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Sample records for scabies

  1. Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injured skin will also be infected by bacteria. Impetigo , a bacterial skin infection, may occur in skin ... you develop a bacterial skin infection (such as impetigo) in addition to the scabies infection, your doctor ...

  2. Scabies: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapman, et al . In: Dermatology DDxDeck . 2006. China. Mosby Elsevier. Card #92: “Scabies.” Jacobson CC, Abel EA. “ ... Chapman, et al . In: Dermatology DDxDeck. 2006. China. Mosby Elsevier. Card #92: Scabies. Steen CJ, Carbonaro PA, ...

  3. DERMOSCOPY OF SCABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alendar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We presented a female patient a 63 year-old affected with scabies and personal history of previous athropatich psoriasis and arterial hypertension. We aimed to desribed clinically widespread itchy rach vs scabies submited to dermoscopic examination. We confirmed diagnosis of scabies clinically and dermoscopically.

  4. Scabies masquerading as bullous pemphigoid: scabies surrepticius

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    Cohen PR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip R Cohen Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Scabies, a parasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is diagnosed by observing either the mite, its ova, or its excrement. The mite tracts, known as burrows and a characteristic presentation of the pruritic condition, are typically found on the web spaces between the fingers. Other cutaneous lesions include excoriated papules, pustules, and vesicles. However, atypical clinical variants of scabies, such as bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular, and scalp forms of the parasitic infestation, mimic the morphologic features of other non-parasitic dermatoses. A 76-year-old man presented with pruritic blisters and urticarial plaques that demonstrated not only pathology changes, but direct immunofluorescence also showed findings of bullous pemphigoid. His condition improved, but did not resolve, with topical corticosteroid cream for the management of the primary autoimmune blistering disorder. When other family members subsequently developed scabies, the correct diagnosis for his condition, bullous scabies, was established by demonstrating mites, ova, and scybala on a mineral oil preparation from a skin scraping of a newly appearing burrow. Bullous scabies can masquerade not only clinically, but also both pathologically and immunologically as bullous pemphigoid. Scabies serrupticius is introduced as a unifying term to designate all of the non-classic presentations of S. scabiei mite infestation. Keywords: bullous, crusted, egg, hidden, incognito, masquerade, mimic, mite, nodular, Norwegian, pemphigoid, Sarcoptes scabiei, scabies, scalp, scybala, surrepticius

  5. Treatment of scabies infestations

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    Mumcuoglu K.Y.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by an immune allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The biology of the mite, the clinical aspects and diagnosis of scabies infestations as well as the treatment of choice with 5 % permethrin dermal cream and the use of scabicides based on other chemical substances are reviewed.

  6. Permethrin for scabies in children

    OpenAIRE

    Albakri, Lina; Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION I frequently see children with scabies in my practice. A variety of medications are available to treat scabies. Permethrin is one of the most common medications used. Is permethrin a safe and effective option for children?

  7. [Nosocomial outbreak of scabies from a Norwegian scabies case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Velázquez, Ramón; Urdez-Hernández, Elena; Ysita-Morales, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    To describe a nosocomial outbreak of scabies occurred in August 1999, resulting from exposure to an undiagnosed Norwegian scabies case, in Mexico City. After reviewing the index case, we isolated the patient and identified secondary scabies cases among employees working in the affected ward, their relatives, and inpatients. Only individuals complaining from skin lesions and pruritus were included as infested cases. Control measures as contact isolation, proper handling of contaminated clothes, and topical treatment were implemented. A patient with AIDS (index case) with a severe water and electrolyte imbalance was admitted to the Hospital de Infectologia (Infectious Diseases Hospital) of the Centro Medico Nacional La Raza (La Raza National Medical Center) in Mexico City from July 19 to August 20, 1999. Twenty-eight days after the index case admission, scabies cases occurred among health workers. Norwegian scabies was suspected and confirmed by microscopic evidence of the mites on a specimen of scabs from the index case. We identified 48 secondary cases with clinical scabies: 71% health workers, mainly nurses (79%); 23% health workers' relatives; and 6% inpatients. The mean incubation period was 15 days (range 12 to 27). Skin rashes commonly involved the upper extremities (60%) but not the hands. This paper highlights the difficulties in diagnosing Norwegian scabies in an immunosuppressed host, as well as the importance of ensuring that health workers follow standard precautions at all times. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  8. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as nursing homes, extended-care facilities, and prisons are often sites of scabies outbreaks. Child care ... during the asymptomatic incubation period. For example, a nurse or caretaker who works in a nursing home ...

  9. Pediculosis and scabies: treatment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Karen; Pippitt, Karly; Kiraly, Bernadette; Sayler, Morgan

    2012-09-15

    Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A "no nit" policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer.

  10. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis.

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    Giuseppe Micali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites' identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa.

  11. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  12. Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Our Schools Educators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrow’s leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient ... Practices Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  13. Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOME CARE Before treatment, wash clothes and underwear, towels, bedding and sleepwear in hot water and dry at 140°F (60°C) or higher. Dry cleaning also works. If washing or dry cleaning can't be done, keep these items away from the body for ...

  14. An Itchy Problem: A Clinical Case of Crusted Scabies

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    António Araújo Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. A more severe form called crusted or Norwegian scabies may occur in immunosuppressed patients and the elderly. Crusted scabies mostly differs from normal scabies by the exuberance of its lesions, body distribution and high contagiousness, and requires different and more prolonged treatment. Early recognition of the lesions and isolation precautions are crucial for disease control and prevention of transmission. The authors describe a clinical case of crusted scabies with pruritus and exuberant cutaneous lesions.

  15. Control strategies for endemic childhood scabies.

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    Stephen J Gilmore

    Full Text Available Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies.

  16. An Elderly Long-Term Care Resident with Crusted Scabies

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    Matthew Sandre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques.

  17. Scabies, a Zoonotic Disease : Present and Future Challenge

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    April H Wardhana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by a mite of Sarcoptes scabiei . It is found worldwide particularly in regions related with of poverty, remote area, poor sanitations and nutritional status in both human and animals . Scabies is transmitted by direct contact . The clinical signs are intensive pruritis or itchiness, erythrema, papula and vesicle . Infestation S. scabiei caused damage skin and raised animal death (50 - 100% while 300 millions people per year were reported to suffer from scabies . Diagnosis of scabies is based on clinical signs and confirmed with gently scrapping the skin off burrow (seeking for eggs, faecals and mites . Beside that, the diagnosis can be obtained by ink test, mineral oil or fluorescence tetracycline test . ELISA method for detecting human scabies still has a disadvantage because there is a cross-reaction between host skin and var . S. scabiei antigens . The development of scabies vaccine also has many problems . Some human scabies cases were suspected from their livestock or pet animals . It is required a good and synergic collaboration between both health and livestock agencies that involved both human and vet medicals, investigators, quarantine staffs including researchers. Those factors become a challenge at present and in the future to prevent the spreading of scabies to a larger area and to minimize scabies cases in both human and animal, particularly in the endemic area .

  18. Videodermoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for scabies

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    Michał Sobjanek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Scabies is a common skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The occurrence of cases of atypical clinical appearance that pose diagnostic difficulties seems to be increasing in clinical practice. Objective . To present the utility of videodermoscopy for diagnosis of scabies in children and adults. Case report. Cases of three patients hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology in Gdansk are presented. In all these cases videodermoscopy examination allowed the diagnosis of scabies to be confirmed. Conclusions . Videodermoscopy is a non-invasive, simple and fast tool of high sensitivity and specificity helpful in the diagnosis of scabies.

  19. Management of Nosocomial Scabies, an Outbreak of Occupational Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, Frank H. W.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Koeze, Jacqueline; KruijtSpanjer, Martijn R.; Kardaun, Sylvia H.

    Background The optimal approach to managing institutional scabies outbreaks has yet to be defined. We report on outbreak managements are needed. Methods We report on a large outbreak of scabies in three acute care wards in a tertiary university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Results The

  20. Bullous scabies in an adult: A case report with review of literature

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    Rameshwar M Gutte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, characterized by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, nodules, excoriation, and crusts. Vesicular and bullous lesions are rather rare. Bullous scabies is regarded as a distinct subtype of scabies, closely resembling bullous pemphigoid. Here, we report a case of bullous scabies in an adult male and review the literature.

  1. An Adolescent Patient with Scabies Mimicking Gottron Papules

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    Eiji Yoshinaga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical features of scabies occur in infants and children and patients with prolonged use of corticosteroids or immunosuppression. We report a non-immunosuppressed 15-year-old female case of scabies showing scaly reddish papules over the proximal interphalangeal joints mimicking Gottron papules in classic dermatomyositis. Periungal erythema was also seen. Four months’ topical corticosteroids from previous clinics had been used. Dermoscopic findings were consistent with typical pictures of scabies. Scraping of hand crusts demonstrated scabies mites and ova. Skin lesions of the patient were cured with oral ivermectin and topical 10% crotamiton. This case suggests that a lesion resembling Gottron papules may be added to the panel of unusual presentations of scabies.

  2. NORWEGIAN SCABIES IN AIDS PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Meita Ardini Pratamasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a skin infection caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. This disease may present severe clinical manifestations in immune-compromised patient, well-known as Norwegian scabies or crusted scabies.A 36-year old man with AIDS had chief complaint thick crust almost all over his body in this case. History of household member infected by scabies before was present. Clinical findings show hyperpigmented macules unsharply marginated, covered with thick scales and accompanied by papules, fissures, and erotion. T cell CD4 level was 12 cell/μL. Scraping examination showed scabies infection and so did the histopathology examination. This patient was treated by topical Permethrin 5% combined with 2-4 ointment application in between permethrin usage. Before topical scabicide was given, thick crust was previously treated by topical urea 10% and wet dressing by normal saline. On day 14 after the patient first came there was lesion improvement.

  3. Treatment of Scabies: Comparison of Lindane 1% vs Permethrin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Elham; Goldust, Mohamad; Alipour, Houman

    2015-01-01

    Scabies, whose etiologic agent is Sarcoptes scabiei, is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resourcepoor regions. Its current therapies include benzyl benzoate, lindane, permethrin, sulfur, crotamiton, monosulfiram, and oral ivermectin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lindane 1% lotion vs permethrin 5% in the treatment of scabies. A total of 120 patients with scabies attending a dermatology outpatient department were included. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty patients and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other 60 received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Permethrin provided improvement in 48 patients (80%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective in only 28 patients (46.6%). Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies compared with lindane in this study. Adverse effects were rare in both the permethrin and lindane groups.

  4. Development of Scabies During Treatment for Mycosis Fungoides: Dermatoscopic Diagnosis

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    Caner Aykol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a cutaneous infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and characterized by severe and generalized pruritus. A clinical diagnosis can be made when a burrow is detected at a typical predilection site and the lesion is severely itching. Scabies which occurs in the elderly and also in patients who are immunosuppressed, the lesions are very variable and clinical diagnosis may be difficult. In such cases, dermatoscopy is a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of scabies with high sensitivity and specificity. Here, a 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed as scabies with dermatoscopic findings and already had mycosis fungoides is reported. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 114-6

  5. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites.

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    Cielo Pasay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the "itch mite" Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties.Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues--acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact.The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

  7. Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

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    Fernández-Sánchez Mónica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as “unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome”. Conclusion This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution.

  8. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

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    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  9. Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

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    Samina Yasmin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013.Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%than males(7.9%,in lower socio-economic classes (13.8% than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%, in those living in uncemented houses (23.6% than those living in cemented houses (7.5%,and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%than those without domestic animals(8.08%. Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house. No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.

  10. High burden of impetigo and scabies in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C; Jenney, Adam W J; Kado, Joseph; Batzloff, Michael R; La Vincente, Sophie; Waqatakirewa, Lepani; Mulholland, E Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2009-06-23

    Impetigo and scabies are endemic diseases in many tropical countries; however the epidemiology of these diseases is poorly understood in many areas, particularly in the Pacific. We conducted three epidemiological studies in 2006 and 2007 to determine the burden of disease due to impetigo and scabies in children in Fiji using simple and easily reproducible methodology. Two studies were performed in primary school children (one study was a cross-sectional study and the other a prospective cohort study over ten months) and one study was performed in infants (cross-sectional). The prevalence of active impetigo was 25.6% (95% CI 24.1-27.1) in primary school children and 12.2% (95% CI 9.3-15.6) in infants. The prevalence of scabies was 18.5% (95% CI 17.2-19.8) in primary school children and 14.0% (95% CI 10.8-17.2) in infants. The incidence density of active impetigo, group A streptococcal (GAS) impetigo, Staphylococcus aureus impetigo and scabies was 122, 80, 64 and 51 cases per 100 child-years respectively. Impetigo was strongly associated with scabies infestation (odds ratio, OR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7) and was more common in Indigenous Fijian children when compared with children of other ethnicities (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7-4.7). The majority of cases of active impetigo in the children in our study were caused by GAS. S. aureus was also a common cause (57.4% in school aged children and 69% in infants). These data suggest that the impetigo and scabies disease burden in children in Fiji has been underestimated, and possibly other tropical developing countries in the Pacific. These diseases are more than benign nuisance diseases and consideration needs to be given to expanded public health initiatives to improve their control.

  11. High burden of impetigo and scabies in a tropical country.

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    Andrew C Steer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo and scabies are endemic diseases in many tropical countries; however the epidemiology of these diseases is poorly understood in many areas, particularly in the Pacific.We conducted three epidemiological studies in 2006 and 2007 to determine the burden of disease due to impetigo and scabies in children in Fiji using simple and easily reproducible methodology. Two studies were performed in primary school children (one study was a cross-sectional study and the other a prospective cohort study over ten months and one study was performed in infants (cross-sectional. The prevalence of active impetigo was 25.6% (95% CI 24.1-27.1 in primary school children and 12.2% (95% CI 9.3-15.6 in infants. The prevalence of scabies was 18.5% (95% CI 17.2-19.8 in primary school children and 14.0% (95% CI 10.8-17.2 in infants. The incidence density of active impetigo, group A streptococcal (GAS impetigo, Staphylococcus aureus impetigo and scabies was 122, 80, 64 and 51 cases per 100 child-years respectively. Impetigo was strongly associated with scabies infestation (odds ratio, OR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7 and was more common in Indigenous Fijian children when compared with children of other ethnicities (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7-4.7. The majority of cases of active impetigo in the children in our study were caused by GAS. S. aureus was also a common cause (57.4% in school aged children and 69% in infants.These data suggest that the impetigo and scabies disease burden in children in Fiji has been underestimated, and possibly other tropical developing countries in the Pacific. These diseases are more than benign nuisance diseases and consideration needs to be given to expanded public health initiatives to improve their control.

  12. Impetigo and scabies - Disease burden and modern treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Daniel K; Bowen, Asha C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2016-07-05

    Impetigo and scabies both present different challenges in resource-limited compared with industrialised settings. Severe complications of these skin infections are common in resource-limited settings, where the burden of disease is highest. The microbiology, risk factors for disease, diagnostic approaches and availability and suitability of therapies also vary according to setting. Taking this into account we aim to summarise recent data on the epidemiology of impetigo and scabies and describe the current evidence around approaches to individual and community based treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections.

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    Ehtesham Mofiz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1-3 distinct haplotypes per infestation.

  14. Efficacy and transdermal absorption of permethrin in scabies patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Rhee, H.J.; Farquhar, J A; Vermeulen, N P

    1989-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and transdermal absorption of permethrin, a new synthetic insecticide was investigated in ten scabies patients. All patients were successfully treated with one application of a cream, containing 5% permethrin. Apart from mild postscabies dermatitis no side-effects were

  15. SCABIES – PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

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    Mónica Tavares

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This article aims to summarize the pathogenesis of infection by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis in children focusing special attention on symptoms and treatment. Although there are no randomized controlled trials with sulfur precipitated in scabies treatment to prove its effi cacy and safety, it seems to be one of the most recommended drugs in this age group.

  16. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Nurimar C.F. Wanke

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.

  17. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.

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    Michael Marks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections.We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo.Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less.We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts.

  18. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  19. The Importance of Scabies Coinfection in the Treatment Considerations for Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasani, Monika; Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Bowen, Asha C

    2016-04-01

    Skin infections account for a high disease burden in indigenous children living in northern Australia. Although the relationship between impetigo and scabies is recognized, the prevalence of scabies in children with impetigo is not well reported. We report the prevalence, demographics and treatment success outcomes of impetigo and scabies coinfection in indigenous children who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of impetigo treatment conducted in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia. Of 1715 screening episodes for impetigo, 508 children were randomized to receive intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin (BPG), twice daily co-trimoxazole (SXT) for 3 days (4 mg/kg trimethoprim plus 20 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole per dose) or once daily SXT for 5 days (8 mg/kg trimethoprim plus 40 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole per dose). A clinical diagnosis of scabies; tinea of the skin, scalp or nail; and head lice was made on all children. Scabies presence was not confirmed using diagnostic scrapings. In a post-hoc analysis, we determined whether coinfection with scabies had an impact on treatment success for impetigo. Of children randomized to receive treatment for impetigo, 84 of 508 (16.5%) had scabies. The presence of scabies ranged from 14.3% to 20.0% in the 3 treatment groups. Treatment success for impetigo with and without scabies coinfection, independent of the treatment groups, was 75.9% and 86.6%, respectively, absolute difference 10.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): +1% to +21%]. Treatment success for impetigo with and without scabies coinfection in the BPG group was 69.6% and 88.0%, respectively, absolute difference 18.4% (95% CI: -1% to +38%). In the pooled SXT groups, the treatment success for impetigo with and without scabies coinfection was 78.6% and 86.0%, respectively, with absolute difference 7.4% (95% CI: -4% to +18%). Treatment success in the pooled SXT group with scabies (78.6%) was higher than in the BPG group (69.6%) with scabies

  20. Recommendation for the conservation of the name Streptomyces scabies. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D H; Loria, R; Labeda, D P; Saddler, G S

    2007-10-01

    The primary streptomycete inciting common scab of potato was first legitimately described by Thaxter in 1892 as 'Oospora scabies', preserving the spelling of an epithet in use since 1846. The name Streptomyces scabies, dating to 1948, was revived in 1989, but changed to Streptomyces scabiei in 1997 to follow grammatical convention. Considering the long-established use and general recognition of 'scabies', it is proposed that the original epithet be conserved.

  1. Evaluation of the commonest site, demographic profile and most effective therapy in scabies

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    Das Sudip

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to find out commonest sites of scabies in Indian patients. Attempt was made to study the demographic profile i.e., the common age groups, affection of family members, friends or sexual partners, type of skin lesions, history of previous affection of scabies, coassociation with STDs, and to find out the most effective treatment of scabies. Our study showed that genitalia and finger webs were the most common sites and papular lesions were by far the commonest lesion in scabies. Oral lvermectin remained the most effective drug closely followed by topical 5% permethrin cream.

  2. Development of Scabies During Treatment for Mycosis Fungoides: Dermatoscopic Diagnosis - Case Report

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    Caner Aykol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a cutaneous infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and characterized by severe and generalized pruritus. A clinical diagnosis can be made when a burrow is detected at a typical predilection site and the lesion is severely itching. Scabies which occurs in the elderly and also in patients who are immunosuppressed, the lesions are very variable and clinical diagnosis may be difficult. In such cases, dermatoscopy is a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of scabies with high sensitivity and specificity. Here, a 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed as scabies with dermatoscopic findings and already had mycosis fungoides is reported.

  3. Scabies in the age of increasing drug resistance.

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    Samar Khalil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It manifests with pruritic erythematous papules and excoriations, in addition to the pathognomonic burrows. Multiple drugs can be used for treatment, but resistance to conventional therapy is increasing throughout the years. This paper will review the mechanisms of resistance proposed in the literature and some of the potential solutions to this problem.

  4. A case of Scabies with Lesions Resembling Perforating Folliculitis and Uremic Pruritus

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    Hülya Akgün

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei and characterised by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, pustules, crusts and excoriations. Several pruritic diseases may be confused with scabies. Herein, we present a case of scabies with lesions resembling perforating folliculitis diagnosed on the basis of both clinical and histopathological view. A 72-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and receiving hemodialysis for ten years due to end-stage renal disease was admitted to our dermatology department with a 6-month history of severe pruritus. Based on the results of skin biopsy revealing Sarcoptes scabiei in the epidermis, the patient was diagnosed as scabies and was successfully treated with 5% permethrin. This case is presented to emphasize that scabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of chronic pruritus.

  5. Scabies Vaccine is Required, but Difficult to be Made

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    Simson Tarigan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptes scabiei, the mite causing scabies, infests human and at least 40 species of animals. The losses associated with the disease as a public health burden and economic losses are enormous because its prevalence is very high. The current available control by treating individuals diagnosed to have the disease is both ineffective and unpractical. Besides, dissatisfaction with the pharmacological control is escalating due to the development of resistance in the mites and rejection by consumers for animals products contaminated with drug residues. Vaccination is considered to be most the attractive alternative control although the availability of vaccine is still a long way off. Control of scabies by vaccination is considered to be feasible since animals recovered from the disease posses protective immunity against mite reinfestation. In addition, despite the fact that the mites reside not deeper than the unvascularised stratum corneum and they are not blood sucking parasites, they do ingest their host immunoglobulin. Vaccine for scabies, as for other ectoparasitic diseases, includes subunit vaccine developed from mite protective antigen produced by recombinant technology. Identification of sarcoptic protective antigen which comprise the first step in the vaccine development impede by the lability and low abundance of the protective antigen, and the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amount of mites. Identification of sarcoptic protective antigen by conventional biochemical technique, although the technique has been successful for other parasites, has been unsatisfactory for S. scabiei. Identifying the protective antigen just among proteins having vital functions in the survival of mites and accessible by the effector arms of the host immune system seems to be a more feasible alternative. The allergens and membrane proteins lining the digestive tract of the mites seem to fulfil the criteria.

  6. Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.

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    Lucia Romani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%, followed by children aged less than five (36.5%, and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%. Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS: As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in

  7. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Daniel S; Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream complications.

  8. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

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    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  9. Scabies and Impetigo Prevalence and Risk Factors in Fiji: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C.; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M.; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. Conclusions As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities

  10. Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities.

  11. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Semsettin; Dogru, Omer; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kulac, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Scabies and pediculosis are ubiquitous, contagious, and debilitating parasitic dermatoses. The tendency of high prevalence of pediculosis and scabies among school and preschool age children has prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among preschool nursery children in our district. A school-based, crosssectional study was performed, with 1,134 children chosen for evaluation. All cases were evaluated by physical examination and a detailed, structured questionnaire. The infestation was found in 14 (1.2%) of 1,134 children; 9 (0.8%) with pediculosis capitis and 5 (0.4%) with scabies. We found that infestations were more frequent in children with mothers whose education levels were low. This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children. PMID:16514290

  12. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

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    Daniel S Mason

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data.Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution.The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0, and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9. The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2, and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2-6.0 and children aged 1-4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-3.9. Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8, and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5. The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8. Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6; with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies.Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream

  13. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Nurimar C.F. Wanke

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.E descrito um caso de sarna crostosa em criança portadora de lupus eritematoso sistêmico em tratamento com prednisona há três anos. O raspado das lesões cutâneas revelou ovos e ácaros adultos de Sarcoptes scabiei. A paciente faleceu por sepsis e insuficiência renal pouco tempo após início da terapêutica tópica com enxofre a 20%. Melhora importante foi observada no quadro dermatológico.

  14. An aspartic protease of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei is involved in the digestion of host skin and blood macromolecules.

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    Wajahat Mahmood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival.

  15. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

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    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  16. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Pearl M; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that

  17. Increase the risk of intellectual disability in children with scabies: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

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    Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chun-Fa; Chang, Shu-Ting; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chang, Hung-Yang; Chi, Hsin; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Scabies is a common and distressing disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Psychiatric disorder in childhood is an important disease and easily neglected. There are several similarities in scabies and psychiatric disorders in childhood (PDC). Both of them may present with pruritus. They are relatively common in patients with lower socioeconomic status and crowded environment. Furthermore, immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology in both diseases. An association between scabies and psychiatric disorders may exist. This nationwide population-based cohort study utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the relationship between scabies and PDC. A total of 2137 children with scabies were identified as the study group and 8548 age- and sex-matched children were selected as the control group. A total of 607 (5.68%) children developed PDC during the 7-year follow-up period. The overall incidences of PDC are similar but patients with scabies had a higher risk of developing intellectual disability (ID) (scabies group vs control group: 1.3% vs 0.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 2.04 and 95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.32). The immune-mediated inflammatory processes of both diseases were reviewed and may contribute to the 104% increased risk of interleukin in patients with scabies. We suggest a more comprehensive management in treating patients with scabies or ID. Early and comprehensive treatment of scabies and other risk factors may decrease the risk of subsequent ID. When we approach patients with ID, concurrent evaluation of scabies and other risk factors may contribute to successful management.

  18. Epidemiological study of scabies among school going children in district Haripur, Pakistan

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    Samina Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted at Haripur from Jan to April 2013 to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in School children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of active burrows or excessive rash (rubbing. Out of a sample of 968 school children (1st-5th 40 were detected as scabetic yielding a prevalence rate of 4.13%. Selecting 70 children as control, a case-control study was performed to assess the relative risk of scabies with respect to a variety of risk factors. Sleeping behavior (bed sharing and the presence of head lice came out as a significant risk factors with relative risk of 3.0 and 2.44, respectively. On the other hand, factors like family size, house characteristics, general health condition, and bathing frequency did not significantly influence the occurrence of scabies.

  19. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

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    Currie Bart J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite.

  20. Treatment of scabies and pediculosis: facts and controversies.

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    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per infected patient. Most infested individuals have been shown to have several-fold more acari than the oft-quoted average of 12 adult acari per infected patient that appears in most of our textbooks (stemming from Mellanby's work). Contrary to what Mellanby taught us, we know that indirect transmission (ie, without personal contact) does occur. As to which agent to use, the winner remains undeclared at present. Although indirect contact transmission of hair lice has been clarified after thousands of years of infestation, there are still numerous questions, uncertainties, disagreements, and controversies on the subject; for example, we know that lice survive immersion in water but are probably not transmitted in swimming pools. There is no consensus on the best or most correct way to diagnose lice, nor is the problem of resistance resolved. We do not recommend a "no-nit" policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospective study in a porcine model of sarcoptes scabiei indicates the association of Th2 and Th17 pathways with the clinical severity of scabies.

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    Kate E Mounsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a Scabies+/Dex+, b Scabies+/Dex-, c Scabies-/Dex+ and d Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies.

  2. A novel clinical grading scale to guide the management of crusted scabies.

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    Joshua S Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crusted scabies, or hyperinfestation with Sarcoptes scabiei, occurs in people with an inadequate immune response to the mite. In recent decades, data have emerged suggesting that treatment of crusted scabies with oral ivermectin combined with topical agents leads to lower mortality, but there are no generally accepted tools for describing disease severity. Here, we describe a clinical grading scale for crusted scabies and its utility in real world practice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2002, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH, a hospital in tropical Australia developed and began using a clinical grading scale to guide the treatment of crusted scabies. We conducted a retrospective observational study including all episodes of admission to RDH for crusted scabies during the period October 2002-December 2010 inclusive. Patients who were managed according to the grading scale were compared with those in whom the scale was not used at the time of admission but was calculated retrospectively. There were 49 admissions in 30 patients during the study period, of which 49 (100% were in Indigenous Australians, 29 (59% were male and the median age was 44.1 years. According to the grading scale, 8 (16% episodes were mild, 24 (49% were moderate, and 17 (35% were severe. Readmission within the study period was significantly more likely with increasing disease severity, with an odds ratio (95% CI of 12.8 (1.3-130 for severe disease compared with mild. The patients managed according to the grading scale (29 episodes did not differ from those who were not (20 episodes, but they received fewer doses of ivermectin and had a shorter length of stay (11 vs. 16 days, p = 0.02. Despite this the outcomes were no different, with no deaths in either group and a similar readmission rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our grading scale is a useful tool for the assessment and management of crusted scabies.

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of scabies by general practitioners: A survey of practices in France].

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    Schmidt-Guerre, A R; Aranda-Hulin, B; Maumy-Bertrand, M; Aubin, F

    2017-11-08

    Although there is evidence suggesting an epidemiologic increase of scabies in France, few studies have assessed medical practice in terms of diagnosis and treatment. To describe the management of scabies by general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire was addressed to the 524 GPs of the Doubs department in France regarding the management of cases of scabies diagnosed between January and June 2015. The response rate was 57 % (n=299). At least one case of scabies was observed by 89 % of GPs in the previous six months and more than three cases were diagnosed by 59 % of GPs. The main clinical criterion for diagnosis was the specific localization of pruritus (82 %). No diagnostic test was used by 94 % of GPs other than except direct parasitological examination, which was used by 6 %. A systematic examination by a dermatologist was prescribed by 3 % of GPs, by 78 % of them in the case of diagnostic doubt, and not at all by 19 %, even though 66 % of GPs' offices were located under 10 kilometers from a dermatologist's office. Ivermectin (IVM) alone was prescribed by 38 % of GPs, either as a single dose (22 %) or as two repeated doses (16 %). Topical treatment alone was prescribed by 2 % of GPs and the association of IVM and topical treatment was used by 26 %, either as a single dose (19 %) or as two repeated doses (7 %). All household members and any sexual contacts were systematically treated by 77 % of GPs, but 9 % did not prescribe any treatment. Decontamination advice was given by 100 % of GPs. Recurrence of scabies was observed by 25 % of GPs despite systematic treatment (93 %) of patients' close contacts. Our study confirms the frequency of scabies in general medicine and the interest of GPs in this evaluation of practice. Our data also demonstrate the heterogeneity of management by GPs and the limitations of/poor compliance with national recommendations on scabies proposed by the Haut conseil de santé publique (Public Health Council) in 2012

  4. Incidence of autoimmune diseases in patients with scabies: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

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    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Fung-Wei; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Scabies is a commonly occurring infectious immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Immune-mediated inflammatory processes are also observed in autoimmune diseases. There have been very few previous studies; however, that have investigated the possible association between scabies and autoimmune diseases. To address this research gap, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study that included a total of 4481 scabies patients and 16,559 control subjects matched by gender, age, insured region, urbanization and income. We tracked both cohorts for a 7-year period to identify the incidence of autoimmune diseases in both groups during that follow-up period. Relatedly, a Cox regression analysis was performed to calculate and compare the hazard ratio (HR) for autoimmune diseases of both groups. An overall increased risk for 19 autoimmune diseases was observed in the scabies patients, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25). Compared with the control group, the scabies patients exhibited increased risks of hypersensitivity vasculitis (aHR 5.44, 95% CI 1.64-18.07), dermatomyositis (aHR 4.91, 95% CI 1.80-13.38), polyarteritis nodosa (aHR 2.89, 95% CI 1.46-5.73), systemic lupus erythematosus (aHR 2.73, 95% CI 1.33-5.64), psoriasis (aHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.85-2.88), myasthenia gravis (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.31-3.12), type 1 diabetes mellitus (aHR 1.93, 95% CI 1.53-2.44), pernicious anemia (aHR 1.92, 95% CI 1.42-2.61), and rheumatoid arthritis (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). In conclusion, the associations between scabies and a variety of autoimmune diseases may exist. Further studies are needed to clarify the shared etiologies and relationships between scabies and autoimmune diseases.

  5. [The remarkable debate during the beginning of the nineteenth century concerning the aetiology of scabies].

