contents sintered at either the same or a higher temperature. These CSi-BG1 scaffolds also possess a high elastic modulus (∼350 MPa) and appreciable compressive strength (∼48 MPa), and show significant strength enhancement after exposure to simulated body fluid-a performance markedly superior to those of pure CSi scaffolds. Particularly, the honeycomb-pore CSi-BG1 scaffolds show markedly higher compressive strength (∼88 MPa) than the scaffolds with rectangular, parallelogram, and Archimedean chord pore structures. It is suggested that this approach can potentially facilitate the translation of ceramic ink writing and BG-assisted sintering of bioceramic scaffold technologies to the in situ bone repair.

  4. Beneficial effect of aligned nanofiber scaffolds with electrical conductivity for the directional guide of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2017-08-10

    Conducting polymer-based scaffolds receive biological and electrical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) or peripheral cells, thereby promoting cell growth and differentiation. Chitin, a natural polymer, is widely used as a scaffold because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to fabricate conductive scaffolds from aligned chitin/polyaniline (Chi/PANi) nanofibers for the directional guidance of cells. Pure chitin and random and aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and by assessing wettability, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity. The diameters of aligned Chi/PANi nanofibers were confirmed to be smaller than those of pure chitin and random nanofibers owing to electrostatic forces and stretching produced by rotational forces of the drum collector. The electrical conductivity of aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~91% higher than that of random nanofibers. We also studied the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) cultured on Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds in vitro using a CCK-8 assay, and found that cell viability on the aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~2.1-fold higher than that on random Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells on aligned nanofiber scaffolds spread in the direction of the aligned nanofibers (bipolar), whereas cells on the random nanofibers showed no spreading (6 h of culture) or multipolar patterns (7 days of culture). These results suggest that aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds with conductivity exert effects that could improve survival and proliferation of cells with directionality.

  5. Hierarchically Ordered Porous and High-Volume Polycaprolactone Microchannel Scaffolds Enhanced Axon Growth in Transected Spinal Cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Dena; Koffler, Jacob Y; Tuszynski, Mark H; Campana, Wendy M; Sakamoto, Jeff S

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this work was to design nerve guidance scaffolds with a unique architecture to maximize the open volume available for nerve growth. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was selected as the scaffold material based on its biocompatibility and month-long degradation. Yet, dense PCL does not exhibit suitable properties such as porosity, stiffness, strength, and cell adhesion to function as an effective nerve guidance scaffold. To address these shortcomings, PCL was processed using a modified salt-leaching technique to create uniquely controlled interconnected porosity. By controlling porosity, we demonstrated that the elastic modulus could be controlled between 2.09 and 182.1 MPa. In addition, introducing porosity and/or coating with fibronectin enhanced the PCL cell attachment properties. To produce PCL scaffolds with maximized open volume, porous PCL microtubes were fabricated and translated into scaffolds with 60 volume percent open volume. The scaffolds were tested in transected rat spinal cords. Linear axon growth within both the microtubes as well as the interstitial space between the tubes was observed, demonstrating that the entire open volume of the scaffold was available for nerve growth. Overall, a novel scaffold architecture and fabrication technique are presented. The scaffolds exhibit significantly higher volume than state-of-the-art scaffolds for promising spinal cord nerve repair.

  6. Control of crosslinking for tailoring collagen-based scaffolds stability and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N; Schuster, C F; Bax, D V; Raynal, N; Farndale, R W; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-10-01

    We provide evidence to show that the standard reactant concentrations used in tissue engineering to cross-link collagen-based scaffolds are up to 100 times higher than required for mechanical integrity in service, and stability against degradation in an aqueous environment. We demonstrate this with a detailed and systematic study by comparing scaffolds made from (a) collagen from two different suppliers, (b) gelatin (a partially denatured collagen) and (c) 50% collagen-50% gelatin mixtures. The materials were processed, using lyophilisation, to produce homogeneous, highly porous scaffolds with isotropic architectures and pore diameters ranging from 130 to 260 μm. Scaffolds were cross-linked using a carbodiimide treatment, to establish the effect of the variations in crosslinking conditions (down to very low concentrations) on the morphology, swelling, degradation and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Carbodiimide concentration of 11.5mg/ml was defined as the standard (100%) and was progressively diluted down to 0.1%. It was found that 10-fold reduction in the carbodiimide content led to the significant increase (almost 4-fold) in the amount of free amine groups (primarily on collagen lysine residues) without compromising mechanics and stability in water of all resultant scaffolds. The importance of this finding is that, by reducing cross-linking, the corresponding cell-reactive carboxylate anions (collagen glutamate or aspartate residues) that are essential for integrin-mediated binding remain intact. Indeed, a 10-fold reduction in carbodiimide crosslinking resulted in near native-like cell attachment to collagen scaffolds. We have demonstrated that controlling the degree of cross-linking, and hence retaining native scaffold chemistry, offers a major step forward in the biological performance of collagen- and gelatin-based tissue engineering scaffolds. This work developed collagen and gelatine-based scaffolds with structural, material and biological

  7. Psycho-physiologic emergentism; four minds in a body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rowland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mind-body problem represents one of the most debated topics in the neurosciences. From a psychological standpoint, abstract/non-material data are an intrinsic part of the mind, intervening to a large extent in reasoning and decision making processes. Imaging studies also show a strong correlation between higher cognitive functions (such as working memory and specific cerebral brain regions (a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain areas. In contrast, the physical/material brain would be unable to interact with abstract-immaterial data, such that the psychological processing of abstract data (processes such as thinking, reasoning, and judgment is attributed to the mind, with the mind representing a distinct entity interposed between the brain and abstract-immaterial data. Recent data suggest that the mind-body problem may simply be an artifact of human experience/ understanding, as the brain actually represents actually an intrinsic part of the mind. Even if the physical brain is not able to interact with abstract mental data, the brain still could process abstract data through a dynamic association between the abstract data and cerebral stimuli/ impulses. This form of processing without interaction defines the mind as a complex neurobiological structure, with the unconscious part of the mind processing abstract-immaterial data in a conscious/ mental format. In this overview, important concepts of psycho-physiologic emergentism, including internal mental reality, internal mental existence, internal mental interaction, and structural and informational dichotomies of the brain, are iterated. Such concepts/properties represent a neuro-informational support system capable of generating four distinct minds within the single brain. Future studies should further develop the dynamic and immaterial-material nature of the mind, as a possible premise for a scientific definition and understanding of mental events like affectivity

  8. Does rumination mediate the relationship between mindfulness and depressive relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Nicole P; Shawyer, Frances; Brooker, Joanne E; Graham, Annette L; Enticott, Joanne C; Martin, Paul R; Meadows, Graham N

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder is a significant mental illness that is highly likely to recur, particularly after three or more previous episodes. Increased mindfulness and decreased rumination have both been associated with decreased depressive relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rumination mediates the relationship between mindfulness and depressive relapse. This prospective design involved a secondary data analysis for identifying causal mechanisms using mediation analysis. This study was embedded in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in which 203 participants (165 females, 38 males; mean age: 48 years), with a history of at least three previous episodes of depression, completed measures of mindfulness, rumination, and depressive relapse over a 2-year follow-up period. Specific components of mindfulness and rumination, being nonjudging and brooding, respectively, were also explored. While higher mindfulness scores predicted reductions in rumination and depressive relapse, the relationship between mindfulness and relapse was not found to be mediated by rumination, although there appeared to be a trend. Our results strengthen the argument that mindfulness may be important in preventing relapse but that rumination is not a significant mediator of its effects. The study was adequately powered to detect medium mediation effects, but it is possible that smaller effects were present but not detected. Mindfulness may be one of several components of MBCT contributing to prevention of depressive relapse. Although the original rationale for MBCT rested largely on a model of relapse causally linked to rumination, our findings suggest that the mechanism by which mindfulness impacts relapse is more complex than a simple effect on rumination. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. PENERAPAN METODE MIND MAPPING PADA PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Faelasofi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research was to solve how to increase students learning mathematic achievments on the subject of statistic. This study aims to determine whether the students learning mathematic achievments of the student SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Gadingrejo in the academic year of 2014-2015 using learning method mind mapping on the subject of statistics can be higher than the students’ learning mathematic achievments without using learning method mind mapping. This research is a quantitative approach. The population was all of the students in first grade of the SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Gadingrejo in the academic year of 2014- 2015. The samples of the research were taken by using the cluster random sampling technique. Based on hypothesis test, it can be included that there are differences in the average student learning achievments between using learning method mind mapping and learning method lecture on the subject of Statistics of the student in first grade of the SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Gadingrejo in the academic year of 2014-2015. Keywords: learning method mind mapping, students’ learning mathematic achievments

  10. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  11. scaffolds for tissue engineering application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... in chitosan (CH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffold for effective delivery of drug in a sustained manner to the wound site. Moreover, the peculiar ... as milieu biocompatible carrier to get rid of wound infection and to achieve ... (measuring 12 cm×10 cm) and dried at room temperature to get CH–CMP and ...

  12. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Qianguo; Yue, Caizhen; He, Weijie; Yu, Jia-yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it w...

  13. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dephne Jack Xin Leong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL, releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (PLGA, releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology, MTT assay (cell proliferation and a cytokine (IL-8 ELISA test (biocompatibility. Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01 or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01. In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01 and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01. Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes.

  14. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, Frank C.; Trope, Martin; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL), releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold (PLGA), releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology), MTT assay (cell proliferation) and a cytokine (IL-8) ELISA test (biocompatibility). Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes. PMID:27200277

  15. The effect of purmorphamine on differentiation of endometrial stem cells into osteoblast-like cells on collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Naghmeh; Malekolkottab, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Alizadeh Tabari, Zahra; Hamisi, Jalaleddin; Kamyab, Ahmadreza; Mohamadnia, Abdolreza; Ai, Armin; Bayat, Farshad; Bahrami, Naeim; Ai, Jafar

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the effect of purmorphamine along with collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold in inducing osteogenesis of human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs). The adhesion, viability, proliferation, and differentiation of cells on scaffold were assayed with SEM, MTT, real time-PCR, and ALP assay, respectively. The results were shown good integration of cells with scaffold. Also, qRT-PCR of differentiated cells shows that osteoblast cell markers are expressed after 21d in 2D and scaffold groups while in the scaffold group the expression of these markers were higher than the 2D group. Based on our findings, collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold with PMA has the potential role in osteogenic differentiation of hEnSCs.

  16. Carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforcement effect on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) scaffolds fabricated via phase separation using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Jing, Xin; Salick, Max R; Cordie, Travis M; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Although phase separation is a simple method of preparing tissue engineering scaffolds, it suffers from organic solvent residual in the scaffold. Searching for nontoxic solvents and developing effective solvent removal methods are current challenges in scaffold fabrication. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) scaffolds containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or nanofibrillated cellulose fibers (NFCs) were prepared using low toxicity dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. The effects of two solvent removal approaches on the final scaffold morphology were studied. The freeze drying method caused large pores, with small pores on the pore walls, which created connections between the pores. Meanwhile, the leaching and freeze drying method led to interconnected fine pores with smaller pore diameters. The nucleation effect of CNTs and the phase separation behavior of NFCs in the TPU solution resulted in significant differences in the microstructures of the resulting scaffolds. The mechanical performance of the nanocomposite scaffolds with different morphologies was investigated. Generally, the scaffolds with a fine pore structure showed higher compressive properties, and both the CNTs and NFCs improved the compressive properties of the scaffolds, with greater enhancement found in TPU/NFC nanocomposite scaffolds. In addition, all scaffolds showed good sustainability under cyclical load bearing, and the biocompatibility of the scaffolds was verified via 3T3 fibroblast cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoxia Enhances Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cord Blood Multilineage Progenitor Cells Seeded on a Novel Scaffold of Freeze Dried Polycaprolactone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munir, Samir; Figueroa, Ryan Jude; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard

    pattern in relation to the oxygen tension. Induced scaffolds showed cellularity and matrix deposition superficially and to adjacent scaffold fibres. Induced MLPCs pellets and scaffolds had significantly higher gene expression of aggrecan, SOX9, CD-RAP, collagen I, II and X compared with controls. Ratios...... for chondrogenic differentiation. According to recent studies combined three-dimensional (3D) culturing in low oxygen tension enhances differentiation. Aim This study evaluates the chondrogenic potential of MLPC culturing in a novel 3D-scaffold of polycaprolactone and 5% O2. Materials and methods MLPCs were...

  18. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  19. Mindful parenting in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting

  20. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Jiang, Wenxue; Sun, Yufu; Li, Hui

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young's modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fabrication of porous polyvinyl alcohol scaffold for bone tissue engineering via selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Mao, Zhongzheng; Lu, Haibo; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping

    2013-03-01

    A tetragonal polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold with 3D orthogonal periodic porous architecture was fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. The scaffold was fabricated under the laser power of 8 W, scan speed of 600 mm min(-1), laser spot diameter of 0.8 mm and layer thickness of 0.15 mm. The microstructure analysis showed that the degree of crystallization decreased while the PVA powder melts gradually and fuses together completely with laser power increasing. Thermal decomposition would occur if the laser power was further higher (16 W or higher in the case). The porous architecture was controllable and totally interconnected. The porosity of the fabricated scaffolds was measured to be 67.9 ± 2.7% which satisfies the requirement of micro-pores of the bone scaffolds. Its bioactivity and biocompatibility were also evaluated in vitro as tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. In vitro adhesion assay showed that the amount of pores increased while the scaffold remains stable and intact after immersion in simulated body fluid for seven days. Moreover, the number of MG-63 cells and the bridge between cells increased with increasing time in cell culture. The present work demonstrates that PVA scaffolds with well-defined porous architectures via SLS technology were designed and fabricated for bone TE.

  2. Development of porous Ti6Al4V/chitosan sponge composite scaffold for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite scaffold consisting of porous Ti6Al4V part filled with chitosan sponge was fabricated using a combination of electron beam melting and freeze-drying. The mechanical properties of porous Ti6Al4V part were examined via compressive test. The ultimate compressive strength was 85.35 ± 8.68 MPa and the compressive modulus was 2.26 ± 0.42 GPa. The microstructure of composite scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The chitosan sponge filled in Ti6Al4V part exhibited highly porous and well-interconnected micro-pore architecture. The osteoblastic cells were seeded on scaffolds to test their seeding efficiency and biocompatibility. Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. The biological response of osteoblasts on composite scaffolds was superior in terms of improved cell attachment, higher proliferation, and well-spread morphology in relation to porous Ti6Al4V part. These results suggest that the Ti6Al4V/chitosan composite scaffold is potentially useful as a biomedical scaffold for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro study on the degradation of lithium-doped hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaping; Yang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, The 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 610021 (China); Liu, Jingwang [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-09-01

    HA scaffolds. - Highlights: • A bone-like apatite layer with bioactivity was formed on the surfaces of LiHA scaffolds. • LiHA scaffolds showed a higher degradation trend than pure HA scaffolds in osteoblast-mediated degradation in vitro. • LiHA scaffolds were beneficial to the proliferation of osteoblasts.

  4. Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/cellulose acetate blend nanofiber scaffolds: Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhijiang, Cai, E-mail: caizhijiang@hotmail.com [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Material and Processes, No 399 BingShuiXi Street, XiQing District, Tianjin, China, 300387 (China); Yi, Xu; Haizheng, Yang; Jia, Jianru; Liu, Yuanpei [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/cellulose acetate (CA) blend nanofiber scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using the blends of chloroform and DMF as solvent. The blend nanofiber scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, contact angle and tensile test. The blend nanofibers exhibited cylindrical, uniform, bead-free and random orientation with the diameter ranged from 80–680 nm. The scaffolds had very well interconnected porous fibrous network structure and large aspect surface areas. It was found that the presence of CA affected the crystallization of PHB due to formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which restricted the preferential orientation of PHB molecules. The DSC result showed that the PHB and CA were miscible in the blend nanofiber. An increase in the glass transition temperature was observed with increasing CA content. Additionally, the mechanical properties of blend nanofiber scaffolds were largely influenced by the weight ratio of PHB/CA. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at break of the blend nanofiber scaffolds increased from 3.3 ± 0.35 MPa, 2.8 ± 0.26 MPa, and 8 ± 0.77% to 5.05 ± 0.52 MPa, 4.6 ± 0.82 MPa, and 17.6 ± 1.24% by increasing PHB content from 60% to 90%, respectively. The water contact angle of blend nanofiber scaffolds decreased about 50% from 112 ± 2.1° to 60 ± 0.75°. The biodegradability was evaluated by in vitro degradation test and the results revealed that the blend nanofiber scaffolds showed much higher degradation rates than the neat PHB. The cytocompatibility of the blend nanofiber scaffolds was preliminarily evaluated by cell adhesion studies. The cells incubated with PHB/CA blend nanofiber scaffold for 48 h were capable of forming cell adhesion and proliferation. It showed much better biocompatibility than pure PHB film. Thus, the prepared PHB/CA blend nanofiber scaffolds are bioactive and may be more suitable for cell proliferation suggesting that these scaffolds can be used for

  5. A porous tissue engineering scaffold selectively degraded by cell-generated reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John R; Gupta, Mukesh K; Page, Jonathan M; Yu, Fang; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Guelcher, Scott A; Duvall, Craig L

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly fabricated from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or similar polyesters that degrade by hydrolysis. PLGA hydrolysis generates acidic breakdown products that trigger an accelerated, autocatalytic degradation mechanism that can create mismatched rates of biomaterial breakdown and tissue formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of cell function in both health and disease, especially at sites of inflammation and tissue healing, and induction of inflammation and ROS are natural components of the in vivo response to biomaterial implantation. Thus, polymeric biomaterials that are selectively degraded by cell-generated ROS may have potential for creating tissue engineering scaffolds with better matched rates of tissue in-growth and cell-mediated scaffold biodegradation. To explore this approach, a series of poly(thioketal) (PTK) urethane (PTK-UR) biomaterial scaffolds were synthesized that degrade specifically by an ROS-dependent mechanism. PTK-UR scaffolds had significantly higher compressive moduli than analogous poly(ester urethane) (PEUR) scaffolds formed from hydrolytically-degradable ester-based diols (p PEUR scaffolds, the PTK-UR scaffolds were stable under aqueous conditions out to 25 weeks but were selectively degraded by ROS, indicating that their biodegradation would be exclusively cell-mediated. The in vitro oxidative degradation rates of the PTK-URs followed first-order degradation kinetics, were significantly dependent on PTK composition (p PEUR scaffolds. These combined results indicate that ROS-degradable PTK-UR tissue engineering scaffolds have significant advantages over analogous polyester-based biomaterials and provide a robust, cell-degradable substrate for guiding new tissue formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro drug release behavior of electrospun PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.X.; Zheng, W.; Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The fenbufen loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. The hydrophilicity of nanofibrous scaffold was enhanced with the increase of chitosan content. The drug release also is accelerated with chitosan increasing because the higher hydrophilicity makes drug diffusing from scaffold more easily. Research highlights: {yields} The average diameter increased with the increase of chitosan content and then decreased. {yields} The release rate of fenbufen increased with the increase of chitosan. {yields} The aligned nanofibrous scaffold exhibits lower drug release rate. {yields} The drug release could be controlled by crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor. - Abstract: In this study both aligned and randomly oriented poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold have been prepared by electrospinning. The ratio of PLGA to chitosan was adjusted to get smooth nanofiber surface. Morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy showed that the aligned nanofiber diameter distribution obtained by electrospinning of polymer blend increased with the increase of chitosan content which was similar to that of randomly oriented nanofibers. The release characteristic of model drug fenbufen (FBF) from the FBF-loaded aligned and randomly oriented PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated. The drug release rate increased with the increase of chitosan content because the addition of chitosan enhanced the hydrophilicity of the PLGA/chitosan composite scaffold. Moreover, for the aligned PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold the release rate was lower than that of randomly oriented PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold, which indicated that the nanofiber arrangement would influence the release behavior. In addition, crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor would decrease the burst release of FBF from FBF-loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold with a PLGA/chitosan ratio less than 9/1, which

  7. Laser Sintered Magnesium-Calcium Silicate/Poly-ε-Caprolactone Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yang Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we manufacture and analyze bioactive magnesium–calcium silicate/poly-ε-caprolactone (Mg–CS/PCL 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mg–CS powder was incorporated into PCL, and we fabricated the 3D scaffolds using laser sintering technology. These scaffolds had high porosity and interconnected-design macropores and structures. As compared to pure PCL scaffolds without an Mg–CS powder, the hydrophilic properties and degradation rate are also improved. For scaffolds with more than 20% Mg–CS content, the specimens become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer after soaking in simulated body fluid for 1 day. In vitro analyses were directed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs on all scaffolds that were shown to be biocompatible and supported cell adhesion and proliferation. Increased focal adhesion kinase and promoted cell adhesion behavior were observed after an increase in Mg–CS content. In addition, the results indicate that the Mg–CS quantity in the composite is higher than 10%, and the quantity of cells and osteogenesis-related protein of hMSCs is stimulated by the Si ions released from the Mg–CS/PCL scaffolds when compared to PCL scaffolds. Our results proved that 3D Mg–CS/PCL scaffolds with such a specific ionic release and good degradability possessed the ability to promote osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs, indicating that they might be promising biomaterials with potential for next-generation bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Synthesizing Results from Empirical Research on Computer-Based Scaffolding in STEM Education: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.; Walker, Andrew E.; Kim, Nam Ju; Lefler, Mason

    2017-01-01

    Computer-based scaffolding assists students as they generate solutions to complex problems, goals, or tasks, helping increase and integrate their higher order skills in the process. However, despite decades of research on scaffolding in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, no existing comprehensive meta-analysis has…

  9. Toward a Framework on How Affordances and Motives Can Drive Different Uses of Scaffolds: Theory, Evidence, and Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.; Drake, Joel

    2013-01-01

    One way to help students engage in higher-order thinking is through scaffolding, which can be defined as support that allows students to participate meaningfully in and gain skill at a task that is beyond their unassisted abilities. Most research on computer-based scaffolds assesses the average impact of the tools on learning outcomes. This is…

  10. Hot baths and cold minds: neuroscience, mind reading, and mind misreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John; Lawrence, David R

    2015-04-01

    The idea-the possibility-of reading the mind, from the outside or indeed even from the inside, has exercised humanity from the earliest times. If we could read other minds both prospectively, to discern intentions and plans, and retrospectively, to discover what had been "on" those minds when various events had occurred, the implications for morality and for law and social policy would be immense. Recent advances in neuroscience have offered some, probably remote, prospects of improved access to the mind, but a different branch of technology seems to offer the most promising and the most daunting prospect for both mind reading and mind misreading. You can't have the possibility of the one without the possibility of the other. This article tells some of this story.

  11. Mindfulness Interventions in Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Mark E; Roll, Shawn C

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe how mindfulness is used in physical rehabilitation, identify implications for occupational therapy practice, and guide future research on clinical mindfulness interventions. A systematic search of four literature databases produced 1,524 original abstracts, of which 16 articles were included. Although only 3 Level I or II studies were identified, the literature included suggests that mindfulness interventions are helpful for patients with musculoskeletal and chronic pain disorders and demonstrate trends toward outcome improvements for patients with neurocognitive and neuromotor disorders. Only 2 studies included an occupational therapist as the primary mindfulness provider, but all mindfulness interventions in the selected studies fit within the occupational therapy scope of practice according to the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process. Higher-level research is needed to evaluate the effects of mindfulness interventions in physical rehabilitation and to determine best practices for the use of mindfulness by occupational therapy practitioners. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  13. Knowing your own mind

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, D.

    2003-01-01

    [FIRST PARAGRAPH] What is it to “know your own mind”? In ordinary English, this phrase connotes clear headed decisiveness and a firm resolve but in the language of contemporary philosophy, the indecisive and the susceptible can know their own minds just as well as anybody else. In the philosopher’s usage, “knowing your own mind” is just a matter of being able to produce a knowledgeable description of your mental state, whether it be a state of indecision, susceptibility or even confusion. Wha...

