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Sample records for sc wood ca

  1. New nuclear data evaluations for Ca and Sc isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, Arjan; Duijvestijn, Marieke

    2007-01-01

    New ENDF-6 formatted nuclear data libraries are presented for 40,42,43,44,46,48 Ca and 45 Sc, for incident neutrons and protons. Apart from the resonance range, which we have adopted from the best available source in existing libraries, the nuclear data evaluations are completely revised in the 0-20MeV energy range, and, moreover, extend up to 200 MeV. This collection of isotopic evaluations is created by using the nuclear model code TALYS with a consistent set of input parameters for all isotopes. The most important nuclear reaction models needed for our data files are described. We have intended to make these evaluations complete in their description of reaction channels and use a consistent method to store the data in ENDF-6 format, which include cross sections, angular distributions, double-differential spectra, discrete and continuum photon production cross sections, and residual production (activation) cross sections including isomers. It is shown that the data present in our libraries give an improved agreement with the existing basic experimental data. (author)

  2. β decay and isomeric properties of neutron-rich Ca and Sc isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H. L.; Mantica, P. F.; Berryman, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kay, B. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Broda, R.; Cieplicka, N.; Fornal, B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Minamisono, K.; Hoteling, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.

    2010-01-01

    The isomeric and β-decay properties of neutron-rich 53-57 Sc and 53,54 Ca nuclei near neutron number N=32 are reported, and the low-energy level schemes of 53,54,56 Sc and 53-57 Ti are presented. The low-energy level structures of the 21 Sc isotopes are discussed in terms of the coupling of the valence 1f 7/2 proton to states in the corresponding 20 Ca cores. Implications with respect to the robustness of the N=32 subshell closure are discussed, as well as the repercussions for a possible N=34 subshell closure.

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of the solid-solution phase Ca3Co2-v Sc v O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervoches, Charles H.; Fredenborg, Vivian Miksch; Kjekshus, Arne; Fjellvag, Helmer; Hauback, Bjorn C.

    2007-01-01

    The two crystallographically non-equivalent Co atoms of the quasi-one-dimensional crystal structure of Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 form chains with alternating, face-sharing polyhedra of Co2O 6 trigonal prisms and Co1O 6 octahedra. This compound forms a substitutional solid-solution phase with Sc, in which the Sc atoms enter the Co2 sublattice exclusively. The homogeneity range of Ca 3 Co 2- v Sc v O 6 (more specifically Ca 3 Co1Co2 1- v Sc v O 6 ) extends up to v∼0.55. The crystal structure belongs to space group R3-barc with lattice parameters (in hexagonal setting): 9.0846(3)≤a≤9.1300(2) A and 10.3885(4)≤c≤10.4677(4) A. The magnetic moment decreases rapidly with increasing amount of the non-magnetic Sc solute in the lattice. - Graphical abstract: The quasi-one-dimensional Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 phase forms a substitutional solid-solution system with Sc, in which the Sc atoms enter the Co2 sublattice exclusively. The homogeneity range of Ca 3 Co 2- v Sc v O 6 extends up to v∼0.55. The magnetic moment decreases rapidly with increasing amount of the non-magnetic Sc solute in the lattice

  4. One-hole states in nuclei of 41K, 41Ca and 41Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Won

    1985-01-01

    The one-hole states in nuclei of 41 K, 41 Ca and 41 Sc have been calculated with a model space based on the (1f 7/2 ,2P 3/2 ) 2 (1d 3/2 , 2S 1/2 ) -1 configuration using the nuclear shell model. The two body effective interaction is assumed to be a surface-delta potential. 40 Ca is also assumed to be an inert core. Energy spectra and spectroscopic factors are obtained and compared with the experimental data. The calculate results in fair agreement with the observed values. (Author)

  5. Isospin excitation of nucleus in 42,44,48Ca (p,n)42,44,48Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    To obtain information of (p,n) reaction of heavy nucleus in 100 MeV or less, 42,44,48 Ca(p,n) 42,44,48 Sc was observed on the Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center in Tohoku University. The experimental results showed that 7, 8 and 10 spin parities were determined for 42 Sc, 44 Sc and 48 SC, respectively. It was the first determination of one and two negative parity transition of 42 Sc and 48 Sc,respectively, by (p,n) reaction. The full space wave function made by 0f1p shell effective interaction by Richter,et al is good accuracy and reliability. On the (p,n) reaction at E p =35 MeV, the transition matrix elements of 42 Ca, 44 Ca and 48 Ca were derived. On the experiment of 42 Ca(p,n) 42 Sc at E p 2 on energy was agreed with the calculation results by Franey and Love. The nuclear structure of 42 Ca was thought to show more stronger U(4) symmetry, because strong GT transition at T=1 was not observed, which was expected by j-j bonding shell model calculation. (S.Y.)

  6. Application of shell model with the modified surface delta interaction to 42Ca and 42Sc nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasielska, A.; Wiktor, S.