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    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    The scabies mite (acarus or sarcoptes scabiei) was known already to Aristoteles, to the Arabic medicine during the early and to European physicians as well as laymen during the later Middle Ages, depicted in 1687 by Bonomo in Italy and by Schwiebe in Germany during the beginning of the eighteenth century. Later in the middle of the century three pupils to Linnaeus in their doctor's theses stated that the scabies mite (Acarus humanus subcutaneus) was the cause of scabies. The best pictures of the scabies-mite as well as of the flour- and cheese-mite was given by the Swedish entomologist Charles de Geer in 1778. In spite of all these facts the real aetiology of scabies seemed to be unknown in France and in most parts of Europe. This was probably due to the fact that no one had learned the rather simple method to extract the mite from the skin with a needle and thereby verify its existence. In the beginning of the twentieth century scabies was a real problem for the health authorities. In Paris l'Académie de Médecine even offered a reward to the person who could solve the enigma of the itch. Jean Chrysanthe Galés was the pharmacist at l'Hôpital St. Louis, the famous skin hospital in Paris, where at this time about 65 percent of the beds were occupied by patients suffering from scabies. Galés also studied medicine and wanted to write a doctor's thesis. As the theme of a dissertation he was given the cause of the itch. In 1812 he published his thesis ("Essai sur la Gale") including a plate with sketches of mites that he claimed to have extracted from vesicules on the skin of his scabies patients. His findings could not be verified by other investigators. Galés however refused to take part in any control experiments and left the hospital. The debate concerning the supposed cause of the itch continued for two decades both inside and outside the hospital. F.C. Raspail, a famous natural scientist, was interested. After having studied the literature and especially the

  6. Role of prolonged surveillance in the eradication of nosocomial scabies in an extended care Veterans Affairs medical center.

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    Jimenez-Lucho, V E; Fallon, F; Caputo, C; Ramsey, K

    1995-02-01

    Although general guidelines for control of institutional outbreaks of scabies have been published, little information is available on the long-term efficacy of these measures in extended care facilities. An epidemic of scabies occurred in a comprehensive care Veterans Affairs facility as a result of an unrecognized case of crusted scabies, with a total of 112 persons affected during a 12-month period. The initial outbreak occurred in the acute care units, with highest attack rates among roommates of the index patient (11/14, 78%) and nursing staff (27/55, 49%). Despite sustained infection control measures, secondary outbreaks continued to occur in the extended care units. Factors contributing to the persistence of the epidemic were transfer of patients with unrecognized infestation within the facility, prolonged latency period and atypical manifestations in elderly patients, and failure of scabicide treatment. In addition, a role may be played by carriage of scabies mites by infested staff members before they have symptoms. Control of the epidemic was only achieved with the following: increased awareness and better scabies recognition, restriction of staff rotation in the facility, and improved communication among primary providers and infection control personnel. Prolonged surveillance may be required for eradication of nosocomial scabies in extended care settings.

  7. Burden of human scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons: Evidence from the west region of Cameroon.

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    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Sangare, Abdoulaye; Moguieu Bogne, Léonnelle-Lynda; Sieleunou, Isidore; Adegbidi, Hugues; Tameyi Tatsa, Joël; Moyou Somo, Roger

    2018-02-01

    There is little data on the profile and magnitude of scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of scabies in prisons of the west region of Cameroon. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March to August 2014, and consecutively recruited volunteer detainees of three randomly selected prisons in the West Region of Cameroon. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings after assessment by two experienced and well-trained dermatologists. We enrolled 755 prisoners, 17 (2%) of whom were women. Their mean age was 32 ± 12 years. There were 242 cases (32%) of scabies, with significantly more cases in the most crowded prison (P 10 (aOR 1.89; P = 0.002), but not age, duration of incarceration, number of baths/week and washing/week, were independent drivers of scabies occurrence. Almost one-third of prisoners suffered from scabies in our prisons. A low educational level, the sharing of clothes/bedding and number of detainees/cell > 10 were independent determinants of the disease. Urgent measures must be undertaken to reduce the burden of scabies in our prisons. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. The Epidemiology of Scabies and Impetigo in Relation to Demographic and Residential Characteristics: Baseline Findings from the Skin Health Intervention Fiji Trial.

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    Romani, Lucia; Whitfeld, Margot J; Koroivueta, Josefa; Kama, Mike; Wand, Handan; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Tuicakau, Meciusela; Koroi, Aminiasi; Ritova, Raijieli; Andrews, Ross; Kaldor, John M; Steer, Andrew C

    2017-09-01

    Scabies and associated impetigo are under-recognized causes of morbidity in many developing countries. To strengthen the evidence base for scabies control we undertook a trial of mass treatment for scabies. We report on the occurrence and predictors of scabies and impetigo in participants at baseline. Participants were recruited in six island communities and were examined for the presence of scabies and impetigo. In addition to descriptive analyses, logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between demographic variables and outcome of interest. The study enrolled 2051 participants. Scabies prevalence was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.3-38.5), highest in children 5-9 years (55.7%). Impetigo prevalence was 23.4% (95% CI 21.5-25.2) highest in children aged 10-14 (39.0%). People with scabies were 2.8× more likely to have impetigo. The population attributable risk of scabies as a cause of impetigo was 36.3% and 71.0% in children aged less than five years. Households with four or more people sharing the same room were more likely to have scabies and impetigo (odds ratios [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2 and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.2 respectively) compared to households with rooms occupied by a single individual. This study confirms the high burden of scabies and impetigo in Fiji and the association between these two conditions, particularly in young children. Overcrowding, young age, and clinical distribution of lesion are important risk factors for scabies and impetigo. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the decline of endemic scabies would translate into a definite reduction of the burden of associated complications.

  9. Scabies mite peritrophins are potential targets of human host innate immunity.

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    Angela Mika

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1 was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD. Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL, the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the

  10. Increased risk of pernicious anemia following scabies: a nationwide population-based matched-cohort study

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    Liu JM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Ming Liu,1–3,* Ren-Jun Hsu,3–5,* Fung-Wei Chang,6 Feng-Hsiang Chiu,7,8 Chia-Lun Yeh,1 Chun-Fa Huang,9,10 Shu-Ting Chang,11 Hung-Chang Lee,12 Hsin Chi,12,13 Chien-Yu Lin14,15 1Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan, 2Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, 4Department of Pathology and Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology, the Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, 5Biobank Management Center of the Tri-Service General Hospital, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 7Department of Emergency Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 8Superintendent office, Lihuili Eastern Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang province, People’s Republic of China; 9School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 10Department of Nursing, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung City, 11Department of Gastroenterology, BinKun Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Taoyuan City, 12Department of Infectious Disease, MacKay Children’s Hospital, Taipei, 13Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei city, 14Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Disease, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City, Taiwan; 15Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: Scabies is a common and annoying disorder. Pernicious anemia (PA is a serious disease which, when untreated, leads to death. Mounting evidence suggests that immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The relationship between these two diseases has not been investigated. We conducted this

  11. Epidemiological features of scabies and STI in the Saratov area from 1991 till 2010

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    Reshetnikova E.M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    The study presents the comparative analysis of scabies and STI incidence in different groups of population in Saratov region from 1991 till 2010. Principal causes and factors supporting epidemic process of infectious diseases in this region on an extent of 2 decades are revealed. It is established that if the basic group patients with scabies were children, teenagers and people at the age from 20 to 29 years, so, in the group with STI there were patients aged from 18 to 29 years. Besides, it was proved that over the last years early and late latent forms of syphilis and neurosyphilis prevail among patients in age group from 40 to 60 years. It leads to disability, and sometimes invalidism quite often.

  12. The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides.

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    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways.To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide, DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and DEM (diethyl maleate were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450 activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001. Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%; inhibition of GST activity (73% with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81% with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites.These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

  13. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners.

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    Raval, Heli S; Nayak, J B; Patel, B M; Bhadesiya, C M

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  14. [Scabies and the significance of "suriones" in the handwritten manuscripts of Hildegard von Bingen].

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    Riethe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In her studies on nature and medicine, the "Liber simplicis medicinae" (LSM or "Physica") and the "Liber compositae medicinae" (LCM or "Causae et Curae"), Hildegard von Bingen mentions Scabies (mange) in several passages. She characterizes "suren aut (= or) sneuelzen" as the cause of the disease, which she calls also "gracillimi vermiculi", that is, tiny worms that burrow into the human skin ("ubi suren aut sneuelzen hominem comedendo ledunt"). In this context the meanings of the German-ancestor terms "suren aut sneuelzen", which are found in the Latin text concerning the "Alia Mynza", are still disputed. The question whether Hildegard knew the cause of scabies the author discusses on the basis of ancient and medieval sources as well as modem medical historical and philological/linguistic research approaches. He concludes that Hildegard was able not only to describe the symptoms exactly, but also to define the cause of the disease as a special parasite. Consequently, she differentiates other diseases of the skin, such as "grint", from scabies. The proposed interpretation of "sneuelzen" as the tick is untenable. The assumption that both terms are synonyms for sarcoptes scabiei can be confirmed by philological and medical historical research.

  15. The Frequency Rate of Scabies and its Associated Demographic Factors in Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Fakoorziba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is one of the most common causes of itching dermatosis in the world. This disease is caused by Sarcopetes scabiei. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of scabies and demographic factors affecting it, such as age, gender, residence, education and occupation in patients of health centers in the county during 1998-2006. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study. The necessary information included positive cases of disease and effective demographic factors such as age, gender, occupation, education and residence using the contents recorded in health centers of the county.Results: Fifty one out of total 203 suspected cases were positive. The most positive cases were observed in males in age group of 16-25, soldiers, low educated people (guidance school and in urban areas.Conclusion: This study indicates the relationship between the prevalence of scabies in soldiers in the region according to the population density in the garrisons. It also revealed that the disease is significantly related to educational level, gender and occupation.

  16. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies.

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    FitzGerald, Deirdre; Grainger, Rachel J; Reid, Alex

    2014-02-24

    Scabies, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei variety hominis or the human itch mite, is a common parasitic infection. While anyone can become infected, it causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts and it spreads easily between human hosts where there is overcrowding or poor sanitation. The most common symptom reported is itch which is worse at night. As the symptoms are attributed to an allergic reaction to the mite, symptoms usually develop between four to six weeks after primary infection. Therefore, people may be infected for some time prior to developing symptoms. During this time, while asymptomatic, they may spread infection to others they are in close contact with. Consequently, it is usually recommended that when an index case is being treated, others who have been in close contact with the index case should also be provided with treatment. To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for contacts of people with scabies to prevent infestation in the contacts. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, OpenGrey and WHO ICTRP) up to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared prophylactic interventions which were given to contacts of index cases with scabies infestation. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. Both drug treatments and non-drug treatments were acceptable. Two authors intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions and report this as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. We did not include any trials in this review. Out of 29 potentially-relevant studies, we excluded 16 RCTs as the data for the contacts were either not reported or were reported only in combination with the outcomes

  17. The Relation of Personal Hygiene with The Incidence of Scabies at Al Falah Male Boarding School Students Sub-district of Liang Anggang in the Year 2016

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    Nur Muafida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor personal hygiene can be a factor supporting the development of skin diseases such as scabies. In Indonesia the scabies disease numerous in boarding school. One of the things that support the transmission of scabies is personal hygiene students who are not good. The study aimed to determine the relationship of personal hygiene with the incidence of scabies on students Al Falah male boarding school students at sub-district of Liang Anggang in the year 2016. This research is an analytic observational  with cross sectional design. The sample of research are students of Al Falah for boys boarding school Sub-district of Liang Anggang as many as 127 people. Data analysis using statistical Chi-square test (X2. The results showed among 127 students, 59 of them in a poor condition of personal hygiene 53 of them categorized affected with scabies (89.8 %. While the remaining 68 students were in a good condition of personal hygiene with 23 of them having scabies (33.8%. X2 test results showed that there was a significant relationship, personal hygiene with the incidence of scabies on students boarding school Al Falah for boys Sub-district of Liang Anggang in the year 2016 at p-value = 0.000. Efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of scabies among others: showering twice a day using clean water, use personal belongings are not mutually borrowing, keep clean hands and nails, hygiene clothing and cleanliness of the bed.

  18. Norwegian scabies in a resident of a nursing home misdiagnosed as dermatologic lesions of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Jacek Kasznicki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Norwegian (crusted, hyperkeratotic scabies is a relatively rare form of the disease, but it is highly contagious and easily transmitted. Although skin lesions are typical for that form of the disease, they differ substantially from those observed in typical infection with Sarcoptes scabiei. Objective. To present the difficulties in the diagnosis of Norwegian scabies. Case report. We describe a case of an elderly patient, a resident of a nursing home, with Norwegian scabies in whom itching and skin lesions were initially misdiagnosed as a dermatologic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, in the nursing home, the results of the implemented therapy were not checked appropriately, which resulted in an outbreak of scabies in the institution as well as infection of several family members. Conclusions . Considering the fact that pharmacological treatment of Norwegian scabies does not differ from other forms of this disease, it seems that early diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning are crucial to prevent transmission of the infection.

  19. Comparison of crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) and permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) for the treatment of scabies in children.

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    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L; Chen, J A; Sanchez, R

    1990-03-01

    Permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) was approved as a treatment for scabies by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 1989. In a double-blinded, randomized study, it was compared with crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) for the treatment of scabies in children 2 months to 5 years of age. Two weeks after a single overnight treatment, 14 (30%) of 47 children were cured with permethrin 5% cream, in contrast to only 6 of 47 (13%) of subjects treated with Eurax. Four weeks after treatment the figures were 89% and 60% cured for the two agents, respectively. In 10 of the 19 patients whose treatment failed, the condition became worse after therapy. The difference in efficacy in favor of permethrin was significant (P = 0.002). That agent also demonstrated greater effectiveness in reducing pruritus and secondary bacterial infections. Elimite offers a safe, efficacious, and cosmetically elegant alternative to Eurax in the treatment of scabies in children.

  20. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Preventing Transmission of Scabies in Pesantren Darul Fatwa, Jatinangor

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    Mahirah Binti Mohd Yusof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is caused by infestation and sensitization of Sarcoptess cabiei and is an endemic in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Several factors in the disease transmission are overcrowded living conditions, poor personal hygiene, unhealthy behaviors and population density. Pesantren is a spesific name for an educational Islamic institution in Indonesia and which w could be one of the risk factors of the transmission the disease. Most of the students (santri are staying at the institution for a long time. The objective of this study was to know the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of santri in preventing scabies. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 45 santri in Pesantren Darul Fatwa in Jatinangor during September–December 2012. A questionnaire was set up consisting of questions about age, sex, basic knowledge, attitude, and practice of preventing the transmission of scabies. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: The level of knowledge and attitude of the respondents to prevent the transmission of scabies were good, meanwhile the level of practice was moderate. There were still questions that could not be answer by the respondents those were the etiology (31.1%, the cut off chain of transmission (40%, and how to prevent scabies (37.8%. Not washing the towel, changing the bed linen and pillow case every 2 weeks were the less good practice performed by the respondents. Conclusions: The knowledge and attitude towards the prevention of transmission of scabies are good while the practices are moderate. A further study with more sample size should be carried out including enviromental assessment.

  1. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

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    Simone L Reynolds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

  2. A scabies mite serpin interferes with complement-mediated neutrophil functions and promotes staphylococcal growth.

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    Pearl M Swe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4 inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA. SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a

  3. Tracking the Subtle Mutations Driving Host Sensing by the Plant Pathogen Streptomyces scabies

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    Samuel Jourdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of genetic material conferring the arsenal necessary for host virulence is a prerequisite on the path to becoming a plant pathogen. More subtle mutations are also required for the perception of cues signifying the presence of the target host and optimal conditions for colonization. The decision to activate the pathogenic lifestyle is not “taken lightly” and involves efficient systems monitoring environmental conditions. But how can a pathogen trigger the expression of virulence genes in a timely manner if the main signal inducing its pathogenic behavior originates from cellulose, the most abundant polysaccharide on earth? This situation is encountered by Streptomyces scabies, which is responsible for common scab disease on tuber and root crops. We propose here a series of hypotheses of how S. scabies could optimally distinguish whether cello-oligosaccharides originate from decomposing lignocellulose (nutrient sources, saprophyte or, instead, emanate from living and expanding plant tissue (virulence signals, pathogen and accordingly adapt its physiological response.

  4. Sarna humana: el ácaro y sus circunstancias Human Scabies: The Mite And Its Circumstances

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    GM D'Atri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La sarna humana, dermatosis milenaria, nos sigue sorprendiendo en la actualidad por su capacidad para producir diversas manifestaciones clínicas, cuyo reconocimiento puede ser dificultoso para el clínico generalista y aún para el dermatólogo experimentado. Es una enfermedad frecuente, cuyas manifestaciones dependen del delicado interjuego que existe entre el huésped, el parásito y el medio ambiente. Realizamos una descripción de variedades poco frecuentes de escabiosis y la ilustramos a través de nueve casos.At the present time, human scabies, millenarian disease, surprised us because of its ability to produce diverse clinical manifestations, whose recognition still can be difficult for clinical and for the experienced dermatologist. It is a common disease, whose clinical expression depends on the delicate interplay between the host, the parasite and the environment. We present a description of rare varietes of scabies, illustrated with nine clinical cases.

  5. Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Scabies in Suspected Patients Referred to Health Centers of Kashan, Central Iran (2010 - 2014

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    Sima Rasti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Scabies is one of the most common itching contagious skin disorder in the world. The agent of disease is Sarcoptes scabiei. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of S. scabies in suspected patients referred to health centers of Kashan during 2010 - 2014. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 129 patients suspected to Sarcoptes scabiei. The demographic and clinical symptoms for each of patients were recorded in questionnaire by interview. A deep skin scrap was prepared and wet smear were prepared using 10% KOH. By observation of each form of Sarcoptes was identified as positive sample. The data were recorded in Spss. ver 16.5 and analyzed by X2 and fisher exact tests. Results The results of this study showed that 28 (21.7 % were Sarcoptes positive. The frequency of sarcoptes was higher in males (23% than females (20.6%. The difference was not statistically significant. The most cases were isolated in spring and winter. Sarcoptes infestation was the most in elderly and patients undergone dialysis. There is significant difference between disease and age group and underlying disease (P = 0.03, P = 0.014; respectively. Erosion or pustule was the most clinical signs in positive cases. Conclusions The results of study showed that the rate of scabies infestation in Kashan is relatively high, and the most cases were in elderly patients. Health education to increase awareness of the families for prevention of scabies was recommended.

  6. Dementia-specific risks of scabies: Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of an unveiled nosocomial outbreak in Japan from 1989–90

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    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although senile dementia patients in long-term care facilities are at leading risk of scabies, the epidemiologic characteristics of this disease have yet to be fully clarified. This study documents the findings of a ward-scale nosocomial outbreak in western Japan from 1989–90, for which permission to publish was only recently obtained. Methods A retrospective epidemiologic study was performed to identify specific risk factors of scabies among patients with dementia. Analyses were based on a review of medical and nursing records. All inpatients in the affected ward at the time of the outbreak were included in the study. Observational and analytical approaches were employed to assess the findings. Results Twenty of 65 inpatients in the ward met the case definition of scabies. The outbreak lasted for almost 10 months and as a result, the spatial distribution of infections showed no localized patterns in the latter phase of the outbreak. The duration of illness significantly decreased after initiation of control measures (P = 0.0067. Movement without assistance (Odds Ratio [OR] = 11.3; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.9, 44.8 and moving beyond the room (but within the ward (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.5 were significantly associated with infection, while types of room (Western or Japanese and sleeping arrangement (on beds or futons laid directly on the floor appeared not to be risk factors. Conclusion Univariate analysis demonstrated the importance of patients' behaviours during daily activities in controlling scabies among senile dementia patients. The findings also support previous evidence that catching scabies from fomites is far less common. Moreover, since cognitive disorders make it difficult for individuals to communicate and understand the implications of risky contacts as well as treatment method, and given the non-specific nature of individual contacts that are often unpredictable, real-time observations might help

  7. Canine and feline scabies in São Paulo - Brazil - Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (1984-2002

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    Rita de Cássia Carmona Castro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available At the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (HOVET in FMVZ/USP, sarcoptic and notoedric mange are the second and the third most commonly diagnosed parasitic skin diseases, respectively. Between 1984 and 2002, 2907 cases of canine and feline scabies were diagnosed at HOVET. Canine scabies (2283 and feline scabies (624 represented 6.4% and 15.7%, respectively, of the cases seen. Feline scabies was more frequent than canine scabies (p<0.05 . Canine scabies was more prevalent in pure breeds dogs (58.0% with long hair (74.2% and the most commonly affected dog breeds were: Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherds. Canine and feline scabies were more frequent in males. Dogs (54.7% and cats (63.5% < 12 months old were the most affected. For notoedric mange stray cats, short-haired (74.2% were most commonly affected. Feline scabies was most common in Siamese , Persian and Burmese cat breed. There was no seasonal difference in the occurence of scabies in either cats or dogs when results were analysed.

  8. Comparative Efficacy of Topical Pertmehrin, Crotamiton and Sulfur Oint-ment in Treatment of Scabies

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    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Scabies is an ectoparasitic infection, which occurs because of direct skin-to skin contact. The ideal treatment modality is still unclear and further research on this topic is warranted. The aim of the study was to com­pare the efficacy and safety of the topical scabicides: permethrin, crotamiton and sulfur ointment.Methods: Fifty four patients with diagnosed scabies were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The first group received 5% permethrin cream twice with one week interval, the patients from the second group were given crotamiton lotion for two days twice with one week interval, while the third group received 10% sulfur ointment for two or three weeks. All patients were followed up at 1, 2 and 4 weeks intervals.Results: At one-week follow up the cure rate was significantly higher at permethrin-treated group when compared to crotamiton group (P< 0.001 and sulfur group (P< 0.001. At the end of two-week interval, the cure rate at perme­thrin group was 100%, while at crotamiton group, 66.7% and in sulfur group 38.9% (P< 0.001. At 4-week follow up the applied treatment was effective in all studied individuals.Conclusion: The topical application of permethrin, crotamiton and sulfur was equally efficacious at 4-week follow up, however permethrin cream showed faster improvement at first and second follow up. Acquiring permethrin is considered as expensive option and crotamiton lotion seems to be cost-less alternative to this cream.

  9. Scabies Treatment

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    ... Thus, there’s no need for extensive washing or decontamination of the child’s room or the rest of ... recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. Email Print Share Donate Contact Us About Us Privacy Policy ...

  10. Implementing systems thinking for infection prevention: The cessation of repeated scabies outbreaks in a respiratory care ward.

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    Chuang, Sheuwen; Howley, Peter P; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is often adopted to complement epidemiologic investigation for outbreaks and infection-related adverse events in hospitals; however, RCA has been argued to have limited effectiveness in preventing such events. We describe how an innovative systems analysis approach halted repeated scabies outbreaks, and highlight the importance of systems thinking for outbreaks analysis and sustaining effective infection prevention and control. Following RCA for a third successive outbreak of scabies over a 17-month period in a 60-bed respiratory care ward of a Taiwan hospital, a systems-oriented event analysis (SOEA) model was used to reanalyze the outbreak. Both approaches and the recommendations were compared. No nosocomial scabies have been reported for more than 1975 days since implementation of the SOEA. Previous intervals between seeming eradication and repeat outbreaks following RCA were 270 days and 180 days. Achieving a sustainable positive resolution relied on applying systems thinking and the holistic analysis of the system, not merely looking for root causes of events. To improve the effectiveness of outbreaks analysis and infection control, an emphasis on systems thinking is critical, along with a practical approach to ensure its effective implementation. The SOEA model provides the necessary framework and is a viable complementary approach, or alternative, to RCA. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A medical enigma : what "gale chinoise (Chinese scabies)" meant 150 years ago.

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    Gaüzere, B-A; Aubry, P

    2017-06-01

    The meaning of the term "gale chinoise" mentioned in some articles about French overseas territories in the 19th century, remains unclear. In response to a query of an American colleague dermatologist trying to find out what it meant 150 years ago, we attempted to elucidate the nature of this ancient disease, which today would be translated literally as Chinese scabies. We submitted the query to a panel of civilian and military French tropical medicine specialists including dermatologists, through two networks : Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre-Mer and Société de Pathologie Exotique. Very few answers were received from the approximately 400 colleagues in these networks. They mentioned : ciguatera, other types of ichtyosarcotoxism, smallpox, and leprosy. Several said they never encountered this term during many years spent in French Polynesia, and none was able to find irrefutable proof of their suggestion. Discussion and conclusion. Leprosy, smallpox, ciguatera? The identity of "gale chinoise" remains an enigma ; it might have been intended to designate several different diseases.

  12. Dermatopathology of Caprine Scabies and Protective Immunity in Sensitised Goats Against Sarcoptes scabiei Reinfestation

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    Simson Tarigan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare macroscopic dermatopathology in naïve and sensitised goats, and to assess protective immunity possessed by sensitised goats against Sarcoptes scabiei challenge. Eighteen goats were allocated evenly into 3 groups; group 1 sensitised with the mite twice, group 2 once and group 3 was not sensitised (naïve. Sensitisation was done by infesting goats with the mites on the auricle and infestation was allowed to progress for 7 weeks, then the goats were treated with Ivermectin to obtain complete recovery. After sensitisation, all sensitised and naïve goats were infested with the mites on the auricles. Infestation in the sensitised goat caused severe immediate hypersensitivity that resulted in severe peracute pustular dermatitis. After one week, however, the lesion waned slowly. At 7 weeks post infestation, the remnant of lesion could only be perceived by palpation on the primary site of infestation as a mild papular dermatitis. Infestation on the naïve goats, in contrast, produced slowly progressing lesions which at 7-week post infestation, it ended up with severe crusted scabies affecting almost the whole skin. Antigens responsible for the immediate hypersensitivity which are supposedly contained in the mite secretions or excretions are immunologically protective but unlikely to have the capacity to induce a complete protection against mite challenge in immunised animals. This notion is based on the fact obtained from this study that goats sensitised twice did not possess a higher immune protection against mite challenge than goats sensitised once.

  13. Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis - a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact

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    Mohammed Khalfan A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ivermectin and albendazole are used in annual mass drug administration (MDA for the lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes in African countries co-endemic for onchocerciasis, but have additional impact on soil transmitted helminths and the ectoparasitic mite which causes scabies. Assessing these collateral impacts at scale is difficult due to the insensitivity of available parasite detection techniques. Methods The numbers of cases diagnosed with intestinal helminths and scabies and who received prescriptions for treatment were evaluated in 50 health centres in Zanzibar. Records were examined from 2000, prior to the initiation of MDA to 2005, after six rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis had taken place. Results Health centre records showed a consistent decline in the number of cases of intestinal helminths and scabies diagnosed by community health workers in Zanzibar and the number of prescriptions issued across five age groups. A 90-98% decline in soil transmitted helminths and 68-98% decline in scabies infections were recorded. Poisson regression models aggregated to both the island-level and district-level indicated that the decline was statistically significant. Conclusions The described method of examining health centre records has the potential for use on a large scale, despite limitations, as a rapid method to evaluate the impacts resulting from both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis MDA. This would result in a reduction in the need for parasitological evaluations to determine prevalence and intensity.

  14. Are scabies and impetigo “normalised”? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections

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    Anderson, Aleisha; Cleland, Gavin; Bowen, Asha C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high. Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted in November 2014 (mid-point of the prospective data collection in the preceding year) was performed. Prevalence of documented skin infection was compared in the prospective and retrospective population to assess clinician recognition and treatment of skin infections. Results 158 patients with median age 3.6 years, 74% Aboriginal, were prospectively recruited. 77 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Scabies (8.2% vs 0.0%, OR N/A, p = 0.006) and impetigo (49.4% vs 19.5%, OR 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI 2.1–7.7) were more prevalent in the prospective analysis. Skin examination was only documented in 45.5% of cases in the retrospective review. Patients in the prospective analysis were more likely to be prescribed specific treatment for skin infection compared with those in the retrospective review (31.6% vs 5.2%, OR 8.5 (95% CI 2.9–24.4). Conclusions Scabies and impetigo infections are under-recognised and hence under-treated by clinicians. Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic. PMID:28671945

  15. Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.

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    Daniel K Yeoh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high.We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted in November 2014 (mid-point of the prospective data collection in the preceding year was performed. Prevalence of documented skin infection was compared in the prospective and retrospective population to assess clinician recognition and treatment of skin infections.158 patients with median age 3.6 years, 74% Aboriginal, were prospectively recruited. 77 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Scabies (8.2% vs 0.0%, OR N/A, p = 0.006 and impetigo (49.4% vs 19.5%, OR 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI 2.1-7.7 were more prevalent in the prospective analysis. Skin examination was only documented in 45.5% of cases in the retrospective review. Patients in the prospective analysis were more likely to be prescribed specific treatment for skin infection compared with those in the retrospective review (31.6% vs 5.2%, OR 8.5 (95% CI 2.9-24.4.Scabies and impetigo infections are under-recognised and hence under-treated by clinicians. Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic.

  16. Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.

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    Yeoh, Daniel K; Anderson, Aleisha; Cleland, Gavin; Bowen, Asha C

    2017-07-01

    Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted in November 2014 (mid-point of the prospective data collection in the preceding year) was performed. Prevalence of documented skin infection was compared in the prospective and retrospective population to assess clinician recognition and treatment of skin infections. 158 patients with median age 3.6 years, 74% Aboriginal, were prospectively recruited. 77 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Scabies (8.2% vs 0.0%, OR N/A, p = 0.006) and impetigo (49.4% vs 19.5%, OR 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI 2.1-7.7) were more prevalent in the prospective analysis. Skin examination was only documented in 45.5% of cases in the retrospective review. Patients in the prospective analysis were more likely to be prescribed specific treatment for skin infection compared with those in the retrospective review (31.6% vs 5.2%, OR 8.5 (95% CI 2.9-24.4). Scabies and impetigo infections are under-recognised and hence under-treated by clinicians. Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic.

  17. Reação de cultivares de batata a Streptomyces scabies, agente causal da sarna comum profunda Reaction of potato cultivars to Streptomyces scabies, causal agent of deep common scab

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    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou caracterizar quanto a critérios morfológicos e fisiológicos isolados de Streptomyces causadores de sarna comum profunda em batata; avaliar o comportamento de cultivares em relação à doença e a variação na agressividade entre os isolados da bactéria. Os isolados de Streptomyces apresentaram coloração cinza em meio extrato de levedura e malte e cadeias de esporos espiraladas, produzidas sobre um micélio aéreo. Ocorreu produção de melanina em meio de tirosina-ágar e a utilização de oito fontes de carbono recomendadas, propriedades estas que correspondem às descritas para S. scabies. Batatas-semente sadias de seis cultivares foram plantadas em substrato infestado com seis isolados de S. scabies separadamente e as plantas cultivadas em vasos e ambiente aberto. A severidade da doença foi estimada com auxílio de uma escala diagramática e avaliou-se o rendimento de tubérculos (g/planta. As cvs. Mondial e Jaete Bintje foram as mais resistentes à sarna comum com severidade média nos dois experimentos de 10,5% e 14,0%, respectivamente, seguidas por Asterix (17,4%, Ágata (21,8%, Monalisa (23,0% e Cupido (23,3%. A agressividade dos isolados variou quantitativamente, com severidade maior para o isolado M4 (34,7% e menor para o isolado M1 (6,2%. Redução da produção de tubérculos foi verificada na cv. Jaete Bintje, no primeiro experimento, e quando as cultivares foram infectadas pelos isolados A1, M2 e M3, no primeiro experimento, e pelo isolado M4, no segundo experimento.This work aimed to characterize the isolates of Streptomyces, responsible for deep common scab symptoms in potato, according to morphological and physiological criteria; to evaluate the resistance of potato cultivars to the disease and the aggressiveness of bacterium isolates. The Streptomyces isolates presented gray coloration on yeast extract and malt medium and spiral spore chains, produced on aerial hyphae. Production of melanina occurred

  18. COMPORTAMENTO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES ALEMÃS DE BATATA EM RELAÇÃO À SARNA COMUM (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt Waks. BEHAVIOR OF FOUR GERMAN POTATO VARIETIES IN RELATION TO COMMON SCAB (Streptomyces scabies (THAXT WAKS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino A. Barbosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em trabalho realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da U.F.Go. — Goiânia, em 1971, foram comparadas quatro variedades alemãs de batata quanto à susceptibilidade à sarna comum (Streptomyces scabies. Houve diferença significante quanto à infecção pela bactéria incitadora da sarna comum, sendo a variedade Hydra a mais severamente afetada (41,91%, seguindo-se a Delta-A (28,48%, e finalmente as variedades Tondra (19,87% e Hansa (16,51% que apresentaram menor suscetibilidade. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as variedades Tondra e Hansa. Os tubérculos da variedade Hydra apresentaram-se, em parte, nitidamente deformados, com lesões profundas, semelhantes as rachaduras imperfeitamente cicatrizadas, ficando parcialmente inutilizados para o comércio. Os tubérculos das variedades Tondra e Hansa exibiram, por outro lado, lesões pequenas, superficiais e pouco numerosas, não chegando a afetar o valor comercial do produto.