  14. Mind in ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Venkoba

    2002-07-01

    Ayurveda now among the alternative complementary systems of medicine is over 5000 years old. Its origin and the compilation of Caraka Samhita are noted. The nature of mind as a sensory and a motor organ, its structure and functions are discussed. The concept of Thdosha theory and Trigunas are explained besides the so-called master-forms of Doshas namely Prana, Tejas and Ojas. The constituional and tempermental types depending upon the doshas are described. These determine diagnoses and guide treatment. Ayurveda is highlighted as a holistic system with its concern for prevention of disease and promotion of health. Disease denotes failure of prophylaxis. Some methods of Ayurvedic therapy are mentioned.

  15. Unauthorized Minds: How "Theory of Mind" Theory Misrepresents Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukler, David

    2005-01-01

    Recent representations of autism frequently include an assumption that autism is the result of a "theory of mind" deficit (i.e., an inability to understand others' mental states). This notion is examined using a social constructionist perspective. The belief that autism is a sort of "mind-blindness" has much in common with earlier representations…

  16. Comparison of glutaraldehyde and procyanidin cross-linked scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ritchie, Alastair Campbell; Everitt, Nicola M

    2017-11-01

    Soft tissue injuries are among the most difficult orthopaedic conditions to treat, and regenerative medicine holds the promise of better treatments of these injuries. There is therefore a requirement for substrates and porous scaffolds which provide an appropriate chemical and mechanical environment for cell attachment, growth, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, cross-linked porous gelatin-chitosan (Gel/Chi) scaffolds with high porosity (>90%) were fabricated and their internal morphology, pore sizes and porosities were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The cross-linking agents chosen for this study were Procyanidin (PA), chosen for its biocompatibility, and glutaraldehyde (GA), chosen for comparison as a highly effective cross-linker. Concentrations of these cross-linkers varied from 0.1% to 1% (w/v) and controls had the same gelatin-chitosan blend but were untreated. It was found that the water absorption of cross-linked scaffolds decreased as the cross-linker concentration increased and in vitro collagenase degradation test showed both cross-linkers increased the biostability of the scaffolds. Scaffolds were also tested under compressive load to investigate their resistance to deformation. The results indicated that both cross-linkers increase the stiffness of the scaffolds both initially and at higher strains, but GA cross-linked scaffolds had a higher compressive stiffness than scaffolds cross-linked with PA for a given concentration. Results from cyclic compression and stress relaxation tests showed that PA cross-linked scaffolds recover more rapidly after deformation. 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on the scaffolds to assess cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. The results indicated that PA was non-cytotoxic and promoted the attachment and proliferation of the seeded cells, while fewer cells were seen on GA cross-linked scaffolds, indicating that the GA

  17. Neural correlates of mindful self-awareness in mindfulness meditators and meditation-naïve subjects revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Scheerer, H; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-09-01

    Mindful self-awareness is central to mindfulness meditation and plays a key role in its salutary effects. It has been related to decreased activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) and amygdala, and increased activation in somatosensory regions. However, findings in untrained individuals are contradictory, and scarce in experienced meditators. Using fMRI, we investigated experienced mindfulness meditators (LTM, n=21, average 4652 practice-hours) and matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP, n=19) during short periods of mindful self-awareness (FEEL) and self-referential thinking (THINK). We report somatosensory activations and decreases in CMS during FEEL for both groups, but significantly stronger decreases in prefrontal CMS in LTM. LTM further showed decreases in language-related and amygdala regions, but the latter was not significantly different between groups. Overall, higher activations in amygdala and mid-line regions during FEEL were related to levels of depressiveness. Neural patterns of mindful self-awareness emerge already in MNP but more pronounced in LTM. Specifically, meditation training might reduce self-reference and verbalization during mindful awareness. We further corroborate the suggested link between mindfulness and healthy self-related functions on the neural level. Longitudinal studies need to corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactive polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Scott; Shelke, Namdev B.; Hoshino, Kazunori; Rudraiah, Swetha; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of engineered scaffolds have been created for tissue engineering using polymers, ceramics and their composites. Biomimicry has been adopted for majority of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffold design both in terms of physicochemical properties, as well as bioactivity for superior tissue regeneration. Scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching, particle sintering, hydrogels and lithography have been successful in promoting cell growth in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. Scaffold systems derived from decellularization of whole organs or tissues has been popular due to their assured biocompatibility and bioactivity. Traditional scaffold fabrication techniques often failed to create intricate structures with greater resolution, not reproducible and involved multiple steps. The 3D printing technology overcome several limitations of the traditional techniques and made it easier to adopt several thermoplastics and hydrogels to create micro-nanostructured scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering and drug delivery. This review highlights scaffold fabrication methodologies with a focus on optimizing scaffold performance through the matrix pores, bioactivity and degradation rate to enable tissue regeneration. Review highlights few examples of bioactive scaffold mediated nerve, muscle, tendon/ligament and bone regeneration. Regardless of the efforts required for optimization, a shift in 3D scaffold uses from the laboratory into everyday life is expected in the near future as some of the methods discussed in this review become more streamlined. PMID:28653043

  19. Bioactive polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stratton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of engineered scaffolds have been created for tissue engineering using polymers, ceramics and their composites. Biomimicry has been adopted for majority of the three-dimensional (3D scaffold design both in terms of physicochemical properties, as well as bioactivity for superior tissue regeneration. Scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching, particle sintering, hydrogels and lithography have been successful in promoting cell growth in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. Scaffold systems derived from decellularization of whole organs or tissues has been popular due to their assured biocompatibility and bioactivity. Traditional scaffold fabrication techniques often failed to create intricate structures with greater resolution, not reproducible and involved multiple steps. The 3D printing technology overcome several limitations of the traditional techniques and made it easier to adopt several thermoplastics and hydrogels to create micro-nanostructured scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering and drug delivery. This review highlights scaffold fabrication methodologies with a focus on optimizing scaffold performance through the matrix pores, bioactivity and degradation rate to enable tissue regeneration. Review highlights few examples of bioactive scaffold mediated nerve, muscle, tendon/ligament and bone regeneration. Regardless of the efforts required for optimization, a shift in 3D scaffold uses from the laboratory into everyday life is expected in the near future as some of the methods discussed in this review become more streamlined.

  20. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  1. Specific mindfulness skills differentially predict creative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive

  2. Mindful Eating: Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Cindy; Cromwell, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Mindful eating focuses on wellness and how we eat, not what we eat. This fact sheet describes the benefits of mindful eating, the challenges, and strategies for incorporating mindful eating into our daily lives.

  3. Creating an open mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Duncan

    2011-07-01

    Duncan Monaghan is 33 years old and in his second year of an Arts degree in Creative Writing. He is a published poet and is currently producing a music CD. Duncan has a history of bipolar disorder which was diagnosed when he was nineteen: "It worried me at first a lot. It played on my mind constantly. I felt different from everybody else--I did not understand what was happening to me." Drawing on his life experiences, Duncan has been enhancing his recovery through creativity--in poetry, lyrics, music and story. "Life for me was a constant battle of relying on medication and appointments with my case manager...until I realized I could combine my recovery with my passions as a tool to use as an outlet to many of the "mind traps" I so often found hindering my own recovery." Duncan is Aboriginal and has experience of the mental health systems in most states and territories and now lives in Brisbane. This is a shortened version of his presentation at Creating Futures 2010.

  4. Ceramic Identity Contributes to Mechanical Properties and Osteoblast Behavior on Macroporous Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent Leach

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Implants formed of metals, bioceramics, or polymers may provide an alternative to autografts for treating large bone defects. However, limitations to each material motivate the examination of composites to capitalize on the beneficial aspects of individual components and to address the need for conferring bioactive behavior to the polymer matrix. We hypothesized that the inclusion of different bioceramics in a ceramic-polymer composite would alter the physical properties of the implant and the cellular osteogenic response. To test this, composite scaffolds formed from poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG and either hydroxyapatite (HA, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP, or bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S®, BG were fabricated, and the physical properties of each scaffold were examined. We quantified cell proliferation by DNA content, osteogenic response of human osteoblasts (NHOsts to composite scaffolds by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and changes in gene expression by qPCR. Compared to BG-PLG scaffolds, HA-PLG and TCP-PLG composite scaffolds possessed greater compressive moduli. NHOsts on BG-PLG substrates exhibited higher ALP activity than those on control, HA-, or TCP-PLG scaffolds after 21 days, and cells on composites exhibited a 3-fold increase in ALP activity between 7 and 21 days versus a minimal increase on control scaffolds. Compared to cells on PLG controls, RUNX2 expression in NHOsts on composite scaffolds was lower at both 7 and 21 days, while expression of genes encoding for bone matrix proteins (COL1A1 and SPARC was higher on BG-PLG scaffolds at both time points. These data demonstrate the importance of selecting a ceramic when fabricating composites applied for bone healing.

  5. Aligned and random nanofibrous nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Aligned and random nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL, poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA. The morphology and mechanical characteristics of the nanofibers were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibers with an average diameter of 123 ± 32 nm and 339 ± 107 nm for aligned and random nanofibers, respectively. The mechanical data indicated the higher tensile strength and elastic modulus of aligned nanofibers. The in vitro biocompatibility of aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds was also assessed by growing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and investigating the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP on different nanofibrous scaffolds. Our  findings  showed  that  the  alignment  orientation  of  nanofibers  enhanced  the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. The in vitro results showed that the aligned biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds of PCL/nHA/PVA could be a potential substrate for tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of artificial bone implant.

  6. Bioactivity of polyurethane-based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bil, M [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Ryszkowska, J [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Roether, J A [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Bretcanu, O [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A R [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) and polyurethane/poly(d, l-lactide) acid (PUR/PDLLA) based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered) particles for application in bone tissue engineering were fabricated. The slurry-dipping method was used for coating preparation. The homogeneous structure of the Bioglass (registered) coatings on the surface of the PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams indicated a good adhesion of the bioactive glass particles to polyurethane without any additional surface treatment. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to study the influence of Bioglass (registered) coating on biodegrability and bioactivity of PUR-based scaffolds. The surface of Bioglass (registered) -coated samples was covered by a layer of carbonate-containing apatite after 7 days of immersion in SBF, while in uncoated polymer samples apatite crystals were not detected even after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The apatite layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS analysis and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Weight loss measurements showed that the in vitro degradation rate of the composite scaffolds in SBF was higher in comparison to uncoated polyurethane samples. PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams with Bioglass (registered) coating have potential to be used as bioactive, biodegradable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.

  7. M1.3--a small scaffold for DNA origami .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hassan; Schüller, Verena J; Eber, Fabian J; Wege, Christina; Liedl, Tim; Richert, Clemens

    2013-01-07

    The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed "M1.3" as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3 origami with globally modified staples is affordable. As a proof of principle, two origami structures with globally 5'-capped staples were prepared and were shown to give higher UV-melting points than the corresponding assembly with unmodified DNA. M1.3 has the size of a gene, not a genome, and may function as a model for gene-based nanostructures. Small origami with M1.3 as a scaffold may serve as a workbench for chemical, physical, and biological experiments.

  8. Biocompatible xanthan/polypyrrole scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasques Bueno, Vania; Harumi Takahashi, Suelen; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Cordoba de Torresi, Susana Ines; Siqueira Petri, Denise Freitas, E-mail: dfsp@iq.usp.br

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was electropolymerized in xanthan hydrogels (XCA), resulting in electroactive XCAPPy scaffolds with (15 ± 3) wt.% PPy and (40 ± 10) μm thick. The physicochemical characterization of hybrid XCAPPy scaffolds was performed by means of cyclic voltammetry, swelling tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile tests. XCAPPy swelled ~ 80% less than XCA. FTIR spectra and thermal analyses did not evidence strong interaction between PPy and XCA matrix. XCAPPy presented a porous stratified structure resulting from the arrangement of PPy chains parallel to XCA surface. Under stress XCAPPy presented larger strain than neat XCA probably due to the sliding of planar PPy chains. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts onto XCA and XCAPPy were evaluated in the absence and in the presence of external magnetic field (EMF) of 0.4 T, after one day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Fibroblast proliferation was more pronounced onto XCAPPy than onto XCA, due to its higher hydrophobicity and surface roughness. EMF stimulated cell proliferation onto both scaffolds. - Highlights: • Hybrid networks of xanthan and polypyrrole were used as scaffolds for fibroblasts. • Hybrid networks were more hydrophobic and more elastic than neat xanthan. • Cell proliferation onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan increased with the time. • Cell proliferation was more pronounced onto hybrid networks than on neat xanthan. • External magnetic field stimulated cell growth onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan.

  9. Mindfulness and the Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernay, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a hermeneutic phenomenological study of five beginning teachers who were introduced to mindfulness during their initial teacher education programme. The participants kept fortnightly journals and engaged in three interviews with the researcher to assess the benefits of using mindfulness during the first year of teaching. The…

  10. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  11. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  12. Developing Mathematical Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, June; Cuoco, Al; Goldenberg, E. Paul; Sword, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematical habits of mind" include reasoning by continuity, looking at extreme cases, performing thought experiments, and using abstraction that mathematicians use in their work. Current recommendations emphasize the critical nature of developing these habits of mind: "Once this kind of thinking is established, students can apply it in the…

  13. Mindfulness Practices and Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, David R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest among educators in teaching and learning practices based on mindfulness, a concept derived from eastern meditative traditions. This paper describes how mindfulness practices and concepts can be used to enhance the student's learning experience in beginning economics courses. Specific areas with a high potential for…

  14. Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

    2004-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

  15. Scaffolding With and Through Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwen

    2012-01-01

    to consider must be expanded. This article explicates theoretical and practical ideas related to teachers’ application of their ICT technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in science. The article unpacks the social and technological dimensions of teachers’ use of TPACK when they use digital videos...... to scaffold learning. It showcases the intricate interplay between teachers’ knowledge about content, digital video technology, and students’ learning needs based on a qualitative study of two science teachers and their students in a New Zealand primary school....

  16. Collagen-GAG scaffold biophysical properties bias MSC lineage choice in the presence of mixed soluble signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2014-09-01

    Biomaterial strategies for regenerating multitissue structures require unique approaches. One strategy is to design scaffolds so that their local biophysical properties can enhance site-specific effects of an otherwise heterogeneous biomolecular environment. This investigation examined the role of biomaterial physical properties (relative density, mineral content) on the human mesenchymal stem cell phenotype in the presence of mixed soluble signals to drive osteogenesis or chondrogenesis. We tested a series of three-dimensional collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds with properties inspired by extracellular matrix characteristics across the osteotendinous interface (tendon, cartilage, and bone). We found that selective scaffold mineralization induced a depressed chondrogenic response compared with nonmineralized groups as demonstrated by gene expression and histological analyses. Interestingly, the greatest chondrogenic response was found in a higher density, nonmineralized scaffold variant despite increased contraction and cellular condensation in lower density nonmineralized scaffolds. In fact, the lower density scaffolds demonstrated a significantly higher expression of osteogenic transcripts as well as ample mineralization after 21 days of culture. This effect may be due to local stiffening of the scaffold microenvironment as the scaffold contracts, leading to increased cell density, accelerated differentiation, and possible endochondral ossification as evidenced by a transition from a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich milieu to higher mineralization at later culture times. These findings will help shape the design rules for graded biomaterials to regenerate distinct fibrillar, fibrocartilagenous, and mineralized regions of orthopedic interfaces.

  17. Mindful approach to University education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Fiorenza; Bomba, Monica; Rimondini, Michela; Mutti, Maura; Pasta, Sara; Ricci, Chiara; Tagliabue, Luca; Valsecchi, Silvia; Monaco, Elide; Neri, Francesca; Oggiano, Silvia; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    A mindful approach to education and training could improve students' reflective capacities and have positive effects on clinical practice because it facilitates a helping relationship. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether participation in a mindful-based University training was associated with increases in mindfulness skills as measured by the 5-Facet M Questionnaire, and to present the Italian validation of the questionnaire. Sixty-seven students from the course Neuro and Psychomotor Therapy were enrolled. They filled in the self-administered 5-Facet M Questionnaire before and 1 month after a mindfulness-based training, focused on role-playing and followed by a feedback group discussion. The Italian version of the 5-Facet M Questionnaire had good psychometric properties. The pre- and post-training analysis showed a significant increase in the subscale 'Observing'. Findings suggest that role-playing and feedback group sessions are valid tools to improve students' mindfulness skills.

  18. Control of crosslinking for tailoring collagen-based scaffolds stability and mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Davidenko, N.; Schuster, C.F.; Bax, D.V.; Raynal, N.; Farndale, R.W.; Best, S.M.; Cameron, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We provide evidence to show that the standard reactant concentrations used in tissue engineering to cross-link collagen-based scaffolds are up to 100 times higher than required for mechanical integrity in service, and stability against degradation in an aqueous environment. We demonstrate this with a detailed and systematic study by comparing scaffolds made from (a) collagen from two different suppliers, (b) gelatin (a partially denatured collagen) and (c) 50% collagen-50% gelatin...

  19. Student transitions – evaluation of an embedded skills approach to scaffolded learning in the nursing curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Angie Cassar; Roger Funk; Daniella Hutchings; Fiona Henderson; Geri Pancini

    2012-01-01

    A scaffolded learning and embedded skills educational framework was adopted by an intersectoral university teaching team for the foundational nursing course unit of study: "Frameworks for Nursing Practice."  The scaffolded learning and embedded skills approach is espoused as recognising the unique learning needs of students who are transitioning to higher education studies from a variety of entry points (Green, Hammer, & Stephens, 2006; Kift, 2009; McWilliams & Henderson, 2008). ...

  20. Surface energy and stiffness discrete gradients in additive manufactured scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; Longoni, Alessia; Criscenti, Giuseppe; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Klein-Gunnewiek, Michel; Vancso, Julius; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mota, Carlos; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-02-27

    Swift progress in biofabrication technologies has enabled unprecedented advances in the application of developmental biology design criteria in three-dimensional scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Considering that tissues and organs in the human body develop following specific physico-chemical gradients, in this study, we hypothesized that additive manufacturing (AM) technologies would significantly aid in the construction of 3D scaffolds encompassing such gradients. Specifically, we considered surface energy and stiffness gradients and analyzed their effect on adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into skeletal lineages. Discrete step-wise macroscopic gradients were obtained by sequentially depositing different biodegradable biomaterials in the AM process, namely poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) copolymers. At the bulk level, PEOT/PBT homogeneous scaffolds supported a higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to PCL, PLA, and gradient scaffolds, respectively. All homogeneous biomaterial scaffolds supported also a significantly higher amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production compared to discrete gradient scaffolds. Interestingly, the analysis of the different material compartments revealed a specific contribution of PCL, PLA, and PEOT/PBT to surface energy gradients. Whereas PEOT/PBT regions were associated to significantly higher ALP activity, PLA regions correlated with significantly higher GAG production. These results show that cell activity could be influenced by the specific spatial distribution of different biomaterial chemistries in a 3D scaffold and that engineering surface energy discrete gradients could be considered as an appealing criterion to design scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration.

  1. The influence of stereolithographic scaffold architecture and composition on osteogenic signal expression with rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyobum; Dean, David; Wallace, Jonathan; Breithaupt, Rob; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2011-05-01

    Scaffold design parameters, especially physical construction factors such as mechanical stiffness of substrate materials, pore size of 3D porous scaffolds, and channel geometry, are known to influence the osteogenic signal expression and subsequent differentiation of a transplanted cell population. In this study of photocrosslinked poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) scaffolds, the effect of DEF incorporation ratio and pore size on the osteogenic signal expression of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated. Results demonstrated that DEF concentrations and pore sizes that led to increased scaffold mechanical stiffness also upregulated osteogenic signal expression, including bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Runx2 transcriptional factor. Similar scaffold fabrication parameters supported rapid BMSC osteoblastic differentiation, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin expression. When scaffolds with random architecture, fabricated by porogen leaching, were compared to those with controlled architecture, fabricated by stereolithography (SLA), results showed that SLA scaffolds with the highly permeable and porous channels also have significantly higher expression of FGF-2, TGF-β1, and VEGF. Subsequent ALP expression and osteopontin secretion were also significantly increased in SLA scaffolds. Based upon these results, we conclude that scaffold properties provided by additive manufacturing techniques such as SLA fabrication, particularly increased mechanical stiffness and high permeability, may stimulate dramatic BMSC responses that promote rapid bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GDNF Schwann cells in hydrogel scaffolds promote regional axon regeneration, remyelination and functional improvement after spinal cord transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingkun K; Madigan, Nicolas N; Hakim, Jeffrey S; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; McMahon, Siobhan S; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J

    2017-03-10

    Positively-charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF+ ) is a biodegradable hydrogel used for spinal cord injury repair. We compared scaffolds containing primary Schwann cells (SCs) to scaffolds delivering SCs genetically modified to secrete high concentrations of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Multichannel OPF+ scaffolds loaded with SCs or GDNF-SCs were implanted into transected rat spinal cords for 4 weeks. GDNF-SCs promoted regeneration of more axons into OPF+ scaffolds (2773.0 ± 396.0) than primary SC OPF+ scaffolds (1666.0 ± 352.2) (p = 0.0491). This increase was most significant in central and ventral-midline channels of the scaffold. Axonal remyelination was quantitated by stereologic analysis. Increased myelination of regenerating axons was observed in the GDNF-SC group. Myelinating cell and axon complexes were formed by host SCs and not by implanted cells or host oligodendrocytes. Fast Blue retrograde tracing studies determined the rostral-caudal directionality of axonal growth. The number of neurons that projected axons rostrally through the GDNF-SC scaffolds was higher (7929 ± 1670) than in animals with SC OPF+ scaffolds (1069 ± 241.5) (p OPF+ scaffolds partially recovered locomotor function at weeks 3 and 4 following surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Variation of mechanical behavior of β-TCP/collagen two phase composite scaffold with mesenchymal stem cell in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study is to characterize the variational behavior of the compressive mechanical property of bioceramic-based scaffolds using stem cells during the cell culture period. β-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen two phase composites and β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated using the polyurethane template technique and a subsequent freeze-drying method. Rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were then cultured in these scaffolds for up to 28 days. Compression tests of the scaffolds with rMSCs were periodically conducted. Biological properties, such as the cell number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expressions of osteogenesis, were evaluated. The microstructural change due to cell growth and the formation of extracellular matrices was examined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The compressive property was then correlated with the biological properties and microstructures to understand the mechanism of the variational behavior of the macroscopic mechanical property. The porous collagen structure in the β-TCP scaffold effectively improved the structural stability of the composite scaffold, whereas the β-TCP scaffold exhibited structural instability with the collapse of the porous structure when immersed in a culture medium. The β-TCP/collagen composite scaffold exhibited higher ALP activity and more active generation of osteoblastic markers than the β-TCP scaffold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trait mindfulness and protective strategies for alcohol use: Implications for college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leffingwell, Thad R; Leavens, Eleanor L

    2017-10-01

    The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (pmindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting permeability of regular tissue engineering scaffolds: scaling analysis of pore architecture, scaffold length, and fluid flow rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, A; Montazerian, H; Davoodi, E; Homayoonfar, S

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this research is to numerically obtain the permeability coefficient in the cylindrical scaffolds. For this purpose, a mathematical analysis was performed to derive an equation for desired porosity in terms of morphological parameters. Then, the considered cylindrical geometries were modeled and the permeability coefficient was calculated according to the velocity and pressure drop values based on the Darcy's law. In order to validate the accuracy of the present numerical solution, the obtained permeability coefficient was compared with the published experimental data. It was observed that this model can predict permeability with the utmost accuracy. Then, the effect of geometrical parameters including porosity, scaffold pore structure, unit cell size, and length of the scaffolds as well as entrance mass flow rate on the permeability of porous structures was studied. Furthermore, a parametric study with scaling laws analysis of sample length and mass flow rate effects on the permeability showed good fit to the obtained data. It can be concluded that the sensitivity of permeability is more noticeable at higher porosities. The present approach can be used to characterize and optimize the scaffold microstructure due to the necessity of cell growth and transferring considerations.