    1975-01-01

    The shell model with MSDI residual interaction is used to investigate properties of levels in the 42 Ca and 42 Sc nuclei. The 40 Ca core with two active outer nucleons is assumed. The energy matrices are diagonalized and the calculated level schemes for both 42 Ca and 42 Sc nuclei are presented. In both nuclei the density of the calculated levels is significantly less than of the observed levels. This fact leads to the conclusion, that some core excitation modes play an important role in the formation of low-lying states in the 42 Ca and 42 Sc nuclei. The calculated eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the states below 5 MeV are given. (author)

  7. An electroamalgamation approach to separate 47Sc from neutron activated CaO target for use in cancer theranostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, 47 Sc has attracted significant attention for potential use in cancer theranostics due to its favorable nuclear decay characteristics (t 1/2 = 3.35 d; average β energy, 162 keV; Eγ, 159 keV). No-carrier-added (NCA) 47 Sc can be produced via the 46 Ca(n,γ)→ 47 Sc reaction in a nuclear reactor. For this purpose, 1 mg of CaO (98 % enrichment of 46 Ca) target was irradiated for 7 d at a flux of 1 × 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the Dhruva reactor of our research centre. The irradiated target was dissolved in 5 ml of 1 M HCl inside a lead shielded facility. The resultant solution was evaporated to near dryness, reconstituted in 20 ml of 0.15 M lithium citrate solution and transferred to the electrochemical cell. The electrochemical separation involved selective amalgamation of Ca from Ca/Sc mixture into mercury-pool cathode. The influence of different experimental parameters (such as applied potential, pH of the electrolyte, time of electrolysis and amount of Ca 2+ ions in the electrolyte) on the separation process was investigated and optimized for the quantitative electroamalgamation of Ca

  8. Study of positive parity levels in 41Ca and 41Sc: electromagnetic deexcitation of the 3/2 isospin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Simone.

    1976-01-01

    The γ-decay of T=3/2 states in 41 Ca has been investigated by means of the 42 Ca( 3 He,αγ) 41 Ca reaction. Angular correlation measurements have been performed for γ-rays in coincidence with α particles emitted near 0 deg, and branching ratios extracted. The lowest T=3/2 level in 41 Sc (E=5,94MeV) has been excited as a resonance in the 40 Ca(p,γ) 41 Sc reaction, and radiative widths of γ-transitions were measured. The γ decay of the first T=3/2 level in 41 Sc is found to be quite similar to the one measured for the analog level in 41 Ca (E=5,92MeV), as it could be expected from corresponding ΔT=1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The M1 strengths are also compared with the ft values of β + transitions from the 41 Ti ground state. The orbital momentum part of the M1 operator is found to be important for three couples of γ-transition in 41 Ca and 41 Sc. These results suggest that the antianalog configuration could be in the ) 72.01-2.10MeV{ levels whereas the core-excited configurations (2 particles in the f7/2 shell coupled to J=1 and T=0 in the 74.09-4.25MeV{ levels and 74.73-4.77MeV{ levels. Experimental results are finally compared with the predictions of a shell model calculation performed for positive parity levels in A=41 nuclei, with 2 or 4 particles in the 1f7/2 shell and 1 or 3 holes in the 1d3/2 and 2s1/2 shells. )] [fr

  9. Ionic conductivity of Ca and Mg doped NdGdZr1.95Sc0.05O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anithakumari, P.; Mandal, B.P.; Grover, V.; Tyagi, A.K.; Mishra, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of pyrochlore based materials makes them promising candidates for fuel-cell applications where high ionic conductivity and low activation energy are desired. Earlier it has been reported that 5%Sc doped GdNdZr 2 O 7 shows highest ionic conductivity. In this present work, an attempt has been made to further increase the oxygen vacancy concentration by the incorporation of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions at A site of NdGdZr 1.95 Sc 0.05 O 7 (NGZS)

  10. Combustion synthesis of CaSc2O4:Ce3+ nano-phosphors in a closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wenfang; Zou Shaoyu; Liu Guanxi; Xiao Quanlan; Zhang Rui; Xie Lijuan; Cao Liwei; Meng Jianxin; Liu Yingliang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors can be prepared by a single-step combustion method. → The ignition temperature is the lowest in the combustion synthesis of Ce 3+ /Eu 2+ doped phosphors. → The as-prepared nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm and have highly dispersity and fluorescence intensity. → It is a convenient method for preparation of monodispersed oxide nano-phosphors, especially those being sensitive to air at high temperature. - Abstract: The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors were successfully prepared by a single-step combustion method at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C in a closed autoclave using glycine as a fuel and PEG4000 as a dispersant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results revealed that CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors can be conveniently prepared at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C, which was much lower than that in the ordinary combustion methods. The optimized ignition temperature was 220 deg. C. The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm. The low ignition temperature and the addition of PEG4000 dispersant play important roles in the formation of small sized nanoparticles. The as-prepared nano-phosphors were incompact aggregates, but highly dispersed nano-phosphors can be obtained after further ultrasonic treatment. The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors give satisfactory luminescence characteristic benefiting from the closed circumstance, in which cerium atoms can be isolated from the oxidizing atmosphere and non-fluorescent Ce 4+ ions can be ruled out. The present highly dispersed CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors with efficient fluorescence are promising in the field of biological labeling, and the present low temperature combustion method is facile and convenient and can

  11. XAFS Analysis of Local Structure around Ce in Ca3Sc2Si3O12:Ce Phosphor for White LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai, Toshio; Shigeiwa, Motoyuki; Okamoto, Kaoru; Shimomura, Yasuo; Kijima, Naoto; Honma, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the local structure around Ce atom in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 host crystal, which has been developed as a new green phosphor for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the local structure and chemical environment of the dopant atom are very important to improve the performance of the phosphor, we have used XAFS to get chemical and structural information around the Ce dopant. The XANES spectrum of the Ce LIII-edge reveals that the Ce atom is trivalent in Ca3Sc2Si3O12. There are two kinds of possible Ce substitution sites, Ca site and Sc site, in garnet type Ca3Sc2Si3O12 crystal structure. The Ce atom is found to be at the Ca site in the host crystal by the comparison of the Fourier transform of Ce K-edge EXAFS spectrum with those of Ca and Sc K-edge EXAFS spectra. The theoretical analysis with FEFF also clarified the Ce substitution at the Ca site. Furthermore, the result of the analysis indicates the structural disorder around Ca and Si atoms at 3.75 A. It is possible that there are some defects around the Ca and Si atoms at 3.75 A to compensate the excess positive charge by introduced Ce3+ at the Ca2+ site

  12. Nuclear spectroscopy of Ca and Sc isotopes from inelastic scattering and one-nucleon transfer reactions on a radioactive 41Ca target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, P.