    Four German potato varieties Delta-A, Hansa, Hydra and Tondra were tested on their resistence to common scab (Streptomyces scabies. This trial was carried out, in Goiânia, state of Goiás, with tubers harvested from the first planting of imported seed potatoes, in the so-called dry season (March to August. The four varieties differed significantly each other in resistence to common scab. Hansa was found to be the most resistent, followed by Tondra, Delta-A and Hydra. The last one showed a large number of tubers misshaded by scab infestion.

  19. Preclinical Study of Single-Dose Moxidectin, a New Oral Treatment for Scabies: Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Compared to Two-Dose Ivermectin in a Porcine Model.

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    Charlotte Bernigaud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX, with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative.Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0.3 mg/kg once, IVM (0.2 mg/kg twice or no treatment. We evaluated treatment efficacies by assessing mite count, clinical lesions, pruritus and ELISA-determined anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies reductions. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. At day 14 post-treatment, all four MOX-treated but only two IVM-treated pigs were mite-free. MOX efficacy was 100% and remained unchanged until study-end (D47, compared to 62% (range 26-100% for IVM, with one IVM-treated pig remaining infected until D47. Clinical scabies lesions, pruritus and anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies had completely disappeared in all MOX-treated but only 75% of IVM-treated pigs. MOX persisted ~9 times longer than IVM in plasma and skin, thereby covering the mite's entire life cycle and enabling long-lasting efficacy.Our data demonstrate that oral single-dose MOX was more effective than two consecutive IVM-doses, supporting MOX as potential therapeutic approach for scabies.

  20. The epidemiology of scabies in an impoverished community in rural Brazil: presence and severity of disease are associated with poor living conditions and illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Hermann; Jackson, Anne; Ariza, Liana; Calheiros, Cláudia Maria Lins; Soares, Valquiria de Lima; Oliveira, Fabíola A; Hengge, Ulrich R; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2009-03-01

    We sought to study the epidemiology of scabies and to identify risk factors of severe disease in an impoverished rural community in northeast Brazil. The study was designed as a repeated cross-sectional study based on two door-to-door surveys. One survey was carried out in the rainy season, the other in the dry season. The inhabitants of the community were examined for the presence of scabies and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors were assessed. Risk factors were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis. The overall prevalence was 9.8% with no significant variation between seasons and the incidence was estimated to be 196/1000 person-years. The highest prevalence (18.2%) was observed in children younger than 4 years. Risk factors in the bivariate analysis were young age, presence of many children in the household, illiteracy, low family income, poor housing, sharing clothes and towels, and irregular use of shower. Age younger than 15 years, illiteracy, sharing of clothes, and living in the community for more than 6 months remained significant independent risk factors in multivariate regression analysis. We used a clinical case definition; specificity and sensitivity were not verified. Men were underrepresented in the study population. In this impoverished community scabies is an important health problem characterized by continuous transmission throughout the year. The parasitic skin disease is embedded in a complex web of causation characterized by poor living conditions and a low level of education.

  1. The microbiology of impetigo in indigenous children: associations between Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, scabies, and nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Chatfield, Mark D; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-12-31

    Impetigo is caused by both Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus; the relative contributions of each have been reported to fluctuate with time and region. While S. aureus is reportedly on the increase in most industrialised settings, S. pyogenes is still thought to drive impetigo in endemic, tropical regions. However, few studies have utilised high quality microbiological culture methods to confirm this assumption. We report the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of impetigo pathogens recovered in a randomised, controlled trial of impetigo treatment conducted in remote Indigenous communities of northern Australia. Each child had one or two sores, and the anterior nares, swabbed. All swabs were transported in skim milk tryptone glucose glycogen broth and frozen at -70°C, until plated on horse blood agar. S. aureus and S. pyogenes were confirmed with latex agglutination. From 508 children, we collected 872 swabs of sores and 504 swabs from the anterior nares prior to commencement of antibiotic therapy. S. pyogenes and S. aureus were identified together in 503/872 (58%) of sores; with an additional 207/872 (24%) sores having S. pyogenes and 81/872 (9%) S. aureus, in isolation. Skin sore swabs taken during episodes with a concurrent diagnosis of scabies were more likely to culture S. pyogenes (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 - 4.4, p = 0.03). Eighteen percent of children had nasal carriage of skin pathogens. There was no association between the presence of S. aureus in the nose and skin. Methicillin-resistance was detected in 15% of children who cultured S. aureus from either a sore or their nose. There was no association found between the severity of impetigo and the detection of a skin pathogen. S. pyogenes remains the principal pathogen in tropical impetigo; the relatively high contribution of S. aureus as a co-pathogen has also been confirmed. Children with scabies were more likely to have S. pyogenes detected. While clearance of S. pyogenes is the key

  2. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Dermoscopia da sarna crostosa associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Dermoscopy of Norwegian scabies in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Loan Towersey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com sarna norueguesa e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida com baixa aderência à terapia antirretroviral. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame parasitológico direto. A dermatoscopia mostrou sulcos escabióticos e estruturas acastanhadas em asa-delta já descritas, além de uma estrutura morfologicamente semelhante a um gongolo (diplopodasímile. Esta última representa um elemento patodiagnóstico da SN não previamente descrito. Houve boa reposta clínica ao uso oral da ivermectina e ao uso tópico da vaselina com enxofre a 10%, com concomitante melhora dos parâmetros dermatoscópicos.The authors report here on the case of a female patient with Norwegian (crusted scabies and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome whose compliance with antiretroviral therapy was poor. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopic examination, which revealed numerous Sarcoptes scabei. Dermoscopy showed pathognomonic scabetic burrows and brownish structures in the shape of a hand-glider with a millipede-like appearance. The latter constitutes a diagnostic feature in the pathology of Norwegian scabies that has not yet been described. The patient responded well to oral ivermectin and topical vaseline with sulphur at a proportion of 10%. There was a simultaneous improvement in dermoscopic parameters.

  4. Scabies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allow bacteria to get into the injured skin. Impetigo , a bacterial skin infection, may affect skin that's ... also develops a bacterial skin infection (such as impetigo) and an antihistamine to help relieve the itching. ...

  5. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Medicines Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in ... May 31, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of a new synergized pyrethrins thermofobic foam in comparison with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies in convicts: the ISAC study (Studio Della scabbia in ambiente carcerario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, M; Campori, G; Colombo, R; De Giorgio, G; Frascione, P; Sali, R; Starnini, G; Milani, M

    2006-07-01

    Scabies is a very common skin infection in convicts. The SIMSPE Society (Società Italiana di Medicina e Sanità Penitenziaria) has organized and conducted a multicentre, randomized, comparative, parallel group, investigator-blinded trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of synergized pyrethrins foam (PF) in comparison with benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion. A total of 240 convicted patients, enrolled in eight National Jail Institutions, with a clinical diagnosis of scabies, were treated with PF (n = 120) for three consecutive days or BB (n = 120) for five consecutive days. Primary study endpoints were the clinical cure rate and the local tolerability. Secondary endpoints were clinical evolution of scabietic lesions and itching intensity. Study outcomes were assessed using appropriate semiquantitative scores at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks. A second treatment cycle was applied if after 2 weeks the patient was not judged clinically cured. At week 2, a total of 75% (95% CI: 66-82%) and 71% (95% CI: 62-78%) of patients showed a complete clinical cure rate in the PF and BB groups, respectively. At week 4, the percentage of totally cured patients increased up to 95% (95% CI: 89-97%) and 91% (95% CI: 83-94%) in the PF and BB groups, respectively (P = NS between groups). At week 4, 5% in the PF group and 9% in the BB group complained of itching. Burning and irritation after treatment applications were more common in the BB group in comparison with the PF group. The tolerability score was better in the PF group in comparison with to BB group (2.9 vs. 2.2; P = 0.0001). A total of 95% of patients in the PV group had a good tolerability score (i.e. = 3) in comparison with 41% in the BB group. Our results show that a 3-day treatment with pyrethrins thermofobic foam is at least as effective as a 5-day treatment with benzyl benzoate lotion in convicted subjects with scabies. The foam formulation is better tolerated than the benzyl benzoate lotion.

  8. Forme mixte de gale grave sur terrain de depigmentation cosmetique volontaire: A propos d’un cas au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU de Parakou (Benin [Mixed form of grave scabies on voluntary cosmetic depigmation land: About a case at the Parakou (Benin University Hospital Center (UHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Koudoukpo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of scabies are rare. They are more contagious, posing a public health problem during an epidemy in institution. The magnitude of the depigmenting cosmetic practice, a true phenomenon of society today, is at the origin of the recrudescence of certains infectious diseases in their rare forms like severe scaby. We report the first case of mixed form of severe at Parakou University Hospital Center. The body treatment with an antiscabious medicine associated with the disinfection of bedding, led to a total recovering. RÉSUMÉ Les formes graves de la gale sont rares. Elles sont plus contagieuses, posant un problème de santé publique lors d’épidémie en institution. L’ampleur de la pratique cosmétique dépigmentante, véritable phénomène de société de nos jours est à l’origine de la recrudescence de certaines pathologies infectieuses dont des formes rares de gale grave. Nous rapportons le premier cas de forme mixte de gale grave sur terrain de dépigmentation cosmétique volontaire chez une jeune femme de 21 ans au CHU de Parakou. Le traitement corporel par un antiscabieux associé à la désinfection de la literie, a conduit à une guérison totale.

  9. Evidências epidemiológicas da ocorrência de escabiose, em humanos, causada pelo Sarcoptes scabiei (DeGeer, 1778 var. canis (Bourguignon, 1853 Epidemiologic evidence on the ocurrence of scabies in humans, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (DeGeer, 1778 var. canis (Bourguignon, 1853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 27 cães com sarna sarcóptica, envolvendo 143 pessoas expostas à infestação, observaram-se 58 (40,56% com lesões cutâneas sugestivas de escabiose. Tais lesões mostraram-se mais incidentes nas mulheres do que nos homens e indivíduos de todas as faixas etárias foram acometidos, indistintamente. Foi demonstrada a presença do agente em 3 dos 12 casos humanos observados que mantiveram contato com animais escabiosos.The human infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis was studied. From 143 humans which were in close contact with 27 infested animals, the author was able to detect 58 infested individuals (40.56%. The incidence of this zoonosis was higher among women than men and individuals of all ages were indiscriminately affected. The scabies agent was observed in 3 out of 12 pacients submitted to skin scraping.

  10. Crusted (Norwegian) scabies in a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, VB; Vader, PCV; Mandema, JM; Jonkman, MF

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl with severe non-mutilating recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (EB) was admitted to hospital because of a Staphyloccus aureus sepsis, deterioration of her general condition and worsening of her sl;in disease, which itched severely, In addition to the blisters and erosions

  11. CRUSTED SCABIES IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17 year s old male patient presented with diffuse, ill defined, hyperpigmented, scaly plaques on the body, for the past 15 days. Lesions were more over the groin and also on both elbows and wrists. Patient is a known case of acute lymphocytic leukaemia, diagnosed a t the age of 13 years and has been on treatment ever since. A KOH ( 10% mount of the scales showed the presence of sarcoptes scabiei and skin biopsy with haematoxylin and eosin showed fragments of mite in the excised skin.

  12. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  13. Disease: H01519 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01519 Scabies Scabies is a disease caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Scabi...es is a contagious cutaneous inflammation and common among many different species of animals. S. scabi... mite commonly occurs by skin-to-skin contact, but with crusted scabies it may al...so occur through fomites, such as infected clothing or bedding. Infectious disease ... Sarcoptes scabiei ... I...ie B, Kemp D ... TITLE ... Scabies: important clinical consequences explained by ne

  14. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  15. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Nelson, Sven K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity to ABA gradually decreases with dry after-ripening. Scarlet grain normally fails to germinate when fully dormant, shows ABA sensitive germination when partially after-ripened, and becomes ABA insensitive when after-ripened for 8–12 months. Scarlet ABA-insensitive (ScABI) mutants were isolated based on the ability to germinate on 5 µM ABA after only 3 weeks of after-ripening, a condition under which Scarlet would fail to germinate. Six independent seed-specific mutants were recovered. ScABI 1, ScABI2, ScABI3 and ScABI4 are able to germinate more efficiently than Scarlet at up to 25 µM ABA. The two strongest ABA insensitive lines, ScABI3 and ScABI4, both proved to be partly dominant suggesting that they result from gain-of-function mutations. The ScABI1, ScABI2, ScABI3, ScABI4, and ScABI5 mutants after-ripen more rapidly than Scarlet. Thus, ABA insensi-tivity is associated with decreased grain dormancy in Scarlet wheat. This suggests that ABA sensitivity is an important factor controlling grain dormancy in wheat, a trait that impacts seedling emergence and pre-harvest sprouting resistance. PMID:25431501

  16. Case for diagnosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Reis, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Human scabies is an intensely pruritic skin infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Crusted scabies (previously known as Norwegian scabies) is a rare form, very contagious and transmitted by direct contact with the skin. Despite being readily treatable, a delayed diagnosis often leads to widespread infestation of contacts, and therefore difficult to restrain. This case concerns a patient where dermoscopy (with scabetic burrows and a visible hand-glider structure), together with direct microscopic examination, allowed a prompt diagnosis, thereby reinforcing the increasing importance of this technique in daily practice. PMID:24173196

  17. STUDY OF MITE Sarcoptes scabiei AND THE CLEAN AND HEALTHY BEHAVIOR IN LEKOK SUB DISTRICT, PASURUAN REGENCY, EAST JAVA = STUDI TUNGAU KUDIS Sarcoptes scabiei DAN PERILAKU HIDUP BERSIH DAN SEHAT (PHBS DI WILAYAH KECAMATAN LEKOK, KABUPATEN PASURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus ,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractStudy of the relationship of scabies and hygienic behavior were conducted in Lekok sub district, Pasuruan regency, East Java. The study was conducted in May-December 2012. Objective research to determine (1 the relationship between the clean and healthty of life with the onset of scabies (2 the relationship between the clean and healthty behavior with the number of Sarcoptes scabiei in the dust in homes of respondents, ( 3 to know the public knowledge about scabies, (4 the prevention of scabies transmission was undertaken by the community. Data were collected in the form of questionnaires and interviews and the observations of Sarcoptes scabiei mite in the dust. The results of the study are: (1 the clean and healthty behavior, personal hygiene, using of towels, clothing, and bedding, the group of scabies cases were showed a lower number than the the group of non-scabies cases, (2 number of mite in the dust in the house of scabies cases more high compared with the group of non-scabies cases, (3 the level of public knowledge about scabies on the group of scabies cases more lower compared with the group of non-scabies cases (4 the prevention of scabies transmission by communities was low.INDONESIANAbstrakPenelitian tentang hubungan skabies dan perilaku hidup bersih telah dilakukan di kecamatan Lekok, Kabupaten pasuruan, Jawa timur. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan maret-desember 2011. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui (1 hubungan antara PHBS dengan timbulnya skabies di wilayah puskesmas Kecamatan Lekok Kabupaten Pasuruan, (2 hubungan antara Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS dengan angka kontaminan tungau Sarcoptes scabiei pada debu yang di rumah responden, (3 tingkat pengetahuan masyarakat Kecamatan Lekok, tentang skabies, (4 upaya pencegahan yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat untuk menanggulangi skabies. Data dikumpulkan berupa pengisian kuesioner dan wawancara, serta pengamatan ada tidaknya tungau Sarcoptes scabieidebu di rumah

  18. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and barks of ... infectious, anti diarrheal, anti hypertensive and anti diabetic property. It is also ... respiratory, cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases, scabies ...

  19. Medical Issues in Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they last, call your doctor. Internationally adopted children can have other immediate medical problems. These may include infections like scabies , lice , latent tuberculosis, and intestinal parasites; rickets and other forms of malnutrition; and lead poisoning . ...

  20. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) Model For Dermal Permeability for Lindane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficient...

  1. Permethrin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permethrin is used to treat scabies ('mites that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... months of age and older. Over-the-counter permethrin is used to treat lice (small insects that ...

  2. Cytotaxonomy of unionid freshwater mussels (Unionoida, Unionidae) from northeastern Thailand with description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongim, Bangon; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Morphological and chromosomal characteristics of a number of unionid freshwater mussels were studied from northeastern Thailand. Karyotypes of eight species from seven genera (Chamberlainia, Ensidens, Hyriopsis, Physunio, Pseudodon, Scabies and Trapezoideus) were examined. Six species possess 2n = 38 karyotypes, whereas Scabies crispata and an unidentified Scabies sp. lack three small chromosome pairs, giving a diploid number of 32. Moreover, the karyotypes of the unidentified Scabies differ from Scabies crispata as it exhibits a telocentric chromosome pair (6m + 7sm + 2st + 1t). Most of the conchological characters also differ between the two species – adult size, colour pattern, muscle scars, pseudocardinal and lateral teeth. The name Scabies songkramensis sp. n. is proposed for the unidentified species, and its description is included in this paper. Interestingly, seven species contain mostly bi-armed chromosomes, but only the mud-dweller in stagnant water, Ensidens ingallsianus, contains predominantly five telocentric pairs. In addition, the marker chromosome characteristics of an unbalanced long arm, twisted centromere, a wider angle 180° arrangement, a twisted arm and telomeric end union reported in this study are described for the first time for unionid mussels. PMID:26261434

  3. A Retrospective Study of Ectoparasitosis in Patients Referred to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Berenji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was performed on all patients suspected to be suffering from ectoparasites who were referred to the parasitology laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad during 15 years (April 1995 to April 2010. All patients’ data were collected from the questionnaires and then analyzed statistically. From 1814 suspected patients to be suffering from ectoparasites, 375 patients had scabies and, 99 suffer from pediculosis. The mean age of patients was 26/18±17/68. The most common age of scabies was 10–19 (27/7% and pediculosis 0–9(9/6% (P value = 0.00. The highest incidence of pediculosis was in women (3.6% and scabies in men (13.7% (P value = 0.00. Pediculosis is more common in children (9/9% and scabies in workers (32%(P value = 0.00. Scabies and pediculosis were more prevalent in patients from Razavi Khorasan Province with 18.7% and 5%, respectively (P value = 0.08.

  4. A retrospective study of ectoparasitosis in patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Fariba; Marvi-Moghadam, Narges; Naghibozakerin Meibodi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed on all patients suspected to be suffering from ectoparasites who were referred to the parasitology laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad during 15 years (April 1995 to April 2010). All patients' data were collected from the questionnaires and then analyzed statistically. From 1814 suspected patients to be suffering from ectoparasites, 375 patients had scabies and, 99 suffer from pediculosis. The mean age of patients was 26/18 ± 17/68. The most common age of scabies was 10-19 (27/7%) and pediculosis 0-9(9/6%) (P value = 0.00). The highest incidence of pediculosis was in women (3.6%) and scabies in men (13.7%) (P value = 0.00). Pediculosis is more common in children (9/9%) and scabies in workers (32%)(P value = 0.00). Scabies and pediculosis were more prevalent in patients from Razavi Khorasan Province with 18.7% and 5%, respectively (P value = 0.08).

  5. Prevalence and zoonotic aspects of small ruminant mange in the lateritic and waterlogged zones, southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidou Salifou

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was undertaken from March to September 2010 to assess the prevalence and zoonotic aspects of scabies in small ruminants in two agro-ecological zones in southern Benin. Small ruminant (n = 444 smallholders and 1,807 of their animals (1,233 West African dwarf goats and 574 West African dwarf sheep were included in the study. The animals underwent physical examination and, when scabies-like lesions were found, crusts and integument scrapings were collected for microscopic parasitological tests. The samples collected in each survey were coded in accordance with the owner-animal pairings in order to assess the degree of correlation between mange cases in humans (smallholders and their animals. The overall prevalence of scabies was 28.33% and 9.5% in animals and smallholders (human cases respectively. Infestations were significantly (p < 0.001 more frequent in goats (39.6% than in sheep. The uniqueness of the etiological agent (Sarcoptes scabiei, the very high predictive value of human scabies in infected farms (83.67% and a very high odds ratio (OR = 2,019.25 indicate that small ruminant scabies has been transmitted to smallholders by their animals. Close contact between these smallholders and their animals was a determining factor in this interspecies communicability of sarcoptic mange.

  6. USO DE FIPRONIL SPRAY NO TRATAMENTO DA ESCABIOSE CANINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franco Andrade

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to prove the effectiveness of the fipronil spray (FRONTLINE, a new synthetic molecule, as a safe acaricide in dogs. Were analyzed 10 dogs from the attendance of the service of Dermatology of the Veterinary Hospital and of the kennel of UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, with symptomatic and tested positive for scabies by scrapings, and used the fipronil spray in the whole body of the animal, besides external ear conduct, weekly until the disappearance of the symptoms and scrapings from the skin tested negative for scabies. The remission of the symptoms jointly with scraped of skin negative it happened on average from 4 to 6 weeks, demonstrating to be the fipronil spray effective and practical could be a safe alternative in the treatment of the canine scabies.

  7. Sarna noruega: Evolución y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I Hernández Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 130 pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de escabiosis en 5 años, determinándose que 4 presentaban la variedad de sarna noruega; en el cuadro clínico de estos últimos predominó el eritema y la hiperqueratosis fisurada palmoplantar y el comprometimiento de áreas extensas de la piel. Mejoraron todos con la terapéutica antiescabiósicaA retrospective study of 130 patients admitted with the diagnosis of scabies in 5 years was conducted. It was determined that 4 of them had the variety of Norwegian scabies. The erythema and the palmoplantar fissured hyperkeratosis and the affection of extense areas of the skin predominated in the clinical picture of these 4 patients. All the patients got better with the anti-scabies therapy

  8. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose.The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host's protective response.An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies.We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum.Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses.

  9. Consideraciones sobre el control de la escabiosis en la atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén José Larrondo Muguercia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las diferentes causas del incremento de la incidencia de la escabiosis en los últimos tiempos. Se exponen las características clínicas y los métodos de diagnóstico. Se precisan las modalidades terapéuticas y las medidas de control de la escabiosis a nivel primario de atención médica: The different causes of the increase of the scabies incidence during the last times are analyzed. The clinical characteristics and the diagnostic methods are exposed. The therapeutic modalities and the measures to control scabies at the primary health care level ara also determined

  10. Direct in vitro regeneration of a medicinal tree Oroxylum indicum (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... chitis, jaundice, piles, smallpox, leucoderma, cardiac dis- order, scabies, enlarged spleen, helminthiasis, gastro- pathy, hemorrhoids and cholera (Pal and Jain, 1998; Kyo et al., 1998). The plant is used as a constituent of ayurvedic peparation Dashmularisht (Yasodha et al., 2004) and is a traditional herbal ...

  11. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, ...

  12. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), due to the unmarketability of affected tubers. For identification of the most common scab-tolerant material, and for developing molecular markers for common scab tolerance, more ...

  13. Common scab and its control in seed-potato crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labruyere, R.E.

    1971-01-01

    In the Netherlands common scab of the potato is usually caused by Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waksman et Henrici, following Corbaz's description, and rarely by other Streptomyces species. Variation in morphological and other characteristics

  14. EDITORIAL MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CLO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA), influenza virus (swine flu, bird flu), tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and scabies. For boarding schools, it is recommended that schools should be closed for a limited period at the first sign of outbreak of some of the contagious infections listed above.

  15. Fiberglass vs mineral wool (rockwool) dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A A

    1982-05-01

    Fiberglass and rockwool dermatitis is usually due to a mechanical irritant reaction. When several members of a family are affected, scabies is often initially suspected. The irritant dermatitis may be complicated by an urticarial and an eczematous reaction which may mimic an allergic reaction clinically and histologically. Allergic reactions to added epoxy or formaldehyde resins may very rarely occur.

  16. Pattern of Disease Occurrence among Prisoners in Owerri Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was closely followed by upper respiratory tract infections (12.72%), typhoid fever and diarrhoea (10.69%), scabies (8.96%), tuberculosis (1.16%), Gunshot wounds (1.45%) and surgical cases (1.45%) appeared as the least prevalent cases. Conclusion: The study revealed that age, gender and duration of stay were the ...

  17. Functional disability and associated chronic conditions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Association between different risk factors and disability was found with age, sex, anaemia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases(C.O.P.D), scabies, hypertrophy of prostate, ischaemic heart disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and acid peptic disorder were the risk factors of disability. These data suggest the ...

  18. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    postpartum period. Skin Diseases Modified by Pregnancy. Certain more common dermatoses may be affected by pregnancy. These include psoriasis, eczema, scabies and melanomas. Psoriasis. The fact that psoriasis is one of the commonest of all skin conditions accounts for its apparent high incidence during pregnancy.

  19. Infected wound healing and antimicrobial effects of Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopdiaceae) and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. (Rubiaceae) are herbal medicinal plants. They are commonly used in Togolese folk medicine to treat skin infections such as infected wounds, dermatoses, and scabies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the wound healing and ...

  20. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-27

    Feb 27, 2015 ... atopic dermatitis, dermatophytosis, scabies and papular urticaria lesions in the tropical environment [5-7]. Most of the skin lesions exhibit known typical clinical morphological patterns, along with characteristic sites of predilection [8]. The typical primary school child is aged between six years to twelve years ...

  1. Lumps, Bumps, and Things that Go Itch in Your Office!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Renee P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a short dermatological case presentation involving a 9-year-old black female student who suffered from a severe case of atopic dermatitis (AD). Health history, physical findings on the subject, and differential diagnosis, such as impetigo, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, scabies, and seborrheic dermatitis, are given.…

  2. A report of clinical trial conducted in Toto ointment and soap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The efficacy of Toto ointment and soap on common skin disorders was tested. Methods: A cohort of Nigerians with common skin conditions such as fungal and bacteria skin infections, scabies, acne vulgaris and dandruff were selected and followed for a period of twelve weeks. The study is a comparative, prospective, ...

  3. 273-IJBCS-Article-M Gbeassor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopdiaceae) and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. (Rubiaceae) are herbal medicinal plants. They are commonly used in Togolese folk medicine to treat skin infections such as infected wounds, dermatoses, and scabies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the wound healing and.

  4. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the EMEDS Specialty Care Augmentation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ENTERITIS NOS 3 079.3 RHINOVIRUS INFECT NOS 12 133.0 SCABIES 1 724.00 SPINAL STENOSIS NOS 7 845.00 SPRAIN OF ANKLE NOS 13 005.0 STAPH FOOD POISONING...NEC 1 533.9 PEPTIC ULCER NOS 2 5 STAPH FOOD POISONING 4 592.9 URINARY CALCULUS NOS 3 PATIENT TOTAL 320 EMEDS Specialty Care

  5. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often

  6. Pattern Of Sexually Transmitted Infections In A Reference Clinic Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonorrhea and scabies made up 3 (3.33%) each of the cases while genital herpes including infective Herpes zoster and Molluscum contagiosum associated infections accounted for 2.22% each of the cases. Conclusion: The patients presented with significant range of STIs with some showing similar prevalence rate.

  7. INFANTS (1 MONTH – 1 YEAR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    dapsone, e.g. 25 mg on alternate days. The cause is unknown, but it might be a persistent hypersensitivity to previous scabies. MONGOLIAN SPOT. Congenital macular blue-grey pigmen- tation 2 - 8 cm in diameter in the sacral region (Fig. 5) is commonly found in normal Asian (90%) and black infants, but is uncommon in.

  8. Prevalence of atopic diseases in Nigerian children with vernal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically inquired about were asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis or hay fever, allergic skin rash e.g. scabies, reaction to drugs and others. The children were also examined to confirm or detect the presence of these atopic diseases. The overall prevalence of atopic conditions was 19.8% amongst cases of VKC.

  9. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. 73.3 Section 73.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter...

  10. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  11. MENGENALI PATOGENESIS DAN PENYEBARAN SKABIES DI DAERAH BERIKLIM TROPIS DAN SUBTROPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanneetha Arivananthan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: scabies has spread throughout the world , especially in the tropics and subtropical. Scabies is a skin disease are often found in indonesia. This disease it was easy contagious and a lot of factors help their spreading. In Indonesia, incident this disease is not a definite number , but based on health department report, scabies ranked 3rd than 10 of the largest the skin diseases in Pelita IV. Transmission through direct contact (skin contact and may also indirectly (through things. Patient symptoms is the itchy feeling especially at night (pruritus nocturnal or during hot weather and when patients sweating. Cases: Patients men, age 11, Balinese ethnic, religious Hindu come on april 22nd 2014 with complaints spots show up on the sidelines of the fingers, the back of the hand, palms, lower abdominal and that part of the penis that feels itchy especially at night. This symptoms have been felt since 1 month ago. There is no food and drug allergic history in patient and family. Keyword: itchy, contagious, scabies.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections in Obafemi Awolowo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoptes scabiei and Phthirus pubis causing scabies and pediculosis accounted for 1.8% and 0.3% respectively. As commonly established, the age bracket 19 to 39 years was clearly the age group in which sexually transmitted infections were mostly diagnosed. In a control programme, this age group should be targeted, ...

  13. A Case Report of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahdar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Sarcoptes in rural areas has been investigated by many investigators. Sarcoptes infestation in areas with poor education and hygienic is higher than urban areas. In this study, one severe case of Sarcoptes scabiei in­festation is described from a four months old child. Confirmation of scabies was done by clinical examination of child and by the identification of the mite by microscopically examining scrapings from the scabies lesions. The prevalence of scabies is high in children in rural regions, suggesting that it is a serious public health problem. This phenomenon may be due to the fact that certain environmental conditions such as overcrowding, poor personal hy­giene, poverty, and ignorance, which are conducive to the spread of scabies, tend to be quite common in rural re­gions. Control programs should be put in place and implemented in an integrated manner, by reducing overcrowding, and by improving health education, personal hygiene, treatment and surveillance among high-risk populations.