  6. Improved regeneration potential of fibroblasts using ascorbic acid-blended nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sreepathy; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional scaffolds, three-dimensional scaffolds, and dermal substitutes are extensively used for biomedical applications in skin tissue regeneration. Not much explored synthetic polymers, like poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), natural polymers, like silk fibroin (SF), and active inducing agents, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), represent a favorable matrix for fabricating dermal substitutes to engineer artificial skin for wound repair. The profligate nature of residing skin cells near the wound site is a paramount to survival and also regulating stem cells and other cellular networks and mechanical forces. PLACL/SF/TCH/AA nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized for fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, and significant subchains using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for culturing human-derived dermal fibroblasts. The PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/SF/TCH, and PLACL/SF/TCH/AA scaffolds obtained diameters between 250 and 340 nm. The secretion of collagen by the laboratory-grown fibroblasts over the AA-blended scaffolds was found to be significantly higher compared with that of other scaffolds. The obtained results positively prove that introduction of naturally secreting compounds (AA) by the cells into the nanofibrous scaffolds will favor cell's microenvironment and eventually leads to complete tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bioactive polymer/extracellular matrix scaffolds fabricated with a flow perfusion bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiehong; Guo, Xuan; Grande-Allen, K Jane; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) microfiber scaffolds, coated with cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), were fabricated by first culturing chondrocytes under dynamic conditions in a flow perfusion bioreactor and then decellularizing the cellular constructs. The decellularization procedure yielded acellular PCL/ECM composite scaffolds containing glycosaminoglycan and collagen. PCL/ECM composite scaffolds were evaluated for their ability to support the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro using serum-free medium with or without the addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). PCL/ECM composite scaffolds supported chondrogenic differentiation induced by TGF-β1 exposure, as evidenced in the up-regulation of aggrecan (11.6 ± 3.8 fold) and collagen type II (668.4 ± 317.7 fold) gene expression. The presence of cartilaginous matrix alone reduced collagen type I gene expression to levels observed with TGF-β1 treatment. Cartilaginous matrix further enhanced the effects of growth factor treatment on MSC chondrogenesis as evidenced in the higher glycosaminoglycan synthetic activity for cells cultured on PCL/ECM composite scaffolds. Therefore, flow perfusion culture of chondrocytes on electrospun microfiber scaffolds is a promising method to fabricate polymer/extracellular matrix composite scaffolds that incorporate both natural and synthetic components to provide biological signals for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid scaffolds as carriers for genetically-modified fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perisic

    Full Text Available Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days of cultivation. Furthermore, the adherence of cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165 and also VEGF165 protein secretion were investigated. Our results show that human fibroblasts adhere on both types of PLGA scaffolds. However, proliferation and transgene expression capacity were higher on Ethisorb scaffolds most probably due to a different architecture of the scaffold. Additionally, cultivation of the cells on the scaffolds did not alter their biomechanical properties. The results of this investigation could be potentially exploited in therapeutic regiments with areal delivery of transiently transfected cells and may open the way for a variety of applications of cell-based gene therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. Self-Assembling RADA16-I Peptide Hydrogel Scaffold Loaded with Tamoxifen for Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more breast cancer patients prefer autologous fat tissue transfer following lumpectomy to maintain perfect female characteristics. However, the outcome was not satisfactory due to the transplanted fat absorption. In this study, we prepared two RADA16-I peptide scaffolds with and without tamoxifen. Both scaffolds were transparent, porous, and hemisphere-shaped. The hADSCs isolated from liposuction were attached to the scaffold. The growth inhibition of the hADSCs induced by TAM in 2-demensional (2D culture was higher than that in TAM-loaded hydrogel scaffold 3D culture (P<0.05; however, the same outcomes were not observed in MCF-7 cells. Correspondingly, the apoptosis of the hADSCs induced by TAM was significantly increased in 2D culture compared to that in scaffold 3D culture (P<0.05. Yet the outcomes of the aoptosis in MCF-7 were contrary. Apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 was involved in the process. In vivo experiments showed that both scaffolds formed a round mass after subcutaneous implantation and it retained its shape after being pressed slightly. The implantation had no effect on the weight and activity of the animals. The results suggested that TAM-loaded RADA16-I hydrogel scaffolds both provide support for hADSCs cells attachment/proliferation and retain cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells, which might be a promising therapeutic breast tissue following lumpectomy.

  10. Fabrication of gelatin-strontium substituted calcium phosphate scaffolds with unidirectional pores for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Wei-Yu; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2015-03-01

    This study fabricated homogeneous gelatin-strontium substituted calcium phosphate composites via coprecipitation in a gelatin solution. Unidirectional porous scaffolds with an oriented microtubular structure were then manufactured using freeze-drying technology. The resulting structure and pore alignment were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The pore size were in the range of 200-400 μm, which is considered ideal for the engineering of bone tissue. The scaffolds were further characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Hydroxyapatite was the main calcium phosphate compound in the scaffolds, with strontium incorporated into the crystal structure. The porosity of the scaffolds decreased with increasing concentration of calcium-phosphate. The compressive strength in the longitudinal direction was two to threefold higher than that observed in the transverse direction. Our results demonstrate that the composite scaffolds degraded by approximately 20 % after 5 weeks. Additionally, in vitro results reveal that the addition of strontium significantly increased human osteoblastic cells proliferation. Scaffolds containing strontium with a Sr-CaP/(gelatin + Sr-CaP) ratio of 50 % provided the most suitable environment for cell proliferation, particularly under dynamic culture conditions. This study demonstrates the considerable potential of composite scaffolds composed of gelatin-strontium-substituted calcium phosphate for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Electrospun Chitosan/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibrous Scaffolds with Potential Antibacterial Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony T. Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for the fabrication of nonwoven fibrous materials for biomedical applications. In the present study, chitosan (CS and polyethylene oxide (PEO nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully prepared using three different CS/PEO mass ratios and then evaluated for their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Scaffold morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy, which showed decreasing fiber diameters with increasing CS content. Higher CS concentrations also correlated with increased tensile strength and decreased elasticity of the scaffold. Degradation studies demonstrated that PEO was solubilized from the scaffold within the first six hours, followed by CS. This profile was unaffected by changes in the CS/PEO ratio or the pH of the media. Only the 2 : 1 CS/PEO scaffold demonstrated superior inhibition of both growth and attachment of Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, all scaffolds exhibited little impact on the proliferation of murine fibroblast monolayers. These data demonstrate that the 2 : 1 CS/PEO scaffold is a promising candidate for wound dressing applications due to its excellent antibacterial characteristics and biocompatibility.

  12. Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate and Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone Composites as Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donraporn Daranarong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that mimic the architecture of the extracellular matrix and support cell attachment for tissue engineering applications. In this study, fibrous membranes of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB with various loadings of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL were successfully prepared by electrospinning. In comparison to PLCL scaffolds, PLCL blends with PHB exhibited more irregular fibre diameter distributions and higher average fibre diameters but there were no significant differences in pore size. PLCL/PHB scaffolds were more hydrophilic (<120° with significantly reduced tensile strength (ca. 1 MPa compared to PLCL scaffolds (150.9±2.8∘ and 5.8±0.5 MPa. Increasing PLCL loading in PHB/PLCL scaffolds significantly increased the extension at break, (4–6-fold. PLCL/PHB scaffolds supported greater adhesion and proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs than those exhibiting asynchronous growth on culture plates. Mitochondrial activity of cells cultivated on the electrospun blended membranes was enhanced compared to those grown on PLCL and PHB scaffolds (212, 179, and 153%, resp.. Analysis showed that PLCL/PHB nanofibrous membranes promoted cell cycle progression and reduced the onset of necrosis. Thus, electrospun PLCL/PHB composites promoted adhesion and proliferation of OECs when compared to their individual PLCL and PHB components suggesting potential in the repair and engineering of nerve tissue.

  13. Validation of scaffold design optimization in bone tissue engineering: finite element modeling versus designed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Nicholas; Mueller, Jens; Smucker, Byran; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

    2017-02-21

    This study reports the development of biological/synthetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE) via 3D bioplotting. These scaffolds were composed of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), type I collagen, and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in an attempt to mimic the extracellular matrix of bone. The solvent used for processing the scaffolds was 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The produced scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microcomputed tomography, thermogravimetric analysis, and unconfined compression test. This study also sought to validate the use of finite-element optimization in COMSOL Multiphysics for scaffold design. Scaffold topology was simplified to three factors: nHA content, strand diameter, and strand spacing. These factors affect the ability of the scaffold to bear mechanical loads and how porous the structure can be. Twenty four scaffolds were constructed according to an I-optimal, split-plot designed experiment (DE) in order to generate experimental models of the factor-response relationships. Within the design region, the DE and COMSOL models agreed in their recommended optimal nHA (30%) and strand diameter (460 μm). However, the two methods disagreed by more than 30% in strand spacing (908 μm for DE; 601 μm for COMSOL). Seven scaffolds were 3D-bioplotted to validate the predictions of DE and COMSOL models (4.5-9.9 MPa measured moduli). The predictions for these scaffolds showed relative agreement for scaffold porosity (mean absolute percentage error of 4% for DE and 13% for COMSOL), but were substantially poorer for scaffold modulus (51% for DE; 21% for COMSOL), partly due to some simplifying assumptions made by the models. Expanding the design region in future experiments (e.g., higher nHA content and strand diameter), developing an efficient solvent evaporation method, and exerting a greater control over layer overlap could allow developing PLGA-nHA-collagen scaffolds to meet the mechanical requirements for

  14. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chase; Pagnini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context.

  15. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Davenport

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context.

  16. Mind-blanking: when the mind goes away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Adrian F.; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    People often feel like their minds and their bodies are in different places. Far from an exotic experience, this phenomenon seems to be a ubiquitous facet of human life (e.g., Killingsworth and Gilbert, 2010). Many times, people's minds seem to go “somewhere else”—attention becomes disconnected from perception, and people's minds wander to times and places removed from the current environment (e.g., Schooler et al., 2004). At other times, however, people's minds may seem to go nowhere at all—they simply disappear. This mental state—mind-blanking—may represent an extreme decoupling of perception and attention, one in which attention fails to bring any stimuli into conscious awareness. In the present research, we outline the properties of mind-blanking, differentiating this mental state from other mental states in terms of phenomenological experience, behavioral outcomes, and underlying cognitive processes. Seven experiments suggest that when the mind seems to disappear, there are times when we have simply failed to monitor its whereabouts—and there are times when it is actually gone. PMID:24098287

  17. A fresh look at bioresorbable scaffold technology: Intuition pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS are a new enticing treatment option in coronary interventions. Absorb BVS™ Is the most widely used and researched polymer based BRS, eluting everolimus. However currently it has several technical limitations; low radial support, larger strut size, poor visualization, poor deliverability and complex implantation technique. Magnesium based BRS are an alternate but they are also limited not only by lower radial support and poor visualization but also earlier bio-absorption. Material processing: blow-molding, annealing, polymer orientation, change in composition and use of higher molecular weight polymer, as well new polymers like tyrosine or salicyclate analogs and even hybrid (polymer and metallic combined with intelligent cell design has led to evolution of BRS technology. Newer BRS has higher radial strength, lower strut thickness, improved visualization, ease of scaffold implantation as also optimal bio-resorption time.

  18. Nanosized Mesoporous Bioactive Glass/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid Composite-Coated CaSiO3 Scaffolds with Multifunctional Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to prepare multifunctional scaffolds combining good mechanical strength, bioactivity, and drug delivery ability for bone tissue engineering. In this study, nanosized mesoporous bioglass/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid composite-coated calcium silicate scaffolds, named NMBG-PLGA/CS, were successfully prepared. The morphology and structure of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of NMBG on the apatite mineralization activity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds and the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3 cells as well as drug ibuprofen delivery properties were systematically studied. Compared to pure CS scaffolds and PLGA/CS scaffolds, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds had greatly improved apatite mineralization activity in simulated body fluids, much higher mechanical property, and supported the attachment of MC3T3 cells and enhanced the cell proliferation and ALP activity. Furthermore, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds could be used for delivering ibuprofen with a sustained release profile. Our study suggests that the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds have improved physicochemical, biological, and drug-delivery property as compared to conventional CS scaffolds, indicating that the multifunctional property of the prepared scaffolds for the potential application of bone tissue engineering.

  19. Climbing the scaffolds of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brian; Crews, Leslie; Masliah, Eliezer

    2007-02-15

    Several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, are characterized neuropathologically by accumulation of misfolded proteins such as alpha-synuclein that disrupts scaffold molecules in the caveolae. A new study by Ihara et al. in this issue of Neuron shows that a novel scaffold protein, Sept4, may be an important player in modulating the pathological alterations of alpha-synuclein in models of Parkinson's disease, suggesting that gene therapies targeting scaffold proteins might be effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Shohta Kodama; Taro Saku; Hiroshi Mikami; Go Kuwahara; Toru Kosaka; Yoshihiro Isobe

    2012-01-01

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the...

  1. Teaching Design in Middle-School: Instructors' Concerns and Scaffolding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.; Cahill, Clara S.

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with engineering education in the middle-school level. Its focus is instructors' concerns in teaching design, as well as scaffolding strategies that can help teachers deal with these concerns. Through participatory action research, nine instructors engaged in a process of development and instruction of a curriculum about energy along with engineering design. A 50-h curriculum was piloted during a summer camp for 38 middle-school students. Data was collected through instructors' materials: observation field notes, daily reflections and post-camp discussions. In addition, students' artifacts and planning graphical models were collected in order to explore how instructors' concerns were aligned with students' learning. Findings indicate three main tensions that reflect instructors' main concerns: how to provide sufficient scaffolding yet encourage creativity, how to scaffold hands-on experiences that promote mindful planning, and how to scaffold students' modeling practices. Pedagogical strategies for teaching design that developed through this work are described, as well as the ways they address the National Research Council (A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2011) core ideas of engineering education and the International Technological Literacy standards (ITEA in Standards for technological literacy, 3rd edn. International Technology education Association, Reston, VA, 2007).

  2. Changing your mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare R; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2009-07-01

    When individuals detect an inconsistency in a set of propositions, they tend to change their minds about at least one proposition to resolve the inconsistency. The orthodox view from William James (1907) onward has been that a rational change should be minimal. We propose an alternative hypothesis according to which individuals seek to resolve inconsistencies by explaining their origins. We report four experiments corroborating the explanatory hypothesis. Experiment 1 showed that participants' explanations revised general conditional claims rather than specific categorical propositions. Experiment 2 showed that, when explanations did revise the categorical proposition, participants also tended to deny the consequences of a second generalization. Experiment 3 showed that this tendency persists when participants previously affirmed these consequences explicitly. Experiment 4 showed that, when participants could easily explain an inconsistency by revising a generalization, they were more likely to accept the consequences of a second generalization. All four results contravene minimalism but support the explanatory hypothesis.

  3. Mindfulness i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    Hverdagen i skole og institutioner er fyldt med udfordringer og krav om læring og udvikling i fællesskabet. Dette stiller store krav til den enkelte, og de mange relationer i løbet af en dag. Dette kan i nogle tilfælde fjerne fokus fra den enkeltes evne til nærvær både i forhold til sig selv og i...... forhold til andre. Mindfulness i undervisningen er et redskab til at skabe et lærings- og udviklingsmiljø, hvor børn får erfaringer med at være til stede i sig selv, og hvor de oplever ro til at lære og være....

  4. [Mentalization--the ability to keep mind in mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmo, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the ability to keep mind in mind, both one's own and another person's mind. Without mentalization ability, man is unable to anticipate personal and other person's reactions in different situations and to control his/her own emotional states. Insufficient mentalization ability makes life erratic and uncontrollable. It is associated with emotionally unstable personality and other psychic and neuropsychiatric disorders. At least five evidence-based forms of psychotherapy have been developed for the treatment of emotionally unstable personality disorder, all promoting the patient's mentalization ability.

  5. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Chase; Pagnini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in...

  6. Being present in the face of existential threat: The role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Brown, Kirk Warren; Kashdan, Todd B; Cozzolino, Philip J; Breen, William E; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Terror management theory posits that people tend to respond defensively to reminders of death, including worldview defense, self-esteem striving, and suppression of death thoughts. Seven experiments examined whether trait mindfulness-a disposition characterized by receptive attention to present experience-reduced defensive responses to mortality salience (MS). Under MS, less mindful individuals showed higher worldview defense (Studies 1-3) and self-esteem striving (Study 5), yet more mindful individuals did not defend a constellation of values theoretically associated with mindfulness (Study 4). To explain these findings through proximal defense processes, Study 6 showed that more mindful individuals wrote about their death for a longer period of time, which partially mediated the inverse association between trait mindfulness and worldview defense. Study 7 demonstrated that trait mindfulness predicted less suppression of death thoughts immediately following MS. The discussion highlights the relevance of mindfulness to theories that emphasize the nature of conscious processing in understanding responses to threat.

  7. The Relation Between Trait Mindfulness and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait ...

  8. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yoshihiro; Kosaka, Toru; Kuwahara, Go; Mikami, Hiroshi; Saku, Taro; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-01-01

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines. PMID:28817059

  9. Platelet lysate embedded scaffolds for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Mori, Michela; Cervio, Marila; Riva, Federica; Liakos, Ioannis; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Saporito, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Caramella, Carla

    2015-04-01

    The work presents the development of acellular scaffolds extemporaneously embedded with platelet lysate (PL), as an innovative approach in the field of tissue regeneration/reparation. PL embedded scaffolds should have a tridimensional architecture to support cell migration and growth, in order to restore skin integrity. For this reason, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was associated with sodium alginate (SA) to prepare highly porous systems. The developed scaffolds were characterized for chemical stability to γ-radiation, morphology, hydration and mechanical properties. Moreover, the capability of fibroblasts and endothelial cells to populate the scaffold was evaluated by means of proliferation test 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy study. The scaffolds, not altered by sterilization, were characterized by limited swelling and high flexibility, by foam-like structure with bubbles that formed a high surface area and irregular texture suitable for cell adhesion. Cell growth and scaffold population were evident on the bubble surface, where the cells appeared anchored to the scaffold structure. Scaffold network based on CS and SA demonstrated to be an effective support to enhance and to allow fibroblasts and endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC) adhesion and proliferation. In particular, it could be hypothesized that cell adhesion was facilitated by the synergic effect of PL and CS. Although further in vivo evaluation is needed, on the basis of in vitro results, PL embedded scaffolds seem promising systems for skin wound healing.

  10. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohta Kodama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines.

  11. Oriented Collagen Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yoshihiro; Kosaka, Toru; Kuwahara, Go; Mikami, Hiroshi; Saku, Taro; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-03-16

    Oriented collagen scaffolds were developed in the form of sheet, mesh and tube by arraying flow-oriented collagen string gels and dehydrating the arrayed gels. The developed collagen scaffolds can be any practical size with any direction of orientation for tissue engineering applications. The birefringence of the collagen scaffolds was quantitatively analyzed by parallel Nicols method. Since native collagen in the human body has orientations such as bone, cartilage, tendon and cornea, and the orientation has a special role for the function of human organs, the developed various types of three-dimensional oriented collagen scaffolds are expected to be useful biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines.

  12. Cell–scaffold interaction within engineered tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiping; Liu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: Yuanyuan_liu@shu.edu.cn; Jiang, Zhenglong; Chen, Weihua; Yu, Yongzhe; Hu, Qingxi

    2014-05-01

    The structure of a tissue engineering scaffold plays an important role in modulating tissue growth. A novel gelatin–chitosan (Gel–Cs) scaffold with a unique structure produced by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology combining with vacuum freeze-drying has been developed for tissue-engineering applications. The scaffold composed of overall construction, micro-pore, surface morphology, and effective mechanical property. Such a structure meets the essential design criteria of an ideal engineered scaffold. The favorable cell–matrix interaction supports the active biocompatibility of the structure. The structure is capable of supporting cell attachment and proliferation. Cells seeded into this structure tend to maintain phenotypic shape and secreted large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell growth decreased the mechanical properties of scaffold. This novel biodegradable scaffold has potential applications for tissue engineering based upon its unique structure, which acts to support cell growth. - Highlights: • The scaffold is not only for providing a surface for cell residence but also for determining cell phenotype and retaining structural integrity. • The mechanical property of scaffold can be affected by activities of cell. • The scaffold provides a microenvironment for cell attachment, growth, and migration.

  13. Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: a decade of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, J.; Volman, M.; Beishuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although scaffolding is an important and frequently studied concept, much discussion exists with regard to its conceptualizations, appearances, and effectiveness. Departing from the last decade’s scaffolding literature, this review scrutinizes these three areas of scaffolding. First, contingency,

  14. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf, neutrophin-3 (nt-3, platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb, and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of platelet-rich plasma scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Ataabadi, Mahmoud; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh; Vojdani, Zahra; Sani, Mahsa; Latifi, Mona; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh

    2017-02-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), as a rich source of growth factor, can form a fibrin gel that recapitulates the extracellular matrix of the tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of CaCl2 on the PRP scaffold structure which in turn could change the cell's behavior. PRP was mixed with 2.5, 5 and 10% (w/v) CaCl2. Then, the tensile strength, biodegradability and water content of the scaffolds were evaluated. We also performed immunostaining for assessment of the actin stress fiber orientation and SEM for detecting the cell phenotype and physical properties of the fibers. Cell viability, attachment and migration were also evaluated. The highest cell attachment and short term proliferation rate was observed on the scaffolds with 2.5% CaCl2. The cells cultured on the scaffold with higher CaCl2 concentration had fusiform phenotype with few cell processes and parallel arrangement of stress fibers while those cultured on the other scaffolds were fibroblast-like with more processes and net-like stress fibers. The scaffolds with 10% CaCl2 demonstrated the highest osmolarity (358.75±4.99mOsmole), fiber thickness (302.1±54.3nm), pore size (332.1±118.9nm2) and the longest clotting time (12.2±0.776min) compared with the other scaffolds. Water content, branching angle, porosity, orientation and tensile strength did not change by gelation with different CaCl2 concentrations. In conclusion, the cell shape, viability and proliferation were modified by culturing on the PRP scaffolds prepared with various concentrations of CaCl2, and as a result, the scaffolds showed different physical and biological properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin-3 (nt-3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  17. Biofunctional Ionic-Doped Calcium Phosphates: Silk Fibroin Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, S; Canadas, R F; Jiménez, G; Perán, M; Marchal, J A; Reis, R L; Oliveira, J M

    2017-01-01

    The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Here, we present novel biofunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration composed of silk fibroin (SF) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and incorporating Sr, Zn, and Mn, which were successfully developed using salt-leaching followed by a freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds presented a suitable pore size, porosity, and high interconnectivity, adequate for promoting cell attachment and proliferation. The degradation behavior and compressive mechanical strengths showed that SF/ionic-doped TCP scaffolds exhibit improved characteristics for bone tissue engineering when compared with SF scaffolds alone. The in vitro bioactivity assays using a simulated body fluid showed the growth of an apatite layer. Furthermore, in vitro assays using human adipose-derived stem cells presented different effects on cell proliferation/differentiation when varying the doping agents in the biofunctional scaffolds. The incorporation of Zn into the scaffolds led to improved proliferation, while the Sr- and Mn-doped scaffolds presented higher osteogenic potential as demonstrated by DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase activity. The combination of Sr with Zn led to an influence on cell proliferation and osteogenesis when compared with single ions. Our results indicate that biofunctional ionic-doped composite scaffolds are good candidates for further in vivo studies on bone tissue regeneration. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Custom Repair of Mandibular Bone Defects with 3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H; Sun, M; Zhang, F; Liu, A; He, Y; Fu, J; Yang, X; Wang, H; Gou, Z

    2018-01-01

    Implanting artificial biomaterial implants into alveolar bone defects with individual shape and appropriate mechanical strength is still a challenge. In this study, bioceramic scaffolds, which can precisely match the mandibular defects in macro and micro, were manufactured by the 3-dimensional (3D) printing technique according to the computed tomography (CT) image. To evaluate the stimulatory effect of the material substrate on bone tissue regeneration in situ in a rabbit mandibular alveolar bone defect model, implants made with the newly developed, mechanically strong ~10% Mg-substituted wollastonite (Ca90%Mg10%SiO3; CSi-Mg10) were fabricated, implanted into the bone defects, and compared with implants made with the typical Ca-phosphate and Ca-silicate porous bioceramics, such as β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), wollastonite (CaSiO3; CSi), and bredigite (Bred). The initial physicochemical tests indicated that although the CSi-Mg10 scaffolds had the largest pore dimension, they had the lowest porosity mainly due to the significant linear shrinkage of the scaffolds during sintering. Compared with the sparingly dissolvable TCP scaffolds (~2% weight loss) and superfast dissolvable (in Tris buffer within 6 wk) pure CSi and Bred scaffolds (~12% and ~14% weight loss, respectively), the CSi-Mg10 exhibited a mild in vitro biodissolution and moderate weight loss of ~7%. In addition, the CSi-Mg10 scaffolds showed a considerable initial flexural strength (31 MPa) and maintained very high flexural resistance during soaking in Tris buffer. The in vivo results revealed that the CSi-Mg10 scaffolds have markedly higher osteogenic capability than those on the TCP, CSi, and Bred scaffolds after 16 wk. These results suggest a promising potential application of customized CSi-Mg10 3D robocast scaffolds in the clinic, especially for repair of alveolar bone defects.