    1978-04-01

    The structure of energy levels in 40 , 42 Ca and 42 Sc has been studied using inelastic proton scattering and one-nucleon stripping and pick-up transfer reactions on a 41 Ca target. Data has given the following information on the properties of the 41 Ca ground state wave function; i) the 41 Ca (g.s.) looks very much like an f (sub7/2) neutron coupled to the 40 Ca (g.s.) core. ii) The core-excited component of the 41 Ca (g.s.) is determined to be 10 or less. It was inferred that the main constituents of the spectroscopic strength leading to the (f(sub7/2)) 2 , (f(sub7/2)p(sub3/2))(subt=1) and (f(sub7/2)p(sub1/2))(subT=1) configurations have been identified. This was used to deduce the effective two-particle matrix elements for these configurations. The 42 Sc and 42 Ca data result in excellent agreement for the T=1 members of the (f(sub7/2)) 2 multiplet while the (f(sub7/2)p(sub3/2))(subT=1) matrix elements derived from the 42 Sc data are about 0.2 MeV more repulsive than those obtained from the 42 Ca data. The (f(sub7/2)d(sub3/2) -1 ) matrix elements derived from the present ( 3 He,α) data were compared to the corresponding values obtained from one-nucleon stripping to mass 34 nuclei. The two sets of matrix elements are in very good agreement. The 40 Ca values are also well reproduced by calculations using the modified surface delta interaction. The experimental spectroscopic factors to both the T=0 and T=1 states of the (f(sub7/2)) 2 multiplet are in remarkably good agreement with the predicted values of the coexistence model considering the simplicity of this model. (JIW)

  13. New Ce{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12} garnet ceramic phosphor for white LED converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaidukov, N. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Iskaliyeva, A.; Paprocki, K. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University Bydgoszcz (Poland); Zhydachevskii, Y.; Suchocki, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Deun, R. van [L3 - Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Batentschuk, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering VI, Institute of Materials for Energy and Electronic Technology (i-IMEET), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The results on crystallization and investigation of the luminescent properties of a new prospective ceramic phosphor based on the Ce{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12} silicate garnet are presented for the first time in this work. The luminescent properties of Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Ce were compared with the properties of the reference Ca{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Ce ceramic sample. Without any doubt, the results of this research can be suitable for the development of a new generation of white converters based on the Ca{sup 2+}-Si{sup 4+} garnet compounds. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Canted ferrimagnetism in Ca2+Sc3+ substituted yttrium-iron-garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavi-Horváth, M.; Thavendrarajah, A.; Wigen, P. E.; DeGasperis, P.

    1988-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetization of Y3-y-zCayLuzFe5-xScxO12 (0.6≤x≤1.2, 0≤y≤0.3, 0≤z≤0.9) epitaxial garnet films was measured from 4.2 K up to the Curie temperature. For x=0.7 and T≥50 K, 4πMs is enhanced by about 10% compared to the magnetization of Sc0.7 YIG. At TJdd/Jad)/da =28 nm.-1 For x=1.2 and T<10 K the magnetization can be influenced by cooling through the Curie point in a magnetic field.

  15. Enhanced Energy-Storage Density and High Efficiency of Lead-Free CaTiO3-BiScO3 Linear Dielectric Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Song, Hongzhou; Wang, Hongxian; Li, Longtu

    2017-06-14

    A novel lead-free (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 linear dielectric ceramic with enhanced energy-storage density was fabricated. With the composition of BiScO 3 increasing, the dielectric constant of (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 ceramics first increased and then decreased after the composition x > 0.1, while the dielectric loss decreased first and increased. For the composition x = 0.1, the polarization was increased into 12.36 μC/cm 2 , 4.6 times higher than that of the pure CaTiO 3 . The energy density of 0.9CaTiO 3 -0.1BiScO 3 ceramic was 1.55 J/cm 3 with the energy-storage efficiency of 90.4% at the breakdown strength of 270 kV/cm, and the power density was 1.79 MW/cm 3 . Comparison with other lead-free dielectric ceramics confirmed the superior potential of CaTiO 3 -BiScO 3 ceramics for the design of ceramics capacitors for energy-storage applications. First-principles calculations revealed that Sc subsitution of Ti-site induced the atomic displacement of Ti ions in the whole crystal lattice, and lattice expansion was caused by variation of the bond angles and lenghths. Strong hybridization between O 2p and Ti 3d was observed in both valence band and conduction band; the hybridization between O 2p and Sc 3d at high conduction band was found to enlarge the band gap, and the static dielectric tensors were increased, which was the essential for the enhancement of polarization and dielectric properties.