  14. A Case Report of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahdar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Sarcoptes in rural areas has been investigated by many investigators. Sarcoptes infestation in areas with poor education and hygienic is higher than urban areas. In this study, one severe case of Sarcoptes scabiei in­festation is described from a four months old child. Confirmation of scabies was done by clinical examination of child and by the identification of the mite by microscopically examining scrapings from the scabies lesions. The prevalence of scabies is high in children in rural regions, suggesting that it is a serious public health problem. This phenomenon may be due to the fact that certain environmental conditions such as overcrowding, poor personal hy­giene, poverty, and ignorance, which are conducive to the spread of scabies, tend to be quite common in rural re­gions. Control programs should be put in place and implemented in an integrated manner, by reducing overcrowding, and by improving health education, personal hygiene, treatment and surveillance among high-risk populations.

  15. Antidermatophytic properties of formulated ointments containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant derived medicines have over the years made massive contributions to the well-being of humans. Azadirachta indica (A.indica) is traditionally being exploited in the treatment of diseases such as eczema, ringworm, sore throat, respiratory tract infection and scabies. The seed oil is used in unspecified quantities without ...

  16. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exanthema, screwworms and glanders, scabies in sheep or any other communicable foreign disease not known to... generally prohibited. (a) Animals or poultry affected with any of the following diseases, which are endemic... cattle, pseudorabies, acute swine erysipelas, tuberculosis, Johne's disease, brucellosis, scrapie...

  17. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... psoriasiform rash reminiscent of psoriasis. Diagnosis will be assisted ... Disinfect clothes and bed linen ... Psoriasiform rash of Norwegian scabies. ..... bug. O ccasion ally con tami- n ated blo o d. T setse fl y. (G lossin a). T rop.

  18. Antibody response in naïve and sensitised goats infested by Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize the IgG and IgE antibody responses in goats infested repeatedly with Sarcoptes scabiei. Ten goats purchased from scabies-free farms were infested with 2000 live mites on the auricles. Fifty days after the initial infestation, the goats were treated with ivermectin. After being completely recovered, the goats were reinfested then treated again at 50 days post infestation. Blood samples were collected at the time of the first infestation, then every 10 days afterwards for 270 days. Seroconversion for IgG took place after 30 days following the first infestation, whereas the maximum level of the specific IgG antibodies occurred after 50 days. Immunoblot analysis identified a number of antigens (Mr 180, 135, 43 and 38 KDa that recognised by the IgG at 10 days and continuously recognised throughout the course of the multiple infestations. Being consistently recognised, those antigens should be essential in the development immunological diagnostic tests for scabies. The levels of scabies-specific IgE antibodies increased slowly during the first infestation and rapidly dropped following treatment of the animals with ivermectin. In the second and third infestations, however, the reaginic antibodies rose rapidly and with a grater level. On immunoblot analysis, at least 10 antigens (Mr 130, 72, 64, 58, 48, 44, 41, 39, 27 and 25 KDa were observed to be recognised by the IgE present in the sera from scabies-infested animals. Since IgE response is considered to play a major role in the immune protection, those allergens, therefore, could be used as the main component of an anti-scabies vaccine.

  19. Metabolic acidosis in an infant associated with permethrin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil B; Karatas, Zehra; Goksugur, Nadir; Bekdas, Mervan; Demircioglu, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids are broad-spectrum insecticides. Permethrin intoxication due to topical application has not been documented in humans. We report a 20-month-old infant who had used 5% permethrin lotion topically for scabies treatment. Approximately 60 mL (20 mL/day) was used and after the third application he developed agitation, nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress, tachycardia, and metabolic acidosis. His clinical symptoms and metabolic acidosis normalized within 20 hours. His follow-up was unremarkable. Toxicity of permethrin is rare, and although permethrin is a widely and safely used topical agent in the treatment of scabies and lice, inappropriate use may rarely cause toxicity. Moreover, in cases of unexplained metabolic acidosis, topically applied medications should be carefully investigated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 3 Prevalence and Pattern ofSkin'Infections'and = ' .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 544 SH werezfound among 453 (40.4 percent) pupils, whilSt 667 (59.6 ' percent) pupils had none». Impetigo c0ntagi05a, dermatophytosis, pitynasis versicolor and scabies ' ' '" were the leading SH found, with prevalences of 1914, 1510, 6.1, and 4.3'perce'nt,' respectively. " EXCept fOr pityriasi's versicolor, ...

  1. Seizure Following Topical Gammabenzene Hexachloride Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Animesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of short-lived, self-limiting major epileptic seizures following an improper application of gammabenzene hexachloride (GBHC lotion in a 15 month old boy suffering from scabies with secondary bacterial infection is reported here due to its rarity in clinical practice and, more particularly, to stress the need of correct instructions on the use of GBHC application for the prevention of iatrogenic neurotoxicity.

  2. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin.

  3. [Demodectic mange in a dog in Beytepe University campus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimioğlu, M M; Sahin, I; Alp, U

    1979-10-01

    Scabies (mange) is a skin disease of men and animals caused by microscopical acarids. There are mainly three species in Turkey, namely Demodex folliculorum, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, and Pyemones ventricosus. They are easily transmissible from animals to men and from men to animals. These parasites may cause inflammation, thickening, scabrous and severe itching. Serious infectious and parasitic diseases are transmitted from dogs to men. We present a case of Demodectic mange in a dog in Beytepe University Campus.

  4. ANALISIS KEPUASAN PETERNAK SAPI POTONG TERHADAP PELAYANAN KESEHATAN HEWAN DINAS PETERNAKAN DI DESA TIMURUNG KECAMATAN AJANGALE KABUPATEN BONE

    OpenAIRE

    KUSDIANAWATI

    2012-01-01

    2012 Levels of disease affecting cattle production is increasing every year, such as anaplasma disease, scabies, bali ziekte. To see the specifics about the veterinary services Timurung Village Ajangale District taken as the object of research. This is based in the village because there are cases of the disease brucellosis Timurung that attack cattle owned by local residents in 2011 until 2012 this. Brucellosis is a disease that is a zoonotic. Yet every year Department of Animal Husbandry ...

  5. Area Handbook Series: South Africa, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    have been responsible for a high incidence of kwashiorkor, pellagra, rickets , scabies, and gastroenteritis. Kwashiorkor, resulting 152 The Society and...constituted 35 percent of the known world total. In the late 1970s South Africa was the third largest producer after Mexico and the Soviet Union. There...opposition, 248; and propaganda, 171,172 277; satellites, 277 living conditions (see also health care; Mexico : 184 housing): xxiii; in the military, 356 Meyer

  6. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF SARCOPTES SCABIEI VAR. CUNICULI FROM SURABAYA AND MALANG REGIONS OF EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Desiandura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a zoonotic skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei mites. As an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease, scabies represents a significant global threat to both human and animal health. Numerous cases of scabies in Indonesia have been reported, which support research on the prevalence of S. scabiei. However, most such studies have involved conventional morphological studies, with limited molecular diagnostic studies. The purpose of the present study was the genetic characterization of S. scabiei var. cuniculi in domestic rabbits to generate baseline genotypic data. S. scabiei var. cuniculi was isolated and identified from scabies-infected rabbits from the Surabaya and Malang regions of East Java. Molecular identification was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using specific primers targeting the COX1 gene. We performed COX1 PCR using rabbit isolates of S. scabiei from Indonesia. To the best of our knowledge, no such study had been reported previously. This study was performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and the Tropical Disease Diagnostic Center Laboratory, Universitas Airlangga. The results with agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a 289 bp PCR product amplified from the DNA of S. scabiei isolates from both Surabaya and Malang in accordance with the expected COX1 amplicon size, that indicated a single band 289 bp in length, demonstrating specific detection of S. scabiei var. cuniculi from Surabaya and Malang using COX1 primers. The results were consistent with the calculated amplicon size based on primer positions within the COX1 locus, with the forward primer spanning nucleotides 61–94, and the reverse primer spanning nucleotides 331–350 ( 350 − 61 = 289 bp. PCR genotyping of the isolates yielded an identical nucleotide length of 289 bp. Further studies are required to sequence the amplified fragments for homology assessment.

  7. Skin conditions: emerging drug-resistant skin infections and infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are increasingly common. Automated microbiology systems are now available to detect MRSA and to determine antibiotic resistance patterns. Abscesses should be drained and antibiotics administered, with systemic antibiotics used to manage more severe infections. Until sensitivities are known and depending on local resistance rates, clindamycin is an option for empiric management of stable patients without bacteremia. For patients who are more ill, linezolid and vancomycin are alternatives, the latter being first-line treatment for children hospitalized with MRSA skin infections. Drug resistance also occurs in head lice management. Although topical permethrin is still the first-line drug management, its effectiveness has decreased due to permethrin-resistant strains. Patients who do not benefit from 2 applications of permethrin can be treated with topical malathion or topical ivermectin. Though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating head lice, oral ivermectin is sometimes used for difficult-to-treat cases. Permethrin is also the first-line management for scabies, though there is a concern that permethrin-resistant scabies may soon occur. For patients with scabies who do not benefit from topical treatment, oral ivermectin is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although it is not approved by the FDA for this purpose. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Antibody responses to Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein in a porcine model: relevance to immunodiagnosis of recent infection.

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    Melanie Rampton

    Full Text Available No commercial immunodiagnostic tests for human scabies are currently available, and existing animal tests are not sufficiently sensitive. The recombinant Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein antigen Sar s 14.3 is a promising immunodiagnostic, eliciting high levels of IgE and IgG in infected people. Limited data are available regarding the temporal development of antibodies to Sar s 14.3, an issue of relevance in terms of immunodiagnosis. We utilised a porcine model to prospectively compare specific antibody responses to a primary infestation by ELISA, to Sar s 14.3 and to S. scabiei whole mite antigen extract (WMA. Differences in the antibody profile between antigens were apparent, with Sar s 14.3 responses detected earlier, and declining significantly after peak infestation compared to WMA. Both antigens resulted in >90% diagnostic sensitivity from weeks 8-16 post infestation. These data provide important information on the temporal development of humoral immune responses in scabies and further supports the development of recombinant antigen based immunodiagnostic tests for recent scabies infestations.

  9. Case report of individual with cutaneous immunodeficiency and novel 1p36 duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatter, Alyn D; Soler, David C; Curtis, Christine; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Crusted or Norwegian scabies is an infectious skin dermatopathology usually associated with an underlying immunodeficiency condition. It is caused when the mite Sarcoptes scabiei infects the skin, and the immune system is unable to control its spread, leading to a massive hyperinfestation with a simultaneous inflammatory and hyperkeratotic reaction. This is the first report of a novel 1p36 duplication associated with a recurrent infection of crusted scabies. Case report We describe a 34-year-old patient with a cutaneous immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent crusted scabies infestation, diffuse tinea, and recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis, who we suspected had an undiagnosed syndrome. The patient also suffered from mental retardation, renal failure, and premature senescence. A cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 9.34 Mb duplication within the short (p) arm of chromosome 1, precisely from 1p36.11 to 1p36.21, with an adjacent 193 kb copy gain entirely within 1p36.11. In addition, chromosome 4 had a 906 kb gain in 4p16.1 and chromosome 9 had a 81 kb copy gain in 9p24.3. Over 100 genes localized within these duplicated regions. Gene expression array revealed 82 genes whose expression changed >1.5-fold compared to a healthy age-matched skin control, but among them only the lipolytic enzyme arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 was found within the duplicated 1p36 region of chromosome 1. Discussion Although genetic duplications in the 1p36 region have been previously described, our report describes a novel duplicative variant within the 1p36 region. The patient did not have a past history of immunosuppression but was afflicted by a recurrent case of crusted scabies, raising the possibility that the recurrent infection was associated with the 1p36 genetic duplication. Conclusion To our knowledge, the specific duplicated sequence between 1p36.11 and p36.21 found in our patient has never been previously reported. We reviewed and

  10. Case report of individual with cutaneous immunodeficiency and novel 1p36 duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatter AD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alyn D Hatter,1 David C Soler,2,3 Christine Curtis,4 Kevin D Cooper,1,2,3,5 Thomas S McCormick,2,31University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Department of Dermatology, 3The Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis, Case Western Reserve University, 4Cleveland Department of Pathology and Center for Human Genetics Laboratory, 5VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USAIntroduction: Crusted or Norwegian scabies is an infectious skin dermatopathology usually associated with an underlying immunodeficiency condition. It is caused when the mite Sarcoptes scabiei infects the skin, and the immune system is unable to control its spread, leading to a massive hyperinfestation with a simultaneous inflammatory and hyperkeratotic reaction. This is the first report of a novel 1p36 duplication associated with a recurrent infection of crusted scabies.Case report: We describe a 34-year-old patient with a cutaneous immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent crusted scabies infestation, diffuse tinea, and recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis, who we suspected had an undiagnosed syndrome. The patient also suffered from mental retardation, renal failure, and premature senescence. A cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 9.34 Mb duplication within the short (p arm of chromosome 1, precisely from 1p36.11 to 1p36.21, with an adjacent 193 kb copy gain entirely within 1p36.11. In addition, chromosome 4 had a 906 kb gain in 4p16.1 and chromosome 9 had a 81 kb copy gain in 9p24.3. Over 100 genes localized within these duplicated regions. Gene expression array revealed 82 genes whose expression changed >1.5-fold compared to a healthy age-matched skin control, but among them only the lipolytic enzyme arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 was found within the duplicated 1p36 region of chromosome 1.Discussion: Although genetic duplications in the 1p36 region have been previously described, our report describes a novel duplicative variant within the 1p36 region. The

  11. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

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    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  12. Ivermection-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: preparation, characterisation, stability and transdermal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Dou, Dandan; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Qian; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2017-04-03

    To avoid potential systematical toxicity, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared as a vehicle for transdermal delivery of ivermectin (IVM) using hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonic method. The as-prepared SLNs were approximately spherical shape with good stability. IVM was encapsulated in amorphous form within SLNs and displayed prolonged release from SLNs without burst release due to high encapsulation efficiency (EE). The cumulative permeation of IVM across excised rat skin from SLNs was significantly increased compared to the ivermection suspension. These results indicated that the proposed SLNs can be considered as an efficient carrier for dermal delivery of IVM to effectively treat scabies.

  13. [Chemical burns caused by the shrub nerium oleander].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, H; Ababou, M; Nassim Sabah, T; Moussaoui, A; Ennouhi, A; Fouadi, F Z; Siah, S; Ihrai, H

    2010-09-30

    Nerium Oleander is a shrub that grows naturally in the Mediterranean regions. In Morocco it is found in wet places. It is famous for its risk of systemic toxicity in cases of poisoning because of the presence of two alkaloids, especially oleandrine. The literature describes cases of local use of leaves of this plant against scabies, haemorrhoids, and boils. We report two cases of chemical burns of different gravity due to Nerium Oleander. This should lead to more widely diffused information for the general population and strict regulation of its marketing.

  14. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

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    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  15. [If you go looking for trouble you'll find it. Urticarial reactions to insects of our local areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Sylvie; Kaeser, Amelie; Di Lucca, Julie; Spertini, François; Ribi, Camillo

    2016-04-06

    Itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. The symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. Some of these pests are resurging in Switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. In this article we review itchy skin rashes caused by bed bugs, scabies, lice, cercariae, Pyemotes spp, caterpillars and harvest mites, which may be confounded with urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis. We detail here clinical manifestations, topographical distribution of skin lesions, epidemiology, treatment and preventive measures.

  16. Prevalence of dermatologic diseases in school children of a high altitude tribunal area of Himachal Pradesh

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    N L Sharma

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 201 school children,belonging to a high altitude tribal area were examined for various dermatologic lesions including nevi. All the children were found to have one or more type of diseases/lesions. Pediculosis ea tis was the comtnonest disease (74.1%, followed by pityriasis simplex (33.3%, warts (20.4%, scabies (12.9%, pyoderma (8.5% and papular urticaria (7.5%, Nevi were observed in 73.1% children. An acral erythfma associated with cold hands and feet was seen in 7.5% children.

  17. Small angle scattering polarization biopsy: a comparative analysis of various skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Ivashko, P. V.; Reshetnikova, E. M.; Galkina, E. M.; Utz, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to differentiation of the morphological features of normal and pathological human epidermis on the base of statistical analysis of the local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by in-vitro tissue samples is discussed. The eccentricity and the azimuth angle of local polarization ellipses retrieved for various positions of the focused laser beam on the tissue surface, and the coefficient of collimated transmittance are considered as the diagnostic parameters for differentiation. The experimental data obtained with the psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, lichen planus, scabies, demodex, and normal skin samples are presented.

  18. Polarimetric sulfacrilate epidermal strippings analysis as a method of optical biopsy

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    Utz S.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of tissues polarization probe in vitro conditions. The method is based on local estimation of polarization parameters of forward scattered radiation. Matherials and methods. Widely accepted technique of skin surface stripping with adhesive materials was used in this work. We used stereomicroscope "MC-2 ZOOM", ОСТ "The OCS1300SS" and polarimeter "THORLABS TXP 5004" to receive information about stratum corneum of normal and diseased skin (psoriasis, lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, scabies, demodex

  19. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-02

    1 0 1 0 5285 Diseases of Lips 1 1 0 0 5286 Leukoplakia of Oral Mucosa , Including Tongue 2 2 0 0 5570 Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine 1 0 1 0...0 3 1119 Dermatomycosis, Unspecified 5 5 0 0 1123 Candidiasis of Skin and Nails 1 1 0 0 1179 Other and Unspecified Mycoses 11 10 1 0 1330 Scabies 1 0...Internally 1 1 0 0 6950 Toxic Erythema 1 1 0 0 6951 Erythema Multiforme 1 1 0 0 6953 Rosacea 4 4 0 0 69589 Other Specified Erythematous Conditions 4 3 0 1 6959

  20. Study of genital lesions

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    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  1. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

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    Ghosh Sadhan K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

  2. Seasonal variation in pediatric dermatoses

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    Banerjee Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The under-five population is a unique and vulnerable component of our society that always demands special attention. Aims: Our present work aimed to study the seasonal variation, age-wise variation and distribution of lesions of common dermatoses of this age group. Materials and Methods: We clinically studied all fresh cases attending the skin OPD of our hospital for one month each from summer, rainy season and winter. Total number of patients was 879. Results: The top six skin diseases in our study were impetigo, miliaria, scabies, furunculosis, seborrheic dermatitis and papular urticaria. On statistical analysis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis were more prevalent during winter while impetigo, furunculosis and miliaria were more during summer and rainy season. Papular urticaria was more frequent in the rainy season. Seborrheic dermatitis predominantly affected the infants while impetigo, furunculosis, miliaria and popular urticaria were commoner in older age groups. Conclusion: Distribution of lesions of common dermatoses will help diagnose difficult cases and extensive evaluation of the body parts which, by virtue of being commonly affected, are must-examine sites in under-five children.

  3. Against conservation of specific epithets formed wrongly as nominative nouns in apposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüper, Hans G

    2008-06-01

    Together with 31 other incorrectly formed (i.e. as nominative nouns in apposition) specific epithets, the epithet of Streptomyces scabies was corrected to Streptomyces scabiei in Taxonomic Notes published in 1997 and 1998. A subsequent Request for an Opinion, published in 2001, to reinstate the incorrect epithets for ten of these species was denied by the Judicial Commission in 2002. In 2007, a further Request for an Opinion was submitted to the Judicial Commission which proposed the conservation of the incorrect epithet of Streptomyces 'scabies' over the corrected one, scabiei. After having stated once that the corrections made to the epithets were performed according to the correct application of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (now 'of Prokaryotes', ICNP), the Judicial Commission would lose authority and credibility if it were to follow a request to abandon even one of the now correct 32 epithets in favour of its incorrectly formed predecessor. Microbiologists who accept changes in names of genera should also accept the correction of grammatical or orthographical changes in specific epithets.

  4. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

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    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  5. [First Results of the German consulting center for infection control outbreak registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Stübner, S; Reska, M; Hauer, T; Schaumann, R

    2016-03-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases and / or colonization pose an increasing burden on hospitals and the health system in general and can be a threat to patient safety. At the end of 2013 we implemented a quality assurance registry of outbreak investigations performed by the Deutsches Beratungszentrum für Hygiene (German Consulting Center for Infection Control and prevention) in Freiburg. Now we analyzed the registered outbreaks until January 2015. Norovirus was the leading causative organism and gram negative bacteria dominated the group of bacterial outbreaks. Outbreaks lasted between 6 and 185 days. 24 % of outbreaks were related to colonization only. Within 29 outbreaks we had 187 infected patients, 50 colonized patients und 92 infected health care workers (64 x norovirus, 20 x influenza, 8 x scabies). No deaths were recorded. Several risk factors and improvement potentials for future outbreaks could be identified. Lack of staff compliance with vaccination or prophylactic therapy, misuse of personal protective equipment and lapses in absence from work for the required time can play an important role for prolonged outbreak situations esp. with viral outbreaks and scabies. A structured and goal directed outbreak management especially in the initial phase of an outbreak seems to be important for an efficient and fast termination of an outbreak. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Superficial fibrin thrombi … and other findings: a review of the histopathology of human scabietic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Hillary; Berry, Ryan S; Gardner, Jerad M; Shalin, Sara C

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous infection with the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is associated with epidermal and dermal changes. After noting superficial fibrin thrombi in two biopsies with scabies mites, we comprehensively reviewed the histopathologic findings in scabietic infections to determine the frequency of this finding. Twenty five biopsies of scabies infection were retrieved from the archives of our institution; only cases containing scabietic mite parts or scybala were included. The microscopic features were documented. Nearly half (40%) of the cases showed fibrin thrombi within vessels of the superficial dermis. Other frequent findings included dermal eosinophils (88% of cases), epidermal spongiosis (76% of cases), lymphocyte atypia (64%), a superficial and deep infiltrate (52% of cases), dermal neutrophils (52%) and endothelial cell swelling (52%). Half of the cases contained polarizable mite elements. Less commonly encountered features included extravasated erythrocytes (44%), dermal edema (32%), pink 'pigtails'(28%), intraepidermal pustules (24%), plasma cells (20%) and vasculitis (4%). The pathologic characteristics of scabietic infection are wide-ranging. Spongiosis, superficial and deep inflammation, and dermal eosinophils and neutrophils are seen in the majority of cases. Superficial fibrin thrombi are not uncommon in scabietic infection, and may provide a helpful diagnostic clue when mites are not visible on initial sections. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Medical manuscript of Mihail Plamenac, a priest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milović, I

    1998-01-01

    It is known that collections of popular medical prescriptions and instructions appeared in areas without educated physicians, and all previously published manuscripts of this kind are inevitably anonymous. The reported manuscript comprises 23 pages written in sepia ink, appendixed to a prayer book published in 1747, containing popular medical instructions and prescriptions collected and practiced by orthodox priest Mihailo Plamenac in Montenegro at the turn of the 18th century. Mihailo Plamenac took an important part in historical events, as documented by numerous domestic historical data and several letters discovered in The Archives of Vienna. Being the only literate persons at the time, priests were both politicians and military officers, but they also offered medical services to the population. The manuscript comprises advices for various common emergencies (snake bites, urinary retention, contusions, fever, burns, eye injuries, rabies, otitis, traumatic wryneck) and diseases(impetigo, scabies, infertility, gastric ulcer, low back pain) as well as for certain poorly defined conditions (chest pain, abdominal discomfort). Besides medically fully adequate treatment, for example, the remedy against scabies containing sulfur, there are numerous examples of magic and ritual pagan elements, including famous medieval SATOR formula against rabies. Most of the herbs used in prescriptions have been identified: fig, dog rose, hyssop, leek, laurel, absinthe, rosemary, mallow, cypress, elder, endive, mangel, orache, ivy. The manuscript is the first manuscript undoubtedly attributed to a well known historical personality, as indicated in the first page of the manuscript: "This is a medical prayer book by Mihailo Plamenac, left to him by his ancestors."

  8. Structural insights into the mechanism for recognizing substrate of the cytochrome P450 enzyme TxtE.

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    Feng Yu

    Full Text Available Thaxtomins, a family of phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces spp., can cause dramatic plant cell hypertrophy and seedling stunting. Thaxtomin A is the dominant form from Streptomyces scabies and has demonstrated herbicidal action. TxtE, a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Streptomyces scabies 87.22, catalyzes direct nitration of the indolyl moiety of L-tryptophan to L-4-nitrotryptophan using nitric oxide, dioxygen and NADPH. The crystal structure of TxtE was determined at 2.1 Å resolution and described in this work. A clearly defined substrate access channel is observed and can be classified as channel 2a, which is common in bacteria cytochrome P450 enzymes. A continuous hydrogen bond chain from the active site to the external solvent is observed. Compared with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, TxtE shows a unique proton transfer pathway which crosses the helix I distortion. Polar contacts of Arg59, Tyr89, Asn293, Thr296, and Glu394 with L-tryptophan are seen using molecular docking analysis, which are potentially important for substrate recognition and binding. After mutating Arg59, Asn293, Thr296 or Glu394 to leucine, the substrate binding ability of TxtE was lost or decreased significantly. Based on the docking and mutation results, a possible mechanism for substrate recognition and binding is proposed.

  9. Ingestion of host immunoglobulin by Sarcoptes scabiei

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    Simson Tarigan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is one of the most important diseases in human and veterinary medicine. The available control measures that rely on acaricides are unsustainable, costly and environmentally unfriendly. Vaccination which is supposedly the most attractive alternative control, is sustainable, potentially cheap and environmentally friendly. Recent development in protein biochemistry and recombinant technology have facilitated the development of anti-parasite vaccine which in the past was impossible. One prerequisite for the anti-parasite-vaccine development is that the parasite has to ingest its host immunoglobulin. This study, therefore, was designed to determine whether Sarcoptes scabiei, a non blood-feeding parasite that resides on the avascular cornified layer of the skin, ingest its host immunoglobulin. Sections of routinely processed mites and skin from a mangy goat were probed with peroxidase-conjugated-anti-goat IgG and the immune complex was visualised with diaminobenzidine solution. To determine whether the ingested IgG was still intact or had been fragmented by the proteolytic enzymes, immunoblotting analysis of SDS-PAGE- fractionated proteins extracted from washed mites was performed. Quantification of IgG was done byan Elisa using purified goat IgG as control. This study showed that IgG in the mites confined to the mite’s gut only, and only a fraction of mite population ingested the IgG. The ingested IgG, as shown by immunoblot analysis, was mostly still intact. This study indicates that development of anti-scabies vaccines is reasonable.

  10. Pattern of skin diseases among migrant construction workers in Mangalore

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    Kuruvila Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing industrialization, the construction industry provides employment to a large number of skilled and nonskilled workers, many of them migrant workers. Aim: This study was undertaken to provide epidemiological data regarding various dermatoses among migrant construction workers in India as currently there is a paucity of the same. Methods: One thousand construction workers, including 467 migrant laborers, were examined for various dermatoses. Results: Most (88% workers were males and 51.17% were in their third decade. Infective and noninfective dermatoses were seen in 89.72% and 53.74% of laborers respectively. Among infective dermatoses, fungal infections were the most common (46.25% ones, followed by bacterial infections (24.83%, scabies (8.56% and viral infections (6.42%. Contact dermatitis to cement was seen in 12.48% of the laborers. Masons had a significantly higher incidence of contact dermatitis to cement, viral infections and scabies than helpers. Conclusions: The pattern of dermatoses is an expression of poverty, overcrowding and the occupational hazards of the construction industry.

  11. The "army itch:" a dermatological mystery of the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Thomas G

    2006-08-01

    The army itch was a chronic, severely pruritic dermatosis which first appeared among soldiers and some civilians early in the American Civil War (1861-1865). As the war progressed, so did army itch, becoming epidemic in the Potomac Valley of Maryland in 1862 and in Virginia in 1864. Immediately after the war, civilian cases traceable to contact with returning soldiers focused attention on the disorder, but the postwar outbreaks were short-lived and the army itch disappeared by the end of 1867. The origin of army itch eluded medical observers of the time, though many considered epidemic scabies to be the cause. Many cases of army itch were successfully treated with scabicides, but the disease had a well-deserved reputation for intractability. After a review of the chronology of army itch and excerpts from the writings of physicians who saw and treated the disease, it is possible to conclude that army itch was epidemic scabies, though the clinical picture was frequently confounded by coexisting pediculosis, prurigo, and other pruritic dermatoses.

  12. Kejadian Dermatosis yang Tinggi pada Anjing Jalanan di Bali (A HAIGH DERMATOSIS INCIDENCE AMONG STRAY DOGS IN BALI

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    I Kadek Saka Wiryana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs in Bali. A totalof 401 stray dogs collected in the animal shelter of Bali Animal Welfare Association during 2011 wasinvestigated in this study. Dogs were examined by the clinical sign and continued by skin scraping, cytologyand wood lamp examination. In total, 37,9% sample were positive for dermatosis. Bacterial causeddermatosis found to be the most prevalent (23,6%, followed by tick and fleas (16.5%, scabies (12.7%,malassezia (8.2%, demodek (8% and ringworm (4.5% respectively. We also found that dermatosis weremore prevalent in male dogs (50.9% rather than female dogs (32.9%. Dogs 9-12 weeks old were moreheavily infected (45.8% than other group. In conclusion, the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs inBali is relatively high. This may need serious awareness as some of this dermatosis were zoonotic tohuman.

  13. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  14. Skin impression with acetate tape in Demodex canis and Scarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the efficacy of skin impression with acetate tape and the deep skin scraping test to find D. canis and S. scabiei in dogs. During six months, 134 samples were collected by both techniques from 115 dogs treated at the dermatology service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM. Of these patients, 27 had demodicosis and 12 had scabies. The impression with acetate tape test (ITT was shown to be significantly superior to the deep skin scraping test (DSST in finding D. canis and S. scabiei mites (p = 0.007. Based on our results we could conclude that acetate tape impression is a reliable method for diagnosing and monitoring therapy of dermatopathies caused by mites and can be used to replace the traditional deep skin scraping method. In addition, since it is less traumatic for the dog, this method shows more acceptance by the owner.

  15. Alternative uses of dermoscopy in general dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papakonstantinou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be an effective diagnostic tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis not only of skin tumors but also of various general dermatological disorders. The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension supporting the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of several dermatological conditions. Within the last years, dermoscopy is gaining ground in general dermatology as well. Among the large spectrum of skin infections, specific dermoscopic patterns have been described for common skin infections such as viral warts, molluscum contagiosum, scabies, and pediculosis, as well as for tinea nigra, tungiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. Also, common skin disorders such as psoriasis, pityriasis rosea or lichen planus show characteristic dermoscopic patterns. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analyzing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological   disorders grouped according to their clinical characteristics.

  16. Extent and pattern of paediatric dermatoses in rural areas of central India

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    Bhatia Vikas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A house to house study was done on 666 children aged 0-14 years in 5 villages of Wardha district in Maharastra (Central India. 346 children (51.95% had one or more dermatoses. Infective dermatoses contributed 63.5% of all dermatoses, while noninfectious and nutritional deficiency dermatoses were responsibile for 21.2% and 15.2%, respectively. Pediculosis capitis was seen in 136 children (20.4%, followed by pyoderma in 107 (16.07% and dematophytosis in 44 (6.61%. Scabies was found in only 6 and 4 cases of leprosy were also delected. Pityriasis alba, pityriasis capitis amond non-infectious; hair and skin changes among nutritional deficiency dermatoses were leading presentations.

  17. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. [Sarcoptic mange: report of an outbreak in a family and their pet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, José L; Budnik, Isolda; Peña, Anamaría; Canales, Marilena; Concha, Mónica; López, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Scabies caused by the genus Sarcoptes scabiei var canis is a prevalent infection in dogs and affects abandoned, malnourished and overcrowded animals, causing hair loss and an intensely pruritic crusting dermatitis. In humans the manifestation is a self-limiting pruritic dermatitis, but persistent cases are described. An outbreak of sarcoptic mange is reported in a family group (seven people, including a 5 month infant and his mother). The infective source was their own house dog who was taken from the street. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of mites and eggs in the acarotest of the dog and mites of S. scabei in the infant. Sarcoptic mange should be suspected in individuals with allergic dermatitis who have contact with dogs. Treatment in humans is usually symptomatic and may need miticides if the infection persists. The control of the disease requires an appropriate pet treatment.