  19. Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 (rhBMP2)-Loaded Silk Fibroin Scaffolds to Enhance the Osteoinductivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Yu; He, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Chuan-Xiu; Mi, Li-Dong

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for formulations of silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds in biomedical applications. SF was crosslinked via glutaraldehyde with osteoinductive recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP2) of different ratios viz. (i) 3% SF with no rhBMP2 (SF), (ii) 3% SF with equal amount of rhBMP2 (SF+BMP2), and (iii) 12% SF with 3% of rhBMP2 (4SF+BMP2), and these solutions were used in electrospinning-based fabrication of nanoscaffolds for evaluating increased osteoinductive potential of SF scaffolds with rhBMP2. Stress-strain relationship suggested there is no loss in mechanical strength of fibers with addition of rhBMP2, and mechanical strength of scaffold was improved with increase in concentration of SF. rhBMP2 association increased the water retention capacity of scaffold as evident from swelling studies. Viability of hMSCs was found to be higher in conjugated scaffolds, and scaffolds do not exhibit any cytotoxicity towards guest cells. Cells were found to have higher alkaline phosphatase activity in conjugated scaffolds under in vitro and in vivo conditions which establishes the increased osteoinductivity of the novel construct. The scaffolds were found to be effective for in vivo bone formation as well.

  20. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  1. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-Varies with Smaller Amygdala and Caudate Volumes in Community Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Creswell, J. David; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions) may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression). Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes. PMID:23717632

  2. A longitudinal investigation of the relationship between maternal mind-mindedness and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Elizabeth; Pine, Karen; Wheatley, Lisa; Howlett, Neil; Schulz, Joerg; Fletcher, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Data are presented from a longitudinal investigation examining the relationship between maternal mind-mindedness (MM) in infancy and socio-cognitive development in childhood. We revisited children (n = 18) who had taken part in a longitudinal study as infants. MM had been assessed at 10, 12, 16, and 20 months of age. We followed up these children at 5-6 years of age to test their higher order theory of mind (ToM) (using the strange stories task). The convergent validity, temporal stability, and predictive validity of the construct of MM were examined in a longitudinal data set. The five measures of MM were not significantly correlated. Mother's production of appropriate mind-related comments (but no other measures) showed evidence of temporal stability throughout infancy. Thus, MM (as measured by appropriate mind-related comments) was confirmed as a stable construct. Children's ToM at 5-6 years of age was significantly predicted by their mother's MM up to 4 years earlier, with MM accounting for 40% of the variance of the strange stories task scores. These findings identify a relationship between MM across a protracted period of infancy and socio-cognitive development at 5-6 years of age. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Riboflavin cross-linking of collagen porous scaffolds for periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seciu A-M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis treatment using occlusive membranes presented variable efficacy due to their rapid degradation in the complex biologic environment of the damaged periodontium. The aim of this study was to prepare novel composites based on collagen, chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin, and to establish the optimal parameters for their photochemical cross-linking using riboflavin and UV exposure. The degree of cross-linking, biodegradability and density of all scaffold variants were investigated. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated in a culture of gingival fibroblasts by MTT assay and light microscopy. The results indicated that the higher the cross-linking degree, the lower was the scaffold biodegradation. Cell culture studies showed that composite scaffolds were favorable for cellular survival. In conclusion, the cross-linking method using riboflavin and UV exposure resulted in stable and biocompatible collagen-based composite scaffolds that could be used for periodontitis treatment.

  4. Chitosan-based hydrogel tissue scaffolds made by 3D plotting promotes osteoblast proliferation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Hsin; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lin, Hsin-Yi

    2015-05-13

    A 3D plotting system was used to make chitosan-based tissue scaffolds with interconnected pores using pure chitosan (C) and chitosan cross-linked with pectin (CP) and genipin (CG). A freeze-dried chitosan scaffold (CF/D) was made to compare with C, to observe the effects of structural differences. The fiber size, pore size, porosity, compression strength, swelling ratio, drug release efficacy, and cumulative weight loss of the scaffolds were measured. Osteoblasts were cultured on the scaffolds and their proliferation, type I collagen production, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and morphology were observed. C had a lower swelling ratio, degradation, porosity and drug release efficacy and a higher compressional stiffness and cell proliferation compared to CF/D (p degree of mineralization after 21 d (p crosslinking caused significant changes in their physical and biological performances.

  5. Mindful Parenting and Emotion Socialization Practices: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G; Parent, Justin; Zachary, Chloe R; Forehand, Rex

    2017-11-01

    Caregivers play a crucial role in the socialization of youth emotion understanding, competence, and regulation, which are implicated in youth social and emotional health; however, there is less understanding of parental psychosocial or cognitive factors, like mindful parenting, that may be associated with the use of particular emotion socialization (ES) strategies. This study tests a model of the cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal associations between mindful parenting and supportive and nonsupportive ES strategies in a community sample of parents (N = 246; 63.8% mothers) of youth ranging from ages 3-12. Caregivers reported on mindful parenting and ES strategies at two time points 4 months apart. The structural equation model indicated that higher levels of mindful parenting are positively related to supportive ES responses and negatively related to nonsupportive ES responses both concurrently and over time. The longitudinal association between mindful parenting and nonsupportive, but not supportive, ES was marginally larger for fathers as compared to mothers. Given the documented impact of ES strategies on youth emotional and behavioral outcomes and interventions emerging to educate parents about how to provide a healthy emotional atmosphere, incorporating a focus on mindful parenting strategies may provide one pathway to increase supportive responses and decrease nonsupportive ones. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  6. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  7. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  8. Mindful ouderschap: een praktische gids voor hulpverleners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Restifo, K.

    2013-01-01

    Deze praktische handleiding bevat de complete evidence-based methode Mindful Parenting, die werd ontwikkeld bij UvA minds, het behandelcentrum voor ouder en kind van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Mindful Ouderschap biedt een compleet overzicht van de achtergronden van de methode Mindful Parenting,

  9. Drug-likeness analysis of traditional Chinese medicines: 2. Characterization of scaffold architectures for drug-like compounds, non-drug-like compounds, and natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to better understand the structural features of natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, the scaffold architectures of drug-like compounds in MACCS-II Drug Data Report (MDDR, non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD, and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD were explored and compared. Results First, the different scaffolds were extracted from ACD, MDDR and TCMCD by using three scaffold representations, including Murcko frameworks, Scaffold Tree, and ring systems with different complexity and side chains. Then, by examining the accumulative frequency of the scaffolds in each dataset, we observed that the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree offer advantages over the other scaffold architectures to represent the scaffold diversity of the compound libraries. By comparing the similarity of the scaffold architectures presented in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD, structural overlaps were observed not only between MDDR and TCMCD but also between MDDR and ACD. Finally, Tree Maps were used to cluster the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree and visualize the scaffold space of the three datasets. Conclusion The analysis of the scaffold architectures of MDDR, ACD and TCMCD shows that, on average, drug-like molecules in MDDR have the highest diversity while natural compounds in TCMCD have the highest complexity. According to the Tree Maps, it can be observed that the Level 1 scaffolds present in MDDR have higher diversity than those presented in TCMCD and ACD. However, some representative scaffolds in MDDR with high frequency show structural similarities to those in TCMCD and ACD, suggesting that some scaffolds in TCMCD and ACD may be potentially drug-like fragments for fragment-based and de novo drug design.

  10. Immobilization of Alkaline Phosphatase on Microporous Nanofibrous Fibrin Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Giachelli, Cecilia M; Somerman, Martha J

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) promotes bone formation by degrading inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and generating inorganic phosphate (Pi), an inducer of hydroxyapatite formation. Pi is a crucial molecule in differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. In this study, a method to immobilize ALP on fibrin scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size and pore interconnection was developed, and the biological properties of these scaffolds were characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds (FS) were fabricated using a sphere-templating method. ALP was covalently immobilized on the fibrin scaffolds using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Scanning electron microscopic observation (SEM) showed that mineral was deposited on immobilized alkaline phosphatase fibrin scaffolds (immobilized ALP/FS) when incubated in medium supplemented with β-glycerophosphate, suggesting that the immobilized ALP was active. Primary calvarial cells attached, spread and formed multiple layers on the surface of the scaffolds. Mineral deposition was also observed when calvarial cells were seeded on immobilized ALP/FS. Furthermore, cells seeded on immobilized ALP/FS exhibited higher osteoblast marker gene expression compared to control FS. Upon implantation in mouse calvarial defects, both the immobilized ALP/FS and FS alone treated group had higher bone volume in the defect compared to the empty defect control. Furthermore, bone formation in the immobilized ALP/FS treated group was statistically significant compared to FS alone group. However, the response was not robust. PMID:19501906

  11. Semiotic Scaffolding in Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    a diversity of levels. Such semiotic controls may be distinguished from ordinary deterministic control mechanisms through an inbuilt anticipatory capacity based on a distinct kind of causation that I call here "semiotic causation" to denote the bringing about of changes under the guidance of interpretation...... in a local .context. Anticipation through the skilled interpretation of indicators of temporal relations in the context of a particular survival project (or life strategy) guides organismic behavior towards local ends. This network of semiotic controls establishes an enormously complex semiotic scaffolding...

  12. A practice scaffolding interactive platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    A Practice Scaffolding Interactive Platform (PracSIP) is a social learning platform which supports students in collaborative project based learning by simulating a professional practice. A PracSIP puts the core tools of the simulated practice at the students' disposal, it organizes collaboration......, structures the students' activity, and interactively supports subject learning. A PracSIP facilitates students' development of complex competencies, and at the same time it supports the students' development of skills defined in the curriculum. The paper introduces the concept, presents the theoretical...... foundations, and gives an example of a PracSIP....

  13. Molecular Recognition within Synaptic Scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon

    domains, responsible for tethering their respective synaptic protein ligands. Therefore, understanding the specificity and binding mechanisms of PDZ domain proteins is essential to understand regulation of synaptic plasticity. PICK1 is a PDZ domain-containing scaffolding protein predominantly expressed...... and characterized in the postsynaptic neurons, where it is involved in regulating processes underlying LTP and LTD. However, PICK1 has also been found to interact with a wide range of other regulatory proteins, receptors and transporters, which implicates PICK1 in several processes important for proper synaptic...

  14. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  15. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-08-21

    To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors.

  16. Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/cellulose acetate blend nanofiber scaffolds: Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijiang, Cai; Yi, Xu; Haizheng, Yang; Jia, Jianru; Liu, Yuanpei

    2016-01-01

    Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/cellulose acetate (CA) blend nanofiber scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using the blends of chloroform and DMF as solvent. The blend nanofiber scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, contact angle and tensile test. The blend nanofibers exhibited cylindrical, uniform, bead-free and random orientation with the diameter ranged from 80-680 nm. The scaffolds had very well interconnected porous fibrous network structure and large aspect surface areas. It was found that the presence of CA affected the crystallization of PHB due to formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which restricted the preferential orientation of PHB molecules. The DSC result showed that the PHB and CA were miscible in the blend nanofiber. An increase in the glass transition temperature was observed with increasing CA content. Additionally, the mechanical properties of blend nanofiber scaffolds were largely influenced by the weight ratio of PHB/CA. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at break of the blend nanofiber scaffolds increased from 3.3 ± 0.35 MPa, 2.8 ± 0.26 MPa, and 8 ± 0.77% to 5.05 ± 0.52 MPa, 4.6 ± 0.82 MPa, and 17.6 ± 1.24% by increasing PHB content from 60% to 90%, respectively. The water contact angle of blend nanofiber scaffolds decreased about 50% from 112 ± 2.1° to 60 ± 0.75°. The biodegradability was evaluated by in vitro degradation test and the results revealed that the blend nanofiber scaffolds showed much higher degradation rates than the neat PHB. The cytocompatibility of the blend nanofiber scaffolds was preliminarily evaluated by cell adhesion studies. The cells incubated with PHB/CA blend nanofiber scaffold for 48 h were capable of forming cell adhesion and proliferation. It showed much better biocompatibility than pure PHB film. Thus, the prepared PHB/CA blend nanofiber scaffolds are bioactive and may be more suitable for cell proliferation suggesting that these scaffolds can be used for

  17. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  18. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kai [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Ruixin [Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military and Medical Sciences, No. 106, Wandong Street, Hedong District, Tianjin 300000 (China); Jiang, Wenxue, E-mail: jiangortholivea@sina.cn [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Sun, Yufu [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Hui [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, TJ 300052 (China)

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.

  19. Scaffolding Mathematical Modelling with a Solution Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Kolter, Jana; Blum, Werner

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented in this paper, we examined the possibility to scaffold mathematical modelling with strategies. The strategies were prompted using an instrument called "solution plan" as a scaffold. The effects of this step by step instrument on mathematical modelling competency and on self-reported strategies were tested using…

  20. Scaffold Filling under the Breakpoint Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haitao; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David; Zhu, Binhai

    Motivated by the trend of genome sequencing without completing the sequence of the whole genomes, Muñoz et al. recently studied the problem of filling an incomplete multichromosomal genome (or scaffold) I with respect to a complete target genome G such that the resulting genomic distance between I' and G is minimized, where I' is the corresponding filled scaffold. We call this problem the one-sided scaffold filling problem. In this paper, we follow Muñoz et al. to investigate the scaffold filling problem under the breakpoint distance for the simplest unichromosomal genomes. When the input genome contains no gene repetition (i.e., is a fragment of a permutation), we show that the two-sided scaffold filling problem is polynomially solvable. However, when the input genome contains some genes which appear twice, even the one-sided scaffold filling problem becomes NP-complete. Finally, using the ideas for solving the two-sided scaffold filling problem under the breakpoint distance we show that the two-sided scaffold filling problem under the genomic/rearrangement distance is also polynomially solvable.

  1. Reasons for applying innovations for scaffolding work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Molen, H. van der; Vink, P.; Eikhout, S.; Koningsveld, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper reasons for applying and for not applying technical and organisational innovations in scaffolding work are studied. In a participatory ergonomic approach these innovations were developed to reduce problems concerning physical load of scaffolders. In this study reasons for the adoption

  2. Teaching language teachers scaffolding professional learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maggioli, Gabriel Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Teaching Language Teachers: Scaffolding Professional Learning provides an updated view of as well as a reader-friendly introduction to the field of Teaching Teachers, with special reference to language teaching. By taking a decidedly Sociocultural perspective, the book addresses the main role of the Teacher of Teachers (ToT) as that of scaffolding the professional learning of aspiring teachers.

  3. Recombinant protein scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

    2012-02-01

    New biological materials for tissue engineering are now being developed using common genetic engineering capabilities to clone and express a variety of genetic elements that allow cost-effective purification and scaffold fabrication from these recombinant proteins, peptides or from chimeric combinations of these. The field is limitless as long as the gene sequences are known. The utility is dependent on the ease, product yield and adaptability of these protein products to the biomedical field. The development of recombinant proteins as scaffolds, while still an emerging technology with respect to commercial products, is scientifically superior to current use of natural materials or synthetic polymer scaffolds, in terms of designing specific structures with desired degrees of biological complexities and motifs. In the field of tissue engineering, next generation scaffolds will be the key to directing appropriate tissue regeneration. The initial period of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds that provided shape and mechanical integrity, but no biological information, is phasing out. The era of protein scaffolds offers distinct advantages, particularly with the combination of powerful tools of molecular biology. These include, for example, the production of human proteins of uniform quality that are free of infectious agents and the ability to make suitable quantities of proteins that are found in low quantity or are hard to isolate from tissue. For the particular needs of tissue engineering scaffolds, fibrous proteins like collagens, elastin, silks and combinations of these offer further advantages of natural well-defined structural scaffolds as well as endless possibilities of controlling functionality by genetic manipulation.

  4. Rooting "Ko-ko-ro" into the Brain: Toward the Neuroanatomy of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Nozomu

    2005-01-01

    "Ko-ko-ro", meaning 'mind', is a complex higher order function of the human brain. The two distinct activities of mind that are best understood are the ability to recognize oneself, i.e., self-awareness, and the ability to read another mind. These two functions form the fundamental basis of humanity, thereby allowing us to conform and live in harmony within a given family, community, or society. The mind is formed under certain conditions within neural systems in the human brain, and potentia...

  5. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Eui-Suk; Kim, Mi-joo; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-cheol

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and polycaprolactone (PCL), and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt) supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin), and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3) and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.

  6. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang, E-mail: xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Lin [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Yu, Xiaoming [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Feng, Yafei [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Chengtao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Ke [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Su, Daniel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12 weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. - Highlights: • Ta film was coated on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition. • Tantalum coating allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. • Better new bone formation occurred inside the tantalum-coated scaffolds. • Clinical image data was integrated with EBM to fabricate customized scaffold.

  7. Electrospun PLLA nanofiber scaffolds and their use in combination with BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D Schofer

    Full Text Available Adequate migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is essential for regeneration of large bone defects. To achieve this, modern graft materials are becoming increasingly important. Among them, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds are a promising approach, because of their high physical porosity and potential to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM.The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of electrospun PLLA nanofiber scaffolds on bone formation in vivo, using a critical size rat calvarial defect model. In addition we analyzed whether direct incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 into nanofibers could enhance the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. Two critical size calvarial defects (5 mm were created in the parietal bones of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Defects were either (1 left unfilled, or treated with (2 bovine spongiosa, (3 PLLA scaffolds alone or (4 PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds. Cranial CT-scans were taken at fixed intervals in vivo. Specimens obtained after euthanasia were processed for histology, histomorphometry and immunostaining (Osteocalcin, BMP-2 and Smad5.PLLA scaffolds were well colonized with cells after implantation, but only showed marginal ossification. PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds showed much better bone regeneration and several ossification foci were observed throughout the defect. PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds also stimulated significantly faster bone regeneration during the first eight weeks compared to bovine spongiosa. However, no significant differences between these two scaffolds could be observed after twelve weeks. Expression of osteogenic marker proteins in PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds continuously increased throughout the observation period. After twelve weeks osteocalcin, BMP-2 and Smad5 were all significantly higher in the PLLA/BMP-2 group than in all other groups.Electrospun PLLA nanofibers facilitate colonization of bone defects, while their use in combination with BMP-2 also increases bone

  8. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Mun Yun

    Full Text Available Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs and polycaprolactone (PCL, and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin, and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3 and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.

  9. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  10. Not all minds that wander are lost: the importance of a balanced perspective on the mind-wandering state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The waking mind is often occupied with mental contents that are minimally constrained by events in the here and now. These self-generated thoughts-e.g., mind-wandering or daydreaming-interfere with external task performance and can be a marker for unhappiness and even psychiatric problems. They also occupy our thoughts for upwards of half of the time, and under non-demanding conditions they (i) allow us to connect our past and future selves together, (ii) help us make successful long-term plans and (iii) can provide a source of creative inspiration. The lengths that the mind goes to self-generate thought, coupled with its apparent functionality, suggest that the mind places a higher priority on such cognition than on many other mental acts. Although mind-wandering may be unpleasant for the individual who experiences it and disruptive to the tasks of the moment, self-generated thought allows consciousness freedom from the here and now and so reflects a key evolutionary adaptation for the mind. Here we synthesize recent literature from cognitive and clinical psychology and propose two formal hypotheses that (1) highlight task context and thought content as critical factors that constrain the costs and benefits of self-generated thought and (2) provide direction on ways to investigate the costs and benefits from an impartial perspective.

  11. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  12. A closer look at the relationship between the default network, mind wandering, negative mood, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjedi, Shaghayegh; Maleeh, Reza

    2017-08-01

    By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression. We argue that while in some kinds of meditation practices we witness an increase in the structure and in the activity of the DN, no increase in unhappiness and depression is observed.

  13. Perceived stress in multiple sclerosis: The potential role of mindfulness in health and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, Angela; Bourdette, Dennis; Hanes, Douglas; Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with worsening neurological symptoms and decreased quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mindful-consciousness can alter the impact of stressful events and has potential to improve health outcomes in MS. This study evaluated the relationship between trait mindfulness and perceived stress, coping, and resilience in people with MS. Quality of life was assessed as a secondary outcome. 119 people with confirmed MS completed the Five-facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the SF-36. Greater trait mindfulness was significantly associated with decreased psychological stress, better coping skills, increased resilience, and higher quality of life. After controlling for confounders, mindfulness accounted for 25% of the variation in perceived stress scores and 44% of the variation in resilience scores. Results support further investigation of mindfulness training to enhance psychological resilience and improve wellbeing for those living with MS. PMID:24647090

  14. Perceived stress in multiple sclerosis: the potential role of mindfulness in health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, Angela; Bourdette, Dennis; Hanes, Douglas; Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne

    2014-04-01

    Stressful life events are associated with worsening neurological symptoms and decreased quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mindful consciousness can alter the impact of stressful events and has potential to improve health outcomes in MS. This study evaluated the relationship between trait mindfulness and perceived stress, coping, and resilience in people with MS. Quality of life was assessed as a secondary outcome. One hundred nineteen people with confirmed MS completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36. Greater trait mindfulness was significantly associated with decreased psychological stress, better coping skills, increased resilience, and higher quality of life. After investigators controlled for confounders, mindfulness accounted for 25% of the variation in perceived stress scores and 44% of the variation in resilience scores. Results support further investigation of mindfulness training to enhance psychological resilience and improve well-being for those living with MS.

  15. Theory of mind and psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, G A; Götz, M; Johnstone, E C; Frith, C D; Owens, D G

    1998-03-01

    A cardinal feature of schizophrenia is the sufferer's difficulty in interacting appropriately within the social milieu. This deficit has recently been associated with the concept of theory of mind, more commonly constructed as a working model to understand behavioural patterns in autistic children. In this paper the complex relationships between theory of mind, IQ and psychoses are addressed. Five experimental groups were used; non-psychiatric controls, affective disorder, schizophrenia with normal pre-morbid IQ, schizophrenia with pre-morbid IQ in the mildly learning disabled range, and mild learning disability with no history of psychiatric illness. All subjects were given a first order Theory of Mind Task and if successful, a second order Theory of Mind Task was then administered. All subjects were rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Subjects with schizophrenia and subjects with mild learning disability show impaired ability on a second order theory of mind task. However, when patients who are unable to answer reality questions are removed from the analysis specific impairment of theory of mind is only seen in subjects with schizophrenia. Furthermore, this impairment is relatively specific to particular psychopathological clusters in subjects with schizophrenia. Even though the same clusters of psychopathology are also seen in patients with affective disorder, their presence is not associated with poor second order theory of mind performance. Impaired theory of mind on second order tests is specific to schizophrenia when compared to mild learning disability and affective disorder control groups. Subjects with schizophrenia and pre-morbid mild learning disability show greater impairment than subjects with schizophrenia and a pre-morbid IQ within the normal range.