  16. The monoclinic superstructure of the M2Pt6Al15 series (M=Ca, Sc, Y, La, Lu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Stegemann, Frank; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The five ternary intermetallic compounds M 2 Pt 6 Al 15 (M=Ca, Sc, Y, La, Lu) were prepared from the elements by arc-melting. The crystal structure was determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compounds crystallize in a superstructure of the RE 0.67 Pt 2 Al 5 type structure (P6 3 /mmc) in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P12 1 /m1 (Sc 2 Pt 6 Al 15 : a=734.19(2), b=1628.96(10), c=734.19(2) pm, β=119.999(3) ; wR=0.0356, 3034 F 2 values, 68 variables). The superstructure can be derived by the superspace formalism using (3+2)D or (3+1)D interpretations of the diffraction data. The structural relation to the subcell structure is discussed on the basis of a group-subgroup scheme. In the crystal structure strongly bonded [Pt 2 Al 4 ] δ- slabs are alternatingly stacked with ordered layers containing M atoms and Al 3 triangles.

  17. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  18. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO Systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) at 900 °C in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) were investigated in air at 900 °C. The pseudo-ternary sections with RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu have a similar structure. They have in common with the RE = Eu system a solid solution of Ca0.833−xRExCuO2......+y composition but the system with RE = Eu differs by the presence of an Eu2CuO4 phase instead of RE2Cu2O5 for RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu. In contrast, the CaO-ScO1.5-CuO section does not contain a Ca0.833−xScxCuO2+y solid solution and is dominated by the CaSc2O4 phase, which has no equivalent...... in the other systems at 900 °C in air....

  19. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  20. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  1. Combustion synthesis of CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors in a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Wenfang; Zou Shaoyu; Liu Guanxi; Xiao Quanlan; Zhang Rui; Xie Lijuan; Cao Liwei [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Meng Jianxin, E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu Yingliang [Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Highlights: > CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors can be prepared by a single-step combustion method. > The ignition temperature is the lowest in the combustion synthesis of Ce{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} doped phosphors. > The as-prepared nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm and have highly dispersity and fluorescence intensity. > It is a convenient method for preparation of monodispersed oxide nano-phosphors, especially those being sensitive to air at high temperature. - Abstract: The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors were successfully prepared by a single-step combustion method at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C in a closed autoclave using glycine as a fuel and PEG4000 as a dispersant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results revealed that CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors can be conveniently prepared at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C, which was much lower than that in the ordinary combustion methods. The optimized ignition temperature was 220 deg. C. The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm. The low ignition temperature and the addition of PEG4000 dispersant play important roles in the formation of small sized nanoparticles. The as-prepared nano-phosphors were incompact aggregates, but highly dispersed nano-phosphors can be obtained after further ultrasonic treatment. The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors give satisfactory luminescence characteristic benefiting from the closed circumstance, in which cerium atoms can be isolated from the oxidizing atmosphere and non-fluorescent Ce{sup 4+} ions can be ruled out. The present highly dispersed CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors with efficient fluorescence are promising in the field of biological labeling

  2. Hydration reactions in pastes C3S+C3A+CaSO4.2aq+H20 at 25°C.I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, W.A.; Stein, H.N.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    A characteristic retardation of the hydration of C3A is found in pastes C3S+C3A+CaSO4.2aq+H2O of weight ratios 1:3:z:4 at certain values of z, when sulphate concentration becomes insufficient for monosulphate formation. This retardation is ascribed to precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3, when C3A

  3. Measurement of Gamow-Teller and spin dipole strength in the 45Sc(n,p)45Ca reaction at 198 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.P.; Celler, A.; Brown, B.A.; Long, S.; Raywood, K.

    1990-11-01

    The reaction 45 Sc(n,p) 45 Ca has been studied at an energy of 198 MeV with energy resolution of about 1 MeV. Measurements were carried out at nominal angles 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 degrees and spectra obtained up to ∼40 MeV excitation energy in 45 Ca. Significant Gamow-Teller strength is observed at an excitation energy of about 7 MeV, somewhat higher than predicted by shell model calculations. The strength observed is in agreement with calculations using g A /g V ≅ 1. The spin dipole giant resonance is seen with centroid at about 15 MeV excitation and total cross section of 25 mb/sr at an angle of 6 degrees. (Author) (22 refs., 9 figs.)

  4. Fluorescence properties of novel near-infrared phosphor CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.X., E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhang, F.J.; Peng, W.F.; Wan, W.J.; Xiao, Q.L.; Chen, Q.Q.; Cao, L.W. [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Z.L. [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming 650031 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: Novel near-infrared (NIR) phosphor, CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, was synthesized. The phosphor gives strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic NIR emissions in the range of 880-930 nm. The NIR emission intensity gets a 200 times enhancement benefited from the efficient energy transfer from a co-doped Ce{sup 3+}. The energy transfer mechanism was also briefly based on detailed investigation on spectrum and fluorescence lifetime. - Abstract: Novel near-infrared (NIR) phosphor, CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, was synthesized by co-precipitation method followed by firing at 1300 {sup o}C in reduced atmosphere. When irradiated with blue light, the phosphor gives strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic NIR emissions in the range of 880-930 nm. The NIR emission intensity gets a 200 times enhancement by co-doping of Ce{sup 3+}. Detailed investigation on spectrum and fluorescence lifetimes indicated the NIR luminescence enhancement is obtained from an energy transfer process. The process initiates with efficient absorption of blue light by Ce{sup 3+} ions via an allowed 4f-5d transition, follow by efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, and emitting strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic fluorescence.