  19. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. METHODS: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology......, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight(®); Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK). Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some...... detail on burrow content was provided. CONCLUSION: OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-μm resolution. Therefore...

  20. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alette Banzhaf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. Methods: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight®; Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK. Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Results: OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some detail on burrow content was provided. Conclusion: OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-µm resolution. Therefore, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations.

  1. The effect of ivomec super on dogs experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei isolated from a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Abdel-Mawla, M Y; Morsy, A T

    2001-04-01

    Scabies infestation is a community health problem worldwide. This is particularly true in overcrowded and unhygienic areas. Seven dogs were experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei freshly recovered from a patient. The dogs after infestation were treated with a mixture of ivermectin and clorsulon (Ivomec Super). The dose given to a single dog was 1 ml/50 kg body weight. This is equivalent to 200 mcg ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon per Kg body weight. Five of the dogs (71.43%) were completely cured with 1 ml/50 Kg body weight. The remaining two dogs needed each, another injection of the same dose two weeks later. So, ivomec super is effective against the human strain of Sarcoptes scabiei in experementally infested dogs. A general discussion was given.

  2. Optical coherence tomography of the epidermal sulfakrilate surface strippings

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    Utz S.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Method of the epidermal surface biopsy (ESB with the adhesive compositions is the alter-native to the classic his-tological examination. Materials and Methods. In this study medical adhesive "Sulfacrylate" was used, small portions of which had been spread on an object glass, and then on different skin areas. To study the structural organization of the samples ESB the technique of optical coherence tomography (ОСТ was used. Results. We obtained the pictures that visualize the structural organization of the different layers of the epidermis in lichen planus, hyperkeratosis, scabies and other skin diseases. Conclusion. This technique allows non-invasive measurement of high-precision structure of different layers of the epidermis, which can be useful both for research and for the practical dermatology.

  3. Characterization of the integration and modular excision of the integrative conjugative element PAISt in Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8.

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    Jose C Huguet-Tapia

    Full Text Available PAISt is a large genomic island located in the chromosome of the plant pathogen Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8. The island carries clustered virulence genes, transfers to other Streptomyces species, and integrates by site-specific recombination at the 8 bp palindrome TTCATGAA. The palindrome is located at the 3' end of the bacitracin resistance gene (bacA. We demonstrate that PAISt is able to excise in modules by recombination of one internal and two flanking palindromic direct repeats. The gene intSt located at the 3( end of PAISt encodes a tyrosine recombinase. Site-specific recombination activity of intSt was tested and confirmed by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor. Comparative analysis of PAISt homologues in Streptomyces scabies 87-22 and Streptomyces acidiscabies 84-104 indicates that these islands have been fixed by sequence erosion of intSt and the recombination sites.

  4. A clinico-etiological study of dermatoses in pediatric age group in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region

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    Sugat A Jawade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: 1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%, scabies (9.92%, mongolian spot (9.16%, and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%. In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%, impetigo (5.96%, pyoderma (5.62%, molluscum contagiosum (5.39%, tinea capitis (4.49%, leprosy (2.02%, and viral warts (1.35% while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%, pityriasis alba (4.16%, seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%, pityriasis rosea (3.15%, others (3.01%, phrynoderma (2.70%, lichen planus (2.58%, contact dermatitis (1.57% and ichthyosis (1.45%. Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment.

  5. Profile of HIV infected children: A hospital based study at Eastern Nepal

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    Prakash Poudel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinical, laboratory, epidemiological profiles and outcome in human immunodeficiency virus infected Nepalese children. Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study. Human immunodeficiency virusinfected children presenting to pediatric immunology clinic at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled and followed up. Results: Median age at diagnosis among 39 enrolled children was 58 months. All children acquired infection vertically. Unsafe sex (74.4% and intravenous drug use (25.6% were the major risk behaviors in fathers. At presentation, 20.8% children were asymptomatic, 54.0% were malnourished, 41.0% were in WHO clinical stage 1, 17.9% were in stage 4, 74.4% were anemic, 17.9% had thrombocytopenia and median CD4 count was 543. Fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions and oral lesions were common presenting features (16.2%, 16.2%, 13.5%, 10.8%, and 8.1% respectively out of 74 features. Tuberculosis (16.0%, chronic otitis media (12.0%, scabies (10.7%, bacterial pneumonia (9.3% and oropharyngeal candidiasis (6.7% were common opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment was started in 18 (46.2% cases at median age of 67 months. Median change in CD4 count at follow up was significantly different between the groups receiving and not receiving antiretroviral treatment (+192 vs. -72; P=0.045. Conclusions: Infection in children is vertical. Undernutrition, anemia, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions, and ear discharge are common presenting features. Opportunistic infections are common and tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection followed by chronic ear infection, scabies, candidiasis and bacterial pneumonia. Timely antiretroviral treatment improves immune response.

  6. The prevalence of common skin infections in four districts in Timor-Leste: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Skin infections are a common public health problem in developing countries; however, they are rarely managed using a population based approach. Recent data on the burden of skin infections in Timor-Leste are limited. Our survey appears to be the only widespread survey conducted in more than 30 years and was designed to determine the baseline prevalence of some common skin infections in Timor-Leste. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey in 14 sites including community health clinics, schools and hospitals within four different geographical regions. Participants were examined for five conditions (scabies, pyoderma, fungal infections, leprosy and yaws) by a multidisciplinary team. Analyses were conducted using EpiInfo version 6.04d. Results We examined the skin of 1535 participants aged between four months and 97 years. The majority of participants were male, aged between 11 and 20 years and had at least one condition of interest (56.0%, 56.0%, and 63.1%, respectively). Fungal infections were the most common presentation (39.0%) and males were more commonly affected than females (42.3% vs 34.0%, respectively, pvalue < 0.0001). Among those people with more than one condition the two most common co-infections were scabies with either pyoderma or a fungal infection (38.0% and 32.0%, respectively). The survey identified 29 previously undiagnosed cases of leprosy and six cases of yaws. Conclusions Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive programme to address these conditions. There are successful disease control programmes in place within the country and it is hoped a healthy skin programme could be integrated into an established disease control programme in order to maximise health benefits and resources. PMID:20219136

  7. Clinic attendances during the first 12 months of life for Aboriginal children in five remote communities of northern Australia.

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    Thérèse Kearns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority (>75% of Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory (NT live in remote or very remote locations. Children in these communities have high attendance rates at local Primary Health Care (PHC centres but there is a paucity of studies documenting the reason and frequency of attendance. Such data can be used to help guide public health policy and practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinic presentations during the first year of life were reviewed for 320 children born from 1 January 2001-31 December 2006. Data collected included reason for infectious presentation, antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. The median number of presentations per child in the first year of life was 21 (IQR 15-29 with multiple reasons for presentation. The most prominent infectious presentations per child during the first year of life were upper respiratory tract infections (median 6, IQR 3-10; diarrhoea (median 3, IQR 1-5; ear disease (median 3, IQR 1-5; lower respiratory tract infection (median 3, IQR 2-5; scabies (median 3, IQR 1-5; and skin sores (median 3, IQR 2-5. CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases of childhood are strongly linked with poverty, poor living conditions and overcrowding. The data reported in our study were collected through manual review, however many remote communities now have established electronic health record systems, use the Key Performance Indicator System and are engaged in CQI (continuous quality improvement processes. Building on these recent initiatives, there is an opportunity to incorporate routine monitoring of a range of infectious conditions (we suggest diarrhoea, LRTI, scabies and skin sores using both the age at first presentation and the median number of presentations per child during the first year of life as potential indicators of progress in addressing health inequities in remote communities.

  8. Clinic attendances during the first 12 months of life for Aboriginal children in five remote communities of northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Thérèse; Clucas, Danielle; Connors, Christine; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Andrews, Ross M

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority (>75%) of Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory (NT) live in remote or very remote locations. Children in these communities have high attendance rates at local Primary Health Care (PHC) centres but there is a paucity of studies documenting the reason and frequency of attendance. Such data can be used to help guide public health policy and practice. Clinic presentations during the first year of life were reviewed for 320 children born from 1 January 2001-31 December 2006. Data collected included reason for infectious presentation, antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. The median number of presentations per child in the first year of life was 21 (IQR 15-29) with multiple reasons for presentation. The most prominent infectious presentations per child during the first year of life were upper respiratory tract infections (median 6, IQR 3-10); diarrhoea (median 3, IQR 1-5); ear disease (median 3, IQR 1-5); lower respiratory tract infection (median 3, IQR 2-5); scabies (median 3, IQR 1-5); and skin sores (median 3, IQR 2-5). Infectious diseases of childhood are strongly linked with poverty, poor living conditions and overcrowding. The data reported in our study were collected through manual review, however many remote communities now have established electronic health record systems, use the Key Performance Indicator System and are engaged in CQI (continuous quality improvement) processes. Building on these recent initiatives, there is an opportunity to incorporate routine monitoring of a range of infectious conditions (we suggest diarrhoea, LRTI, scabies and skin sores) using both the age at first presentation and the median number of presentations per child during the first year of life as potential indicators of progress in addressing health inequities in remote communities.

  9. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: 1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment.

  10. Indicators of health and safety among institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Maria Lígia Silva Nunes; Borges, Cíntia Lira; Moura, Acácia Maria Figueiredo Torres de Melo; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of mortality, diarrheal diseases, scabies and falls; and the prevalence of pressure ulcers - all of which are related to the safety ofinstitutionalized older adults. This was a documentary retrospective study developed in a long-term residential careinstitution for older adults in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were gathered from records of health assessment indicators filed between January 2008 and December 2015. Analysis included absolute case frequency; the sum of monthly prevalence and incidence rates; mean values of cases; and mean annual incidence and prevalence rates. The incidence of mortality over these nine years ranged from 9% to 13%; of acute diarrheic disease from 13% to 45%; and scabies from 21% to 63%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers ranged from 8% to 23%. Between 2012 and 2015, the incidence rate of falls without injury varied from 38% to 83%, and with injury from12% to 20%. Analysis of the health indicators revealeda high incidence of scabies and falls and a high prevalence of pressure ulcers. The identification of less than optimal rates for performance indicators canhelp improve the quality of nursing care. Identificar a incidência de mortalidade, doenças diarreicas, escabiose e quedas, e a prevalência de lesões por pressão para a segurança do idoso institucionalizado. Estudo documental, retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos, localizada no nordeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio dos registros dos indicadores de avaliação de saúde, arquivados de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2015. A análise incluiu a frequência absoluta dos casos; o somatório das taxas de prevalência e incidência mensais; a média de casos e das taxas de incidência e prevalência anuais. Observa-se que a incidência de óbitos nos nove anos considerados variou de 9 a 13%; de doenças diarreicas agudas, de 13 a 45%; e de escabiose, de 21 a 63%. A prevalência de lesão por

  11. Acaricidal effect and histological damage induced by Bacillus thuringiensis protein extracts on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstand-Guzmán, Emmanuel; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Hernández-Velazquez, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2015-05-24

    The mite Psoroptes cuniculi is a common worldwide ectoparasite and the most frequently found in rabbit farms. It causes significant economic losses on commercial rabbit breeding associated with poor leather quality, reduced conception rates, weight loss, poor growth and death. Several strategies have been proposed for the treatment of mange caused by this mite, ranging from the use of acaricides, entomopathogenic fungi, essential oils and vaccines. However, therapy and control of both human scabies and animal mange are still based mainly on the use of drugs and chemicals such as ivermectin, which involves disadvantages including genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, resistance and environmental damage. Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium, innocuous for human being, domestic animals and plants that produces highly biodegradable proteins, and has been used worldwide for biological control. The aim of this work was to find an alternative treatment based on biological control for scabies caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, using protein extracts from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. P. cuniculi mites were obtained from naturally infected New Zealand rabbits, and different doses of protein from B. thuringiensis were added to the mites. We measured mortality and obtained the median lethal concentration and median lethal times. For histological analysis, the mites were fixed in 10% formalin, processed according to the paraffin embedded tissue technique. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe the general histological structure. We report here for the first time evidence about the in vitro acaricidal effect caused by the strain GP532 of B. thuringiensis on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi, with an LC50 of 1.3 mg/ml and a LT50 of 68 h. Histological alterations caused by B. thuringiensis on this mite, included the presence of dilated intercellular spaces in the basal membrane, membrane detachment of the peritrophic matrix and morphological alterations in columnar cells

  12. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  13. Molluscum contagiosum in a pediatric American Indian population: incidence and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M McCollum

    Full Text Available Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV causes an innocuous yet persistent skin infection in immunocompetent individuals and is spread by contact with lesions. Studies point to atopic dermatitis (AD as a risk factor for MCV infection; however, there are no longitudinal studies that have evaluated this hypothesis.Outpatient visit data from fiscal years 2001-2009 for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children were examined to describe the incidence of molluscum contagiosum (MC. We conducted a case-control study of patients <5 years old at an Indian Health Service (IHS clinic to evaluate dermatological risk factors for infection.The incidence rate for MC in children <5 years old was highest in the West and East regions. MC cases were more likely to have a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema, eczema or dermatitis, impetigo, and scabies (p<0.05 compared to controls; 51.4% of MC cases had a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema or dermatitis.The present study is the first demonstration of an association between AD and MC using a case-control study design. It is unknown if the concurrent high incidence of eczema and MC is related, and this association deserves further investigation.

  14. Organisms causing pyoderma and their susceptibility patterns

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    R G Baslas

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and seventy cases of pyoderma were studied clinically and bacteriologically. Of these, 58.8% cases were of primary pyoderma, and the rest were secondary pyoderma. Primary pyoderma consituted impetigo contagiosa (21.4%, bullous impetigo (3.3%, ecthyma (4.4%, superficial folliculitis (12.3%, chronic folliculitis of legs (8.8%; forunculosis (3.7% carbuncle (1.8%, folliculitis decalvans (0.4%, sycosis barbae (0.4% and abscess (2.5%. Secondary pyderma cases were infected scabies (23.9%, infected wound (1.1%, infectious eczematoid dermatitis (12.6%, intertrigo (0.4% and miscellaneous (3.3%. In 85 samples, no organism was isolated. Out of 485 samples, 75.9% grew a single organism and the rest (24.1% gave multiple organisms. Among the 603 strains collected, 73.6% were staphylococcus aureus, 25.0% were beta-haemolytic streptococcus and 0.7% each were alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and Gram negative bacilli. Eighty eight per cent strains of Staphylococcus aureous were susceptible to cephaloridine and 27.4% to ampicillin while 97.4% beta haemolytic streptococcus were susceptible to cephaloridine and 23.2% to pencillin.

  15. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha C Bowen

    Full Text Available We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma.PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo.Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%. Fifty-eight (65% studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1% and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%, respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%.Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  16. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Mahé, Antoine; Hay, Roderick J; Andrews, Ross M; Steer, Andrew C; Tong, Steven Y C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma. PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo. Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%). Fifty-eight (65%) studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1%) and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%), respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%). Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  17. Bacteriological study of pyoderma with special reference to antibiotic susceptibility to newer antibiotics

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    Ghadage D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty-two cases of pyoderma were investigated to study bacterial aetiology and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Of these 65.87% cases were of primary pyoderma and the rest were of secondary pyoderma. Maximum cases were of impetigo (38.78% followed by folliculitis (12.92%, furunculosis (2.95%, ecthyma (3.5%, carbuncle (1.5% and sycosis barbae (0.4%. Secondary pyoderma constituted infected trophic ulcer (18.82%, infected pemphigus (7.2%, infected contact dermatitis (6.27%, and infected scabies (1.8%. Single organism was isolated from 46.9% cases and more than one type of organisms in 65.46% of cases. No organism was isolated in 5% of cases. Staphylococcus (67.34% was the predominant species isolated followed by beta-haemolytic streptococcus (21.77%. Maximum strains of Staph. aureus were susceptible to amikacin (75%, co-trimoxazole (72%, cefotaxime (65%, chloramphenicol (62%, ciprofloxacin (61% and clindamycin (61%. There was low susceptibility to cephaloridin (11%, gentamicin (12% and penicillin (21%. Streptococcus betahaemolyticus was highly sensitive to most of the antibiotics and less sensitive to cefotaxime (7%, co-trimoxazole (11% and penicillin (27%. Most of the strains were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

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    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  19. The Association Between Skin Findings and Transplantation Period in Liver Transplant Recipients

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    İlgen Ertam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Different types of skin diseases can be seen in liver transplant recipients. Here, we aimed to investigate the frequency of skin diseases and it's correlation with the duration of liver disease and the transplantation period in liver transplant recipients. Methods: One-hundred ninety seven patients and 50 controls were included in the study. Detailed skin examination was performed to the all patients and dermatological findings were recorded. Chi-square and Pearson correlation tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: Of 197 patients, 142 were males and 55 females, of 50 controls, 36 were males and 14 females. The mean age of the patients was 43.96±13.16 and the controls was 42.12±14.43. The transplantation reason was cirrhosis due to Hepatitis B-virus in 65.8% of the patients. Hypertrichosis, cherry angioma, telangiectasia, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea pedis were observed to be statistically significantly higher in the patients as compared to the control group. There were statistically significant correlation between the duration of liver disease and tinea pedis, scabies, psoriazis, gynecomastia, alopecia areata. Conclusion: We found that hypertrichosis, cherry angioma, telangiectasia, seborrheic dermatitis and tinea pedis are the most frequently seen dermatological diseases in our liver transplant recipients study group.

  20. Occurrence of common scab in potato tubers after foliar treatment with glycinebetaine under glasshouse conditions

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    E. TUOMOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A single foliar spray with 2.5 mM glycinebetaine (GB was applied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Matilda, Sabina and Saturna grown in a sand bed infested with Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter Waksman & Henrici at tuber initiation. A period of drought was maintained after GB treatment to enhance scab infection. Logit models were used to compare scab incidence in all harvested tubers (n = 622 and the type of scab in the symptomatic tubers (n = 382, whereas the tuber surface areas covered with scab lesions were compared using ANOVA. A 10 g increase in tuber weight increased the odds of scab incidence by 11.3%. Scab incidence was lowest in Sabina and highest in Matilda. Raised scab and superficial scab were common in all cultivars, but pitted scab developed only in a few tubers of Sabina and Matilda. Among the scabby tubers, the incidence of raised scab was highest in Sabina and lowest in Saturna. The mean surface area covered with scab was 32.8% in Matilda, 11.7% in Saturna and 7.5% in Sabina. Treatment with GB slightly reduced the severity of scab symptoms, as shown by the reduction in the proportion of tubers with raised scab among the scabby tubers (odds 0.60. No effect on the incidence of scab or the tuber area covered with scab lesions was detected following GB treatment.;

  1. DNA relatedness among strains of the sweet potato pathogen Streptomyces ipomoea (Person and Martin 1940) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeda, D P; Lyons, A J

    1992-02-01

    DNA relatedness among 28 putative strains of Streptomyces ipomoea from geographically diverse locations and the type strain, NRRL B-12321, was determined spectrophotometrically. The data confirm that these 28 strains are not closely related genetically to the plant-pathogenic species Streptomyces scabies (39% DNA relatedness) or Streptomyces acidiscabies (17% DNA relatedness) or any other major blue-spored Streptomyces species (less than 30% DNA relatedness). Of the 29 strains examined, 4 could be clearly distinguished from S. ipomoea on the basis of morphological criteria, i.e., they had gray rather than blue spores and produced melanin pigment, and their low DNA relatedness to authentic S. ipomoea strains confirmed their original misidentification. The remaining 25 S. ipomoea strains exhibited high DNA relatedness among themselves (76 to 100% homology), even though they had been isolated in different locations throughout the United States and Japan. The avirulent type strain, NRRL B-12321, exhibited slightly lower DNA relatedness with the virulent strains of S. ipomoea (85% average DNA relatedness) than was observed among the virulent strains (average of 96% DNA relatedness).

  2. Efficacy of fluralaner in 17 dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camilo; Heredia, Rafael; Pineda, Jocelyn; Serrano, Jonathan A; Mendoza, Germán D; Trápala, Porfirio; Cordero, Alberto M

    2016-10-01

    There are few licensed options for the treatment of canine sarcoptic mange. To evaluate the efficacy of fluralaner in dogs with sarcoptic mange infestation. Seventeen dogs with a diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei based on positive skin scrapings. A single dose of oral fluralaner was administered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Assessments of pruritus and lesions were performed every 7 days for 1 month. By Day 14 post-treatment, skin scrapings from all dogs were negative for mites. At the beginning of the study there was a negative correlation between body weight of the subject and pruritus [Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) = -0.396, P = 0.007] and a positive correlation between pruritus and lesion severity (PCC 0.755, P = 0.0001). Significant decreases in lesion size and pruritus were observed within the first 14-21 days, respectively, and improvement in these parameters continued until the end of the study at Day 28. Fluralaner was effective in eliminating scabies mites within 14 days and significantly resolved the clinical signs associated with sarcoptic mange within 21 days after a single dose. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Cutaneous Conditions Leading to Dermatology Consultations in the Emergency Department

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    David H Peng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We established the most common cutaneous diseases that received dermatology consultation in the adult emergency department (ED and identified differentiating clinical characteristics of dermatoses that required hospital admission. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 204 patients presenting to the ED who received dermatology consultations at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center, an urban tertiary care teaching hospital. Results: Of all patients, 18% were admitted to an inpatient unit primarily for their cutaneous disease, whereas 82% were not. Of nonadmitted patients, the most commonly diagnosed conditions were eczematous dermatitis not otherwise specified (8.9%, scabies (7.2%, contact dermatitis (6.6%, cutaneous drug eruption (6.0%, psoriasis vulgaris (4.2%, and basal cell carcinoma (3.6%. Of patients admitted for their dermatoses, the most highly prevalent conditions were erythema multiforme major/Stevens-Johnson syndrome (22%, pemphigus vulgaris (14%, and severe cutaneous drug eruption (11%. When compared with those of nonadmitted patients, admitted skin conditions were more likely to be generalized (92% vs 72%; P = 0.0104, acute in onset ( Conclusion: We have described a cohort of patients receiving dermatologic consultation in the ED of a large urban teaching hospital. These data identify high-risk features of more severe skin disease and may be used to refine curricula in both emergency and nonemergency cutaneous disorders for emergency physicians. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:551–555.

  4. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

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    Yogesh Poudyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD, 5398 (22.5% were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1; most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (n=3308; 61.3%. Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%, eczema (14.4%, and acne (10.1%. Fungal infections (n=653; 65.4% and acne (n=284; 51.9% were common in males, whereas eczema (n=402; 51.7% was more common in females. Fungal infection (P<0.001, eczema (P<0.001, pigmentation disorders (P<0.001, and acne (P<0.01 were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (P<0.001. Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively.

  5. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la escabiosis en tres consultorios del médico de la familia

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    Ana I. Chacón Cabrera

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 67 pacientes con escabiosis de los consultorios 12,21 y 26 del Policlínico «Héroes del Corinthya» y se encontró una incidencia del 5,13 % con una frecuencia esperada de 22 casos anuales por consultorio. La enfermedad fue más frecuente entre las mujeres de 45 a 54 años y entre los obreros de nivel medio de escolaridad. Se identificaron lesiones elementales poco comunes y localizaciones no habituales de las lesiones para esta dermatosis. El mayor número de casos mejoró entre los 8 y los 14 días de implantadas las medidas de control para la enfermedad67 patients affected by scabies who were cared for by family physicians’ consulting rooms No. 12, 21 and 26 of «Héroes del Corinthia» polyclinics were examined where 5.13 % of incidence and an expected frequency of 22 cases per year per consulting room were found. This disease was more frequently suffered by women aged 45 to 54 years and by medium educational level workers. Uncommon basic lesions and rare lesion locations for this kind of dermatosis were detected. The majority of cases recovered 8 to 14 days after adequate disease control measures being implemented

  6. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  7. [Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N=110, n=94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p<0.001) between the knowledge of transmitting species and the modes of transmission. Senior male owners, married, and living in urban areas showed the highest overall knowledge of zoonoses. Awareness of zoonoses among rural workers is inadequate. Veterinarians in conjunction with risk insurers may play a key role in providing information to people at risk. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Leprosy in Buriticupu, state of Maranhão: active search in the general population

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    Antonio Rafael da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was developed to evaluate the situation of leprosy in the general population of the municipality of Buriticupu, State of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: We used the method of active search to identify new cases from 2008 to 2010. Bacilloscopy of intradermal scrapings was performed in all patients with skin lesions compatible with leprosy, and histopathological examination in those who had doubts on the definition of the clinical form. RESULTS: The study included 19,104 individuals, with 42 patients diagnosed with leprosy after clinical examination, representing a detection rate of 219.84 per 100,000 inhabitants. The predominant clinical presentation was tuberculoid with 24 (57.1% cases, followed by borderline with 11, indeterminate with four, and lepromatous with three cases. The study also allowed the identification of 81 patients with a history of leprosy and other skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, scabies, vitiligo, and skin carcinoma. The binomial test showed that the proportion of cases in the headquarters was significantly higher than that in the villages (p = 0.04, and the generalized exact test showed that there was no association between age and clinical form (p = 0.438 and between age and gender (p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated detection rate defines the city as hyperendemic for leprosy; the active search for cases, as well as the organization of health services, is an important method for disease control.

  9. Field efficacy of moxidectin in dogs and rabbits naturally infested with Sarcoptes spp., Demodex spp. and Psoroptes spp. mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R; Wendlberger, U

    2000-11-10

    The efficacy of moxidectin 1% injectable for cattle was evaluated in dogs and rabbits with naturally acquired sarcoptic, demodectic or psoroptic mites. Twenty-two dogs with generalised demodicosis were orally treated with 0.4mg/kg moxidectin daily. Forty-one dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange were treated with 0.2-0.25mg/kg moxidectin either orally or subcutaneously every week for three to six times. Seven rabbits were treated orally with 0.2mg/kg moxidectin twice 10 days apart. Of the 22 dogs with demodicosis, 14% were stopped treatment because of side effects, 14% were lost and of the remaining 72% all were cured (mean therapy duration 2.4 months). Thirty-seven of the sarcoptic mange-infected dogs finished treatment and were cured. In 17% of dogs, side effects were noted. All seven rabbits treated for psoroptic mange were cured and did not show any side effect. Our results indicate that moxidectin is effective and a good alternative for the treatment of demodicosis and scabies in dogs and psoroptic mange in rabbits. Side effects seem to occur more frequently if applied subcutaneously, therefore the oral route should be preferred.

  10. Sifat Anti Cendawan Trichophyton mentagrophytes dan Candida albicans dari Zat Ekstraktif Kayu Pelanjau (Pentaspadon motleyi

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    Fathul Yusro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans  Antifungal Activity of Palanjau (Pentaspadon metleyi Wood Extractives Pelanjau wood (P. motleyi extractives traditionally used as medicine for skin infection such as scabies (tinea and rash caused by fungal T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. The aim of this research was to identify the effectiveness of pelanjau wood extractives on growth inhibitory of fungal T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans, isolate and identify extract compounds which have antifungal properties. Extraction and fractionation process yielded 7,04% of ethanol extract consisting of 0,28%, 1,28%, 1,19% and 4,29% of n-hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and residue fractions, respectively. Antifungal activity of pelanjau wood extract more effective on C. albicans growth inhibition than T. mentagrophytes fraction ethyl acetate at (0,03 and 0,06 mg/ml of MIC and MFC, respectively. Isolation of ethyl acetate fraction was resulted dominant compound EA6a and EA6c. NMR and GC MS analysis of compound EA6a indicate 2-Hidroxy octadecanoid acid, Hexadecanoic acid, Ethyl oleate, Octadecanoic acid, Vanilin and phenol,2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl as the possibly main component belonged to fatty acid and phenol group. Compound EA6c indicate Phenol, 4-(1,1 dimetylpropyl, Nonylphenol isomer, Phenol,4-(1,1,2,2-tetrametylbutyl, Nonyl-phenol mix isomer dan 4-Nonylphenol as the possibly main component in belong to phenol group.

  11. Survey of dermatological conditions in a population of domestic dogs in Mashhad, northeast of Iran (2007 - 2011

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    Javad Khoshnegah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of skin diseases in dogs encountered in a first opinion university small animal clinic, 1299 Iranian domestic dogs presented from September 2007 through March 2011 to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were examined. Dermatological disorders were noted in 17.00% (221/1299 of all the dogs examined. Pruritus was the most common presenting sign, accounting for 25.35% of the dermatological consultations. It was followed by erythema, maculo-papular-pustular eruptions (16.97%, erosive or ulcerative lesions (16.74%, scaling or crusting (13.02%, alopecia (8.84% and visible ectoparasites (7.44%. The most common primary final diagnoses were superficial pyoderma, cutaneous manifestations of canine leishmaniasis, flea infestation and allergy, tick infestation, atopic dermatitis, scabies, unspecified dermatoses, otitis, furunculosis and food allergy. There were no apparent age or sex predilections for dermatological disease as a whole. Spitz (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.001, Terriers (odds ratio = 2.52; p < 0.001 and German Shepherds (odds ratio = 1.90; p = 0.001 appeared to be at increased risk for dermatological disease. In addition, Khorasani large cross breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.36; p = 0.003 and mixed breed dogs (odds ratio = 0.33; p < 0.001 showed decreased risk for dermatological conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey study on canine dermatological conditions carried out in Iran.

  12. [Allergy in Trichophyton infection in the cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, S

    1987-01-01

    The examinations have been performed with glycoproteidic fractions of Trichophyton verrucosum (Tv-GP) and T. mentagrophytes (Tm-GP) purified by a method of gel chromatography. Trichophytins were intradermally injected at a dose of 2.0 ml (1.0 mg of protein) and the results were estimated after 24 and 72 h on the basis of differences in skin fold thickness (RGFS). In animals infected with lice or scabies in a farm free of trichophytosis the median value of RGFS was below 1.0 mm and maximal value was 2.0 mm. In a farm where trichophytosis caused by T. verrucosum was diagnosed positive reactions (RGFS above 4.0 mm) against the two trichophytins appeared in 90% of sick animals, 95% of convalescents and in 20% of animals without skin lesions but kept together with sick animals. In a part of diseased animals and exposed to infection apart from local reactions also appeared so called focal reactions characterized by appearance of fungal lesions followed by opening and crushing the crusts. There is a lack of relationship between intensity of allergic skin reaction and rate of fungal lesions. The animals infected with T. verrucosum cross-reacted with trichophytins Tv-GP and Tm-GP, allergic state persisted in convalescent animals after idiopatic disappearance of clinical symptoms. The performed studies point to a possibility of the use of allergic skin tests with a standardized trichophytins to evaluate immunological state in cattle with trichophytosis.