  16. Conceptual and Mind Maps in Physics Education

    OpenAIRE

    KROTIL, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis tries to analyze aspects of mind mapping as an effective instrument for active and creative teaching of physics at the elementary school and high school. The opening part contains basic knowledge of learning theories, creativity, psychological aspects of mind mapping, difference between mind mapping and conceptual mapping and methodology of the mind mapping. Practical part of the thesis contains methodical advice for teaching physics using mind maps in different levels of ...

  17. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  18. Art as a scaffolding teaching strategy in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydo, Sharon K; Marcyjanik, Diane L; Zorn, CeCelia R; Hooper, Nicole M

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of art in nursing education is well highlighted, most of the literature is anecdotal or focuses on development of a reflective nursing practice with clients. In this study, art was used as a scaffold to infuse liberal nursing education by helping baccalaureate nursing students (n = 91) create a personal expression of nursing and move toward greater self-awareness. Scaffolding is a metaphor for supporting learners as they develop higher levels of thinking. Using naturalistic inquiry to analyze students' written responses in a course activity, four themes emerged from the data: art and creativity, teamwork, boundaries and horizons within self, and boundaries and horizons in the profession. Student's individual expressions of art served as the "calling forth" of processes that opened the door to each student's personal expression.

  19. Contribution of Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence to Burnout among Counseling Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Daniel; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of mindfulness and emotional intelligence to burnout among counseling interns (N = 380). Results indicated that higher scores on mindfulness and emotional intelligence were related to lower burnout scores. Counselor educators and supervisors should be proactive in helping students to cultivate wellness…

  20. The association between dispositional mindfulness, psychological well-being, and perceived health in a Swedish population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Duncan, Larissa G; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

    2011-05-01

    There is increasing recognition of the links between mindfulness, decreased stress, and healthier psychological functioning. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in US samples and the mechanisms through which mindfulness decreases stress and increases well-being are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between mindfulness and psychological functioning in a general population sample in Sweden. This cross-sectional study examined the association of mindfulness and five subscales of mindfulness with depression, anxiety, positive states of mind (PSOM), and perceived health. In the spring of 2007, a random population-based sample of N= 1,000 individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden was contacted by mail with a request to participate in the study. Mindfulness and some of its subscales, in particular Acting with awareness and Non-reactivity to inner experiences, were strongly related to PSOM and perceived health, and inversely related to depression and anxiety. Tests of the moderating role of mindfulness showed that the associations of perceived stress with depression and perceived health were diminished for those with higher levels of mindfulness. Mindfulness is strongly related to well-being and perceived health. Results suggest that dispositional mindfulness might buffer against the negative influence of perceived stress on psychological well-being. These findings give additional support for the use of mindfulness training as a way of improving psychological functioning among people experiencing stress. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Osteoconductivity and Biodegradability of Collagen Scaffold Coated with Nano-β-TCP and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Ibara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle bioceramics have become anticipated for biomedical applications. Highly bioactive and biodegradable scaffolds would be developed using nanoparticles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We prepared collagen scaffolds coated by nano-β-TCP and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and evaluated the effects on new bone augmentation and biodegradation. The collagen sponge was coated with the nano-TCP dispersion and freeze-dried. Scaffold was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, compressive testing and cell seeding. Subsequently, the nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold, collagen sponge, and each material loaded with FGF2 were implanted on rat cranial bone. As a control, no implantation was performed. Nano-TCP particles were found to be attached to the fibers of the collagen sponge by SEM and TEM observations. Scaffold coated with nano-TCP showed higher compressive strength and cytocompatibility. In histological evaluations at 10 days, inflammatory cells were rarely seen around the residual scaffold, suggesting that the nano-TCP material possesses good tissue compatibility. At 35 days, bone augmentation and scaffold degradation in histological samples receiving nano-β-TCP scaffold were significantly greater than those in the control. By loading of FGF2, advanced bone formation is facilitated, indicating that a combination with FGF2 would be effective for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Enhanced cell viability in hyaluronic acid coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) porous scaffolds within microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Fernanda; Keays, Marie; Hayes, Sheri; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Walker, Gavin M; Kiely, Patrick A; Collins, Maurice N

    2017-10-30

    The concept of the present work is to produce porous optimised scaffolds of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), to provide a suitable microenvironment for cellular proliferation. Freeze dried scaffolds were produced from PLGA with varying lactic acid and glycolic acid ratios along the polymer backbone, as follows: 50:50 ester terminated, 50:50 carboxylate end-group and 85:15 ester terminated. Subsequently, these scaffolds were immersed in crosslinked HA in order for the coating to enhance biological performance. Scaffolds were fully characterized with respect to surface morphology, physical and chemical properties. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was firstly evaluated using standard L929 fibroblast cells in static culture and subsequently MCF-7 breast cancer cells were seeded on scaffolds which were incorporated within a microfluidic device. The results show that cells were attracted to and adhered to the scaffolds, with a higher affinity for HA coated scaffolds. In our system, cell viability was maintained up to 48h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan-assisted BMP-2 immobilization of PCL scaffolds for enhanced osteoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyan; Yu, Yuanman; Wang, Jing; Werkmeister, Jerome A; McLean, Keith M; Liu, Changsheng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan (26SCS) modified electrospun fibrous PCL scaffold for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery to improve osteoinduction. The PCL scaffold was modified by an aminolysis reaction using ethylenediamine (ED) and 26SCS was immobilized via electrostatic interactions (PCL-N-S). Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. In vitro BMP-2 adsorption and release kinetics indicated that modified PCL-N-S scaffolds showed higher levels of binding of BMP-2 (about 30-100 times), moderative burst release (about one third), and prolonged releasing time compared to the unmodified PCL scaffold. The bioactivity of released BMP-2 determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay was maintained and improved 8-12 times with increasing concentration of immobilized 26SCS on the scaffolds. In vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) attached more readily to the PCL-N-S scaffolds with increased spreading. In conclusion, 26SCS modified PCL scaffolds can be a potent system for the sustained and bioactive delivery of BMP-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Binary phase solid-state photopolymerization of acrylates: design, characterization and biomineralization of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitlo, Inamullah; Ali, Safdar; Akram, Muhammad Yasir; Shehzad, Farooq Khurum; Nie, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Porous polymer scaffolds designed by the cryogel method are attractive materials for a range of tissue engineering applications. However, the use of toxic crosslinker for retaining the pore structure limits their clinical applications. In this research, acrylates (HEA/PEGDA, HEMA/PEGDA and PEGDA) were used in the low-temperature solid-state photopolymerization to produce porous scaffolds with good structural retention. The morphology, pore diameter, mineral deposition and water absorption of the scaffold were characterized by SEM and water absorption test respectively. Elemental analysis and cytotoxicity of the biomineralized scaffold were revealed by using XRD and MTT assay test. The PEGDA-derived scaffold showed good water absorption ability and a higher degree of porosity with larger pore size compared to others. XRD patterns and IR results confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals from an alternative socking process. The overall cell proliferation was excellent, where PEGDA-derived scaffold had the highest and the most uniform cell growth, while HEMA/PEGDA scaffold showed the least. These results suggest that the cell proliferation and adhesion are directly proportional to the pore size, the shape and the porosity of scaffolds.

  5. The Significance of Pore Microarchitecture in a Multi-Layered Elastomeric Scaffold for Contractile Cardiac Muscle Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Larson, B.L.; Guillemette, M.D.; Jain, S.R.; Hua, C.; Engelmayr, G.C.; Freed, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-layered poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffolds with controlled pore microarchitectures were fabricated, combined with heart cells, and cultured with perfusion to engineer contractile cardiac muscle constructs. First, one-layered (1L) scaffolds with accordion-like honeycomb shaped pores and elastomeric mechanical properties were fabricated by laser microablation of PGS membranes. Second, two-layered (2L) scaffolds with fully interconnected three dimensional pore networks were fabricated by oxygen plasma treatment of 1L scaffolds followed by stacking with off-set laminae to produce a tightly bonded composite. Third, heart cells were cultured on scaffolds with or without interstitial perfusion for 7 days. The laser-microablated PGS scaffolds exhibited ultimate tensile strength and strain-to-failure higher than normal adult rat left ventricular myocardium, and effective stiffnesses ranging from 220 to 290 kPa. The 7 day constructs contracted in response to electrical field stimulation. Excitation thresholds were unaffected by scaffold scale up from 1L to 2L. The 2L constructs exhibited reduced apoptosis, increased expression of connexin-43 (Cx-43) and matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) genes, and increased Cx-43 and cardiac troponin-I proteins when cultured with perfusion as compared to static controls. Together, these findings suggest that multi-layered, microfabricated PGS scaffolds may be applicable to myocardial repair applications requiring mechanical support, cell delivery and active implant contractility. PMID:21144580

  6. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil); Dulce de Almeida Soares, Glória [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowisk, s/n. Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21900-000 (Brazil); Anselme, Karine [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS LRC7228, 15, Jean Starcky Street, BP 2488, 68054 Mulhouse cedex (France); Almeida, Luís Eduardo, E-mail: lealmeida2009@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2 ± 0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7 ± 2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of 3D-scaffolds based on CHI, with or without addition of SF and HA. • Scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structure (pore size superior to 50 μm). • The tripolyphosphate did not induce any significant cytotoxic response. • The CHI/SF/HA composite showed a higher cell growth and ALP activity.

  7. Degradability, bioactivity, and osteogenesis of biocomposite scaffolds of lithium-containing mesoporous bioglass and mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanrong; Guo, Lieping; Shen, Hongxing; An, Xiaofei; Jiang, Hong; Ji, Fang; Niu, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li)-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL) copolymer were fabricated in this study. The results showed that the water absorption and degradability of Li-containing mesoporous bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-MBPC) scaffolds were obviously higher than Li-containing bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-BPC) scaffolds. Moreover, the apatite-formation ability of l-MBPC scaffolds was markedly enhanced as compared with l-BPC scaffolds, indicating that l-MBPC scaffolds containing mesoporous bioglass exhibited good bioactivity. The cell experimental results showed that cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on l-MBPC scaffolds were remarkably improved as compared to l-BPC scaffolds. In animal experiments, the histological elevation results revealed that l-MBPC scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation, indicating good osteogenesis. l-MBPC scaffolds with improved properties would be an excellent candidate for bone tissue repair.

  8. A novel nano-hydroxyapatite - PMMA hybrid scaffolds adopted by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach: Analysis of its mechanical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Radha; S, Balakumar; Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) incorporated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) scaffolds by conjugated thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) and wet-chemical approach, which essentially facilitates the enhancement of both mechanical as well as biological properties of the scaffolds. The dissolution of PMMA was accomplished by acetone (Ace scaffold), ethanol-water (E-W scaffold) and isopropanol-water (I-W scaffold) mixtures as solvents. The existence of nHAp in PMMA matrix was investigated systematically. The higher degree of porous architecture was achieved from Ace scaffolds compared to both I-W and E-W scaffolds. On the other hand, the dense porous architecture of the I-W scaffold exhibited superior hardness and compressive strength than that of the Ace and E-W scaffolds. All the fabricated samples demonstrated enhanced in vitro bioactivity with respect to increasing immersion period as a result of flower-like in vitro apatite layer formation. The MTT assay was carried out for 1day and 3day culture using Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells, which showed better cell proliferation with increasing culture period owing to the interconnected pore architecture of scaffolds and the rational hemocompatibility as per the ASTM standard F756-00. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Toward physics of the mind: Concepts, emotions, consciousness, and symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2006-03-01

    Mathematical approaches to modeling the mind since the 1950s are reviewed, including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, and neural networks. I analyze difficulties faced by these algorithms and neural networks and relate them to the fundamental inconsistency of logic discovered by Gödel. Mathematical discussions are related to those in neurobiology, psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy. Higher cognitive functions are reviewed including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination, intuition, consciousness. Then, I describe a mathematical formulation, unifying the mind mechanisms in a psychologically and neuro-biologically plausible system. A mechanism of the knowledge instinct drives our understanding of the world and serves as a foundation for higher cognitive functions. This mechanism relates aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty to “everyday” functioning of the mind. The article reviews mechanisms of human symbolic ability. I touch on future directions: joint evolution of the mind, language, consciousness, and cultures; mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis; a manifold of aesthetic emotions in music and differentiated instinct for knowledge. I concentrate on elucidating the first principles; review aspects of the theory that have been proven in laboratory research, relationships between the mind and brain; discuss unsolved problems, and outline a number of theoretical predictions, which will have to be tested in future mathematical simulations and neuro-biological research.

  10. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  11. Distributed scaffolding: Wiki collaboration among Latino high school chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Edwin Duncan, Jr.

    -natural wiki project. Results suggested a higher frequency of metacognitive scaffolding by the teacher, over peers, for content knowledge and making connections knowledge. Teacher metacognitive scaffolding often took the form of posting discussion board questions designed to stimulate student reflection on their content or creativity. On the other hand, both teacher and peer metacognitive scaffolding for general goals knowledge and strategy knowledge was relatively infrequent. Recommendations are offered for improving teacher and peer metacognitive scaffolding.

  12. Hemocompatibility improvement of perfusion-decellularized clinical-scale liver scaffold through heparin immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ji; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Jiu; Zhou, Yongjie; Wang, Yujia; Jiang, Xin; Li, Li; Shi, Yujun; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Whole-liver perfusion-decellularization is an attractive scaffold–preparation technique for producing clinical transplantable liver tissue. However, the scaffold’s poor hemocompatibility poses a major obstacle. This study was intended to improve the hemocompatibility of perfusion-decellularized porcine liver scaffold via immobilization of heparin. Heparin was immobilized on decellularized liver scaffolds (DLSs) by electrostatic binding using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique (/h-LBL scaffold), covalent binding via multi-point attachment (/h-MPA scaffold), or end-point attachment (/h-EPA scaffold). The effect of heparinization on anticoagulant ability and cytocompatibility were investigated. The result of heparin content and release tests revealed EPA technique performed higher efficiency of heparin immobilization than other two methods. Then, systematic in vitro investigation of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet adhesion and human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation) confirmed the heparinized scaffolds, especially the /h-EPA counterparts, exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Furthermore, heparin treatments prevented thrombosis successfully in DLSs with blood perfusion after implanted in vivo. Meanwhile, after heparin processes, both primary hepatocyte and endothelial cell viability were also well-maintained, which indicated that heparin treatments with improved biocompatibility might extend to various hemoperfusable whole-organ scaffolds’ preparation. PMID:26030843

  13. Controlled release of doxorubicin from electrospun PEO/chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirzadeh, Behnaz; Anaraki, Nadia Aboutalebi; Irani, Mohammad; Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Shamshiri, Soodeh

    2015-03-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully developed via electrospinning process for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The SEM analysis of nanofibrous scaffolds with different contents of GO (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7wt.%) indicated that the minimum diameter of nanofibers was found to be 85nm for PEO/CS/GO 0.5% nanofibers. The π-π stacking interaction between DOX and GO with fine pores of nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited higher drug loading (98%) and controlled release of the DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO nanofibers. The results of DOX release from nanofibrous scaffolds at pH5.3 and 7.4 indicated strong pH dependence. The hydrogen bonding interaction between GO and DOX could be unstable under acidic conditions which resulted in faster drug release rate in pH5.3. The cell viability results indicated that DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO/DOX nanofibrous scaffold could be used as an alternative source of DOX compared with free DOX to avoid the side effects of free DOX. Thus, the prepared nanofibrous scaffold offers as a novel formulation for treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of Biocompatible Liquid Crystal Elastomer Foams as Cell Scaffolds for 3D Spatial Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévôt, Marianne E; Ustunel, Senay; Bergquist, Leah E; Cukelj, Richard; Gao, Yunxiang; Mori, Taizo; Pauline, Lindsay; Clements, Robert J; Hegmann, Elda

    2017-04-11

    Here, we present a step-by-step preparation of a 3D, biodegradable, foam-like cell scaffold. These scaffolds were prepared by cross-linking star block co-polymers featuring cholesterol units as side-chain pendant groups, resulting in smectic-A (SmA) liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). Foam-like scaffolds, prepared using metal templates, feature interconnected microchannels, making them suitable as 3D cell culture scaffolds. The combined properties of the regular structure of the metal foam and of the elastomer result in a 3D cell scaffold that promotes not only higher cell proliferation compared to conventional porous templated films, but also better management of mass transport (i.e., nutrients, gases, waste, etc.). The nature of the metal template allows for the easy manipulation of foam shapes (i.e., rolls or films) and for the preparation of scaffolds of different pore sizes for different cell studies while preserving the interconnected porous nature of the template. The etching process does not affect the chemistry of the elastomers, preserving their biocompatible and biodegradable nature. We show that these smectic LCEs, when grown for extensive time periods, enable the study of clinically relevant and complex tissue constructs while promoting the growth and proliferation of cells.

  15. Post Processing and Biological Evaluation of the Titanium Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, post-surgical or post-accidental bone loss can be substituted by custom-made scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM methods from metallic powders. However, the partially melted powder particles must be removed in a post-process chemical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemical polishing with various acid baths on novel scaffolds’ morphology, porosity and mechanical properties. In the first stage, Magics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium was used to design a porous scaffolds with pore size equal to (A 200 µm, (B 500 µm and (C 200 + 500 µm, and diamond cell structure. The scaffolds were fabricated from commercially pure titanium powder (CP Ti using a SLM50 3D printing machine (Realizer GmbH, Borchen, Germany. The selective laser melting (SLM process was optimized and the laser beam energy density in range of 91–151 J/mm3 was applied to receive 3D structures with fully dense struts. To remove not fully melted titanium particles the scaffolds were chemically polished using various HF and HF-HNO3 acid solutions. Based on scaffolds mass loss and scanning electron (SEM observations, baths which provided most uniform surface cleaning were proposed for each porosity. The pore and strut size after chemical treatments was calculated based on the micro-computed tomography (µ-CT and SEM images. The mechanical tests showed that the treated scaffolds had Young’s modulus close to that of compact bone. Additionally, the effect of pore size of chemically polished scaffolds on cell retention, proliferation and differentiation was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells. Small pores yielded higher cell retention within the scaffolds, which then affected their growth. This shows that in vitro cell performance can be controlled to certain extent by varying pore sizes.

  16. Flow perfusion rate modulates cell deposition onto scaffold substrate during cell seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Marín, A; Brunelli, M; Lacroix, D

    2017-11-29

    The combination of perfusion bioreactors with porous scaffolds is beneficial for the transport of cells during cell seeding. Nonetheless, the fact that cells penetrate into the scaffold pores does not necessarily imply the interception of cells with scaffold substrate and cell attachment. An in vitro perfusion system was built to relate the selected flow rate with seeding efficiency. However, the in vitro model does not elucidate how the flow rate affects the transport and deposition of cells onto the scaffold. Thus, a computational model was developed mimicking in vitro conditions to identify the mechanisms that bring cells to the scaffold from suspension flow. Static and dynamic cell seeding configurations were investigated. In static seeding, cells sediment due to gravity until they encounter the first obstacle. In dynamic seeding, 12, 120 and 600 [Formula: see text] flow rates were explored under the presence or the absence of gravity. Gravity and secondary flow were found to be key factors for cell deposition. In vitro and in silico seeding efficiencies are in the same order of magnitude and follow the same trend with the effect of fluid flow; static seeding results in higher efficiency than dynamic perfusion although irregular spatial distribution of cells was found. In dynamic seeding, 120 [Formula: see text] provided the best seeding results. Nevertheless, the perfusion approach reports low efficiencies for the scaffold used in this study which leads to cell waste and low density of cells inside the scaffold. This study suggests gravity and secondary flow as the driving mechanisms for cell-scaffold deposition. In addition, the present in silico model can help to optimize hydrodynamic-based seeding strategies prior to experiments and enhance cell seeding efficiency.

  17. Calcium Silicate Improved Bioactivity and Mechanical Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijun Shuai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poor bioactivity and mechanical properties have restricted its biomedical application, although poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV had good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, calcium silicate (CS was incorporated into PHBV for improving its bioactivity and mechanical properties, and the porous PHBV/CS composite scaffolds were fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS. Simulated body fluid (SBF immersion tests indicated the composite scaffolds had good apatite-forming ability, which could be mainly attributed to the electrostatic attraction of negatively charged silanol groups derived from CS degradation to positively charged calcium ions in SBF. Moreover, the compressive properties of the composite scaffolds increased at first, and then decreased with increasing the CS content, which was ascribed to the fact that CS of a proper content could homogeneously disperse in PHBV matrix, while excessive CS would form continuous phase. The compressive strength and modulus of composite scaffolds with optimal CS content of 10 wt % were 3.55 MPa and 36.54 MPa, respectively, which were increased by 41.43% and 28.61%, respectively, as compared with PHBV scaffolds. Additionally, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay indicated MG63 cells had a higher proliferation rate on PHBV/CS composite scaffolds than that on PHBV. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining assay demonstrated the incorporation of CS significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of MG63 cells on the scaffolds. These results suggest that the PHBV/CS composite scaffolds have the potential in serving as a substitute in bone tissue engineering.

  18. Micropatterns of double-layered nanofiber scaffolds with dual functions of cell patterning and metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok; Koh, Won-Gun

    2011-09-07

    This paper describes the development of multi-functional nanofiber scaffolds consisting of multiple layers of nanofiber scaffolds and nanofiber-incorporated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we fabricated micropatterned polymeric nanofiber scaffolds that were capable of simultaneously generating cellular micropatterns within a biomimetic environment and detecting cellular metabolic products within well-defined microdomains. To achieve this goal, we designed nanofiber scaffolds with both vertical and lateral microdomains. Vertically heterogeneous structures that were responsible for multi-functionality were realized by preparing double-layered nanofiber scaffolds consisting of an antibody-immobilized bottom layer of nanofibers and an upper layer of bare polystyrene (PS) nanofibers by a two-step sequential electrospinning process. Photopatterning of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel on the electrospun nanofibers produced laterally heterogeneous micropatterned nanofiber scaffolds made of hydrogel microwells filled with a nanofibrous region, which is capable of generating cell and protein micropatterns due to the different interactions that cells and proteins have with PEG hydrogels and nanofibers. When HepG2 cells were seeded into resultant nanofiber scaffolds, cells selectively adhered within the 200 μm × 200 μm PS fiber microdomain and formed 180.2 ± 6.7 μm spheroids after 5 days of culture in the upper layer. Furthermore, immobilized anti-albumin in the bottom layer detected albumin secreted by micropatterned HepG2 cells with higher sensitivity than flat PS substrates, demonstrating successful accomplishment of dual functions using micropatterned double-layered nanofiber scaffolds.

  19. Post Processing and Biological Evaluation of the Titanium Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Bartłomiej; Idaszek, Joanna; Szlązak, Karol; Strzelczyk, Karolina; Brynk, Tomasz; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, post-surgical or post-accidental bone loss can be substituted by custom-made scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) methods from metallic powders. However, the partially melted powder particles must be removed in a post-process chemical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemical polishing with various acid baths on novel scaffolds’ morphology, porosity and mechanical properties. In the first stage, Magics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) was used to design a porous scaffolds with pore size equal to (A) 200 µm, (B) 500 µm and (C) 200 + 500 µm, and diamond cell structure. The scaffolds were fabricated from commercially pure titanium powder (CP Ti) using a SLM50 3D printing machine (Realizer GmbH, Borchen, Germany). The selective laser melting (SLM) process was optimized and the laser beam energy density in range of 91–151 J/mm3 was applied to receive 3D structures with fully dense struts. To remove not fully melted titanium particles the scaffolds were chemically polished using various HF and HF-HNO3 acid solutions. Based on scaffolds mass loss and scanning electron (SEM) observations, baths which provided most uniform surface cleaning were proposed for each porosity. The pore and strut size after chemical treatments was calculated based on the micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) and SEM images. The mechanical tests showed that the treated scaffolds had Young’s modulus close to that of compact bone. Additionally, the effect of pore size of chemically polished scaffolds on cell retention, proliferation and differentiation was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells. Small pores yielded higher cell retention within the scaffolds, which then affected their growth. This shows that in vitro cell performance can be controlled to certain extent by varying pore sizes. PMID:28773323

  20. Finite element predictions compared to experimental results for the effective modulus of bone tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, S; Lohfeld, S; McHugh, P E

    2009-06-01

    A current challenge in bone tissue engineering is to create scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties, high porosity, full interconnectivity and suitable pore size. In this paper, polyamide and polycaprolactone scaffolds were fabricated using a solid free form technique known as selective laser sintering. These scaffolds had fully interconnected pores, minimized strut thickness, and a porosity of approximately 55%. Tensile and compression tests as well as finite element analysis were carried out on these scaffolds. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the FE model were much higher than the actual values obtained from experimental results. One possible explanation for this discrepancy, viz. the surface roughness of the scaffold and the presence of micropores in the scaffold struts, was investigated with a view to making recommendations on improving FE model configurations for accurate effective property predictions.