  5. Crystal growth and piezoelectric properties of Ca3Ta(Ga0.9Sc0.1)3Si2O14 bulk single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yu; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Inoue, Kenji; Yamaji, Akihiro; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-03-01

    Ca3Ta(Ga0.9Sc0.1)3Si2O14 langasite-type single crystal with a diameter of 1 in. was grown by Czochralski (Cz) method. Obtained crystal had good crystallinity and its lattice constants exceeded those of Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) according to the X-ray analysis. A crack-free specimen cut from the grown crystal was used for the measurements of dielectric constant ε11T/ε0, electromechanical coupling factor k12, and piezoelectric constant d11. The accuracies of these measurements were better than those for the crystal grown by micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Substitution of Ga with Sc resulted modification of these constants in the directions opposite to those observed after partial substitution of Ga (of CTGS) with Al. This suggests that increase of |d14| was most probably associated with enlargement of average size of the Ga sites. The crystal reported here had greater dimensions as compared to analogous crystals grown by the μ-PD method. As a result, accuracy of determination of acoustic constants of this material may be improved.

  6. The monoclinic superstructure of the M{sub 2}Pt{sub 6}Al{sub 15} series (M=Ca, Sc, Y, La, Lu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Stegemann, Frank; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-07-01

    The five ternary intermetallic compounds M{sub 2}Pt{sub 6}Al{sub 15} (M=Ca, Sc, Y, La, Lu) were prepared from the elements by arc-melting. The crystal structure was determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compounds crystallize in a superstructure of the RE{sub 0.67}Pt{sub 2}Al{sub 5} type structure (P6{sub 3}/mmc) in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P12{sub 1}/m1 (Sc{sub 2}Pt{sub 6}Al{sub 15}: a=734.19(2), b=1628.96(10), c=734.19(2) pm, β=119.999(3) ; wR=0.0356, 3034 F{sup 2} values, 68 variables). The superstructure can be derived by the superspace formalism using (3+2)D or (3+1)D interpretations of the diffraction data. The structural relation to the subcell structure is discussed on the basis of a group-subgroup scheme. In the crystal structure strongly bonded [Pt{sub 2}Al{sub 4}]{sup δ-} slabs are alternatingly stacked with ordered layers containing M atoms and Al{sub 3} triangles.

  7. The Effects of CaCO3 Coated Wood Free Paper Usage as Filler on Water Absorption, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose-High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah PEŞMAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study some physical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE and CaCO3 coated/pigmented wood free paper fiber composites were investigated. The fillers used in this study were uncoated cellulose, 5.8 %, 11.5 %, 16.5 % and 23.1 % CaCO3 coated wood free paper fibers. Each filler type was mixed with HDPE at 40% by weight fiber loading. In this case, the ratio of CaCO3 in plastic composites were calculated as 0 %, 2.3 %, 4.6 %, 6.6 % and 9.2 % respectively. Increased CaCO3 ratio improved the moisture resistant, flexural and tensile strength of cellulose-HDPE composites. However, the density of the cellulose-HDPE composites increased with CaCO3 addition. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis demonstrated the uniform distribution of CaCO3 and cellulose fiber in plastic matrix. In addition, the thermal properties of fiber plastic composites were investigated. The results of Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed that the crystallinity of the samples decreased with increasing CaCO3 content. Consequently, this work showed that CaCO3 coated waste paper fibers could be used as reinforcing filler against water absorption in thermoplastic matrix.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.14222

  8. PATRIMÔNIO CULTURAL E TURISMO: um estudo de caso do Filò Talian realizado em Caçador (SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Zanella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo compreender como o Filò, costume dos imigrantes italianos, poderá ser preservado através da atividade turística no município de Caçador (SC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória, tendo como método o estudo de caso. Como resultados, verificou-se que o evento ainda se desenvolve de forma familiar e mantém muitas das características originais dos imigrantes, preservando a cultura dos antepassados e despertando o interesse da população local e de outros municípios. Constatou-se, também, que para se tornar um produto turístico, faz-se necessária a ampliação do evento e adaptações em relação à infraestrutura e mão de obra para o atendimento a um público maior ou então manter suas características originais e dedicá-lo ao turismo de experiência, onde o turista poderá vivenciar a realidade local e trocar saberes com a comunidade visitada.

  9. Room-temperature picosecond high-order stimulated Raman scattering in laser garnet crystal hosts Gd3Ga5O12, Gd3Sc2Ga3O12, and Ca3(Nb,Ga)2Ga3O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Eichler, H J; Findeisen, J; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Fernandez, J; Balda, R

    1998-01-01

    High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in the visible and near-infrared in cubic laser crystal hosts Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 , Gd 3 Sc 2 Ga 3 O 12 , and Ca 3 (Nb,Ga) 2 Ga 3 O 12 was observed for the first time. All scattering-laser components were identified and attributed to the SRS-active vibration modes of these garnet crystals. (letters to the editor)

  10. Radiochemical study of 45Sc(n,p)45Ca and 89Y(n,p)89Sr reactions in the neutron energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Basunia, S.; Miah, M.R.; Hossain, S.M.; Rahman, M.M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cross sections for 45 Sc(n,p) 45 Ca and 89 Y(n,p) 89 Sr reactions were measured using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV were produced using a D-T neutron generator. The purely β - emitting products 45 Ca and 89 Sr were separated radiochemically; their radioactivity was assayed via low-level β - counting. The measured data complement the available published experimental information, and agree with the results of statistical model calculations. (orig.)

  11. First measurement of the nonlinear coefficient for Gd1-xLux Ca4O(BO3)3 and Gd1-xScxCa4O(BO3)3 crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Germershausen, Sven

    2007-01-01

    The effective nonlinear coefficient and temperature acceptance bandwidth of three Lu and Sc co-doped GdCa4O(B03)3 type nonlinear crystals were measured. NCPM for SHG in to the blue-UV spectral region can be obtained by controlling the co-dopant concentration. Measurements were based on intra-cavi...