  13. Scutellaria baicalensis alleviates cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Steven Kuan-Hua; Wang, Kun-Teng; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Lee, Chia-Jung; Lin, Li-Chun; Liu, Der-Zen; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2012-05-25

    Cantharidin, an active component in mylabris, is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis. Evidence shows that cantharidin induces human bladder carcinoma cell death through COX-2 overexpression in vitro. In TCM, Scutellaria baicalensis is usually used to cure mylabris-induced hematuria. This work was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis and explore the uroprotective effect of S. baicalensis. In vitro results showed cantharidin could induce cytotoxicity through prostaglandin (PG)E₂ overproduction of T24 cells. Boiling-water extract of S. baicalensis (SB-WE) could significantly inhibit PGE₂ production and COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, indicating obvious anti-inflammatory abilities. In vivo results indicated that cantharidin caused rat hemorrhagic cystitis with hematuria via c-Fos and COX-2 overexpression. SB-WE was given orally to cantharidin-treated rats, whereby hematuria level, elevated PGE₂ and COX-2 protein overexpression were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SB-WE. The anti-inflammatory components of SB-WE are baicalin and wogonin, whose contents were 200.95 ± 2.00 and 31.93 ± 0.26 μg/mg, respectively. In conclusion, cantharidin induces rat cystitis through c-Fos and COX-2 over-expression and S. baicalensis can prevent the resulting hematuria because of its anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Pattern Of Dermatosis Among Pediatric Patients Attending A Medical College Hospital In North-Eastern Region Of India

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    Huda M . M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 children from first day of life to twelve completed years of age attending Dermatology OPD of Assam Medical College Hospital were analyzed for pattern of cutaneous disorders and modalities of pre-hospital care received. School- age children formed the major segment (45.0% followed by pre-school age children (37.8%. Infective dermatoses were 632% and non-infective 34.4%. Bacterial infections (34.4%, eczema (13.6% scabies(11.8%, fungal infections (8.8%, nutritional dermatoses(7.8%, pediculosis (3.8%, viral infections (2.2%, urticaria (2%, and a miscellaneous group comprising of twenty four categories (8% were seen. About 65% had not received any treatment prior to attending hospital. Those who received pre-hospital treatment includes self-medication 18.8%, treatment from primary care physician 7.8%, from pediatrician 3.6%, herbal applications 3%, rituals by faith healers 1.6 %, and treatment from dermatologists was only 0.4%.

  15. Dermatoses entre os Xavánte da área indígena Pimentel Barbosa, Mato Grosso (Brasil Dermatosis among the Xavánte from the Pimentel Barbosa Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso, (Brazil

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    Rosicler R. Alvarez

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o resultado de inquérito dermatológico realizado entre os Xavánte da Área Indígena Pimentel Barbosa, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os resultados indicam a ocorrência de doenças relacionadas à higiene inadequada, como a escabiose, pediculose e piodermite. O encontro de perlèche sugere deficiência nutricional O pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (fogo selvagem foi a afecção dermatológica de maior gravidade presente nesta população.The authors present the results of a dermatological survey conducted among the Xavánte Indians from the Pimentel Barbosa Reservation, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil Scabies, pediculosis, and pioderma were the most frequent diseases, clearly related to poor hygiene. The finding of perlèche indicates the presence of nutritional deficiency. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem was the most serious dermatological affection found in this population.

  16. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

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    M Khoobdel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  17. Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region.

  18. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  19. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.

  20. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Ectoparasites. Part 2: Bed bugs, Demodex, sand fleas and cutaneous larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Schmoranzer, B; Paasch, U

    2009-09-01

    Ectoparasites or epidermal parasites include a very heterogenous group of infections of the outer layers of the skin. Worldwide the most common are scabies, lice, tungiasis, and hookworm-induced cutaneous larva migrans. In recent years, bed bug infestations in hotels or vacation homes seem to have become more frequent. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are found in the facial and scalp hair follicles in 95% of individuals. Classic Demodex folliculitis is often overlooked in differential diagnostic considerations. This inflammatory sebaceous gland disease as well as Demodex blepharitis both provide a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Permethrin can be used topically against demodicosis. Vacationers who go barefoot on beaches in tropical Africa, South America and subtropical Asia risk infestations from female sand fleas. The lesions can be curetted or removed with a punch biopsy, then treated with antiseptics or even systemic antibiotics if a secondary infection develops. Cutaneous larva migrans is one of the most common imported ectoparasite infections from the tropics. Topical treatment measures include thiabendazole or cryotherapy. If the infestation is severe, systemic antihelminthics or ivermectin can be employed.

  2. Topical application of Rosa multiflora root extract improves atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by mite antigen in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwan Hee; Jeong, Mi Sook; Park, Kwang Jun; Choi, Young Wook; Seo, Seong Jun; Lee, Min Won

    2014-01-01

    The roots of Rosa multiflora THUNB. (RM) has been used in oriental traditional medicines as remedies for scabies, rheumatic arthralgia and stomatitis which were practicably related with today's inflammatory and allergic diseases. In the present study, we evaluated whether RM root extract (RME) and its major constituent, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-trans-6,7-cis-7,8-trans-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-2H,6H-pyrano[2,3-f] chromene-3,7,9-triol (RM-3) belongs to condensed tannins, improve atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by mite antigen. Topical application of RME as well as RM-3 improved skin severity and suppressed mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on skin tissues, in addition, significantly reduced T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses via interleukin 10 (IL-10) up-regulation. Thus, RME, contains lots of condensed tannins such as RM-3 which possesses potent anti-inflammtory and immune-modulatory effects, may be useful for treatment of skin allergies and can be developed as new alternative herbal therapy against AD.

  3. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc

    2010-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies.

  6. Stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Mercedes; Furman, Nicolás; Mencacci, Nicolás; Picca, Pablo; Toum, Laila; Lentz, Ezequiel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-01-20

    Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine, Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and Gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and triple-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that theses proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population.

  8. Forecasting the Number of Patients Diseases Using Backpropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Aeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting with various types of disease is important for health centers, because it can be used to help the health center management in conducting strategic planning and decision making. Health Care Center Torjun in Indonesiahas made estimationabout the number of patients with various types of diseases, such as Acute Respiratory Infections(ISPA, RA(Rheumatoid Arthritis, diarrhea, HT(Hypertension, Skin Allergies, Conjunctivitis, Asthma, Febrile, TB(Tuberculosis. Lung, scabies, Gastritis, typus and scarlet fever with reports the number of patients with certain diseases in the coming period and prepare the necessary needs both medical services and as well as drugs for use later. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN is one model that is used to identify patterns of images of people with various kinds of diseases. Backpropagation is one of the popular models of Neural Networkwhich is used for forecasting, prediction, and decision makers based on the input of data entry that has been studied in advance. The resultsis HT (0.35 %with parameters for forecasting system using Neural Network Backpropagation is the best of the trial results that shows disease HT which are obtained from the experiments. They predict the number of patients with a disease that needs to be watched for in the coming period and prepare all the needs of both medical and medication needed to handle the number of people with the disease.

  9. Escabiosis: a propósito de un brote Escabiosis: a clinical outbrake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Silvino Diana Domínguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Comentaremos a continuación un brote de escabiosis sucedido en dos centros de trabajo que pertenecen a una empresa pública y en donde coexisten trabajadores de tres empresas distintas. Pretendemos expresar la importancia de la aplicación de los protocolos existentes y su revisión para aquellas enfermedades poco frecuentes y con posibilidad de convertirse en epidemias, así como la importancia de la coordinación empresarial en aquellos centros de trabajo donde realizan su función dos o más empresas.We discuss below a scabies outbreak happened in two workplaces belonging to a public company and where coexist workers from three different companies. We intend to express the importance of the implementation of existing protocols and review for those with rare diseases and epidemics become possible, and the importance of business coordination in all cases of prevention and treatment in those workplaces where do function two or more companies.

  10. Non-Venereal Dermatoses In Male Genital Region-Prevalence And Patterns In A Referral Centre In South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 100 male patients with non-venereal dermatoses of external genitalia were screened amongst patients visiting Dermatology OPD of JIPMER, Pondicherry from Aug ’97 to March ’99. The overall prevalence was found to be 14.1 per 10,000. Non-venereal dermatoses were common in the 21-40 years age group. Most of the patients (74% belonged to labourer class. A total of 25 different non-venereal dermatoses were studied. Genital vitiligo was the most common disorder accounting for 16 cases. Sebaceous cyst of the scrotum was present 13 patients. Among infections and infestations, scabies was observed in 9 patients. Ariboflavinosis was seen in 9 cases. Other disorders encountered were calcinosis scrotum. Iymphangiectasia of the scrotum. Lichen simplex chronicus. Fixed drug eruption, angiokeratoma of Fordyce, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus etc. The study has been quite useful in understanding the clinical and aetiological characteristics of various types of non-veneral dermatoses in males in this subcontinen of Asia.

  11. Effect of carbohydrates on the production of thaxtomin A by Streptomyces acidiscabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael J; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2007-07-01

    Several Streptomyces species cause plant diseases, including S. scabies, S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies, which produce common scab of potato and similar diseases of root crops. These species produce thaxtomins, dipeptide phytotoxins that are responsible for disease symptoms. Thaxtomins are produced in vivo on diseased potato tissue and in vitro in oat-based culture media, but the regulation of thaxtomin biosynthesis is not understood. S. acidiscabies was grown in a variety of media to assess the impact of medium components on thaxtomin A (ThxA) production. ThxA biosynthesis was not correlated with bacterial biomass, nor was it stimulated by alpha-solanine or alpha-chaconine, the two most prevalent potato glycoalkaloids. ThxA production was stimulated by oat bran broth, even after exhaustive extraction, suggesting that specific carbohydrates may influence ThxA biosynthesis. Oat bran contains high levels of xylans and glucans, and both of these carbohydrates, as well as xylans from wheat and tamarind, stimulated ThxA production, but not to the same extent as oat bran. Starches and simple sugars did not induce ThxA production. The data indicate that complex carbohydrates may act as environmental signals to plant pathogenic Streptomyces, allowing production of thaxtomin and enabling bacteria to colonize its host.

  12. Surveillance Programme for Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Implementation and the first three years' results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoveze, M C; Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Madalosso, G; Ferreira, S A; Valente, M G; Fortaleza, C M C B

    2010-12-01

    Governmental programmes should be developed to collect and analyse data on healthcare associated infections (HAIs). This study describes the healthcare setting and both the implementation and preliminary results of the Programme for Surveillance of Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo (PSHAISP), Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Characterisation of the healthcare settings was carried out using a national database. The PSHAISP was implemented using components for acute care hospitals (ACH) or long term care facilities (LTCF). The components for surveillance in ACHs were surgical unit, intensive care unit and high risk nursery. The infections included in the surveillance were surgical site infection in clean surgery, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and device-associated bloodstream infections. Regarding the LTCF component, pneumonia, scabies and gastroenteritis in all inpatients were reported. In the first year of the programme there were 457 participating healthcare settings, representing 51.1% of the hospitals registered in the national database. Data obtained in this study are the initial results and have already been used for education in both surveillance and the prevention of HAI. The results of the PSHAISP show that it is feasible to collect data from a large number of hospitals. This will assist the State of São Paulo in assessing the impact of interventions and in resource allocation. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epizootiological-epidemiological importance of parasitic infections in wild canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The family of wild canids belongs to the order Carnivora and comprises 16 genuses that are distributed in most countries all over the world. The most important endoparasitic diseases of wild canids are toxocariasis, uncinariasis, capillariasis, trichinellosis, echinococcosis, cestodiasis, opisthorchiasis, and alariasis. Ectoparasites that most often exist as parasites in wild canids are mites, fleas, ticks and scabies.Wild canids have a large epizootiological-epidemiological significance since they are hosts to parasites that cause certain vector diseases, the most important of which are leishmaniasis, ehrilichiosis, babesiasis, borreliosis, dirofilariasis, bartonellosis, and hepatozoonosis. The increased frequency of interaction between domestic and wild canids steps up the risk of the appearance, spread, and maintaining of the disease in domestic dog populations. Observed from the aspect of the biological and ecological risk, that can be caused by zoonotic infections, the knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasistic infections of wild canids is of particular importance for the region of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31084: Praćenje zdravstvenog stanja divljači i uvođenje novih biotehnoloških postupaka u detekciji zaraznih i zoonoznih agenasa - analiza rizika za zdravlje ljudi, domaćih i divljih životinja i kontaminaciju životne sredine i br. 173001: Primena EIIP/ISM bioinformatičke platforme u otkrivanju novih terapeutskih targeta i potencijalnih terapeutskih molekula

  14. Allergen homologs in the Euroglyphus maynei draft genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dean Rider

    Full Text Available Euroglyphus maynei is a house dust mite commonly found in homes worldwide and is the source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions in humans. It is the source of species-specific allergens as well as allergens that are cross-reactive with the allergens from house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and the ectoparasitic scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The genomics, proteomics and molecular biology of E. maynei and its allergens have not been as extensively investigated as those of D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and S. scabiei where natural and recombinant allergens from these species have been characterized. Until now, little was known about the genome of E. maynei and it allergens but this information will be important for producing recombinant allergens for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and for understanding the allergic response mechanism by immune effector cells that mediate the allergic reaction. We sequenced and assembled the 59 Mb E. maynei genome to aid the identification of homologs for known allergenic proteins. The predicted proteome shared orthologs with D. farinae and S. scabiei, and included proteins with homology to more than 30 different groups of allergens. However, the majority of allergen candidates could not be assigned as clear orthologs to known mite allergens. The genomic sequence data, predicted proteome, and allergen homologs identified from E. maynei provide insight into the relationships among astigmatid mites and their allergens, which should allow for the development of improved diagnostics and immunotherapy.

  15. Transcriptome-microRNA analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei and host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran He

    Full Text Available Scabies is a parasitic disease, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, and is considered one of the top 50 epidemic diseases and one the most common human skin disease, worldwide. Allergic dermatitis, including an intense itch, is a common symptom, however diagnosis is difficult and there is currently no effective vaccine. The goal of this study was to examine the immune interaction mechanism of both S. scabiei and infected hosts. mRNA-seq and microRNA-seq were conducted on the S. scabiei mite and on infected and uninfected hosts. We focused on differential expression of unigenes and microRNAs, as well as the real targets of unigenes in enriched immune signaling pathways. S. scabiei enhanced host immune function and decreased metabolism after infection, while the immune response of the host inhibited S. scabiei proliferation and metabolism signaling pathways. Differentially expressed unigenes of S. scabiei were enriched in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The differential expression analysis indicated that microRNAs of S. scabiei and hosts have major roles in regulating immune interactions between parasites and hosts.

  16. La gale sarcoptique ovine dans le Nord-est algérien: Incidence, aspects lésionnels et cliniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athamna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep's Sarcoptic Mange in North-eastern Algeria: Prevalence, Lesion and Clinical Aspects. Sarcoptic mange is the most common form of ovine mange in North-Eastern Algeria. It is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis. An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence and the seasonal profile of of the disease in sheep. During a period of one year, various aspects of sheep scabies were studied in different localities parts of North-Eastern Algeria. The average rate of infestation was 12.02% as judged by visiting livestock markets in Souk-Ahras, Guelma and Tebessa. The prevalence of the disease is high from December to March and low or zero during the remaining of the year. Sixty percent of flocks of the region of El-Tarf were found infested and 49.5% of animals were positive. The disease affected animals at any age. It occurred in ewes lambs and rams with prevalence of 50.5%, 37% and 22.3% respectively. The study of lesion and clinical aspects of affected sheep in El-Tarf revealed that 55% of individuals had lesions on the muzzle, 30% showed an extension of crust up to the chamfer, the basis of the ears and the lip,10% had their head completely covered by scabs; only 5% showed extension of the lesions to the legs. It seems that the parasitic burden is in strong correlation with the extent of the lesions.

  17. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT. These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling.

  18. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. - a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Raju, S Sivachandra; Eversley, Mathew; Ramsubhag, Adash

    2009-02-01

    Lantana camara is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of skin itches, as an antiseptic for wounds, and externally for leprosy and scabies. The objective of our study was to investigate excision wound healing activity of the leaf extract of L. camara in rats. The animals were divided into two groups of 12 each in both the models. The test group animals were treated with the aqueous extract of L. camara (100 mg/kg/day) topically and the control group animals were left untreated. Wound healing efficacy was measured by determining the morphological and biochemical parameters. Wound healing time, wound contraction and synthesis of collagen were monitored periodically. Antimicrobial activities of the extract against the microorganisms were also assessed. Treatment of the wounds with extract enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (98%), synthesis of collagen and decreased mean wound healing time. These studies demonstrate that L. camara is effective in healing excision wounds in the experimental animal and could be evaluated as a therapeutic agent in tissue repair processes associated with skin injuries. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

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    M Khoobdel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  20. Demodex abscesses: clinical and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Martin; Sander, Christian A; Plewig, Gerd

    2003-11-01

    A 53-year-old man had a 6-week history of confluent erythematous papules, pustules, and abscesses of the face initially limited to the right nasolabial fold. Histologic investigation revealed a perifollicular infiltrate with lymphocytes, histiocytes, and many Demodex folliculorum mites. A large number of mites were seen in skin scrapings. The skin manifestations progressed and persisted for the following 5 years and were unresponsive to numerous antiparasitic treatments, including repeated oral administration of ivermectin and external application of lindane, permethrin, and benzoyl benzoate. Therapy with oral administration of 250 mg metronidazole 3 times a day for 2 weeks resulted in rapid and lasting recovery. Demodex folliculitis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Antiparasitic therapies used against lice or scabies may fail in control of D folliculorum mites. In the presence of clinical and microscopic findings typical of Demodex folliculitis or abscesses, treatment failure with acaricidal agents does not exclude the diagnosis. Oral metronidazole seems to work in the management of this chronic mite infestation.

  1. Dermatologic conditions in internationally adopted children

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    Diane L. Whitaker-Worth, MD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 200,000 children have been adopted into United States (US families from abroad since the year 2000. Health care providers who care for children adopted internationally should be aware of the spectrum of illnesses seen in this population, and should be prepared to encounter potentially unusual situations. An appreciation for the unique pre-adoption exposures and vulnerabilities inherent in international adoption is critical for proper diagnosis and treatment of this heterogeneous group of children. It is important to consider the impact of potential early childhood stressors such as nutritional, sensory, and emotional deprivation, trauma and abuse, as well as prenatal exposures to drugs, alcohol, and infectious diseases. Providers must also take into account international variation in health care practices, including immunization, treatment, surgical, and hygiene standards. The differential diagnosis for cutaneous eruptions in children adopted internationally is broad and must encompass endemic systemic illnesses with skin manifestations, such as measles, tuberculosis, leprosy, and congenital syphilis, and primary dermatologic diseases such as scabies and bacterial and fungal infections. The importance of maintaining a broad differential and open mind when addressing the dermatologic needs of these children cannot be overemphasized.

  2. Health status of Orang Asli (aborigine) community in Pos Piah, Sungai Siput, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati binti Moktar, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Nor Fariza, N; Rohani, A K; Halimah, A S; Sharom, M Y; Zainal Abidin, A H

    1998-03-01

    A study of health status of Orang Asli population (based on physical examination findings) was conducted in 4 villages in Pos Piah, Sungai Siput Perak, Malaysia. In all 356 individuals between 4 months-72 years old (178 males and 178 females) participated in this study. Poor general health status, physical and mental handicaps were seen in 7.8%, 0.3% and 0.3% of the population, respectively. About one-fifth of the population had dental caries. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly were among the commonest abnormalities with the occurrence rates of 19.8%, 13.7% and 6.7%, respectively, being detected in the population. About one-fifth of the population showed signs suggestive of protein-energy deficiency; whilst less than 5% showed signs indicative of riboflavin, iodine and iron deficiencies. Vitamin A deficiency was the commonest nutritional deficiency identified in this community with almost 38.4% of them showing signs of the deficiency. The commonest skin infection was scabies.

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic/co-carcinogenic activity of chikusaku-eki, a bamboo charcoal by-product used as a folk remedy, in BALB/c 3T3 cells.

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    Kimura, Yuki; Suto, Shiho; Tatsuka, Masaaki

    2002-08-01

    Chikusaku-eki is an acidic dark brown liquid obtained as a by-product from bamboo charcoal burners. The solution diluted with water is gaining widespread popularity in Japan as a folk medicine for skin diseases such as scabies, eczema, and atopic dermatitis. In this study, the carcinogenic and tumor-promoting potential of chikusaku-eki was determined using the BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation system. Carcinogenic activity was tested by treating A31-1-1 cells for 24 h with 0.06% solution, a dose resulting in 35% clonogenic cell survival. In both 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated and non-treated groups, chikusaku-eki did not initiate carsinogenesis. Following initiation with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), A31-1-1 cells were chronically treated with a non-toxic concentration range of chikusaku-eki (< or = 0.01%), but chikusaku-eki did not act as a tumor promoter. Thus, chikusaku-eki was not carcinogenic/co-carcinogenic in the in vitro cell transformation assay examined in this study after being diluted more than 10(4)-fold with water.

  4. Actualidades en escabiosis

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    Manuela de la Caridad Valdés Abreu

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece una revisión teórica actualizada sobre la terapia, la prevención y el control de la escabiosis a partir de la literatura revisada en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, y de la Literatura Cubana de Medicina de los años 1987 a 1996; también se incluyen algunos clásicos propios de la temática, localizados en los órganos de información del Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas, así como la carpeta metodológica que contiene el desarrollo de las estrategias del MINSAP para 1996. Se abordan otros aspectos de interés como el modo de transmisión y las manifestaciones clínicas.An updated theoretical review on the therapy, prevention and control of scabies is offered based on the literature reviewed in the MEDLINE and LILACS data bases, and on the Cuban medical literature from 1987 to 1996. Some classics on the topic, found in the information organs of the National Medical Information System, as well as the metodological instructions containing the development of the strategies of the Ministry of Public Health for 1996, are also included. Other aspects of interest, such as the mode of transmission and the clinical manifestations are approached.

  5. Misdiagnosed Pruritus; Formication due to Chronic Amphetamine Abuse

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    Maryam Vahabzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amphetamine abusers are shown to have significant cognitive impairments as well as delusional disorders. We present a 17-year-old man who was admitted to the toxicology emergency department with amphetamine overdose. Along with the classic signs and symptoms of overdose including mydriasis, tachycardia, hypertension, sweating and severe agitation, his urine toxicology screen test was found to be positive for 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. In physical examination, widespread round-to-oval cutaneous lesions were observed all over his limbs and chest, notably the most easily reached sites of skin to be scratched. After regaining consciousness, the patient complained of pruritus and sensing the movement of insects under his skin. Further medical history showed that he had abused amphetamines for more than two years along with persistent pruritus, for which he had visited different physicians who mainly had made the diagnosis of allergy or dermatitis for him. He had been treated with antihistamines (hydroxyzine for a long period. He also had been diagnosed with scabies and treated with topical permethrin and lindane lotion. Despite receiving these treatments, he continued to have pruritus particularly on his forearms and hands. He was finally diagnosed with “Ekbom’s syndrome” and referred to psychological rehabilitation and psychosomatic outpatient clinic.

  6. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in southern China.

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    Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.

  7. Artemisia herba-alba essential oil from Buseirah (South Jordan): Chemical characterization and assessment of safe antifungal and anti-inflammatory doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Efferth, T; Salgueiro, L

    2015-11-04

    Artemisia herba-alba Asso ("desert wormwood" in English; "armoise blanche" in French; "shaih" in Arabic), is a medicinal and strongly aromatic plant widely used in traditional medicine by many cultures since ancient times. It is used to treat inflammatory disorders (colds, coughing, bronchitis, diarrhea), infectious diseases (skin diseases, scabies, syphilis) and others (diabetes, neuralgias). In Jordanian traditional medicine, this plant is used as antiseptic and against skin diseases, scabies, syphilis, fever as well as menstrual and nervous disorders. Considering the traditional medicinal uses and the lack of scientific studies addressing the cellular and molecular players involved in these biological activities, the present study was designed to unveil the antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of A. herba-alba Asso essential oil at doses devoid of toxicity to mammalian cells. Chemical analysis of A. herba-alba essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from aerial parts was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity (minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations) was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. In order to explore the mechanisms behind the anti-fungal effect of the essential oil, the germ tube inhibition assay was evaluated using Candida albicans. The assessment of cell viability was accomplished using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of A. herba-alba oil at the periphery and central nervous system was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages and microglia, respectively. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes are the main compounds of the oil, namely 1,8-cineole (20.1%), β-thujone (25.1%), α-thujone (22.9%) and camphor (10.5%). Among the fungal strains tested, the oil

  8. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  9. Hospital admissions for skin infections among Western Australian children and adolescents from 1996 to 2012.

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    Tasnim Abdalla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of skin infection associated hospitalizations in children born in Western Australia (WA. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in WA between 1996 and 2012 (n = 469,589. Of these, 31,348 (6.7% were Aboriginal and 240,237 (51.2% were boys. We report the annual age-specific hospital admission rates by geographical location and diagnostic category. We applied log-linear regression modelling to analyse changes in temporal trends of hospitalizations. Hospitalization rates for skin infections in Aboriginal children (31.7/1000 child-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 31.0-32.4 were 15.0 times higher (95% CI 14.5-15.5; P<0.001 than those of non-Aboriginal children (2.1/1000 child-years; 95% CI 2.0-2.1. Most admissions in Aboriginal children were due to abscess, cellulitis and scabies (84.3%, while impetigo and pyoderma were the predominant causes in non-Aboriginal children (97.7%. Admissions declined with age, with the highest rates for all skin infections observed in infants. Admissions increased with remoteness. Multiple admissions were more common in Aboriginal children. Excess admissions in Aboriginal children were observed during the wet season in the Kimberley and during summer in metropolitan areas. Our study findings show that skin infections are a significant cause of severe disease, requiring hospitalization in Western Australian children, with Aboriginal children at a particularly high risk. Improved community-level prevention of skin infections and the provision of effective primary care are crucial in reducing the burden of skin infection associated hospitalizations. The contribution of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors warrant further investigation.

  10. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects

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    Prafulla P. Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. (family: Pandanaceae is traditionally recommended by the Indian Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold/flu, epilepsy, wounds, boils, scabies, leucoderma, ulcers, colic, hepatitis, smallpox, leprosy, syphilis, and cancer and as a cardiotonic, antioxidant, dysuric, and aphrodisiac. It contains phytochemicals, namely, lignans and isoflavones, coumestrol, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, proteins, amino acids as well as vitamins and nutrients, and so forth. It is having immense importance in nutrition. A 100 g edible Pandanus pericarp is mainly comprised of water and carbohydrates (80 and 17 g, resp. and protein (1.3 mg, fat (0.7 mg, and fiber (3.5 g. Pandanus fruits paste provides 321 kilocalories, protein (2.2 g, calcium (134 mg, phosphorus (108 mg, iron (5.7 mg, thiamin (0.04 mg, vitamin C (5 mg, and beta-carotene (19 to 19,000 μg (a carotenoid that is a precursor to vitamin A. Pandanus fruit is an important source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and so forth, usually prepared as a Pandanus floured drink. Traditional claims were scientifically evaluated by the various authors and the phytochemical profile of plant parts was well established. The methods for analytical estimations were developed. However, there is paucity of systematic compilation of scientifically important information about this plant. In the present review we have systematically reviewed and compiled information of pharmacognostic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional aspects, and analytical methods. This review will enrich knowledge leading the way into the discovery of new therapeutic agents with improved and intriguing pharmacological properties.

  11. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

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    A. SICEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects

  12. Transmission of infectious diseases from internationally adopted children to their adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciauvaud, J; Rigal, E; Pascal, J; Nourrisson, C; Poirier, P; Poirier, V; Vidal, M; Mrozek, N; Laurichesse, H; Beytout, J; Labbe, A; Lesens, O

    2014-08-01

    Internationally adopted children may suffer from different pathologies, including infectious diseases contracted in the country of origin. We evaluated the frequency of infectious diseases that may disseminate from adoptees to adoptive families on their arrival in France. All children who attended the clinic for international adoption in Clermont-Ferrand from January 2009 through to December 2011 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Standardized medical records dedicated to international adoption were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, clinical diagnosis, and biological and radiological results. Data were completed by phone interviews with adoptive families after informed consent. One hundred and forty-two medical records were retrospectively reviewed and 86% of families agreed to be interviewed. One hundred and seventy-one potentially transmissible infections were diagnosed in 142 children, 12% (n = 20) of which were transmitted to adoptive families. Most of these infections were benign and transmission was restricted to the close family. Tinea was diagnosed in 44 adoptees and transmitted in 15 cases. Panton Valentine leukocidin producing methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was transmitted to an adoptive father who required hospitalization for bursitis. Transmission also occurred for CMV (n = 1), hepatitis A (n = 1), giardiasis (n = 1), scabies (n = 1), Moluscum (n = 2) and pediculosis (n = 2). Two cases of chronic hepatitis B and latent tuberculosis were diagnosed without subsequent transmission. In conclusion, infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children and should be detected shortly after arrival to avoid transmission. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil; Repercussoes dermatologicas no acidente radioativo com o Cesio 137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium{sup 137} during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium{sup 137} was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with {<=} 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  14. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

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    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  15. Gene silencing by RNA interference in Sarcoptes scabiei: a molecular tool to identify novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Deepani D; Marr, Edward J; Zakrzewski, Martha; Reynolds, Simone L; Burgess, Stewart T G; Fischer, Katja

    2017-06-10

    Scabies is one of the most common and widespread parasitic skin infections globally, affecting a large range of mammals including humans, yet the molecular biology of Sarcoptes scabiei is astonishingly understudied. Research has been hampered primarily due to the difficulty of sampling or culturing these obligatory parasitic mites. A further and major impediment to identify and functionally analyse potential therapeutic targets from the recently emerging molecular databases is the lack of appropriate molecular tools. We performed standard BLAST based searches of the existing S. scabiei genome databases using sequences of genes described to be involved in RNA interference in Drosophila and the mite model organism Tetranychus urticae. Experimenting with the S. scabiei mu-class glutathione S-transferase (SsGST-mu1) as a candidate gene we explored the feasibility of gene knockdown in S. scabiei by double-stranded RNA-interference (dsRNAi). We provide here an analysis of the existing S. scabiei draft genomes, confirming the presence of a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) - mediated silencing machinery. We report for the first time experimental gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in S. scabiei. Non-invasive immersion of S. scabiei in dsRNA encoding an S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (SsGST-mu1) resulted in a 35% reduction in the transcription of the target gene compared to controls. A series of experiments identified the optimal conditions allowing systemic experimental RNAi without detrimental side effects on mite viability. This technique can now be used to address the key questions on the fundamental aspects of mite biology and pathogenesis, and to assess the potential therapeutic benefits of silencing S. scabiei target genes.