  1. Titanate nanotube coatings on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632, Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, A. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Anjum, F.; Brandi, F. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Rigid, biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were coated with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using a spin-coating method. TNTs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 150 °C under 4.7 bar ambient pressure. The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. For scaffold coating, a stable ethanolic TNT sol was prepared by a simple colloid chemical route without the use of any binding compounds or additives. Scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis revealed that the scaffolds were homogenously coated by TNTs. The developed TNT coating can further improve the surface geometry of fabricated scaffolds, and therefore it can further increase the cell adhesion. Highlights: ► Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. ► Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. ► The titanate nanotube coating can further improve the surface geometry of scaffolds. ► These reproducible platforms will be of high importance for biological applications.

  2. Balancing mechanical strength with bioactivity in chitosan-calcium phosphate 3D microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: air- vs. freeze-drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D T; McCanless, J D; Mecwan, M M; Noblett, A P; Haggard, W O; Smith, R A; Bumgardner, J D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of 3D composite scaffolds composed of chitosan and calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering. Additionally, incorporation of mechanically weak lyophilized microspheres within those air-dried (AD) was considered for enhanced bioactivity. AD microsphere, alone, and air- and freeze-dried microsphere (FDAD) 3D scaffolds were evaluated in vitro using a 28-day osteogenic culture model with the Saos-2 cell line. Mechanical testing, quantitative microscopy, and lysozyme-driven enzymatic degradation of the scaffolds were also studied. FDAD scaffold showed a higher concentration (p mechanical strength was sacrificed through introduction of the less stiff, porous FD spheres.

  3. Scaffolding for Argumentation in Hypothetical and Theoretical Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wan-Yun; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of online argumentation scaffolding on students' argumentation involving hypothetical and theoretical biological concepts. Two types of scaffolding were developed in order to improve student argumentation: continuous scaffolding and withdraw scaffolding. A quasi-experimental design was used with four…

  4. Teenaged Internet Tutors' Use of Scaffolding with Older Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambaum, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses how teenaged instructors paired with older learners make use of scaffolding. Video data were categorised according to 15 types of direct scaffolding tactics, indirect scaffolding, and unused scaffolding opportunities. The results show that a teenager who is unprepared for the role of an instructor of Internet skills for older…

  5. Cell structure, stiffness and permeability of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds in dry and hydrated states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, M C; Neelakantan, S; Clyne, T W; Dean, J; Brooks, R A; Markaki, A E

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering applications should be highly permeable to support mass transfer requirements while providing a 3-D template for the encapsulated biological cells. High porosity and cell interconnectivity result in highly compliant scaffolds. Overstraining occurs easily with such compliant materials and can produce misleading results. In this paper, the cell structure of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds, in both dry and hydrated states, was characterised using X-ray tomography and 2-photon confocal microscopy respectively. Measurements have been made of the scaffold's Young's modulus using conventional mechanical testing and a customised see-saw testing configuration. Specific permeability was measured under constant pressure gradient and compared with predictions. The collagen scaffolds investigated here have a coarse cell size (∼100-150 μm) and extensive connectivity between adjacent cells (∼10-30 μm) in both dry and hydrated states. The Young's modulus is very low, of the order of 10 kPa when dry and 1 kPa when hydrated. There is only a single previous study concerning the specific permeability of (hydrated) collagen scaffolds, despite its importance in nutrient diffusion, waste removal and cell migration. The experimentally measured value reported here (5 × 10(-)(10)m(2)) is in good agreement with predictions based on Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and broadly consistent with the Carman-Kozeny empirical estimate. It is however about three orders of magnitude higher than the single previously-reported value and this discrepancy is attributed at least partly to the high pressure gradient imposed in the previous study. The high porosity and interconnectivity of tissue engineering scaffolds result in highly compliant structures (ie large deflections under low applied loads). Characterisation is essential if these scaffolds are to be systematically optimised. Scaffold overstraining during characterisation can lead to misleading

  6. Is mind-mindedness trait-like or a quality of close relationships? Evidence from descriptions of significant others, famous people, and works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne

    2014-03-01

    The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SHOP: scaffold hopping by GRID-based similarity searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Rikke; Linusson, Anna; Zamora, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    scaffolds were in the 31 top-ranked scaffolds. SHOP also identified new scaffolds with substantially different chemotypes from the queries. Docking analysis indicated that the new scaffolds would have similar binding modes to those of the respective query scaffolds observed in X-ray structures...... ligands of three different protein targets relevant for drug discovery using a rational approach based on statistical experimental design. Five out of eight and seven out of eight thrombin scaffolds and all seven HIV protease scaffolds were recovered within the top 10 and 31 out of 31 neuraminidase...

  8. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  9. Development of Managers' Emotional Competencies: Mind-Body Training Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruicic, Dusan; Benton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to research about the effect of mind-body training on the development of emotional competencies of managers. Design/methodology/approach: Quasi-experimental design, i.e. before and after (test-retest). Findings: Results showed that the experimental group, after training, achieved around 15 per cent higher scores compared…

  10. Theory of Mind, Causal Attribution and Paranoia in Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshaw, Alison J.; Kinderman, Peter; Hare, Dougal J.; Hatton, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-five participants (ages 15-40) with Asperger syndrome scored significantly higher on a measure of paranoia and lower on a measure of theory of mind, compared with a control group. They did not differ in self-concept and causal attributions. A regression analysis highlighted private self-consciousness as the only predictor of paranoia.…

  11. Scaling of Advanced Theory-of-Mind Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Advanced theory-of-mind (AToM) development was investigated in three separate studies involving 82, 466, and 402 elementary school children (8-, 9-, and 10-year-olds). Rasch and factor analyses assessed whether common conceptual development underlies higher-order false-belief understanding, social understanding, emotion recognition, and…

  12. Modified TMV particles as beneficial scaffolds to present sensor enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKoch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV is a robust nanotubular nucleoprotein scaffold increasingly employed for the high density presentation of functional molecules such as peptides, fluorescent dyes and antibodies. We report on its use as advantageous carrier for sensor enzymes. A TMV mutant with a cysteine residue exposed on every coat protein (CP subunit (TMVCys enabled the coupling of bifunctional maleimide-polyethylene glycol (PEG-biotin linkers (TMVCys/Bio. Its surface was equipped with two streptavidin [SA]-conjugated enzymes: glucose oxidase ([SA]-GOx and horseradish peroxidase ([SA]-HRP. At least 50 % of the CPs were decorated with a linker molecule, and all thereof with active enzymes. Upon use as adapter scaffolds in conventional 'high-binding' microtiter plates, TMV sticks allowed the immobilization of up to 45-fold higher catalytic activities than control samples with the same input of enzymes. Moreover, they increased storage stability and reusability in relation to enzymes applied directly to microtiter plate wells. The functionalized TMV adsorbed to solid supports showed a homogeneous distribution of the conjugated enzymes and structural integrity of the nanorods upon transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. The high surface-increase and steric accessibility of the viral scaffolds in combination with the biochemical environment provided by the plant viral coat may explain the beneficial effects. TMV can, thus, serve as a favorable multivalent nanoscale platform for the ordered presentation of bioactive proteins.

  13. Hypnosis and Mindfulness: The Twain Finally Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness meditation (or simply mindfulness) is an ancient method of attention training. Arguably, developed originally by the Buddha, it has been practiced by Buddhists over 2,500 years as part of their spiritual training. The popularity in mindfulness has soared recently following its adaptation as Mindfulness-Based Stress Management by Jon Kabat-Zinn (1995). Mindfulness is often compared to hypnosis but not all assertions are accurate. This article, as a primer, delineates similarities and dissimilarities between mindfulness and hypnosis in terms of 12 specific facets, including putative neuroscientific findings. It also provides a case example that illustrates clinical integration of the two methods.

  14. Effects of Mindfulness Interventions on Health Outcomes in Older Lesbian/Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Natalie; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; Harbatkin, Dawn; Minnis, Alexandra M; McElroy, Jane A; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are at higher risk for obesity, but no reported interventions focus on older LB women who are overweight or obese. The Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women study funded five programs (n = 266 LB women age ≥40); two examined effects of mindfulness interventions on health outcomes. Analysis of variance and regression measured the impact of mindfulness-based programs on health behaviors and quality of life (MCS). Outcomes were also compared between intervention sites (mindfulness vs. standard weight loss approaches). Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) subscale scores improved significantly from preassessment to postassessment in mindfulness interventions. LB women who reported an increase (top tertile) in mindful eating had the most significant increase in MCS scores (35.3%) compared with those with low gains (low and medium tertile) in mindfulness (3.8%). MEQ score increase predicted 40.8% of the variance (adjusted) in MCS score, R(2) = .431, F(6,145) = 18.337, p mindfulness were significantly related to increases in physical activity and some nutrition outcomes. Mindfulness intervention sites showed within-person improvements in MCS and fruit and vegetable intake, whereas standard intervention sites showed within-person decreases in alcohol intake and increases in physical activity level. Although weight loss was not a primary outcome at the mindfulness sites, small but significant weight loss and weight-to-height ratio decreases were reported at all five sites. Increases in mindfulness were associated with a number of significant self-reported health improvements, including a great increase in perceived mental health quality of life. Mindfulness may be a promising practice to address health issues in aging LB women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold Prototype for Entirely-Cementless Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses—Exemplary Results of Implantation of the Ca-P Surface-Modified Scaffold Prototypes in Animal Model and Osteoblast Culture Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Uklejewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present here—designed, manufactured, and tested by our research team—the Ti-alloy prototype of the multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold interfacing the components of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA endoprostheses with bone. The spikes of the MSC-Scaffold prototype mimic the interdigitations of the articular subchondral bone, which is the natural biostructure interfacing the articular cartilage with the periarticular trabecular bone. To enhance the osteoinduction/osteointegration potential of the MSC-Scaffold, the attempts to modify its bone contacting surfaces by the process of electrochemical cathodic deposition of Ca-P was performed with further immersion of the MSC-Scaffold prototypes in SBF in order to transform the amorphous calcium-phosphate coating in hydroxyapatite-like (HA-like coating. The pilot experimental study of biointegration of unmodified and Ca-P surface-modified MSC-Scaffold prototypes was conducted in an animal model (swine and in osteoblast cell culture. On the basis of a microscope-histological method the biointegration was proven by the presence of trabeculae in the interspike spaces of the MSC-Scaffold prototype on longitudinal and cross-sections of bone-implant specimens. The percentage of trabeculae in the area between the spikes of specimen containing Ca-P surface modified scaffold prototype observed in microCT reconstructions of the explanted joints was visibly higher than in the case of unmodified MSC-Scaffold prototypes. Significantly higher Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity and the cellular proliferation in the case of Ca-P-modified MSC-Scaffold pre-prototypes, in comparison with unmodified pre-prototypes, was found in osteoblast cell cultures. The obtained results of experimental implantation in an animal model and osteoblast cell culture evaluations of Ca-P surface-modified and non-modified biomimetic MSC-Scaffold prototypes for biomimetic entirely-cementless RA endoprostheses indicate the

  16. Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold Prototype for Entirely-Cementless Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses-Exemplary Results of Implantation of the Ca-P Surface-Modified Scaffold Prototypes in Animal Model and Osteoblast Culture Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uklejewski, Ryszard; Rogala, Piotr; Winiecki, Mariusz; Tokłowicz, Renata; Ruszkowski, Piotr; Wołuń-Cholewa, Maria

    2016-06-29

    We present here-designed, manufactured, and tested by our research team-the Ti-alloy prototype of the multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) interfacing the components of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprostheses with bone. The spikes of the MSC-Scaffold prototype mimic the interdigitations of the articular subchondral bone, which is the natural biostructure interfacing the articular cartilage with the periarticular trabecular bone. To enhance the osteoinduction/osteointegration potential of the MSC-Scaffold, the attempts to modify its bone contacting surfaces by the process of electrochemical cathodic deposition of Ca-P was performed with further immersion of the MSC-Scaffold prototypes in SBF in order to transform the amorphous calcium-phosphate coating in hydroxyapatite-like (HA-like) coating. The pilot experimental study of biointegration of unmodified and Ca-P surface-modified MSC-Scaffold prototypes was conducted in an animal model (swine) and in osteoblast cell culture. On the basis of a microscope-histological method the biointegration was proven by the presence of trabeculae in the interspike spaces of the MSC-Scaffold prototype on longitudinal and cross-sections of bone-implant specimens. The percentage of trabeculae in the area between the spikes of specimen containing Ca-P surface modified scaffold prototype observed in microCT reconstructions of the explanted joints was visibly higher than in the case of unmodified MSC-Scaffold prototypes. Significantly higher Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity and the cellular proliferation in the case of Ca-P-modified MSC-Scaffold pre-prototypes, in comparison with unmodified pre-prototypes, was found in osteoblast cell cultures. The obtained results of experimental implantation in an animal model and osteoblast cell culture evaluations of Ca-P surface-modified and non-modified biomimetic MSC-Scaffold prototypes for biomimetic entirely-cementless RA endoprostheses indicate the enhancement of the

  17. Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold Prototype for Entirely-Cementless Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses—Exemplary Results of Implantation of the Ca-P Surface-Modified Scaffold Prototypes in Animal Model and Osteoblast Culture Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uklejewski, Ryszard; Rogala, Piotr; Winiecki, Mariusz; Tokłowicz, Renata; Ruszkowski, Piotr; Wołuń-Cholewa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present here—designed, manufactured, and tested by our research team—the Ti-alloy prototype of the multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) interfacing the components of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprostheses with bone. The spikes of the MSC-Scaffold prototype mimic the interdigitations of the articular subchondral bone, which is the natural biostructure interfacing the articular cartilage with the periarticular trabecular bone. To enhance the osteoinduction/osteointegration potential of the MSC-Scaffold, the attempts to modify its bone contacting surfaces by the process of electrochemical cathodic deposition of Ca-P was performed with further immersion of the MSC-Scaffold prototypes in SBF in order to transform the amorphous calcium-phosphate coating in hydroxyapatite-like (HA-like) coating. The pilot experimental study of biointegration of unmodified and Ca-P surface-modified MSC-Scaffold prototypes was conducted in an animal model (swine) and in osteoblast cell culture. On the basis of a microscope-histological method the biointegration was proven by the presence of trabeculae in the interspike spaces of the MSC-Scaffold prototype on longitudinal and cross-sections of bone-implant specimens. The percentage of trabeculae in the area between the spikes of specimen containing Ca-P surface modified scaffold prototype observed in microCT reconstructions of the explanted joints was visibly higher than in the case of unmodified MSC-Scaffold prototypes. Significantly higher Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity and the cellular proliferation in the case of Ca-P-modified MSC-Scaffold pre-prototypes, in comparison with unmodified pre-prototypes, was found in osteoblast cell cultures. The obtained results of experimental implantation in an animal model and osteoblast cell culture evaluations of Ca-P surface-modified and non-modified biomimetic MSC-Scaffold prototypes for biomimetic entirely-cementless RA endoprostheses indicate the enhancement of the

  18. Chitosan scaffolds induce human dental pulp stem cells to neural differentiation: potential roles for spinal cord injury therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lu, Xiaohui; Feng, Guijuan; Gu, Zhifeng; Sun, Yuyu; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Lu, Yuanzhou; Chen, Jiajia; Xu, Lingfeng; Feng, Xingmei; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based transplantation strategies hold great potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. Chitosan scaffolds have therapeutic benefits for spinal cord regeneration. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are abundant available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility and can be considered for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of chitosan scaffolds in the neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro and to assess the supportive effects of chitosan scaffolds in an animal model of SCI. DPSCs were incubated with chitosan scaffolds. Cell viability and the secretion of neurotrophic factors were analyzed. DPSCs incubated with chitosan scaffolds were treated with neural differentiation medium for 14 days and then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed by Western blot and reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. Our study revealed a higher cell viability and neural differentiation in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. Compared with the control group, the levels of BDNF, GDNF, b-NGF, and NT-3 were significantly increased in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs combined with chitosan scaffolds. Transplantation of DPSCs together with chitosan scaffolds into an SCI rat model resulted in the marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Thus, chitosan scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and provided a conducive and favorable microenvironment for the survival and neural differentiation of DPSCs. Transplantation of DPSCs might therefore be a suitable candidate for treating SCI and other neuronal degenerative diseases.

  19. Mindfulness Integrative Model (MIM): Cultivating positive states of mind towards oneself and the others through mindfulness and self-compassion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Carlos García-Rubio; David Paniagua; Gustavo García-Diex

    2016-01-01

    ...). MIM main hypothesis is that mindfulness practice leads to an increment in mindfulness trait, which leads to an increase of self-compassion, and these in turn, lead to increase positive mental states...

  20. Mindfulness, Mysticism, and Narrative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley

    2016-12-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) are rapidly emerging in health care settings for their role in reducing stress and improving physical and mental health. In such settings, the religious roots and affiliations of MBIs are downplayed, and the possibilities for developing spiritual, even mystical, states of consciousness are minimized. This article helps rebalance this trend by using the tools of medical humanities and narrative medicine to explore MBI as a bridge between medical and spiritual approaches to health related suffering. My narrative medicine method draws insights from the arts and humanities that are rarely used in standard clinical research but are increasingly common among medical humanities and narrative medicine scholars. The specific path I take will be to work through historical, linguistic, and philosophic dimensions of mindfulness and mysticism as relevant to illness, suffering, death, and dying. I close with two case examples in which mindfulness is used as an intentionally spiritual practice for health concerns.

  1. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice. Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding

  2. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Pascual, Juan C; Baños, Rosa; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively) responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice). Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS) consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the

  3. Benefits of biphasic calcium phosphate hybrid scaffold-driven osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through upregulated leptin receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Chien; Lin, Song-Shu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chen, Lih-Huei; Yang, Chuen-Yung; Wang, Chao-Jan; Yuan, Li-Jen; Chen, Po-Han; Cheng, Hsiao-Yang

    2015-07-16

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a bone substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion has been reported. However, the genes and molecular signals by which MSCs interact with their surrounding environment require further elucidation. MSCs were harvested from bone grafting patients and identified by flow cytometry. A composite scaffold was developed using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymer, coralline HA, BCP, and collagen as a carrier matrix for MSCs. The gene expression profiles of MSCs cultured in the scaffolds were measured by microarrays. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MSCs was assessed, and the expression of osteogenic genes and proteins was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, we cultured rabbit MSCs in BCP or coralline HA hybrid scaffolds and transplanted these mixtures into rabbits for spinal fusion. We investigated the differences between BCP and coralline HA hybrid scaffolds by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT). Tested in vitro, the cells were negative for hematopoietic cell markers and positive for MSC markers. There was higher expression of 80 genes and lower of 101 genes of MSCs cultured in BCP hybrid scaffolds. Some of these genes have been shown to play a role in osteogenesis of MSCs. In addition, MSCs cultured in BCP hybrid scaffolds produced more messenger RNA (mRNA) for osteopontin, osteocalcin, Runx2, and leptin receptor (leptin-R) than those cultured in coralline HA hybrid scaffolds. Western blotting showed more Runx2 and leptin-R protein expression in BCP hybrid scaffolds. For in vivo results, 3D reconstructed CT images showed continuous bone bridges and fusion mass incorporated with the transverse processes. Bone mineral content (BMC) values were higher in the BCP hybrid scaffold group than in the coralline HA hybrid scaffold group. The BCP hybrid

  4. Effect of mindfulness meditation on brain-computer interface performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee-Fan; Dienes, Zoltan; Jansari, Ashok; Goh, Sing-Yau

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable stroke and motor neuron disease patients to communicate and control devices. Mindfulness meditation has been claimed to enhance metacognitive regulation. The current study explores whether mindfulness meditation training can thus improve the performance of BCI users. To eliminate the possibility of expectation of improvement influencing the results, we introduced a music training condition. A norming study found that both meditation and music interventions elicited clear expectations for improvement on the BCI task, with the strength of expectation being closely matched. In the main 12 week intervention study, seventy-six healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: a meditation training group; a music training group; and a no treatment control group. The mindfulness meditation training group obtained a significantly higher BCI accuracy compared to both the music training and no-treatment control groups after the intervention, indicating effects of meditation above and beyond expectancy effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rasch Model Analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Hong Eng; Marais, Ida; Ireland, Michael James

    2017-04-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale was developed to measure individual differences in the tendency to be mindful. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a heterogeneous sample of 565 nonmeditators and 612 meditators using the polytomous Rasch model. The results showed that some items did not function the same way for these two groups. Overall, meditators had higher mean estimates than nonmeditators. The analysis identified a group of items as highly discriminating. Using a different model, Van Dam, Earleywine, and Borders in 2010 identified the same group of items as highly discriminating, and concluded that they were the items with the most information. Multiple pieces of evidence from the Rasch analysis showed that these items discriminate highly because of local dependence, hence do not supply independent information. We discussed how these different conclusions, based on similar findings, result from two very different paradigms in measurement.

  6. Osteogenic differentiation of human periosteal-derived cells in a three-dimensional collagen scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young-Mo; Hah, Young-Sool; Park, Bong-Wook; Kim, Deok Ryong; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Jong-Ryoul; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Maeng, Geun-Ho; Byun, June-Ho

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the osteogenic differentiation of cultured human periosteal-derived cells grown in a three dimensional collagen-based scaffold. Periosteal explants with the appropriate dimensions were harvested from the mandible during surgical extraction of lower impacted third molar. Periosteal-derived cells were introduced into cell culture. After passage 3, the cells were divided into two groups and cultured for 28 days. In one group, the cells were cultured in two-dimensional culture dishes with osteogenic inductive medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate. In the other group, the cells were seeded onto a three-dimensional collagen scaffold and cultured under the same conditions. We examined the bioactivity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the RT-PCR analysis for ALP and osteocalcin, and measurements of the calcium content in the periosteal-derived cells of two groups. Periosteal-derived cells were successfully differentiated into osteoblasts in the collagen-based scaffold. The ALP activity in the periosteal-derived cells was appreciably higher in the three-dimensional collagen scaffolds than in the two-dimensional culture dishes. The levels of ALP and osteocalcin mRNA in the periosteal-derived cells was also higher in the three-dimensional collagen scaffolds than in the two-dimensional culture dishes. The calcium level in the periosteal-derived cells seeded onto three-dimensional collagen scaffolds showed a 5.92-fold increase on day 7, 3.28-fold increase on day 14, 4.15-fold increase on day 21, and 2.91-fold increase on day 28, respectively, compared with that observed in two-dimensional culture dishes. These results suggest that periosteal-derived cells have good osteogenic capacity in a three-dimensional collagen scaffold, which provides a suitable environment for the osteoblastic differentiation of these cells.