  12. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found....... In summary, a marked decrease was observed in the decay capacity of S. lacrymans in pine treated with CC+CaCl2. The amount of soluble oxalic acid was measured in CC-treated blocks and blocks also treated with CaCl2. Of the comparative brown-rot fungi, both Antrodia vaillantii (TFFH 294) and Postia placenta...

  13. Proton-oxygen conductivity in substituted perovskites ATi0.95Mo0.05O3-α (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; M = Sc, Mg) in the reducing hydrogen-containing atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, V.P.; Balakireva, V.B.; Sharova, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Electric conductivity depending on temperature, oxygen partial pressure, as well as the number of t i ion transfer and transfer hydrogen numbers in the perovskites ATi 0.95 Mo 0.05 O 3-α (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; M = Sc, Mg) in reducing hydrogen-containing atmospheres in the temperature range of 450-850 deg C have been measured. With the temperature decrease t i increases reaching 1.0 at a temperature of 550 deg C for all compositions. Proton conductivity under conditions of assumed concomitant transfer of either O 2- or OH - has been ascertained [ru

  14. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  15. Photoionization study of Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+ ions using the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Sow, Malick; Sakho, Ibrahima; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A.K.; Mohan, Man

    2016-01-01

    Photoionization of the 2s 2 2p 6 ( 1 S 0 ) ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19–29) ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and total natural width of the 2s2p 6 np 1 P series of the Ne-like K 9+ , Ca 10+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , Mn 15+ , and Fe 16+ are reported. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. New data for Ne-like K 9+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , and Mn 15+ ions are tabulated. Good agreements are found with available literature data. - Highlights: • Photoionization of ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19–29) presented. • good agreements with scarce literature data. • New data for Ne-like K 9+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , and Mn 15+ ions. • Useful guidelines for application in laboratory, astrophysics, and plasma physics.

  16. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  17. Uncertainty determination of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA method using standard addition according to ISO - guide 17025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumining; Agus Taftazani

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA (/instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method using comparative technique and standard addition have been carried out at INAA laboratory of P3TM BATAN. The calculation of Ti have been presented as the example. Uncertainty sources of INAA are sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting. Sample were come from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) which had ready for analyzed therefore only for sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting factors were determined. Analysis were done by relative technique, that sample and standard were irradiated together in same capsule therefore irradiation time, neutron flux, irradiation geometry and isotopic properties. will be eliminated. Uncertainty of counting factors were covering radioactivity decay during the counting, pulse losses caused by random counting, counting geometry, and counting rate. Relative technique makes the uncertainty come from counting time for sample and standard that was settled by same counting equipment can be neglected. Uncertainty of counting geometry and thickness of uranium was not detected so there is no contribution come from The fission product. Variation of fuel target nuclides number didn't occurred because the combustion was not occurred during irradiation, and analytical results were not influenced by the chemical status. (author)

  18. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  19. Cyclotron production of {sup 44}Sc for clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cydzik, I. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection; Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Heavy Ion Lab.; Abbas, K. [European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Bulgheroni, A.; Simonelli, F.; Holzwarth, U. [European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection

    2013-08-01

    {sup 44} is a promising {beta}{sup +}-emitter for molecular imaging with intermediate half-life of 4 h. Due to the chemical similarity of Sc{sup 3+} to the Lu{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} cations, {sup 44}Sc-DOTA bioconjugates are expected to demonstrate similar properties in vivo as the {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-bioconjugates, what is important in planning the radionuclide therapy. {sup 44}Sc can be obtained from the {sup 44}Ti/{sup 44}Sc generator. An alternative method for {sup 44}Sc production can be the irradiation of {sup 44}Ca target at small cyclotrons. The aim of our work was to optimize the parameters of {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} irradiation and to develop a simple procedure for {sup 44}Sc separation from the calcium target. For optimization study, {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} targets were irradiated by protons in the energy range of 5.6-17.5 MeV with 9 MeV being found to be the best energy for {sup 44}Ca irradiations. A simple and fast separation procedure of {sup 44}Sc from calcium target was developed using chelating resin Chelex 100. DOTATATE conjugate was successfully radiolabelled with high yield at elevated temperature using the produced {sup 44}Sc. While {sup 44}CaCO{sub 3} is relatively expensive, the cost of {sup 44}Sc-DOTATATE production can be reduced by target recovery. Due to low proton energy required to produce GBq activity level of {sup 44}Sc, the availability of {sup 44}Sc radioisotope could be enhanced to open new opportunities for applications in medical imaging. (orig.)

  20. CERN: SC-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    On 22 April a forward-looking CERN also looked back for a day, when the 'SC-33' event reviewed the achievements of CERN's first machine, the 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC), which closed down on 17 December after 33 years of valiant service

  1. CERN: SC-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    On 22 April a forward-looking CERN also looked back for a day, when the 'SC-33' event reviewed the achievements of CERN's first machine, the 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC), which closed down on 17 December after 33 years of valiant service.