  16. Scutellaria baicalensis Alleviates Cantharidin-Induced Rat Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Overexpression

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    Li-Chun Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cantharidin, an active component in mylabris, is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis. Evidence shows that cantharidin induces human bladder carcinoma cell death through COX-2 overexpression in vitro. In TCM, Scutellaria baicalensis is usually used to cure mylabris-induced hematuria. This work was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis and explore the uroprotective effect of S. baicalensis. In vitro results showed cantharidin could induce cytotoxicity through prostaglandin (PGE2 overproduction of T24 cells. Boiling-water extract of S. baicalensis (SB-WE could significantly inhibit PGE2 production and COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, indicating obvious anti-inflammatory abilities. In vivo results indicated that cantharidin caused rat hemorrhagic cystitis with hematuria via c-Fos and COX-2 overexpression. SB-WE was given orally to cantharidin-treated rats, whereby hematuria level, elevated PGE2 and COX-2 protein overexpression were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SB-WE. The anti-inflammatory components of SB-WE are baicalin and wogonin, whose contents were 200.95 ± 2.00 and 31.93 ± 0.26 μg/mg, respectively. In conclusion, cantharidin induces rat cystitis through c-Fos and COX-2 over-expression and S. baicalensis can prevent the resulting hematuria because of its anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Pattern of dermatoses among nicobarese in a community health camp at Nancowry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

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    Radhakrishnan Subramaniyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands to the east of the Indian mainland. The Nicobar district in its southern part includes the Nancowry group. Very little is known about the dermatoses in this remote region and hence, this study was carried out at a community medical camp held in Kamorta on November 12, 2014. Aims: To study the pattern of dermatoses in Nicobarese attending a community medical camp at Nancowry.Subjects and Methods: All Nicobarese, predominantly mongoloid, attending a multi-specialty community medical camp at Kamorta on November 12, 2014, were initially seen by a general practitioner. Persons with dermatologic complaints or the presence of skin lesions were then seen by a single dermatologist. Results: A total of 375 patients were seen. Out of these, 113 cases (30.13% had a skin disorder. Females comprised 50.44% and males 49.56% of the cases. The mean age was 21.28 years. The most common dermatoses were infections and infestations comprising 53 cases (46.9% of which fungal infections were seen in 25 cases (22.12%, pyodermas in 12 cases (10.62%, scabies in 9 cases (7.96%, warts in 4 cases (3.54%, 1 case each of molluscum contagiosum, herpes zoster, and pediculosis capitis (0.88% followed by eczema in 20 cases (17.70%, acne in 13 cases (11.5%, papular urticaria in 9 cases (7.96%, and psoriasis in 3 cases (2.65%. Miscellaneous dermatoses made up the rest of the 15 cases (13.27%. Conclusion: The pattern of dermatoses seen among the Nicobarese is quite similar with respect to the prevalence of infections in other regions of India, especially humid regions such as Assam, coastal Karnataka, and Kolkata and much higher than arid regions such as the deserts of Rajasthan.

  18. Ectoparasitoses e saúde pública no Brasil: desafios para controle Ecoparasitoses and public health in Brazil: challenges for control

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    Jörg Heukelbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Doenças ectoparasitárias como a escabiose, a pediculose, a tungíase e a larva migrans cutânea são hiperendêmicas em inúmeras comunidades carentes no Brasil, e não raramente associadas à severidade considerável. Entretanto, programas que priorizem o controle de ectoparasitas não existem em nível de saúde pública no país. Como conseqüência da alta contagiosidade, de manejo inadequado, de negligência tanto da população como dos profissionais de saúde e/ou da presença de reservatórios animais, além de ciclos de vida complexos, o controle efetivo das ectoparasitoses é um desafio para a saúde pública. Aqui discutimos possíveis medidas de intervenção para o controle de doenças ectoparasitárias em comunidades afetadas, baseadas em tratamento em massa, educação em saúde e, caso se aplique, na erradicação dos reservatórios animais.Parasitic skin diseases such as scabies, pediculosis, tungiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans are hyperendemic in the numerous poor communities in Brazil and are commonly associated with considerable morbidity. However, programs to control ectoparasites are non-existent in the country's public health system. Due to neglect of these diseases by the population itself and health care professionals, the diseases' highly contagious characteristics, and lack of effective treatment and/or presence of animal reservoirs together with a complex life cycle, effective control of ectoparasites is an enormous public health challenge. This article discusses potential measures to control parasitic skin diseases in affected communities, based on mass treatment, health education, and (when applicable eradication of animal reservoirs.

  19. Screening for infectious diseases among asylum seekers newly arrived in Germany in 2015: a systematic single-centre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortas, A Z; Polenz, J; von Hayek, J; Rüdiger, S; Rottbauer, W; Storr, U; Wibmer, T

    2017-08-08

    During the migrant crisis in 2015, Germany was the largest single recipient of new asylum seekers in Europe. The German asylum law requires a screening examination for certain infectious diseases in asylum seekers upon arrival. The aim of this work was to analyse the rate of certain infectious diseases among asylum seekers screened at a reception centre in Southern Germany. Retrospective medical record review. Medical records of 2602 asylum seekers screened by a local public health authority in Germany in 2015 were systematically analysed. The majority of screened subjects came from Afghanistan and Syria. The mean age was 22.1 (±12.0) years. The majority of subjects were male (75.4%). Most individuals were of normal weight or overweight, more subjects were obese than underweight. A total of 78 (3.9%) individuals were infected with hepatitis B and eight (0.4%) with HIV. In 31 cases, chest radiographs suggested active tuberculosis (1.6%), which was confirmed in four cases (0.2%). The physical examination uncovered 44 (1.7%) cases of scabies, nine (0.3%) cases of lice, eight (0.3%) of upper respiratory tract infections, two (0.1%) of varicella and 13 (0.5%) of other skin infections. In the majority of subjects none of the screened infectious diseases were found. No evidence was found that the overall prevalence of certain infectious diseases screened for in the present analysis was considerably higher than in previous migration studies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing cutaneous research funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases with 2010 Global Burden of Disease results.

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    Chante Karimkhani

    Full Text Available Disease burden data helps guide research prioritization.To determine the extent to which grants issued by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS reflect disease burden, measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs from Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2010 project.Two investigators independently assessed 15 skin conditions studied by GBD 2010 in the NIAMS database for grants issued in 2013. The 15 skin diseases were matched to their respective DALYs from GBD 2010.The United States NIAMS database and GBD 2010 skin condition disability data.Relationship of NIAMS grant database topic funding with percent total GBD 2010 DALY and DALY rank for 15 skin conditions.During fiscal year 2013, 1,443 NIAMS grants were issued at a total value of $424 million. Of these grants, 17.7% covered skin topics. Of the total skin disease funding, 82% (91 grants were categorized as "general cutaneous research." Psoriasis, leprosy, and "other skin and subcutaneous diseases" (ie; immunobullous disorders, vitiligo, and hidradenitis suppurativa were over-represented when funding was compared with disability. Conversely, cellulitis, decubitus ulcer, urticaria, acne vulgaris, viral skin diseases, fungal skin diseases, scabies, and melanoma were under-represented. Conditions for which disability and funding appeared well-matched were dermatitis, squamous and basal cell carcinoma, pruritus, bacterial skin diseases, and alopecia areata.Degree of representation in NIAMS is partly correlated with DALY metrics. Grant funding was well-matched with disability metrics for five of the 15 studied skin diseases, while two skin diseases were over-represented and seven were under-represented. Global burden estimates provide increasingly transparent and important information for investigating and prioritizing national research funding allocations.

  1. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

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    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  2. Antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of leaves of Persicaria hydropiper in mice.

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    Khatun, Ambia; Imam, Mohammad Zafar; Rana, Md Sohel

    2015-03-13

    Persicaria hydropiper (Linn.) Delarbre is a common plant of Polygonaceae family commonly called Bishkatali in Bangladesh. Leaves of the plant are traditionally used in the treatment of rheumatic pain, gout, and skin diseases such as ringworms, scabies, boils, abscesses, carbuncles, bites of snakes, dogs or insects. This study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the methanol extract of P. hydropiper leaves (MEPH). The antinociceptive activity of MEPH was investigated using heat-induced (hot-plate and tail-immersion test) and chemical-induced (acetic acid, formalin, glutamic acid, cinnamaldehyde) nociception models in mice at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg doses. Involvement of opioid system, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, and ATP-sensitive K(+) channel pathway were also tested using naloxone, methylene blue and glibenclamide respectively. MEPH showed antinociceptive activity in both heat- and chemical induced pain models. In both hot plate and tail immersion tests MEPH significantly increases the latency to the thermal stimuli. In acetic acid-induced writhing test the extract inhibited the number of abdominal writhing. Likewise, MEPH produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of formalin. Besides, MEPH also significantly inhibited the glutamate-induced pain and cinnamaldehyde-induced pain in mice. It was also clear that pretreatment with naloxone significantly reversed the antinociception produced by MEPH in hot plate and tail immersion test suggesting the involvement of opioid system in its effect. In addition, administration of methylene blue, a non specific inhibitor of NO/guanylyl cyclase, enhanced MEPH induced antinociception while glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel antagonist, could not reverse antinociceptive activity induced by MEPH. Based on the results of the current study it can be said that MEPH possesses significant antinociceptive activity

  3. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

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    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  4. A clinical study of cutaneous changes in pregnancy.

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    Panicker, Vinitha V; Riyaz, Najeeba; Balachandran, P K

    2017-03-01

    Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses. The cutaneous changes are divided into physiological changes, skin diseases aggravated by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. The objectives were to study the various cutaneous changes of pregnancy and to know the proportion of these cutaneous manifestations in pregnant women. This study included 600 pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern Kerala, India. Detailed history elicitation and complete physical and dermatological examination were performed. Skin biopsy was performed in relevant cases. Cutaneous changes were seen in a majority of patients, of which physiological changes were the most common (99%). The most common cutaneous manifestation was hyperpigmentation (526; 87.6%), followed by striae gravidarum (72.8%). Other changes were vascular, including pedal edema (10%), pregnancy gingivitis (1.8%), and varicose veins (1%). Infections were the common dermatological problem in this study group. The most common infections were vulvovaginal candidiasis (21%), Tinea versicolor (6%), scabies (2.8%), dermatophytosis (1.5%), and sexually transmitted infection (0.5%). Specific dermatoses were seen in 12 cases (2%), with the most common being pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (1.3%). Pregnant women are prone to suffer from a wide range of dermatological problems apart from specific dermatoses of pregnancy. The study emphasizes the need for a detailed

  5. Quality of life of dogs with skin disease and of their owners. Part 2: administration of a questionnaire in various skin diseases and correlation to efficacy of therapy.

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    Noli, Chiara; Colombo, Silvia; Cornegliani, Luisa; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Persico, Paola; Vercelli, Antonella; Galzerano, Mario

    2011-08-01

    A previously validated 15-item questionnaire on dogs' life quality (QoL1) and that of their owners (QoL2) was applied in a multicentre study to owners of 200 dogs with different dermatological conditions, together with a question on the owner-perceived disease severity (S). Factor analysis was applied to the whole questionnaire. The correlation of S with QoL1 and QoL2 scores was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation tests. Owner sex, age, educational level and willingness to pay for a potential definitive cure of the disease were recorded, and compared with quality of life (QoL) scores. In 23 atopic dogs, CADESI-03, pruritus Visual Analogue Scale and QoL scores were obtained before and after therapy, and their correlation was evaluated with linear regression. Factor analysis revealed that three factors (S, QoL1 and QoL2) explained 75% of the variance. Owner-perceived severity correlated significantly with QoL1 and QoL2 (P = 0.002 and P = 0.015, respectively). The five diseases with the worst QoL scores were scabies, pododermatitis, complicated atopic dermatitis, pemphigus foliaceus and endocrine alopecia. Pruritic diseases did not give significantly higher QoL1 or QoL2 scores compared with nonpruritic diseases (P = 0.19, Kruskall-Wallis test). Owner sex, age or educational level did not influence QoL scores. Female sex, a younger age and a higher educational level were significantly associated with more willingness to pay. In atopic dogs, all the scores decreased after therapy, but post-treatment CADESI-03 and Visual Analogue Scale scores did not correlate with QoL1 and QoL2. Questions related to the burden of maintenance therapy showed the lowest improvements in score. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. A BAX inhibitor-1 gene in Capsicum annuum is induced under various abiotic stresses and endows multi-tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

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    Isbat, Mohammad; Zeba, Naheed; Kim, Seong Ryong; Hong, Choo Bong

    2009-10-15

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly conserved cellular suicide process important in developmental processes and elimination of damaged cells upon environmental stresses. Among the important regulators of PCD, much interest has been centered on BCL2-associated x protein (BAX) as the pro-PCD factor. On the other hand, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been implicated as an anti-PCD factor that balances out the activity of BAX in the developmental processes and responses to environment. A cDNA clone coding a BI-1 gene was isolated from a cDNA library of heat-stressed hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) and named as CaBI-1. This gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 248 amino acids encoding a BI-1 protein. Genomic DNA-blot analysis for CaBI-1 suggested one or two loci in the C. annuum genome. Transcription of CaBI-1 was induced in response to high or low temperatures, drought, high salinity, flooding and heavy metal stresses, and ABA. We introduced the ORF of CaBI-1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (P(35S)) into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The P(35S):CaBI-1 transgenic plants displayed markedly improved tolerance to high temperature, water deficit, and high salinity in comparison to the control plants. The results indicate that CaBI-1 is a BI-1 gene of which expression induced under various abiotic stresses and endows tolerance to several types of environmental stresses.

  7. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years.

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    Ottesen, Eric A; Hooper, Pamela J; Bradley, Mark; Biswas, Gautam

    2008-10-08

    In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: >1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine) were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA) to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. To assess the health impact that this massive global effort has had, we analyzed the benefits accrued first from preventing or stopping the progression of LF disease, and then from the broader anti-parasite effects ('beyond-LF' benefits) attributable to the use of albendazole and ivermectin. Projections were based on demographic and disease prevalence data from publications of the Population Reference Bureau, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Between 2000 and 2007, the GPELF prevented LF disease in an estimated 6.6 million newborns who would otherwise have acquired LF, thus averting in their lifetimes nearly 1.4 million cases of hydrocele, 800,000 cases of lymphedema and 4.4 million cases of subclinical disease. Similarly, 9.5 million individuals--previously infected but without overt manifestations of disease--were protected from developing hydrocele (6.0 million) or lymphedema (3.5 million). These LF-related benefits, by themselves, translate into 32 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) averted. Ancillary, 'beyond-LF' benefits from the >1.9 billion treatments delivered by the GPELF were also enormous, especially because of the >310 million treatments to the children and women of childbearing age who received albendazole with/without ivermectin (effectively treating intestinal helminths, onchocerciasis, lice, scabies, and other conditions). These benefits can be described but remain difficult to quantify, largely because of the poorly defined epidemiology of these latter infections. The GPELF has earlier been described as a 'best buy' in global health

  8. Comparative epidemiologic study of skin diseases in foreign children and children of Spanish origin in Alicante, Spain.

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    Pérez-Crespo, M; Ramos-Rincón, J M; Albares-Tendero, M P; Betlloch-Mas, I

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies in Spain have shown that the foreign and immigrant populations can have different diseases to Spanish-born individuals. However, no comparative study has specifically investigated foreign children in Spain. The objective of the study was to compare skin diseases in foreign children with those in children born in Spain of Spanish parents. We included all patients under 15 years of age who were seen in our dermatology department between January 2007 and December 2007. During the study period, 3108 pediatric patients were seen in the dermatology department. Of these, 2661 (85.6%) were Spanish and 447 (14.3%) were foreigners. Foreign children sought medical care more often (11.4%) than Spanish children (6%) (P<.001) and made less use of the specialist outpatient clinic (59.6% vs 68.8% [P<.001]) and more use of emergency care. Complaints observed more frequently in the foreign children were scabies (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.6; 95% CI, 4.71-24.10), arthropod bites (aOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.14-6.87), hypopigmentation (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.06-6.44), and atopic dermatitis (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.19-2.31). Melanocytic nevus was observed more frequently in Spanish children (aOR, .50; 95% CI, .30-.83). Differences between children born in Spain of Spanish parents and foreign children were found for type of visit and frequency of skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrethroids inhibit K2P channels and activate sensory neurons: basis of insecticide-induced paraesthesias.

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    Castellanos, Aida; Andres, Alba; Bernal, Laura; Callejo, Gerard; Comes, Nuria; Gual, Arcadi; Giblin, Jonathan P; Roza, Carolina; Gasull, Xavier

    2017-09-25

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations, and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of 2-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons. Through electrophysiological and calcium imaging experiments, we show that a high percentage of TM-responding neurons were nociceptors, which were also activated by TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 agonists. This pyrethroid also activated and enhanced the excitability of peripheral saphenous nerve fibers. Pyrethroids produced a significant inhibition of native TRESK, TRAAK, TREK-1, and TREK-2 currents. Similar effects were found in transfected HEK293 cells. At the behavioral level, intradermal TM injection in the mouse paw produced nocifensive responses and caused mechanical allodynia, demonstrating that the effects seen on nociceptors in culture lead to pain-associated behaviors in vivo. In TRESK knockout mice, pain-associated behaviors elicited by TM were enhanced, providing further evidence for a role of this channel in preventing excessive neuronal activation. Our results indicate that inhibition of K2P channels facilitates sensory neuron activation and increases their excitability. These effects contribute to the generation of paraesthesias and pain after pyrethroid exposure.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and

  10. Identification and characterisation of heat-stable allergens from Sarcoptes scabiei

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    Simson Tarigan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals or human recovered from Sarcoptes scabiei infestation acquired protective immunity against reinfestation. The protective immunity is considered to be associated with a type-1-hypersensitivity reaction against allergens instigated by the mites during infestation. It is assumed that these allergens have the potential to be used as the main component of an anti-scabies vaccine. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterise the sarcoptic allergens. For this purpose, 645 mg of mites, collected from mangy goats, were homogenised in PBS to prepare soluble mite proteins. Fractionation of proteins was initially performed on a Q-sepharose column but the results were unsatisfactory. Consequently, SDS PAGE was used as an alternative. Proteins from the gel were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane. The membrane was cut into strips so each strip contained proteins with molecular weights of ³ 90, 80-90, 70-80, 60-70, 50-60, 40-50, 30-40, 25-30, 20-25, 15-20 and 10-15 kDa, respectively. The heat stability of the allergens was determined by heating the suspension at 60ºC for 60 minutes, whereas their dialysability was evaluated using a 10-kDa-cut-off ultramembrane. The activity of the allergens was assayed by an intradermal test on sensitised goats. This study showed that mite protein extract was very potent allergens since mite extract containing as little as 1 ng mite proteins still caused an obvious hypersensitive reaction. The mite extract contained heat-stable, dialysable and non-dialysable allergens. All fractions recovered from a Q-sepharose column contained allergens with almost equal potency. Fractionation with the SDS-PAGE revealed that the allergens had molecular weights of 35 and <10 kDa. The former allergen is assumed to be a member of group 10 allergens, whereas the later belong to haptenic allergens.

  11. The taxonomy, life cycle and pathology of Sarcoptes scabiei and Notoedres cati (Acarina, Sarcoptidae: A review in a Fennoscandian wildlife perspective

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    Morten Kraabøl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites constitute an old cosmopolitan group, abundant in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats of considerable environmental variations. The majority of mites are free-living, whereas some have evolved parasitic relationships with a variety of animals either as endo- or ectoparasites. The ectoparasitic and skin burrowing Sarcoptes scabiei and Notoedres cati, cause sarcoptic and notoedric mange among a variety of mammalian species, including humans. In a non-adequate host these mites lead to pseudo-scabies which is often self-curable. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent knowledge on the taxonomy, life cycles and pathology of these two mites, which are of relevance to Fennoscandian wildlife, by considering knowledge on transmission vectors, host immunology, and some documented outbreaks. These mites affect the health and survival of mammals in four ways; 1 skin tissue damages, 2 loss of body fluids, 3 allergic reactions and 4 secondary bacterial infections. A short-term effect of outbreaks is usually high mortality, and long-term effects vary from extinction to biased population structure to no effect at all. Red foxes are generalist predators that are important end-hosts for mites that develop disease depending on their immunity status, and transmit mites to other hosts. Outbreaks of mange may possibly have ecological consequences on a wider scale. In an endangered species, like the arctic fox or Eurasian lynx, loss of only a few individuals can be critical. It might be wise for management authorities to develop emergency plans to minimize consequences of outbreaks of sarcoptic or notoedric mange in threatened species such as the arctic fox and the lynx.

  12. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Pet Dogs in Southern China

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    Yi-Zhou Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.85–1.52%. The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%, summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%, and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68% than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%. Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%, followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06% and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%. The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.

  13. Incidencia de enfermedades trasmisibles: la escabiosis en el círculo infantil

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    Caridad Borrero Tablada

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y longitudinal del cuadro epidemiológico de los años 1994 y 1995 y los 7 primeros meses de 1996 en el Círculo Infantil "Somos Felices", Bayamo. Al finalizar la problemática de Granma, en Bayamo y específicamente de los círculos infantiles se apreció correspondencia del alza de la escabiosis, identificando factores personales, ambientales y comunitarios e instituciones que incidieron directamente sobre ello; se desarrollaron en cada caso actividades preventivas con carácter higiénico-epidemiológico que contribuyeron a mejorar la asistencia, indicador de calidad para este centro modelo referencial en Granma, de fáciles solución, aplicación y generalización que reafirman las directivas de mantener la educación y la salud bajo cualquier circunstanciaA descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study of the epidemiological picture that prevailed in 1994, 1995 and during the first 7 months of 1996 at the "Somos Felices" Day Care Center, in Bayamo, was conducted. On analyzing the situation of the province of Granma, of Bayamo, and specifically of the day care centers, it was observed an increase of scabies. Personal, environmental and community factors were identified, as well as institutions that influenced directly on it. Preventive activities with hygienic and epidemiological character were carried put to improve assistance that is an indicator of quality for this model reference center in Granma. Such activities are easy to apply, provide simple solutions, and reaffirm the purpose of mainraining education and health under any circunstances

  14. Epidemiologic study of dermatologic disorders among children in South Sinai, Egypt.

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    Yamamah, Gamal A; Emam, Hanaa M; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Elsaie, Mohamed L; Shehata, Hany; Farid, Tarek; Kamel, Mohammed Ismail; Taalat, Ahmed A

    2012-10-01

      Few epidemiologic surveys have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in the population of Egypt, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula. Thus, the necessity of such research in South Sinai is pressing. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various skin diseases among children in South Sinai. A community-based protocol was followed. The study included 2194 children of both genders, 18 years of age and younger, and in six different localities within South Sinai. Data were collected by taking a full history and by systemic and dermatologic clinical examination that included the site, severity, distribution, and extent of skin lesions if present. Subjects were surveyed at general morbidity consultations and campaign field visits. The study was conducted from August 2008 to August 2009. Data were tabulated and analyzed statistically using Pearson's chi-squared test. Differences were considered significant at a P-value of < 0.05. Findings revealed that 71.4% of the studied population had one or more skin diseases. The highest rate of prevalence applied to parasitic skin infestations (pediculosis capitis, 37.6%). Eczema or dermatitis were found in 25.8% of participants. Pityriasis alba occurred at a rate of 18.3% and seborrheic dermatitis at a rate of 6.7%. Xerosis was found in 11.8% of subjects, viral warts in 4.1%, photosensitivity in 4.1%, acne vulgaris in 2.6%, and fungal skin infections in 1.0%. Other skin diseases diagnosed in low numbers in the study children included impetigo, freckles, and scabies. Prevalences of vitiligo and psoriasis were very low (0.18% and 0.05%, respectively). Infective parasitic diseases are a major health problem, particularly among younger children and in subjects of low socioeconomic status. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Tinospora crispa (L. Hook. f. & Thomson: A review of its ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

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    Ibrahim eJantan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora crispa (L. Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae, found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute towards improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery. The plant has been used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorders, fever, malaria, diabetes, internal inflammation, fracture, scabies, hypertension, reducing thirst, increasing appetite, cooling down the body temperature and maintaining good health. Phytochemical analyses of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans and nucleosides. Studies showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic activities. Most pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts of the plant and the bioactive compounds responsible for the bioactivities have not been well identified. Further investigations are required to transform the experience-based claims on the use of T. crispa in traditional medicine practices into evidence-based information. The plant extract used in pharmacological and biological studies should be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed based on its biomarkers. There should be detail in vitro and in vivo studies on the mechanisms of action of the pure bioactive compounds and more elaborate toxicity study to ensure safety of the plant for human

  16. [Morbidity in the concentration camps of the Third Reich].

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    Shasha, Shaul M

    2004-04-01

    Life in the concentration camps of the Third Reich was like living on another planet. The prisoners, stripped of all rights, experienced constant humiliation, uncertain survival and endless terror. Living conditions were harsh, characterized by crowding, poor sanitation and personal hygiene, lack of proper clothing and heating. The days began early with long marches and slave labor. Sleep was short and interrupted, and fatigue was constant and severe. Above all hoovered the dark cloud of ever-present famine. The prisoners were given about a fourth of the daily calorie requirements, and the food lacked vital components such as vitamins and other essential ingredients. The psychological stress was extreme, yet morbidity and mortality were mainly due to infections, injuries and hunger. Lice, scabies and other skin diseases were common. Typhus fever was ever-present, both endemic and epidemic, with a fatal outcome. Many suffered from tuberculosis, typhoid, dysentery, pneumonia and other infections diseases. Injuries were common, caused by beating, punitive whiplashing and other forms of physical abuse, gunshot wounds and dog-bites. Skull injuries with brain contusions and hemorrhages were prevalent, as well as fractured limbs, ribs and pelvic bones. Blunt injuries to chest and abdomen often had fatal outcomes due to the perforation of viscera and peritonitis or as a result of massive hemorrhage from ruptured blood vessels. The harsh winters were marked by frozen gangrenous limbs and hypothermia. Yet, the most ominous condition was the "hunger disease" with its multiple clinical expressions which, in their extreme form, led to the emaciated "musleman" and eventual death.

  17. Morbilidad por afecciones dermatológicas: estudio estadístico territorial

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    Rolando Martínez Borrego

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de la consulta externa del Hospital Pediátrico Docente Juan Manuel Márquez" en el año 1994 y particularmente de los niños que acudieron a recibir asistencia dermatológica, y se determinó que el 11,4 % (10 645 lo hizo por padecimientos de la piel. Se procesan los datos generales como edad, sexo y áreas de procedencia, así como las afecciones diagnosticadas más frecuentemente. El 30 % correspondió al grupo etáreo comprendido entre 0 a 1 año y casi el 60 % hasta los 5 años de edad. La provincia Ciudad de La Habana y dentro de ella los municipios de Marianao y Lisa aportaron el mayor número de pacientes. El sexo no tuvo diferencias significativas en el trabajo y la escabiosis fue la enfermedad más frecuente en todos los grupos. La dermatitis, piodermitis, verrugas vulgares, moluscum contagioso y Pitiriasis alba, siguieron en orden de frecuencia.A retrospective study of the outpatient department of the "Juan Manuel Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital, and paticularly of those children that received dermatological attention in 1994 was conducted. It was determined that 11.4 % (10 645 went to the hospital due to skin disorders. General data, such as age, sex and areas of origin, as well as the most diagnosed affections were processed. 30 % corresponded to the age group 0-1, and almost 60 % to those aged 5. The province of Havana City, and specially the municipalities of Marianao and La Lisa, had the highest number of patients. No significant differences were observed as regards sex. Scabies was the commonest disease in all groups, followed by dermatitis, pyodermatitis, common warts, molluscum contagiosum and Pityriasis alba.

  18. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

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    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  19. Dermatology in Ghana: a retrospective review of skin disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Dermatology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Brooke E; Klein, Rebecca; Hagan, Paa Gyasi; Seadey, Mark-Young; Quarcoo, Naa Larteley; Hoffmann, Rachel; Robinson, Maria; Lartey, Margaret; Leger, Marie C

    2017-01-01

    Ghana is currently developing its provision of dermatology services. Epidemiologic studies of the skin diseases seen by Ghanaian dermatologists are needed to guide these efforts. We aimed to describe the skin conditions seen by and management practices of Ghanaian dermatologists in a specialized clinic. We conducted a chart review of new patients presenting to the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital dermatology clinic during 2014. Among the 529 patients studied, 700 discrete diagnoses were made. The most commonly diagnosed skin conditions were infections (24.6%) and dermatitis (24.6%); atopic dermatitis (8.4%), acne vulgaris (5.3%) and scabies (5.1%) were the most common specific diagnoses. Among infants, children, and adolescents, the most common diagnosis was atopic dermatitis (31.7%, 30.0%, and 14.9%, respectively). Acne vulgaris (12.0%) was the most common skin condition diagnosed in young adults. Irritant contact dermatitis (6.9%) was most common among adults. Lichen planus (9.9%) was the most commonly diagnosed skin condition in the senior population. Diagnoses made by dermatologists differed from the referral diagnosis documented by primary care providers for 65.8% of patients. The most frequently recommended treatments were antihistamines (47.8%) and topical steroids (38.4%). Only 18 diagnostic biopsies were performed. Our study summarizes the skin diseases seen and management practices of Ghanaian dermatologists in a specialized clinic at a large public teaching hospital. The results of this study can help to guide future dermatology education and development efforts in Ghana.

  20. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  1. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  2. Health Needs of Ashram Schools in Rural Wardha

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    Amol R Dongre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the health needs for health promoting Ashram schools in rural Wardha. Methods: It was a cross sectional study undertaken in 10 Ashram schools, using qualitative (SWOT analysis, Transect walks and Semi-structured interviews of teachers and quantitative (Survey methods. Hemoglobin examination of all children was done by using WHO hemoglobin color scale. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight of each child were obtained. Physical activity score for each child was calculated. The manual content analysis of qualitative data was done and the quantitative data was entered and analyzed using Epi_info (version 6.04d software package. Results: Out of 1287 children examined, 724 (56.3% were boys and 563 (43.7% were girls. About 576 (44.8%, 213 (16.6%, 760 (59.1% children had untrimmed nails, dirty clothes and unclean teeth respectively. More girls had (31.6% lice infestation than boys (18.2%. Eighty six (6.7%, 75 (5.8% and 110 (8.6% children had scabies, fungal infection and multiple boils on their skin respectively and 158 (12.3%, 136 (10.6% and 66 (18.3% children had dental caries, wax in ears and worm infestation respectively. Notably, 988 (76.8% children had iron deficiency anemia which was significantly more among girls (81.9% than boys (72.8%. About 506 (39.3% children consumed any tobacco product in last one month. About 746 (57.9% children were classified to have sedentary physical activity. Among 774 children (>12 years, 183 (23.6% and 34 (4.4% children felt lonely ‘sometime’ and ‘most of the times’ respectively. About 398 (94.3% boys and 342 (97.2% girls did not know the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: In conclusion, there was high prevalence of risk factors for both communicable and non-communicable diseases in Ashram school environment. This dictates the urgent need for teacher driven, needs based and school based intervention that can screen and identify potentially preventable health

  3. Evaluation of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sarcoptic mange diagnosis and assessment in the Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica

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    Arián Ráez-Bravo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species worldwide including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, in which mortalities over 90 % of the population have been reported. No efficient diagnostic methods are available for this disease, particularly when there are low mite numbers and mild or no clinical signs. In this study, three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA developed for dog (ELISA A, Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva (ELISA B and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra (ELISA C, were evaluated to detect specific antibodies (IgG to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex sera. Methods Serum samples from 131 Iberian ibexes (86 healthy and 45 scabietic were collected from 2005 to 2012 in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Parks (southern Spain. Based on visual inspection, ibexes were classified into one of three categories, namely healthy (without scabietic compatible lesions, mildly affected (skin lesions over less than 50 % of the body surface and severely affected (skin lesions over more than 50 % of the body surface. The optimal cut-off point, specificity, sensitivity and the area under the curve (AUC were calculated, and the agreement between tests was determined. Moreover, differences in the optical density (OD related to scabies severity have been evaluated for the best test. Results ELISA C showed better performance than the two other tests, reaching higher values of sensitivity (93.0 % and specificity (93.5 % against the visual estimation of the percentage of affected skin, chosen as the gold standard. Significantly higher concentrations of specific antibodies were observed with this test in the mildly and severely infested ibexes than in healthy ones. Conclusions Our results revealed that ELISA C was an optimal test to diagnose sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex. Further studies characterizing immune response during the

  4. Nutritional status, hypertension, proteinuria and glycosuria amongst the women of rural Bangladesh

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    Shaila Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and materials – A rural community was purposively selected in Sreepur thana of which four villages were selected randomly. The total population of all age groups was 14,165 and the eligible reproductive aged females were 3,820 based on age between 15 and 45 years. Sample size was estimated at 573 (15% of the eligible participants depending on the availability of time and logistic support. The study design was to use a questionnaire related to age, education, family income, housing and sanitation. Height (ht, weight (wt and blood pressure (BP were measured. Urine protein was estimated. Clinical examinations noted the presence of anemia, jaundice, edema, ring-worm, scabies, goiter, xerophthalmia and gum bleeding. Body mass index (BMI was calculated to determine their obesity or wasting. Results – Overall, 501 volunteered and the response rate was 87.4%. Of these participants, 30.3% were illiterate. Almost all of them had supply of tube-well water and 68% had sanitary latrines. Their mean (±SD age was 30.2 (±2.9y, wt was 46 (±8.5kg, ht was 149 (±5cm and BMI was 20.5 (±3.5. The poor women had significantly lower BMI than the rich [20.0 (2.93 vs. 21.2 (4.1, (p<0.05]. Their mean (±SD systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 116 (±17 and 73 (±12 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, proteinuria and glycosuria were 16.6, 10.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The frequencies of proteinuria and ring-worm were significantly higher among the poor than among the rich social class (both cases p<0.05. Regarding nutritional deficiency, about half of the rural women (52% had some form of signs relating to Vit-A deficiency and 65% had signs of Vit-B complex deficiency either in the form of glossitis or of angular stomatitis or both. Conclusions – Despite time and logistic constraint, the study revealed that most of the rural women had a poor nutritional status (80% had BMI<23.0. The prevalence of hypertension and glycosuria were also

  5. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

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    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  6. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Therese M; Currie, Bart J; Cheng, Allen C; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Holt, Deborah C; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Mulholland, Eddie; Ward, Linda; Andrews, Ross M

    2017-05-01

    Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus. We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants) at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818) at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%), falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297) to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157) at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical symptoms

  7. Education for a better quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolybine, V

    1992-01-01

    antiseptics, and perhaps basic medication such as chloroquine for scabies treatment. 6) School feeding programs need consideration. This can be accomplished at a minimal level of providing snacks or by parental contributions or community provision of indigenous foodstuff. 7) Health education can reduce fears associated with puberty and sexual maturation. Evaluation has been difficult because the effects are longterm.