  7. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  8. [PROGRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TISSUE ENGINEERING SCAFFOLD MATERIALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojuan; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the progress in biological tissue engineering scaffold materials and the clinical application, as well as product development status. Based on extensive investigation in the status of research and application of biological tissue engineering scaffold materials, a comprehensive analysis was made. Meanwhile, a detailed analysis of research and product development was presented. Considerable progress has been achieved in research, products transformation, clinical application, and supervision of biological scaffold for tissue engineering. New directions, new technology, and new products are constantly emerging. With the continuous progress of science and technology and continuous improvement of life sciences theory, the new direction and new focus still need to be continuously adjusted in order to meet the clinical needs. From the aspect of industrial transformation feasibility, acellular scaffolds and extracellular matrix are the most promising new growth of both research and product development in this field.

  9. Agrochemical lead optimization by scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    Scaffold hopping, the exchange of a specific portion of a potential active ingredient with another substructure with the aim of finding isofunctional molecular structures with significantly different molecular backbones, often offers the chance in lead discovery or optimization to mitigate problems related to toxicity, intellectual property, and insufficient potency or stability. Scaffold hopping tools such as isosteric ring replacement including 1,3 nitrogen shift and cyclic imine-amide isosterism, but also ring opening and ring closure approaches, functional group isosterism, reversion of functional groups, chain shortening, chain lengthening, and scaffolds delivered by natural products, have become a permanent fixture of the innovation and optimization process in crop protection research. Their appropriate use will be explained through examples of success stories in the field of agrochemistry. Analogies to, but also differences from, the main categories of scaffold hopping in medicinal drug discovery are discussed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Biomimetic nanoclay scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambre, Avinash Harishchandra

    Tissue engineering offers a significant potential alternative to conventional methods for rectifying tissue defects by evoking natural regeneration process via interactions between cells and 3D porous scaffolds. Imparting adequate mechanical properties to biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is an important challenge and extends from molecular to macroscale. This work focuses on the use of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) to design polymer composite scaffolds having enhanced mechanical properties along with multiple interdependent properties. Materials design beginning at the molecular level was used in which Na-MMT clay was modified with three different unnatural amino acids and further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on improved bicompatibility with human osteoblasts (bone cells) and intermediate increase in d-spacing of MMT clay (shown by XRD), 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was further used to prepare biopolymer (chitosan-polygalacturonic acid complex) scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation in biopolymer scaffolds containing 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was similar to biopolymer scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (HAP). A novel process based on biomineralization in bone was designed to prepare 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay capable of imparting multiple properties to the scaffolds. Bone-like apatite was mineralized in modified clay and a novel nanoclay-HAP hybrid (in situ HAPclay) was obtained. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a molecular level organic-inorganic association between the intercalated 5-aminovaleric acid and mineralized HAP. Osteoblasts formed clusters on biopolymer composite films prepared with different weight percent compositions of in situ HAPclay. Human MSCs formed mineralized nodules on composite films and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) in composite scaffolds without the use of osteogenic supplements. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, was

  11. Mindful Storytellers: Emerging Pragmatics and Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Emerging pragmatic language skills involve social, cognitive and linguistic abilities, including children's awareness of the conversational partner's mental states. The present study investigated the relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and features of pragmatic language skills assessed through narrative discourse. One hundred and…

  12. Graphene based scaffolds on bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Khalilzadeh, Balal

    2017-11-02

    Tissue engineering has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. Tissue-engineered bone constructs have the potential to alleviate the demand arising from the shortage of suitable autograft and allograft materials for augmenting bone healing. Scaffolds play a central role in tissue engineering research, they not only provide as structural support for specific cells but also provide as the templates to guide new tissue growth and construction. In this survey we describe application of graphene based nano-biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. In this article, application of different graphene based materials on construction of manufacture scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was discussed. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on tissue engineering, followed by a comprehensive description of all the relevant components of graphene based materials, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies that will lead to "engineered" bone. In this survey, more recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of scaffold materials was discused. The ability of graphene to improve the biological properties of scaffold materials, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies which we discuss in this survey article. We further highlight how the properties of graphene are being exploited for scaffolds in bone tissue engineering, comprehensively surveying recent experimental works featuring graphene and graphene derivatives. Bone tissue engineering, for the purpose of this survey, is the use of a scaffolding material to either induce formation of bone from the surrounding tissue or to act as a carrier or template for implanted bone cells or other agents. Materials used as bone tissue-engineered scaffolds may be injectable or rigid, the latter requiring an operative implantation procedure.

  13. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Villa

    Full Text Available Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  14. Beyond Opioids: Mind and Body Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Opioids Beyond Opioids: Mind and Body Practices Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table ... research shows that some non-drug approaches—including mind and body practices such as tai chi and ...

  15. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind : new essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective / ed. by Uwe Meixner ... - Berlin u.a. : De Gruyter, 2014. - 208 S. - (Philosophische Analyse ; 56)

  16. Cultivate Mindfulness: A Case Study of Mindful Learning in an English as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigated how the use of mindfulness affected college English as a foreign language (EFL) students' learning and how mindful learning strategies supported their learning of English. Mindful learning considers the students' abilities to be aware, perceive and conceive. Mindfulness results in an increase in competence, memory,…

  17. The pro-angiogenic properties of multi-functional bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    KAUST Repository

    Gerhardt, Lutz Christian

    2011-06-01

    The angiogenic properties of micron-sized (m-BG) and nano-sized (n-BG) bioactive glass (BG) filled poly(D,L lactide) (PDLLA) composites were investigated. On the basis of cell culture work investigating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by human fibroblasts in contact with composite films (0, 5, 10, 20 wt %), porous 3D composite scaffolds, optimised with respect to the BG filler content capable of inducing angiogenic response, were produced. The in vivo vascularisation of the scaffolds was studied in a rat animal model and quantified using stereological analyses. The prepared scaffolds had high porosities (81-93%), permeability (k = 5.4-8.6 × 10-9 m2) and compressive strength values (0.4-1.6 MPa) all in the range of trabecular bone. On composite films containing 20 wt % m-BG or n-BG, human fibroblasts produced 5 times higher VEGF than on pure PDLLA films. After 8 weeks of implantation, m-BG and n-BG containing scaffolds were well-infiltrated with newly formed tissue and demonstrated higher vascularisation and percentage blood vessel to tissue (11.6-15.1%) than PDLLA scaffolds (8.5%). This work thus shows potential for the regeneration of hard-soft tissue defects and increased bone formation arising from enhanced vascularisation of the construct. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of thickness of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds using alternate soaking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongguo; Zhu, Rui; Sun, Liguo; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA.

  19. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    scaffolding. These interactions transpire between energetic causal chains and a wide range of converging semiotic transactions unfolding within each individual organism and between organisms and their environment. The perspective advanced here helps elucidate the manner in which physical and semiotic causation cooperate in an orchestrated fashion, giving rise to an ever-expanding profusion of scaffolding structures and processes. Using simple examples I outline some mechanisms that bring about this orchestration as well as the resultant channeling activities that eventually merge and find their culmination in the enactment of goal-oriented behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Tools for the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary

    2006-01-01

    An overly narrow and specialized focus on technology in schools discourages the use of computers to promote higher-order thinking. Many districts have concentrated on skills training, failed to supply such necessary supports as professional development, conflated technology use with instructional quality, and classified all software applications…

  1. Mindfulness: "What Should Teachers of Psychology Know?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Laura M.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness, which is best understood as nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness, originated in ancient Eastern traditions but has been adapted for use in Western, secular settings. The present article reviews the quickly burgeoning field of mindfulness research for teachers of psychology, including the most common mindfulness-based treatments…

  2. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  3. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of carbonate apatite-collagen scaffolds with some cytokines for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: By histological observation and measurement of bone area ratio, CA-CS with cytokines showed higher bone formation ability (bFGF/CA-CS: 50.7 ± 7.3%, rh-BMP2/CA-CS: 54.2 ± 5.0% than other groups. From the limited results of this study, it is suggested that CA collagen scaffolds with some cytokines may become an attractive scaffold for bone regeneration.

  5. A green salt-leaching technique to produce sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds with distinguished characteristics for wound-dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong; Tongsakul, Duangta; Bang, Nipaporn

    2015-05-01

    Sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds could be fabricated using the freeze-drying technique; they showed good physical and biological properties and can be applied as wound dressings. However, freeze-drying is an energy- and time-consuming process with a high associated cost. In this study, an alternative, solvent-free, energy- and time-saving, low-cost salt-leaching technique is introduced as a green technology to produce sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds. We found that sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds were successfully fabricated without any crosslinking using a salt-leaching technique. The salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds had a porous structure with pore interconnectivity. The sericin in the salt-leached scaffolds had a crystallinity that was as high as that of the freeze-dried scaffolds. Compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds with the same composition, the salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds has larger pores, a lower Young's modulus, and faster rates of biodegradation and sericin release. When cultured with L929 mouse fibroblast cells, a higher number of cells were found in the salt-leached scaffolds. Furthermore, the salt-leached scaffolds were less adhesive to the wound, which would reduce pain upon removal. Therefore, salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds with distinguished characteristics were introduced as another choice of wound dressing, and their production process was simpler, more energy efficient, and saved time and money compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 3D fabrication and characterization of phosphoric acid scaffold with a HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 60:40 for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanen; Wang, Kai; Li, Xinpei; Wei, Qinghua; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Shuzhi; Che, Yu; Lu, Tingli; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    A key requirement for three-dimensional printing (3-DP) at room temperature of medical implants depends on the availability of printable and biocompatible binder-powder systems. Different concentration polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and phosphoric acid solutions were chosen as the binders to make the artificial stent biocompatible with sufficient compressive strength. In order to achieve an optimum balance between the bioceramic powder and binder solution, the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of these artificial stent samples were tested using two kinds of binder solutions. This study demonstrated the printable binder formulation at room temperature for the 3D artificial bone scaffolds. 0.6 wt% PVA solution was ejected easily via inkjet printing, with a supplementation of 0.25 wt% Tween 80 to reduce the surface tension of the polyvinyl alcohol solution. Compared with the polyvinyl alcohol scaffolds, the phosphoric acid scaffolds had better mechanical properties. Though both scaffolds supported the cell proliferation, the absorbance of the polyvinyl alcohol scaffolds was higher than that of the phosphoric acid scaffolds. The artificial stents with a hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) weight ratios of 60:40 depicted good biocompatibility for both scaffolds. Considering the scaffolds' mechanical and biocompatible properties, the phosphoric acid scaffolds with a HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 60:40 may be the best combination for bone tissue engineering applications.

  7. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  8. Mindfulness på arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Torben; Nielsen, Lotte Svalgaard

    2011-01-01

    organisationer, hvor fokus er på følelser, kultur, mindfulness, negativ formåen og mobning. •Ledelse, hvor postmoderne ledelsesmetoder bringes frem, beskrives og analyseres i forhold til selvstyrende grupper, mentalisering, teamorienteret ledelse og kønsperspektivet på ledelse. •Konsulentperspektivet, som...

  9. Digital doorway: enriching your mind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cambridge, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available your mind G CAMBRIDGE Meraka Institute, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 gcambrid@csir.co.za The Digital Doorway is a joint project between the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Meraka Institute of the CSIR...

  10. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  11. The Providence of Associated Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) has been one of the most innovative and influential thinkers in the history of human and social sciences. Although psychology sometimes underestimates his contribution, Vico was the first scholar to develop a systematic view of the relationship between mind and cultu...

  12. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  13. A Double-Minded Fractal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  14. Mindfulness-baseret stressreduktion (MBSR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piet, Jacob

    Oplægget er en kort status over den empiriske forskning inden for området med fokus på virkning samt potentielle virkningsmekanismer i relation til stress. Der peges desuden på nogle af de forhold og faktorer, der er vigtige for at opretholde kvalitet og integritet i evidensbaserede mindfulness-t...

  15. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethylcellulose-Methacrylate Hydrogel Cell Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Robert; Ribeiro, Andreia; Lombardo, Leonard; Boyer, Richard; Leach, Jennie B.

    2012-01-01

    Many carbohydrates pose advantages for tissue engineering applications due to their hydrophilicity, degradability, and availability of chemical groups for modification. For example, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a water-soluble cellulose derivative that is degradable by cellulase. Though this enzyme is not synthesized by mammalian cells, cellulase and the fragments derived from CMC degradation are biocompatible. With this in mind, we created biocompatible, selectively degradable CMC-based hydrogels that are stable in routine culture, but degrade when exposed to exogenous cellulase. Solutions of CMC-methacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DM) were co-crosslinked to form stable hydrogels; we found that greater CMC-methacrylate content resulted in increased gel swelling, protein diffusion and rates of degradation by cellulase, as well as decreased gel shear modulus. CMC-methacrylate/PEG-DM gels modified with the adhesive peptide RGD supported fibroblast adhesion and viability. We conclude that hydrogels based on CMC-methacrylate are suitable for bioengineering applications where selective degradability may be favorable, such as cell scaffolds or controlled release devices. PMID:22708058

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethylcellulose-Methacrylate Hydrogel Cell Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many carbohydrates pose advantages for tissue engineering applications due to their hydrophilicity, degradability, and availability of chemical groups for modification. For example, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC is a water-soluble cellulose derivative that is degradable by cellulase. Though this enzyme is not synthesized by mammalian cells, cellulase and the fragments derived from CMC degradation are biocompatible. With this in mind, we created biocompatible, selectively degradable CMC-based hydrogels that are stable in routine culture, but degrade when exposed to exogenous cellulase. Solutions of CMC-methacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DM were co-crosslinked to form stable hydrogels; we found that greater CMC-methacrylate content resulted in increased gel swelling, protein diffusion and rates of degradation by cellulase, as well as decreased gel shear modulus. CMC-methacrylate/PEG-DM gels modified with the adhesive peptide RGD supported fibroblast adhesion and viability. We conclude that hydrogels based on CMC-methacrylate are suitable for bioengineering applications where selective degradability may be favorable, such as cell scaffolds or controlled release devices.

  18. A facile one-step strategy for development of a double network fibrous scaffold for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golafshan, Nasim; Gharibi, Hamidreza; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Fathi, Mohammadhossein

    2017-04-28

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel double network scaffold composed of polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) and eggshell membrane (ESM) (ESM:PCLF) by using the vacuum infiltration method. Compared to ESM, the mechanical properties of double network scaffold were significantly improved, depending on the solvents applied for double network scaffold formation; acetic acid and dichloromethane. Noticeably, the toughness and strength of double network scaffold prepared using acetic acid were significantly improved compared to ESM (26.6 and 25 times, respectively) attributed to the existence of hydrophilic functional groups in acetic acid which made ESM flexible to absorb further PCLF solution. To assess the effect of double network formation on the biological behavior of ESM, the attachment, proliferation and spreading of PC12 cells cultured on the ESM:PCLF scaffolds were evaluated. Results revealed that the number of cells attached on double network ESM:PCLF scaffold were nearly similar to ESM and significantly higher than that of on the tissue culture plate (2.6 times) and PCLF film (1.7 times). It is envisioned that the offered ESM:PCLF double network scaffold might have great potential to develop the constructs for nerve regeneration.

  19. Nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable mechanical and degradation capabilities: co-delivery of bioactive agents for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattalini, Juan P; Roether, Judith; Hoppe, Alexander; Pishbin, Fatemeh; Haro Durand, Luis; Gorustovich, Alejandro; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Lucangioli, Silvia; Mouriño, Viviana

    2016-10-21

    Novel multifunctional nanocomposite scaffolds made of nanobioactive glass and alginate crosslinked with therapeutic ions such as calcium and copper were developed for delivering therapeutic agents, in a highly controlled and sustainable manner, for bone tissue engineering. Alendronate, a well-known antiresorptive agent, was formulated into microspheres under optimized conditions and effectively loaded within the novel multifunctional scaffolds with a high encapsulation percentage. The size of the cation used for the alginate crosslinking impacted directly on porosity and viscoelastic properties, and thus, on the degradation rate and the release profile of copper, calcium and alendronate. According to this, even though highly porous structures were created with suitable pore sizes for cell ingrowth and vascularization in both cases, copper-crosslinked scaffolds showed higher values of porosity, elastic modulus, degradation rate and the amount of copper and alendronate released, when compared with calcium-crosslinked scaffolds. In addition, in all cases, the scaffolds showed bioactivity and mechanical properties close to the endogenous trabecular bone tissue in terms of viscoelasticity. Furthermore, the scaffolds showed osteogenic and angiogenic properties on bone and endothelial cells, respectively, and the extracts of the biomaterials used promoted the formation of blood vessels in an ex vivo model. These new bioactive nanocomposite scaffolds represent an exciting new class of therapeutic cell delivery carrier with tunable mechanical and degradation properties; potentially useful in the controlled and sustainable delivery of therapeutic agents with active roles in bone formation and angiogenesis, as well as in the support of cell proliferation and osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter [Danish Polymer Centre, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Søltofts Plads, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-04-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  1. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduces mind wandering: The critical role of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahl, Hayley A; Lindsay, Emily K; Pacilio, Laura E; Brown, Kirk W; Creswell, J David

    2017-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-min Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) measuring mind wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind wandering, such that the attention-monitoring plus acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind wandering than the attention-monitoring only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness-training reductions in mind wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind wandering, such as the SART. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. DNA-scaffolded nanoparticle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Bjoern; Olin, Haakan [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    DNA self-assembly is a powerful route to the production of very small, complex structures. When used in combination with nanoparticles it is likely to become a key technology in the production of nanoelectronics in the future. Previously, demonstrated nanoparticle assemblies have mainly been periodic and highly symmetric arrays, unsuited as building blocks for any complex circuits. With the invention of DNA-scaffolded origami reported earlier this year (Rothemund P W K 2006 Nature 440 (7082) 297-302), a new route to complex nanostructures using DNA has been opened. Here, we give a short review of the field and present the current status of our experiments were DNA origami is used in conjunction with nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized with thiolated single stranded DNA. Strands that are complementary to the gold particle strands can be positioned on the self-assembled DNA-structure in arbitrary patterns. This property should allow an accurate positioning of the particles by letting them hybridize on the lattice. We report on our recent experiments on this system and discuss open problems and future applications.

  3. Higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Andrä

    2009-01-01

    During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

  4. Design of multi-scaffold fabrication system for various 3D scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds have been fabricated recently for tissue engineering applications through solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technologies. A multi-scaffold fabrication system for the fabrication of scaffolds, such as polymer, polymer/ceramic, ceramic, and nanofiber, was designed in this study. The various components, including a dispenser with a maximum pressure of 750 kPa, a thermostat with a maximum temperature of 250 .deg. C, a high-voltage power supply with a maximum output of 60 kV, and a syringe pump with small flow control, play important roles in determining the process characteristics of scaffolds. The system can process applicable biomaterials with extremely high accuracy with a precision nozzle. Several 3D scaffolds, including PCL, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP, β-TCP, and PCL nanofibers, were fabricated. The morphology and pore size of fabricated scaffolds were observed through scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the scaffolds manufactured in this study can be effectively utilized as bone regeneration scaffolds.

  5. Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells in three-dimensional poly (ε-caprolactone)/ hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiaoyan; Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chaoyin

    2015-05-08

    Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds have not been studied throughly and are technically challenging. This study aimed to optimize nanocomposites of 3D PCL scaffolds to provide superior adhesion, proliferation and differentiation environment for BMSCs in this scenario. BMSCs were isolated and cultured in a novel 3D tissue culture poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold coated with poly-lysine, hydroxyapatite (HAp), collagen and HAp/collagen. Cell morphology was observed and BMSC biomarkers for osteogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and activation were analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that coating materials were uniformly deposited on the surface of PCL scaffolds and BMSCs grew and aggregated to form clusters during 3D culture. Both mRNA and protein levels of the key players of osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation and activation, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphates (ALP), osterix, osteocalcin, and RANKL, were significantly higher in BMSCs seeded in PCL scaffolds coated with HAp or HAp/collagen than those seeded in uncoated PCL scaffolds, whereas the expression levels were not significantly different in collagen or poly-lysine coated PCL scaffolds. In addition, poly-lysine, collagen, HAp/collagen, and HAp coated PCL scaffolds had significantly more viable cells than uncoated PCL scaffolds, especially scaffolds with HAp/collagen and collagen-alone coatings. That BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds had remarkably higher ALP activities than those in collagen-coated alone or uncoated PCL scaffolds indicating higher osteogenic differentiation levels of BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds. Moreover, morphological changes of BMSCs after four-week of 3D culture confirmed that BMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblast with spread-out phenotype in HAp/collagen coated PCL scaffolds

  6. Perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in undergraduate women with varying levels of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiades, Maria H; Kapoor, Shweta; Wootten, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A

    2017-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that perceived stress and depression are risk factors for suicidal ideation in young adults, particularly women attending college. Female undergraduate students (N = 928) were administered measures assessing their levels of stress, depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, and mindfulness. A moderated-mediation analysis was conducted to examine the complex associations among these variables. Results indicated that mindfulness moderated the mediated effect of depressive symptoms on perceived stress and suicidal ideation. Specifically, the indirect effect was stronger in college women with lower levels of mindfulness as compared to those students who reported higher mindfulness. Thus, teaching mindfulness techniques on college campuses may be an important strategy for preventing suicide, especially among young adult women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms.

  7. Mindful learning can promote connectedness to nature: Implicit and explicit evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Geng, Liuna; Zhou, Kexin; Ye, Lijuan; Ma, Yinglin; Zhang, Shuhao

    2016-08-01

    Environmental problems have attracted increasing attention, yet individuals' connectedness to nature remains a significant concern for potential solutions to these problems. In this article, we propose a novel method to promote connectedness to nature: mindful learning. One hundred and thirty-four students participated in the experiment. First, baseline measurements using the Connectedness to Nature Scale were obtained. Participants were then assigned to either a mindful or mindless learning condition. Finally, as a posttest, participants completed the Implicit Association Test and the Inclusion of Nature in the Self Scale. The performance of the mindful-learning group was better for both measures. Participants in the mindful-learning condition performed better on the Implicit Association Test and scored higher on the Inclusion of Nature in the Self Scale. These results provide empirical evidence that mindful learning may promote connectedness to nature, both implicitly and explicitly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James; Reed, George; Kristeller, Jean; Merriam, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    Although the relationship between religious practice and health is well established, the relationship between spirituality and health is not as well studied. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program was associated with increases in mindfulness and spirituality, and to examine the associations between mindfulness, spirituality, and medical and psychological symptoms. Forty-four participants in the University of Massachusetts Medical School's MBSR program were assessed preprogram and postprogram on trait (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale) and state (Toronto Mindfulness Scale) mindfulness, spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-Being Scale), psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Participants also kept a log of daily home mindfulness practice. Mean changes in scores were computed, and relationships between changes in variables were examined using mixed-model linear regression. There were significant improvements in spirituality, state and trait mindfulness, psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Increases in both state and trait mindfulness were associated with increases in spirituality. Increases in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with decreases in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. Changes in both trait and state mindfulness were independently associated with changes in spirituality, but only changes in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with reductions in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. No association was found between outcomes and home mindfulness practice. Participation in the MBSR program appears to be associated with improvements in trait and state mindfulness, psychological distress, and medical symptoms. Improvements in trait mindfulness and spirituality appear, in turn, to be associated with improvements in psychological and

  9. Reconstruction of beagle hemi-mandibular defects with allogenic mandibular scaffolds and autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangKui Liu

    Full Text Available Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible in a large animal model.Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at 4 (n = 4, 12 (n = 4, 24 (n = 4 or 48 weeks (n = 3 postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes.Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05, and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05. Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed.Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth

  10. The potential of encapsulating "raw materials" in 3D osteochondral gradient scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banupriya; Sutherland, Amanda; Detamore, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds with continuous gradients in material composition and bioactive signals enable a smooth transition of properties at the interface. Components like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) in 3D scaffolds may serve as "raw materials" for synthesis of new extracellular matrix (ECM), and may have the potential to completely or partially replace expensive growth factors. We hypothesized that scaffolds with gradients of ECM components would enable superior performance of engineered constructs. Raw material encapsulation altered the appearance, structure, porosity, and degradation of the scaffolds. They allowed the scaffolds to better retain their 3D structure during culture and provided a buffering effect to the cells in culture. Following seeding of rat mesenchymal stem cells, there were several instances where glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, or calcium contents were higher with the scaffolds containing raw materials (CS or BG) than with those containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. It was also noteworthy that a combination of both CS and TGF-β3 increased the secretion of collagen type II. Moreover, cells seeded in scaffolds containing opposing gradients of CS/TGF-β3 and BG/BMP-2 produced clear regional variations in the secretion of tissue-specific ECM. The study demonstrated raw materials have the potential to create a favorable microenvironment for cells; they can significantly enhance the synthesis of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) components when compared to expensive growth factors; either alone or in combination with growth factors they can enhance the secretion of tissue specific matrix proteins. Raw materials are promising candidates that can be used to either replace or be used in combination with growth factors. Success with raw materials in lieu of growth factors could have profound implications in terms of lower cost and faster regulatory approval for more rapid translation of

  11. Comparison of different strategies for in vivo seeding of prevascularized scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Hans; Volkmer, Elias; Saller, Maximilian M; Prall, Wolf C; Haasters, Florian; Drosse, Inga; Wilhelmi, Arnd; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Scaffolds seeded with multipotent precursor cells were hypothesized to heal critically sized bone defects. However, the success of this concept was limited by low cell survival after transplantation due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. In vivo prevascularization of scaffolds before cell seeding may improve cell survival, yet the best seeding technique and time point of cell application remain elusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare different strategies. Demineralized bone matrix scaffolds were implanted around the saphenous arteriovenous (AV) bundle in nude mice. In vivo seeding was performed 0, 5, or 21 days after implantation using enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cells were applied either by injection or the repetitive dripping technique. In vitro seeded and subcutaneously implanted scaffolds served as controls. Fourteen days after cell application, the fluorescence intensity of transplanted cells and the extent of newly formed vessels were quantified. We found that the AV flow through model as well as cell application increased vessel formation. In vitro seeding resulted in significantly higher cell numbers than in vivo seeding. With increasing time of prevascularization, the number of cells declined dramatically. In vivo seeding by cell injection was superior to the repetitive dripping protocol. On subcutaneously implanted scaffolds, significantly, more cells were found than on axially perfused scaffolds. We conclude that in vitro seeding is more efficient compared to the two novel in vivo seeding techniques of prevascularized scaffolds. With increasing time of prevascularization, the seeding efficiency for the in vivo methods further decreases, presumably due to the ingrowth of connective tissue. Even though, the presence of MSCs and the longer period of prevascularization enhances vessel formation, this conceivable advantage is limited supposedly by the inferior seeding efficiency.