  2. S-C Mylonites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lister, G.S.; Snoke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of foliations are commonly developed in mylonites and mylonitic rocks: (a) S-surfaces related to the accumulation of finite strain and (b) C-surfaces related to displacement discontinuities or zones of relatively high shear strain. There are two types of S-C mylonites. Type I S-C

  3. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  4. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  5. The cross section measurement for the reactions of 48,46Ti(n,p) 48,46Sc, 50Ti(n, α)47Ca and 58Ni (n, 2n)57Ni, 58Ni(n,p)58m+gCo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Junqian; Wang Yongchang; Kong Xiangzhong; Yang Jingkang

    1992-01-01

    The cross sections for the 50 Ti(n, α) 47 Ca, 46 Ti(n, p) 46 Sc, 48 Ti(n, p) 48 Sc and 58 Ni(n, 2n) 57 Ni, 58 Ni(n, p) 58m+g Co reactions have been measured by using the activation method relative to the cross sections of the 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na reaction in the neutron energy range of 13.50-14.81 MeV. The neutron energies were determined by the cross section ratios of the 90 Zr(n, 2n) 89m+g Zr and 93 Nb(n, 2n) 92m Nb reactions. The results obtained are compared with the published and to be published data of several authors

  6. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  7. A Walk in the Woods: Or, What Is Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Leo

    1999-01-01

    Presents a passage from Tolstoy's essay "The School at Yasnaya Polyana." Discusses his experience as a teacher walking through the woods with several children and telling them stories. Describes their reactions and personalities, all very different. (SC)

  8. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  9. DiSC-OPAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Pedersen, Rasmus; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    of such systems. The simulation tool should be able to model Electrical Grid and flexible assets with different time scales and resolution levels fulfilling specific functionalities. In this paper DiSC-OPAL, an OPAL-RT compatible toolbox library for modelling of assets is presented. The library is suitable...

  10. SC tuning fork

    CERN Document Server

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  11. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31, 4412.32, 4412.39, 4412.94... flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC, Fountain Inn, SC...

  12. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  13. Cyclotron production of {sup 43}Sc for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, Rafał [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewski, Seweryn [Synektik S.A., Research and Development Center, Warsaw (Poland); Szkliniarz, Katarzyna [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sitarz, Mateusz [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Abbas, Kamel [Nuclear Security Unit, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Jerzy [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Simonelli, Federica [Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site Management Directorate, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Zipper, Wiktor [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-04

    Recently, significant interest in {sup 44}Sc as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been observed. Unfortunately, the co-emission by {sup 44}Sc of high-energy γ rays (E{sub γ} = 1157, 1499 keV) causes a dangerous increase of the radiation dose to the patients and clinical staff. However, it is possible to produce another radionuclide of scandium—{sup 43}Sc—having properties similar to {sup 44}Sc but is characterized by much lower energy of the concurrent gamma emissions. This work presents the production route of {sup 43}Sc by α irradiation of natural calcium, its separation and purification processes, and the labeling of [DOTA,Tyr3] octreotate (DOTATATE) bioconjugate. Natural CaCO{sub 3} and enriched [{sup 40}Ca]CaCO{sub 3} were irradiated with alpha particles for 1 h in an energy range of 14.8–30 MeV at a beam current of 0.5 or 0.25 μA. In order to find the optimum method for the separation of {sup 43}Sc from irradiated calcium targets, three processes previously developed for {sup 44}Sc were tested. Radiolabeling experiments were performed with DOTATATE radiobioconjugate, and the stability of the obtained {sup 43}Sc-DOTATATE was tested in human serum. Studies of {sup nat}CaCO{sub 3} target irradiation by alpha particles show that the optimum alpha particle energies are in the range of 24–27 MeV, giving 102 MBq/μA/h of {sup 43}Sc radioactivity which creates the opportunity to produce several GBq of {sup 43}Sc. The separation experiments performed indicate that, as with {sup 44}Sc, due to the simplicity of the operations and because of the chemical purity of the {sup 43}Sc obtained, the best separation process is when UTEVA resin is used. The DOTATATE conjugate was labeled by the obtained {sup 43}Sc with a yield >98 % at elevated temperature. Tens of GBq activities of {sup 43}Sc of high radionuclidic purity can be obtainable for clinical applications by irradiation of natural calcium with an alpha beam.

  14. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  15. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  16. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  17. Wood-Vasey DOE #SC0011834 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    During the past reporting period (Year 3), this grant has provided partial support for graduate students Daniel Perrefort and Kara Ponder. They have been working exploring different aspects of the technical work needed to take full advantage of the potential for cosmological inference using Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) with LSST.

  18. Lifetime and g-factor measurements in 44Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, A.; Chavallier, J.; Gross, J.L.; Haas, B.; Schulz, N.; Styczen, J.; Toulemonde, M.

    1975-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 235 keV, 2 - state and 350 keV, 4 + state in 44 Sc have been measured via the 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reaction with a pulsed proton beam. The time integral perturbed angular distribution technique with an external field was used to measure the precession angles of the 2 - and 4 + states populated by the 30 Si( 16 O, pnγ) 44 Sc reaction. The following values for the mean-lives and g-factors were obtained: π(2 - ) = 8.83(33) ns, g(2 - ) = 0.30(13) and π(4 + ) = 4.52(27)ns, g(4 + ) = 0.90(12). The results for the 2 - state support a rotational description of the negative parity states in 44 Sc. The magnetic moment of the 4 + state is compared to shell model predictions. (orig.) [de

  19. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  20. Magnetic dipole moment of the doubly closed-shell plus one proton nucleus $^{49}$Sc

    CERN Multimedia

    Gaulard, C V; Walters, W; Nishimura, K; Muto, S; Bingham, C R

    It is proposed to measure the magnetic moment of $^{49}$Sc by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei (NMR-ON) method using the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation facility. $^{49}$Sc is the neutron rich, doubly closed-shell, nucleus $^{48}$Ca plus one proton. Results will be used to deduce the effective g-factors in the $^{48}$Ca region with reference to nuclear structure and meson exchange current effects.