  8. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F.; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. Methods At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Results Hundred ninety five of 2’544 and 516 of 6’243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001) and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017) in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4) and bacterial skin infections (n = 2) in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9), pneumonia (n = 6), Chickenpox (n = 5), other viral infections (n = 5) and bacterial skin infections (n = 5) in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6–9.5 days in both study periods. Conclusions The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges. PMID:28617860

  9. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years.

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    Eric A Ottesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: >1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. METHODOLOGY: To assess the health impact that this massive global effort has had, we analyzed the benefits accrued first from preventing or stopping the progression of LF disease, and then from the broader anti-parasite effects ('beyond-LF' benefits attributable to the use of albendazole and ivermectin. Projections were based on demographic and disease prevalence data from publications of the Population Reference Bureau, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization. RESULT: Between 2000 and 2007, the GPELF prevented LF disease in an estimated 6.6 million newborns who would otherwise have acquired LF, thus averting in their lifetimes nearly 1.4 million cases of hydrocele, 800,000 cases of lymphedema and 4.4 million cases of subclinical disease. Similarly, 9.5 million individuals--previously infected but without overt manifestations of disease--were protected from developing hydrocele (6.0 million or lymphedema (3.5 million. These LF-related benefits, by themselves, translate into 32 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years averted. Ancillary, 'beyond-LF' benefits from the >1.9 billion treatments delivered by the GPELF were also enormous, especially because of the >310 million treatments to the children and women of childbearing age who received albendazole with/without ivermectin (effectively treating intestinal helminths, onchocerciasis, lice, scabies, and other conditions. These benefits can be described but remain difficult to quantify, largely because of the poorly defined epidemiology of these latter infections. CONCLUSION: The GPELF has

  10. Habituation to thaxtomin A in hybrid poplar cell suspensions provides enhanced and durable resistance to inhibitors of cellulose synthesis

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    Beaulieu Carole

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thaxtomin A (TA, a phytotoxin produced by the phytopathogen Streptomyces scabies, is essential for the development of potato common scab disease. TA inhibits cellulose synthesis but its actual mode of action is unknown. Addition of TA to hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides cell suspensions can activate a cellular program leading to cell death. In contrast, it is possible to habituate hybrid poplar cell cultures to grow in the presence of TA levels that would normally induce cell death. The purpose of this study is to characterize TA-habituated cells and the mechanisms that may be involved in enhancing resistance to TA. Results Habituation to TA was performed by adding increasing levels of TA to cell cultures at the time of subculture over a period of 12 months. TA-habituated cells were then cultured in the absence of TA for more than three years. These cells displayed a reduced size and growth compared to control cells and had fragmented vacuoles filled with electron-dense material. Habituation to TA was associated with changes in the cell wall composition, with a reduction in cellulose and an increase in pectin levels. Remarkably, high level of resistance to TA was maintained in TA-habituated cells even after being cultured in the absence of TA. Moreover, these cells exhibited enhanced resistance to two other inhibitors of cellulose biosynthesis, dichlobenil and isoxaben. Analysis of gene expression in TA-habituated cells using an Affymetrix GeneChip Poplar Genome Array revealed that durable resistance to TA is associated with a major and complex reprogramming of gene expression implicating processes such as cell wall synthesis and modification, lignin and flavonoid synthesis, as well as DNA and chromatin modifications. Conclusions We have shown that habituation to TA induced durable resistance to the bacterial toxin in poplar cells. TA-habituation also enhanced resistance to two other structurally

  11. Case histories of infectious disease management in developing countries: Phnom Penh and Kabul As doenças infecciosas nos países em desenvolvimento: Phnom Penh e Cabul

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    Florian H. Pilsczek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in developing countries is affected by severe poverty, political instability and diseases that may be of lesser importance in industrialized countries. The aim of this paper was to present two cases and histories of physicians working in hospitals in developing countries and to discuss the opportunities for clinical investigation and collaboration. Cases of patients in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with histoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, crusted scabies, cerebral lesions and human immunodeficiency virus and of patients in Kabul, Afghanistan, with liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome and facial ulcer are discussed. Greater developmental support is required from industrialized nations, and mutually beneficial cooperation is possible since similar clinical problems exist on both sides (e.g. opportunistic cardiovascular infections. Examples for possible support of hospital medicine include physician interchange visits with defined objectives (e.g. infection control or echocardiography training and collaboration with clinical investigations and projects developed locally (e.g. epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases or nosocomial bloodborne infections.A assistência à saúde em países em desenvolvimento é afetada pela pobreza extrema, instabilidade política e doenças que podem ter menor importância em países industrializados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar dois casos e histórias de médicos que trabalham em hospitais de países em desenvolvimento e discutir as oportunidades de investigação clínica e cooperação. São discutidos casos de pacientes em Phnom Penh, no Camboja, com histoplasmose, meningite criptocócica, sarna, lesões cerebrais e vírus da imunodeficiência humana, e de pacientes em Kabul, no Afeganistão, com cirrose hepática, síndrome nefrótica e úlcera facial. Maior apoio ao desenvolvimento por parte dos países desenvolvidos é essencial, e uma cooperação mutuamente benéfica é possível, visto

  12. A case of IgG subclass deficiency with the initial presentation of transient hypogammaimmuno-globulinemia of infancy and a review of IgG subclass deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettagul, R; Visitsunthorn, N; Vichyanond, P

    2003-07-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases are not common in children. The possibility of an immunological defect should be considered in any individual with repeated infections. A definite diagnosis for immodeficiency is sometimes difficult to achieve because of overlapping clinical manifestations. Immunoglobulin subclass deficiency is an immunological deficiency disease with which, one or more IgG subclasses are deficient. T cell immunity is normal. Patients may develop recurrent bacterial and respiratory infections or could remain asymptomatic. The authors report a case of immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency presenting initially as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. A 2 month-old boy presented to Siriraj Hospital with a history of chronic protracted diarrhea, disseminated scabies and sepsis. On presentation, he had generalized scaly and maculopapular rash with no palpable lymph nodes. CBC revealed WBC 22,100 cells/cm3 with PMN 42 per cent, lymphocytes 38 per cent, Eosinophils 4 per cent, Basophil 2 per cent and platelets 254,000/cm3. The immunoglobulin levels were as follows: IgG 181 mg/dl, IgA IgG became normal at 2 years of age (after 12 months of IVIG). IVIG was stopped and the diagnosis was changed to transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI). Nevertheless, during his 4 month follow-up he developed recurrent sinopulmonary infections (i.e, otitis media and pneumonia). Repeated immunoglobulin profile showed IgG 1,200 mg/dl, IgA 135 mg/dl, IgM 26 mg/dl, IgG subclass were IgG, 1,030 mg/dl (N 280-830), IgG2 30 mg/dl (N 40-2,400), IgG3 22 mg/dl (N 6-130), IgG4 3 mg/dl (N 3-120). A diagnosis of IgG2 subclass deficiency presenting early as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy was then made. Treatment with monthly IVIG was reinitiated and the patient is currently doing well. The authors present a case of IgG subclass deficiency presenting as transient hypogammaglbulinemia of infancy. Follow-up of the immune profile and clinical manifestation is

  13. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

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    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  14. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  15. General health, otitis media, nasopharyngeal carriage and middle ear microbiology in Northern Territory Aboriginal children vaccinated during consecutive periods of 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Amanda J; Wigger, Christine; Beissbarth, Jemima; Woltring, Donna; Andrews, Ross; Chatfield, Mark D; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Morris, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to monitor the prevalence of suppurative otitis media in remote Indigenous communities after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in October 2011. We previously reported a decline in suppurative OM following replacement of PCV7 by 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) in October 2009. We continued regular surveillance in remote Indigenous communities between February 2010 and August 2013. This analysis reports the general health, otitis media (OM), nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and middle ear microbiology in children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PHiD-CV10 or PCV13, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Mean ages of 511 PHiD-CV10- and 140 PCV13-vaccinated children were 19 and 13 months, respectively. Most children received 3-dose non-mixed PCV schedules. At the time of assessment, general health was poor and prevalence of risk factors was high in both groups: overall, around 14% of children had scabies, 20% had impetigo, 59% had runny nose and 39% had cough. Average household size was 8 persons, and 60% of the mothers smoked. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 10% and 7%, respectively. OM with effusion (OME), almost all bilateral, was diagnosed in 52% and 50%, any suppurative OM (acute OM or any tympanic membrane perforation [TMP]) in 37% and 41%, and TMP in 14% and 12%, respectively. Children in the PCV13 group had significantly less NP carriage of combined Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) (62% versus 51%) but significantly more polymicrobial (Spn and NTHi) middle ear cultures (12% versus 43%), and significantly less Staphylococcus aureus-positive middle ears (40% versus 7%). Although NP carriage of pneumococcal serotype 19A was low in the PCV13 group, serotypes 19F and 23F persist. The general health, particularly ear health, of little children

  16. Testicular Toxicity and Sperm Quality Following Exposure to Solignum and reg;: A Permethrin-Containing Wood Preservative in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    Kingsley Chukwuemeka Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is widely used as a pesticide in agriculture, homes, gardens, and for treatment of ectoparasites such as fleas, lice, and scabies on human and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the testicular toxicity and sperm quality of adult male Wistar albino rats exposed to Solignum and reg; (SOL, a commercial permethrin-containing wood preservative. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. SOL mixed with olive oil (1:1 was orally administered to rats daily at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 28 days while the control received 1 ml of olive oil only. At the end of this study, animals were sacrificed and testes excised, weighed, and processed for histological examination. Results: Rats treated with SOL showed a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in body weight ranging from 127.30 +/- 5.95 to 84.50 +/- 15.37 g as compared with control group (138.50 +/- 6.7 g. Absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes decreased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in treated rats ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.44 to 0.22 +/- 0.18; 0.49 +/- 7.39 to 0.26 +/- 1.17, and 1.07 +/- 0.75 to 0.37 +/- 0.19, respectively, when compared with control groups (0.89 +/- 0.27; 0.64 +/- 4.00; and 1.40 +/- 0.35 for absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes, respectively after 28 days. However, there was a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and sperm viability, whereas sperm debris increased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control group. Furthermore, histological examination of the testes indicated that rats exposed to SOL were characterized by significant degenerative changes when compared with control group. Conclusion: Therefore, exposure to SOL may inhibit

  17. Efeito da descompactação profunda de solo na produção da cultura da batata Effect of deep soil compaction alleviation on the production of potato crop

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    Carlos Francisco Ragassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O preparo de solo para batata no Brasil é geralmente realizado com o emprego de grade aradora (preparo raso, máquina cujo uso frequente estabelece uma zona compactada abaixo de 20 cm. Em tese, a descompactação profunda pode aumentar a produtividade e reduzir a incidência de doenças no tubérculo e esses efeitos podem variar com a espécie de gramínea cultivada anteriormente à cultura da batata. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a descompactação profunda associada ao cultivo de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e milho (Zea mays híbrido 'Dekalb 191' e, como testemunha, o preparo raso associado ao cultivo do mesmo híbrido de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba-SP, de dezembro de 2006 a outubro de 2008 no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. A resistência à penetração no centro do canteiro, avaliada por meio de penetrômetro de impacto, foi inferior a 1,5 MPa até 40 cm de profundidade em todos os tratamentos e, na camada de 40 a 60 cm, esse valor no preparo raso (2,4 MPa foi significativamente superior aos dos demais tratamentos, cujos valores variaram de 0,9 a 1,0 MPa. A produtividade de tubérculos no preparo raso foi de 28,3 t ha-1 e diferiu estatisticamente do maior valor obtido com a descompactação profunda (32,9 t ha-1. A proporção de tubérculos com diâmetro inferior a 4 cm foi superior no preparo raso (5,1% em comparação ao preparo vertical com milho (2,9% e B. brizantha (2,2%. A ocorrência de pragas, doenças e lenticelose (Diabrotica speciosa, 31,0% a 49,7%; Streptomyces scabies, 3,3% a 6,3%; Helminthosporium solani, 60,3% a 69%; Rhizoctonia solani, 1,3% a 4,3%; lenticelose, 6,0% a 15,7%, não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. A descompactação profunda reduziu a resistência à penetração do solo e proporcionou maior produtividade com menor ocorrência de tubérculos pequenos, mas não influenciou a ocorrência de pragas, doenças e lenticelose

  18. MODEL PENINGKATAN HYGIENE SANITASI PONDOK PESANTREN DI KABLTPATEN TANGERANG

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    Bambang Sukana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pondok pesantren is one of the educational institutions in Indonesia which all students live together in boarding. Almost 80% of 40.000pondok pesantren in Indonesia are still vulnerable in terms ofproviding the hygienic water and the soundsanitaties.  In the research done 2004, the number of casesamong other things were:Tb.  Paru Klinis (1,3%,ISPA (44,1%,Diare (10,5%, Scabies (12,3%,Tinea versicolor (4,0%,Tlnea Cruris (16,0%, other Dermatitis (18,5%,Morbus Hansen (0,6%. It is alsoshowed that the respondent knowledge about the communicable disease in terms of its symptoms, its spreading pattern and preventionmeasweswere stillumproper, besides their bad individual hygieneattitude. The observation result showed that the environment condition was not sound. The hygienesanitation development ofPondok Pesantren in Kabupaten Tangerang is the effort to develop the healthiness' level ofsantri, it was done through giving the guidance book to establishPos  Pesantren HealthForce Institution of Pondok Pesantren (UKP.This research was done in 6 pondok pesantren over thePuskesmas Jayanti area,Kabupaten Tangerang which divided into 3 groups of treatment with differentstages of UKP establishment. The full stage includes i.e. (1 Across segment's meeting in kecamatan, (2Internal Meeting inPondok Pesantren, (3 Training forSantri Husada's Cadre, (4 Arranging the planning of activities, (5 Activities' execution, (6 Evaluation. The first treatment was dont 6 stages, the secondtreatment 5 stages (without across segment's meeting inkecamatan, the third treatment 4 stages (without across segment's meeting inkecamatan and Internal Meeting inPondok Pesantren. The result showedacross segment's meeting inKecamatan agree to support the establishment ofUKP Institution as a coordination support sinceCamat is not the regional head any more. KantorUrusan  Agama (KUA supportthese activities as well but cannot interfere

  19. Time of Arrival Analysis in NC DETECT to Find Clusters of Interest from Unclassified Patient Visit Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meichun; Loschen, Wayne; Deyneka, Lana; Burkom, Howard; Ising, Amy; Waller, Anna

    2013-01-01

    -classify. Methods In late 2011, NC DPH and JHU APL signed a Software License Agreement and soon thereafter CCHI received the TOA software package. In May 2012, the TOA controller was adapted and set up to run against ED visit data for all NC DETECT hospitals. The TOA looks for clusters in all ED visits by hospital based solely on arrival time in both 30-minute and 60-minute intervals. There is no pre-classification of the chief complaints or triage notes into syndromes. TOA alerts are viewable on the NC DETECT Web application and, as of August 2012, users are able to document any actions taken on these alerts. Results From April 15, 2012 to July 31, 2012, TOA generated 173 alerts across all 115 hospitals reporting to NC DETECT. The TOA identified a group of scabies-related ED visits that was not captured in another syndrome. The TOA also identified clusters identified by hospitals as disaster-related which included misspellings that had not been previously identified, e.g. “diaster” and “disater,” as well as events involving out-of-town groups that will not be identified spatially (Table 1). This preliminary review of TOA alerts did not evaluate TOA for false negatives. Conclusions Our preliminary review of TOA shows that this algorithm approach can be helpful for identifying clusters of ED visits that are not captured by existing syndromes and can be used to identify hospital coding schemes for disaster events. The TOA will continue to be monitored in our production environment and evaluated for additional effectiveness. We will also explore tools that will display counts of terms within a TOA alert to assist in signal investigation.

  20. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  1. The Prevalence of Skin Diseases and its Association with Hygiene Behavior and Level of Education in a Pesantren, Jakarta Selatan 2013

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    Mohamad A. Sahala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin diseases are very common in places where the society lives in a crowded area. Pesantren is anIslamic school with a dormitory for its students, thus making the spread of skin infection easier to occur. Theobjective of this research was to identify the association between the prevalence of skin diseases with the hygienebehavior and level of education of santris (students of pesantren. This cross-sectional study was conducted in apesantren in South Jakarta. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire consisting of ten questionsabout hygienic behaviors and history of previous dermatological examinations from July until September 2013.Results showed that out of 98 santris, 88 of them had skin diseases (89.7%. The most frequent skin infectionwas scabies with 67 cases (49.3%. Furthermore, 78 (88.6% out of all santris who had skin diseases, werecategorized to have poor hygienic behaviors. There were only 10 santris that did not have any skin disease, 3of them had good hygienic behaviors. There was no significant difference between hygienic behaviors of santrisand the prevalence of skin disease (p=0.350. Associated with the level of education, ibtidaiyah had the highestnumber of santris (51.2% affected by skin diseases. There was a significant difference between the level ofeducation and the prevalence of skin diseases (p<0.001. In coclusion, the prevalence of skin diseases in thepesantren was 89.7%; there was no association between skin diseases and hygienic behaviors. However, therewas an association between skin diseases and level of education. Keywords: skin diseases, prevalence, personal behavior, level of education   Prevalensi Penyakit Kulit dan Hubungannya dengan Perilaku Kebersihandan Tingkat Pendidikan di Pesantren, Jakarta Selatan 2013 Abstrak Penyakit kulit sering terjadi pada masyarakat yang hidup di lingkungan padat penghuni. Pesantrenadalah asrama sekolah Islam yang biasanya padat penghuni sehingga mudah terjadi penularan

  2. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    The first pyrethroid pesticide, allethrin, was identified in 1949. Allethrin and other pyrethroids with a basic cyclopropane carboxylic ester structure are type I pyrethroids. The insecticidal activity of these synthetic pyrethroids was enhanced further by the addition of a cyano group to give alpha-cyano (type II) pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin. The finding of insecticidal activity in a group of phenylacetic 3-phenoxybenzyl esters, which lacked the cyclopropane ring but contained the alpha-cyano group (and hence were type II pyrethroids) led to the development of fenvalerate and related compounds. All pyrethroids can exist as at least four stereoisomers, each with different biological activities. They are marketed as racemic mixtures or as single isomers. In commercial formulations, the activity of pyrethroids is usually enhanced by the addition of a synergist such as piperonyl butoxide, which inhibits metabolic degradation of the active ingredient. Pyrethroids are used widely as insecticides both in the home and commercially, and in medicine for the topical treatment of scabies and headlice. In tropical countries mosquito nets are commonly soaked in solutions of deltamethrin as part of antimalarial strategies. Pyrethroids are some 2250 times more toxic to insects than mammals because insects have increased sodium channel sensitivity, smaller body size and lower body temperature. In addition, mammals are protected by poor dermal absorption and rapid metabolism to non-toxic metabolites. The mechanisms by which pyrethroids alone are toxic are complex and become more complicated when they are co-formulated with either piperonyl butoxide or an organophosphorus insecticide, or both, as these compounds inhibit pyrethroid metabolism. The main effects of pyrethroids are on sodium and chloride channels. Pyrethroids modify the gating characteristics of voltage-sensitive sodium channels to delay their closure. A protracted sodium influx (referred to as a sodium 'tail

  3. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

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    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    tubers (over 40 mm harvested in this season became nearly worthless because of the intensive occurrence of internal dark and scattered spots, associated to enlarged lenticels. HYDRA was the best variety in producing large potatoes, mainly in the dry season. In both seasons, however, most of the potatoes were lost for the market, due to the strong attack of common scab (Streptomyces scabies. TONDRA showed the greatest difference between yields of different seasons. Production of marketable tubers increased twice and that of large tubers, almost three times, in the rainy season. This variety had no trouble similar to that of the other ones and in the rainy season, its yield of large potatoes was not significantly lower than that of HANSA and HYDRA.

  4. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancies in a tertiary health care hospital of a developing country Manifestações cutâneas de doenças malignas em um hospital terciário de um país em desenvolvimento

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    Alex G Ortega-Loayza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a public hospital in Lima, Peru, 24 patients with 16 types of paraneoplastic dermatoses were identified by data collection. The most frequent dermatosis was dermatomyositis (four patients. The other dermatoses were malignant acanthosis nigricans, palmoplantar keratoderma, bullous dermatoses, lymphomatoid papulosis, edematous scarring vasculitic panniculitis, Norwegian scabies, primary systemic amyloidosis, necrolytic migratory erythema, infective dermatitis, pancreatic panniculitis, generalized pruritus, Lesser-Trelat syndrome, and acquired ichthyosis. Most of these paraneoplastic dermatoses were diagnosed before (45.8% or at the time of (38.5% the diagnosis of the underlying malignancy. The most frequent underlying malignancies were lymphoma, adenocarcinomas of the upper digestive tract, and malignant neoplasms of the pancreas. The average age of the patients was 47.0 ± 16.9 years and the length of the disease since diagnosis was 13.7 months. The mortality rate was 75%. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare dermatologic entities that are difficult to diagnose. Surveillance is also hampered when patients do not have easy access to health care centers due to financial and geographical issues. However, when identified, they might facilitate the early diagnosis of an associated tumor and contribute to increase the surveillance of patients.Em um hospital público em Lima, Peru, 24 pacientes com 16 tipos de dermatoses paraneoplásicas foram identificados por meio de coleta de dados. A dermatose mais frequente foi dermatomiosite (quatro pacientes. As outras dermatoses foram acantose maligna, queratodermia palmoplantar, dermatoses bolhosas, papulose linfomatóide, cicatriz edematosa, paniculite e vasculite, escabiose norueguesa, amiloidose sistêmica primária, eritema necrolítico migratório, dermatite infecciosa, paniculite pancreática, prurido generalizado, sinal de Leser-Trelat e ictiose adquirida. Grande parte dessas dermatoses foi

  5. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research. A literature search was performed on Acalypha species using ethnobotanical text books and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar and other web sources such as records from PROTA, PROSEA, and Botanical Dermatology Database. The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Kew Botanical Garden Plant name databases were used to validate scientific names. Plants from Acalypha genus are traditionally used in the treatment and/or management of diverse ailments such as diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, fever, liver inflammation, schistosomiasis, dysentery, respiratory problems including bronchitis, asthma and pheumonia as well as skin conditions such as scabies, eczema and mycoses. Approximately 124 species were listed in ethnobotanical studies with some botanical description and others mentioned from different web sources. However, only 40 species have been included in the present review due to the unavailability of ethnopharmacological data on the remaining species. Among the 40 cited species, 30 were traditionally used for the treatment and/or management of approximately 70 human diseases or health conditions. Two species

  6. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  7. Prevalência de dermatoses em idosos residentes em instituição de longa permanência Prevalence of dermatoses in residents of institutions for the elderly

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    Sandra Lopes Mattos e Dinato

    2008-12-01

    -groups. RESULTS: The total number of diagnoses of dermatosis was 280 with an average number of 3. 73/ per elderly person and 32 different types of dermatosis: were found. The prevalence of the dermatosis most often found was respectively: melanosis (53.3%, seborrheic keratosis (46.6%, onychomycosis (37.3%, nevus (33.3%, senile purpura (29.3%, xerosis (14.6%, scabies (12.0% and malignant neoplasm (1.3%. The distribution of dermatosis was 70% (CI95%: 59% to 81% higher in the female population than in the male. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the small number of cases, these data are compatible with the few reports available in literature. This study of prevalence defined the distribution of dermatosis in a fraction of the elderly population. However the aggregate data of subsequent casuistries may provide the more precise information whose relevance is undeniable in the orientation of individual and collective future health measures.

  8. Corrigendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Jakubowski, T.L., Perron, T.J., and Teixeira, E. (2015). Rashes in school: Can they stay, or should they go? NASN School Nurse, 30(5): 274-282. (Original DOI: 10.1177/1942602X15596815)In the September 2015 issue of NASN School Nurse, the images for Lyme Disease and Spider bites were reversed. The correct order appears below.spnas;31/1/61/TABLE11942602X15621761T1table1-1942602X15621761Table 5.Bites/Stings in ChildrenDiagnosis(Bites, Stings, cutaneous infestations)Rash DescriptionSigns and SymptomsStay in School or Go Home?PhotoLyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)Transmitted by deer tickErythema rash when present, "Bull's eye rash" distinct red borders with central clearing.Rash at site of bite but can have multiple rashesFever, joint pain, malaise, headache, single swollen joint usually knee usually accompany the rash.Not Contagious: Can stay at school.Incubation: 1-32 days median is 11 days. April through October with more than 50% of the cases presenting in June and July.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Rickettial infection transmitted by wood ticks.Characteristic spotted rash, maculopapular and sometimes petechial rash.Triad of fever, rash, and history of tick exposure, headache, vomiting, sore throatNot Contagious: Can stay at school.Rash initially appears on wrists and ankles and spreads to trunk within hours. Palms of hands and soles of feet are also involved.Incubation: Average time frame one week. Can range 2-14 days. August through September highest prevalence.Scabies(Mites)Papules and burrows, excoriation secondary to scratching.Intense itching especially at night. Commonly seen between the fingers and toes.Is Contagious: Should go home.Skin-to-skin contact. Mites can remain alive for > 2 days on clothing and bedding.Incubation: 4-6 weeksIf the child had it previously 1-4 days.*Can return to school with medical clearance.Bee stingsLocalized swelling, redness. If allergic can spread rapidly. Raised pink wheel.Pain, redness, swelling, hives if allergic

  9. УЧАСТЬ СПІВРОБІТНИКІВ ЧЕРНІВЕЦЬКОГО ДЕРЖАВНОГО МЕДИЧНОГО ІНСТИТУТУ В ЛІКВІДАЦІЇ ВОГНИЩ ШКІРНО-ВЕНЕРИЧНИХ ХВОРОБ НА ТЕРИТОРІЇ ЧЕРНІВЕЦЬКОЇ ОБЛАСТІ (1946–1949 РР. / PARTICIPATION OF CHERNIVTSI STATE MEDICAL INSTITUTE IN THE LIQUIDATION OF THE SKIN AND VENEREAL DISEASES IN CHERNIVTSY REGION DURING 1946-1949 PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тарас Бойчук

    2017-06-01

    дицинский институт, Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, кафедра кожно-венерических болезней, венерический отряд, областной кожно-венерологический диспансер, сифилис, короста. Boychuk Taras, Moysey Antoniy. Participation of Chernivtsi State Medical Institute in the liquidation of the skin and venereal diseases in Chernivtsi region during 1946-1949 periods Abstract. Monitoring carried out by authoritative international organizations in the health care sector shows a significant proliferation of the world's diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia. Annually in the world are registered about 60 million cases of syphilis, 300 million cases of scabies, skin disease affects 30 to 70% of humanity. In recent years in Ukraine has increased the incidence of syphilis among children and teenagers. Worryingly, those 15% increases in the number of cases are children with early latent syphilis. Among teenage girls secondary recurrent syphilis appears three times more often than boys, what generally is a negative prognostic criterion for the health of future generations of the country. Enough high incidence of syphilis and other infections what are transmitted sexually, requiring immediate development and approval of the State intersectoral programs to combat spread of these infections. It will contribute to the preservation and strengthening of the nation's gene pool. This situation requires the accumulation and use of experience of combating infectious diseases. It was developed by Ukrainian scientists and practitioners. In this regard, an absolute value has the experience of Chernivtsi State Medical Institute (CHSMI stuff gained during the campaign to combat syphilis in 1946 in the Chernivtsi region. In that research period was developed the problem and were run special treatment methods of the

  10. Health management practices and disease prevalence in dairy sheep systems in Argentina Práticas de manejo sanitário e frequência de doenças em ovinos leiteiros na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Suárez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of 19 dairy sheep farms in Argentina was carried out with the purpose to know farm management, health practices, and occurrence and mortality of diseases. The survey comprised 40% of all sheep milking farms in Argentina. A questionnaire was conducted by way of personal interviews with sheep owners during farm visits. The proportions of farms reporting routine vaccination for clostridial diseases, contagious ecthyma, pneumonia and mineral and vitamin parenteral administration were 63%, 47.3%, 16.6% and 42.1% respectively. Regular treatment against lice was used in 37.5% of the farms, and 89.5% o the farmers treated against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN. The mean number of GIN drenches per farm was 2.26±1.78 annually. In 68.4% of the milking flocks the California Mastitis Test was regularly done and 55.6% of the farmer managers had sampled their flocks once a year for Brucella ovis antibodies. During the pre-mating period respectively 68.4% and 50% of farmers clinically examined their rams and ewe for general health and teeth condition. The udders of ewes were frequently inspected at the start of each milking period. The most important parasite problems noticed were GIN (reported by 57.9% of farmers, lice (57.9% and scabies (10.5% and the most frequent infectious diseases were ecthyma (73.7%, pneumonia and other respiratory problems (57.9%, clinical mastitis (55.6%, clostridial diseases (36.9% and foot lameness (35.2%. Photosensitivity (47.4% and ruminal acidosis (42.1% were reported as other frequent toxic or metabolic disorders. Owners mentioned that the mean lifespan or milk productive time per ewe was 4.5±1.4 years. Perinatal lamb mortality was 8.5% and the total flock mortality rates, above the first 24 h of life was 6.9%. The high rates of lamb mortality during the pre-weaning (10.3% and post-weaning (5.9% periods indicate that this problem, as well as the most prevalent diseases, should be the subject of further