  12. The support of bone marrow stromal cell differentiation by airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Wojtek; Sarkar, Sumona; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Farooque, Tanya M; Jyotsnendu, Giri; Wang, Dongbo; Kohn, Joachim; Bolikal, Durgadas; Simon, Carl G

    2013-03-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds are effective for tissue engineering since they emulate the fibrous nanostructure of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Although electrospinning has been the most common approach for fabricating nanofiber scaffolds, airbrushing approaches have also been advanced for making nanofibers. For airbrushing, compressed gas is used to blow polymer solution through a small nozzle which shears the polymer solution into fibers. Our goals were 1) to assess the versatility of airbrushing, 2) to compare the properties of airbrushed and electrospun nanofiber scaffolds and 3) to test the ability of airbrushed nanofibers to support stem cell differentiation. The results demonstrated that airbrushing could produce nanofibers from a wide range of polymers and onto a wide range of targets. Airbrushing was safer, 10-fold faster, 100-fold less expensive to set-up and able to deposit nanofibers onto a broader range of targets than electrospinning. Airbrushing yielded nanofibers that formed loosely packed bundles of aligned nanofibers, while electrospinning produced un-aligned, single nanofibers that were tightly packed and highly entangled. Airbrushed nanofiber mats had larger pores, higher porosity and lower modulus than electrospun mats, results that were likely caused by the differences in morphology (nanofiber packing and entanglement). Airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds fabricated from 4 different polymers were each able to support osteogenic differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Finally, the differences in airbrushed versus electrospun nanofiber morphology caused differences in hBMSC shape where cells had a smaller spread area and a smaller volume on airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds. These results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of airbrushing versus electrospinning nanofiber scaffolds and demonstrate that airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds can support stem cell differentiation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Minding the Gap: Comics as Scaffolding for Critical Literacy Skills in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Stephanie; Dieterle, Brandy

    2016-01-01

    Comics--both digital and print--increasingly make their way to the classroom. Scholars in the field have illustrated the pedagogical value of comics, but there remains little discussion as of yet about how comics can inform critical literacy, a necessary skill for twenty-first-century communication. Here the authors discuss an approach to…

  14. Stratified scaffold design for engineering composite tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Christopher Z; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Lu, Helen H

    2015-08-01

    A significant challenge to orthopaedic soft tissue repair is the biological fixation of autologous or allogeneic grafts with bone, whereby the lack of functional integration between such grafts and host bone has limited the clinical success of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and other common soft tissue-based reconstructive grafts. The inability of current surgical reconstruction to restore the native fibrocartilaginous insertion between the ACL and the femur or tibia, which minimizes stress concentration and facilitates load transfer between the soft and hard tissues, compromises the long-term clinical functionality of these grafts. To enable integration, a stratified scaffold design that mimics the multiple tissue regions of the ACL interface (ligament-fibrocartilage-bone) represents a promising strategy for composite tissue formation. Moreover, distinct cellular organization and phase-specific matrix heterogeneity achieved through co- or tri-culture within the scaffold system can promote biomimetic multi-tissue regeneration. Here, we describe the methods for fabricating a tri-phasic scaffold intended for ligament-bone integration, as well as the tri-culture of fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts on the stratified scaffold for the formation of structurally contiguous and compositionally distinct regions of ligament, fibrocartilage and bone. The primary advantage of the tri-phasic scaffold is the recapitulation of the multi-tissue organization across the native interface through the layered design. Moreover, in addition to ease of fabrication, each scaffold phase is similar in polymer composition and therefore can be joined together by sintering, enabling the seamless integration of each region and avoiding delamination between scaffold layers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiencing mindfulness meditation - a client narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four six-to-eight weeks' mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected...... and practicing mindfulness meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and well-being. Keywords: Mindfulness meditation...

  16. Meditation and mindfulness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Black, Nancy B

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the various forms of meditation and provides an overview of research using these techniques for children, adolescents, and their families. The most researched techniques in children and adolescents are mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, yoga meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques (yoga poses, tai chi movements). Current data are suggestive of a possible value of meditation and mindfulness techniques for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain in youth. Clinicians must be properly trained before using these techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibert, Petra; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In the context of an increasing interest in mindfulness-based approaches both in clinical application as well as in the field of research the present paper introduces MBSR (Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction), illustrates the theoretical background of mindfulness practice and reviews the procedures during the cultivation of mindfulness and possible impacting factors. The article also reviews Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), which was specifically developed to prevent relapse in patients with depressive disorders. The paper ends with a conclusion for clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Schooled in Our Own Minds: Mind-Wandering and Mindfulness in the Makings of the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Curriculum discourse focuses understandably, on the formal and enacted curriculum; however, studies demonstrate that much of individuals' waking hours are spent in task-unrelated thinking and mind-wandering. No less, this pervasive phenomenon has been shown to affect us in many ways that can be linked to education. This paper examines this…

  19. Polycaprolactone-coated 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: in vitro alendronate release behavior and local delivery effect on in vivo osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Bose, Susmita

    2014-07-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro alendronate (AD) release behavior through polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on in vivo bone formation using PCL-coated 3D printed interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. Higher AD and Ca(2+) ion release was observed at lower pH (5.0) than that at higher pH (7.4). AD and Ca(2+) release, surface morphology, and phase analysis after release indicated a matrix degradation dominated AD release caused by TCP dissolution. PCL coating showed its effectiveness for controlled and sustained AD release. Six different scaffold compositions, namely, (i) TCP (bare TCP), (ii) TCP + AD (AD-coated TCP), (iii) TCP + PCL (PCL-coated TCP), (iv) TCP + PCL + AD, (v) TCP + AD + PCL, and (vi) TCP + AD + PCL + AD were tested in the distal femoral defect of Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 and 10 weeks. An excellent bone formation inside the micro and macro pores of the scaffolds was observed from histomorphology. Histomorphometric analysis revealed maximum new bone formation in TCP + AD + PCL scaffolds after 6 weeks. No adverse effect of PCL on bioactivity of TCP and in vivo bone formation was observed. All scaffolds with AD showed higher bone formation and reduced TRAP (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase) positive cells activity compared to bare TCP and TCP coated with only PCL. Bare TCP scaffolds showed the highest TRAP positive cells activity followed by TCP + PCL scaffolds, whereas TCP + AD scaffolds showed the lowest TRAP activity. A higher TRAP positive cells activity was observed in TCP + AD + PCL compared to TCP + AD scaffolds after 6 weeks. Our results show that in vivo local AD delivery from PCL-coated 3DP TCP scaffolds could further induce increased early bone formation.

  20. Mindfulness Is Associated With Treatment Response From Nonpharmacologic Exercise Interventions in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Augustine C; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Han, Xingyi; Driban, Jeffrey B; Wong, John B; Chung, Mei; McAlindon, Timothy E; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-11-01

    To examine the association between baseline mindfulness and response from exercise interventions in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cohort study; responder analysis of a clinical trial subset. Urban tertiary care academic hospital. Participants with symptomatic, radiographic knee OA (N=86; mean age, 60y; 74% female; 48% white). Twelve weeks (twice per week) of Tai Chi or physical therapy exercise. Treatment response was defined using Osteoarthritis Research Society International criteria indicating meaningful improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, WOMAC function, or Patient Global Assessment scores. At baseline, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (mean total score, 142±17) and were grouped into 3 categories of total mindfulness: higher, medium, or lower. Relative risk (RR) ratios were used to compare treatment response across groups. Participants with higher total mindfulness were 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.83) more likely to meet responder criteria than those with lower mindfulness. We found no significant difference between medium and lower mindfulness groups (RR=1.0; 95% CI, 0.69-1.44). Among the 5 mindfulness facets, medium acting-with-awareness was 46% (95% CI, 1.09-1.96) more likely to respond than lower acting-with-awareness, and higher acting-with-awareness was 34% more likely to respond, but this did not reach significance (95% CI, 0.97-1.86). In this study, higher mindfulness, primarily driven by its acting-with-awareness facet, was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of response to nonpharmacologic exercise interventions in knee OA. This suggests that mindfulness-cultivating interventions may increase the likelihood of response from exercise. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Cuenca-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group, hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct. During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5. Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT, histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70% than for mineral scaffold alone (22% and hybrid constructs (35%. The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft. Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored

  2. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-López, María D.; Andrades, José A.; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  3. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS, as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural, the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01. The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001. Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors.

  4. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01). The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors. PMID:26308029

  5. Mindfulness and asthma symptoms: A study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Liang, Di; Gao, Yu; Huang, Jiayan; Nolan, Cameron; Mulvaney, Andrew; Poole, Taryn; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-01-01

    Given the known link between asthma and stress as well as the link between mindfulness and stress, we explore the possible association between trait mindfulness and asthma-related diagnosis and symptoms with a cross-sectional study. In 2014, we surveyed a sample of college students in their freshman year, from a public university in Shanghai, China. We used three multilevel logistic regressions to estimate the association between trait mindfulness (measured by Mindful Awareness Attention Scale, MAAS) and self-report of ever having an asthma diagnosis, ever having had persistent dry cough, and ever having had wheezing symptoms. Age, gender, household registration status, and the frequency of smog in the respondent's hometown were used as control variables in the study. The home province of the student was used as the cluster variable in the multilevel models. Among the 1392 students in the analysis sample (mean age = 18.3), 47 (3.4%) self-reported an asthma diagnosis, 251 (18.1%) reported having had persistent dry cough, and 100 (7.2%) reported having had wheezing symptoms. A one-unit increase in MAAS is negatively associated with having a self-reported asthma diagnosis (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.662, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.452, 0.969, p = 0.034), having had persistent dry cough (OR: 0.658, 95% CI: 0.545, 0.795, p mindfulness and asthma. Our finding provides evidence that people with higher level of mindfulness are less likely to have had an asthma diagnosis and less likely to have the symptoms of persistent dry cough and wheezing.

  6. The Relation Between Trait Mindfulness and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  7. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Mindfulness and weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training has been incorporated increasingly into weight loss programs to facilitate dietary and physical activity changes. This systematic review of studies using mindfulness-based programs for weight loss evaluated study methodologies with the goal of determining the current evidence in support of mindfulness interventions for weight loss. Published studies of mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss were identified through systematic review including a comprehensive search of online databases. Studies were reviewed and graded according to methodological strengths and weaknesses. A total of 19 studies, including 13 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies, evaluated the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on weight among individuals attempting weight loss. Twelve of the studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and seven were unpublished dissertations. Among the eight randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals, six documented significant weight loss among participants in the mindfulness condition, one reported no significant change, and one failed to report body mass index at program completion. None of the studies documented a relationship between changes in mindfulness and weight loss. Significant weight loss was documented among participants in mindfulness interventions for 13 of the 19 studies identified for review. However, studies do not clarify the degree to which changes in mindfulness are a mechanism responsible for weight loss in mindfulness interventions. Methodological weaknesses and variability across studies limit the strength of the evidence. Further research is needed to document and evaluate the psychological, behavioral, and biological mechanisms involved in the relationship between mindfulness and weight loss.

  9. Mindful Parenting Training in Child Psychiatric Settings: Heightened Parental Mindfulness Reduces Parents' and Children's Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Renée; de Bruin, Esther I; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H; Vennik, Corinne J; Bögels, Susan M

    Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful parenting training in a clinical setting on child and parental psychopathology and of mindfulness as a predictor of these outcomes. Seventy parents of 70 children (mean age = 8.7) who were referred to a mental health care clinic because of their children's psychopathology participated in an 8-week mindful parenting training. Parents completed questionnaires at pre-test, post-test and 8-week follow-up. A significant decrease was found in children's and parents' psychopathology and a significant increase in mindful parenting and in general mindful awareness. Improvement in general mindful awareness, but not mindful parenting, was found to predict a reduction in parental psychopathology, whereas improvement in mindful parenting, but not general mindful awareness, predicted the reduction of child psychopathology. This study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindful parenting training is effective for parents themselves and, indirectly, for their children suffering from psychopathology. As parents' increased mindful parenting, but not increased general mindfulness, is found to predict child psychopathology, mindful parenting training rather than general mindfulness training appears to be the training of choice. However, RCTs comparing mindful parenting to general mindfulness training and to parent management training are needed in order to shed more light on the effects of mindful parenting and mechanisms of change.

  10. [Mechanical properties of polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold with double channels based on three-dimensional printing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Li, Changhai; Jin, Zhongmin; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    To improve the poor mechanical strength of porous ceramic scaffold, an integrated method based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique is developed to incorporate the controlled double-channel porous structure into the polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/beta-TCP) reinforced composite scaffolds (double-channel composite scaffold) to improve their tissue regeneration capability and the mechanical properties. The designed double-channel structure inside the ceramic scaffold consisted of both primary and secondary micropipes, which parallel but un-connected. The set of primary channels was used for cell ingrowth, while the set of secondary channels was used for the PLA perfusion. Integration technology of 3-D printing technique and gel-casting was firstly used to fabricate the double-channel ceramic scaffolds. PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were obtained by the polymer gravity perfusion process to pour PLA solution into the double-channel ceramic scaffolds through the secondary channel set. Microscope, porosity, and mechanical experiments for the standard samples were used to evaluate the composite properties. The ceramic scaffold with only the primary channel (single-channel scaffold) was also prepared as a control. Morphology observation results showed that there was no PLA inside the primary channels of the double-channel composite scaffolds but a dense interface layer between PLA and beta-TCP obviously formed on the inner wall of the secondary channels by the PLA penetration during the perfusion process. Finite element simulation found that the compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold was less than that of the single-channel scaffold; however, mechanical tests found that the maximum compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold [(21.25 +/- 1.15) MPa] was higher than that of the single-channel scaffold[ (9.76 +/- 0.64) MPa]. The double-channel composite scaffolds fabricated by 3-D printing technique have

  11. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.

  12. Internet-based instructor-led mindfulness for work-related rumination, fatigue, and sleep: Assessing facets of mindfulness as mechanisms of change. A randomized waitlist control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to extend our theoretical understanding of how mindfulness-based interventions exert their positive influence on measures of occupational health. Employing a randomized waitlist control study design, we sought to (a) assess an Internet-based instructor-led mindfulness intervention for its effect on key factors associated with "recovery from work," specifically, work-related rumination, fatigue, and sleep quality; (b) assess different facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, describing, nonjudging, and nonreacting) as mechanisms of change; and (c) assess whether the effect of the intervention was maintained over time by following up our participants after 3 and 6 months. Participants who completed the mindfulness intervention (n = 60) reported significantly lower levels of work-related rumination and fatigue, and significantly higher levels of sleep quality, when compared with waitlist control participants (n = 58). Effects of the intervention were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up with medium to large effect sizes. The effect of the intervention was primarily explained by increased levels of only 1 facet of mindfulness (acting with awareness). This study provides support for online mindfulness interventions to aid recovery from work and furthers our understanding with regard to how mindfulness interventions exert their positive effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Concave Pit-Containing Scaffold Surfaces Improve Stem Cell-Derived Osteoblast Performance and Lead to Significant Bone Tissue Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusella-De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Laino, Gregorio; Piattelli, Adriano; Pacifici, Maurizio; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2007-01-01

    Background Scaffold surface features are thought to be important regulators of stem cell performance and endurance in tissue engineering applications, but details about these fundamental aspects of stem cell biology remain largely unclear. Methodology and Findings In the present study, smooth clinical-grade lactide-coglyolic acid 85:15 (PLGA) scaffolds were carved as membranes and treated with NMP (N-metil-pyrrolidone) to create controlled subtractive pits or microcavities. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the NMP-treated membranes contained: (i) large microcavities of 80–120 µm in diameter and 40–100 µm in depth, which we termed primary; and (ii) smaller microcavities of 10–20 µm in diameter and 3–10 µm in depth located within the primary cavities, which we termed secondary. We asked whether a microcavity-rich scaffold had distinct bone-forming capabilities compared to a smooth one. To do so, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp were seeded onto the two types of scaffold and monitored over time for cytoarchitectural characteristics, differentiation status and production of important factors, including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that the microcavity-rich scaffold enhanced cell adhesion: the cells created intimate contact with secondary microcavities and were polarized. These cytological responses were not seen with the smooth-surface scaffold. Moreover, cells on the microcavity-rich scaffold released larger amounts of BMP-2 and VEGF into the culture medium and expressed higher alkaline phosphatase activity. When this type of scaffold was transplanted into rats, superior bone formation was elicited compared to cells seeded on the smooth scaffold. Conclusion In conclusion, surface microcavities appear to support a more vigorous osteogenic response of stem cells and should be used in the design of therapeutic substrates to improve bone repair and

  14. Three-dimensional plotted hydroxyapatite scaffolds with predefined architecture: comparison of stabilization by alginate cross-linking versus sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Akkineni, Ashwini R; Basu, Bikramjit; Gelinsky, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are essentially characterized by porous three-dimensional structures with interconnected pores to facilitate the exchange of nutrients and removal of waste products from cells, thereby promoting cell proliferation in such engineered scaffolds. Although hydroxyapatite is widely being considered for bone tissue engineering applications due to its occurrence in the natural extracellular matrix of this tissue, limited reports are available on additive manufacturing of hydroxyapatite-based materials. In this perspective, hydroxyapatite-based three-dimensional porous scaffolds with two different binders (maltodextrin and sodium alginate) were fabricated using the extrusion method of three-dimensional plotting and the results were compared in reference to the structural properties of scaffolds processed via chemical stabilization and sintering routes, respectively. With the optimal processing conditions regarding to pH and viscosity of binder-loaded hydroxyapatite pastes, scaffolds with parallelepiped porous architecture having up to 74% porosity were fabricated. Interestingly, sintering of the as-plotted hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate (cross-linked with CaCl2 solution) scaffolds led to the formation of chlorapatite (Ca9.54P5.98O23.8Cl1.60(OH)2.74). Both the sintered scaffolds displayed progressive deformation and delayed fracture under compressive loading, with hydroxyapatite-alginate scaffolds exhibiting a higher compressive strength (9.5 ± 0.5 MPa) than hydroxyapatite-maltodextrin scaffolds (7.0 ± 0.6 MPa). The difference in properties is explained in terms of the phase assemblage and microstructure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Scaffolding students’ reflective dialogues in the chemistry lab: challenging the cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Hougaard, Rikke Frøhlich

    -scaffolding of students’ activities and dialogues, in order to stimulate them to work at higher cognitive levels. A specific lab-exercise in the course Macroscopic Physical Chemistry was redesigned with the aim of stimulating students’ metacognition both before and during the experimental work. The redesign included...

  16. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  17. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Kinjal M.; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya

    2016-01-01

    Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ‘A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ‘Platelet rich plasma’, ‘Platelet rich fibrin’, ‘Stem cells’, ‘Natural and artificial scaffolds’ from 1982–2015’. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. PMID:27857762

  18. Monosaccharide-responsive phenylboronate-polyol cell scaffolds for cell sheet and tissue engineering applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachamalla Maheedhar Reddy

    Full Text Available Analyte-responsive smart polymeric materials are of great interest and have been actively investigated in the field of regenerative medicine. Phenylboronate containing copolymers form gels with polyols under alkaline conditions. Monosaccharides, by virtue of their higher affinity towards boronate, can displace polyols and solubilize such gels. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of utilizing phenylboronate-polyol interactions at physiological pH in order to develop monosaccharide-responsive degradable scaffold materials for systems dealing with cells and tissues. Amine assisted phenylboronate-polyol interactions were employed to develop novel hydrogel and cryogel scaffolds at neutral pH. The scaffolds displayed monosaccharide inducible gel-sol phase transformability. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated the ability of scaffolds to support cell adhesion, viability and proliferation. Fructose induced gel degradation is used to recover cells cultured on the hydrogels. The cryogels displayed open macroporous structure and superior mechanical properties. These novel phase transformable phenylboronate-polyol based scaffolds displayed a great potential for various cell sheet and tissue engineering applications. Their monosaccharide responsiveness at physiological pH is very useful and can be utilized in the fields of cell immobilization, spheroid culture, saccharide recognition and analyte-responsive drug delivery.

  19. A Biomimetic Heparinized Composite Silk-Based Vascular Scaffold with sustained Antithrombogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Masoud; Khafaji, Mona; Naji, Mohammad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Alemzadeh, Iran; Haghighipour, Nooshin

    2017-06-30

    Autologous grafts, as the gold standard for vascular bypass procedures, associated with several problems that limit their usability, so tissue engineered vessels have been the subject of an increasing number of works. Nevertheless, gathering all of the desired characteristics of vascular scaffolds in the same construct has been a big challenge for scientists. Herein, a composite silk-based vascular scaffold (CSVS) was proposed to consider all the mechanical, structural and biological requirements of a small-diameter vascular scaffold. The scaffold's lumen composed of braided silk fiber-reinforced silk fibroin (SF) sponge covalently heparinized (H-CSVS) using Hydroxy-Iron Complexes (HICs) as linkers. The highly porous SF external layer with pores above 60 μm was obtained by lyophilization. Silk fibers were fully embedded in scaffold's wall with no delamination. The H-CSVS exhibited much higher burst pressure and suture retention strength than native vessels while comparable elastic modulus and compliance. H-CSVSs presented milder hemolysis in vitro and significant calcification resistance in subcutaneous implantation compared to non-heparinized ones. The in vitro antithrombogenic activity was sustained for over 12 weeks. The cytocompatibility was approved using endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro. Therefore, H-CSVS demonstrates a promising candidate for engineering of small-diameter vessels.

  20. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lo Re, Giada; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide) (PLA)-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.