  1. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  2. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  3. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  4. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  5. Rates for some reactions involving 42Ca and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.; King, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-state reaction rates have been deduced from recent cross section measurements for the 42 CA(α, n) 45 Ti, 42 Ca(p, γ) 43 Sc, and 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reactions. Comparison of these rates with those calculated from a statistical model of nuclear reactions. (Woosley et al) shows good agreement for the first two, but the 44 Ca(p, n) rate is more than a factor of 2 less than the theoretical prediction. Stellar reaction rates have been derived from the ground-state rates by multiplying the ground-state rates by the ratio of stellar to ground-state rates given by the statistical model. Both ground-state and stellar rates have been represented by analytic functions of the temperature. The role of these reactions in the approach to quasi-equilibrium during explosive silicon burning is discussed

  6. Development of standardized radioactive 46Sc solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongshan; Jia Zhang; Yu Yiguang; Sun Naiyao

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparation of standardized radioactive 46 Sc solution is developed. The separation of 46 Sc, the composition of 46 Sc solution and its stability, and radioactivity measurement of 46 Sc are systematically studied. The results obtained in the study and in the applications in many laboratories have shown that our method is effective and reliable

  7. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  8. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  9. Sc-45 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of precipitation in dilute Al-Sc alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S; Bastow, TJ

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with Sc-45 is used to determine the solid solubility of scandium in aluminium and to follow the precipitation of Al3Sc during the ageing of an Al-0.06 at.% Sc alloy via the two fully resolved peaks, corresponding to Sc in the solid solution Al matrix and to Sc in the

  10. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  11. Crystal structure and luminescence properties of (Ca{sub 2.94-x}Lu{sub x}Ce{sub 0.06})(Sc{sub 2-y}Mg{sub y})Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} phosphors for white LEDs with excellent colour rendering and high luminous efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yongfu; Zhang Xia; Hao Zhendong; Lu Wei; Liu Xingyuan; Zhang Jiahua [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Eastern South Lake Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaojun, E-mail: zhangjh@ciomp.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States)

    2011-02-23

    Lu-modified (Ca{sub 2.94-x}Lu{sub x}Ce{sub 0.06})(Sc{sub 2-y}Mg{sub y})Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} (CLSMS : Ce{sup 3+}) yellow emitting phosphors are prepared by a solid-state reaction. Controllable luminescent intensity and emitting colour are studied as a function of Lu and Mg contents. Fixing the Mg content to be 1, the effect of Lu content on crystal phase formation, luminescence properties and temperature characteristics is studied. It is revealed that the Lu-induced luminescent enhancement is the result of an increase in absorbance of Ce{sup 3+} rather than the internal quantum efficiency. Intense and broadband emission is realized by controlling the Lu content to obtain a pure CLSMS crystal phase. The maximum luminescence intensity is obtained at x = 0.54, which is as high as 156% of the Lu-free phosphor. The Lu-containing phosphor also exhibits better temperature characteristics for its big activation energy (0.20 eV) than the Lu-free one (0.18 eV). Combining the present phosphor with a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip, a white LED with an excellent colour rendering index R{sub a} of 86 and a high luminous efficiency of 86 lm W{sup -1} is obtained. The results of the present study demonstrate that the CLSMS : Ce{sup 3+} phosphors show a good performance and are attractive candidates for commercial applications when used in white LEDs.

  12. [Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musfeld, D A; Bühler, E M; Heinzl, S

    2001-01-01

    The Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder clinically manifested by tetraphocomelia, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and craniofacial abnormalities (skull, eyes, lip, and palate), accompanied at times by centromer puffing and splitting, renal abnormalities, heart defect, clitoral or penile enlargement, and bilateral corneal opacities. Mental retardation is common in surviving patients.

  13. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  14. Determination of 46Sc in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Bijun; Ji Zhaogang; Wang Juying

    1985-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of 46 Sc in water is presented. 46 Sc in water is concentrated with Fe(OH) 3 ; Then 46 Sc is extracted with TBP and purified by precipitating it with Amygdalic Acid. Finally the precipitate is ignited into Sc 2 O 3 under 800 deg C and β-activity is counted. In this method chemical reeovery for Sc was (90.8 +- 2.8)% and radiochemical recovery for 46 Sc was (89.8 +- 3.8)%. Purification factors for some of the relevant Radionuclides ranged from 10 3 to 10 5

  15. Magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.

  16. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  17. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  18. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  19. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  20. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  1. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  2. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  3. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  4. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  5. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  6. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  7. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  8. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  9. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  10. Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, A; Kumar, P; Dutta, S; Narang, A

    2001-06-01

    A severely growth retarded baby was born at 38 weeks gestation. He had multiple craniofacial anomalies, microbrachycephaly, phocomelia in the upper limbs and renal cysts visible on ultrasound. He died of recurrent apneas. The autopsy showed left sided multicystic dysplastic kidney and absence of one testis. Cytogenetic studies did not reveal any abnormality. The phenotypic features match those described in the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. A literature review revealed that 50% of these patients have chromosomal defects and antenatal detection is possible on ultrasound and by chromosome analysis of the amniocytes.

  11. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  12. The colours of Hubble Sc galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskudaryan, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The colorimetric data on the nuclei of the Sc galaxies are given. Comparison of the following parameters: color of a nucleus, integral color of a galaxy, Byurakan class, and spectral type of normal spirals gives the possibility to conclude: (1) The colors of the nuclei of the Sc galaxies have a high dispersion in its values. In all Byurakan classes the galaxies with intensely red and blue nuclei occur; (2) Some Sc galaxies exhibit a discrepancy between the spectral and morphological types. The results of colorimetry of nuclei indicate that almost all such Sc galaxies have intensely red nuclei which, naturally, provide for these late spectral types. It can be assumed that the intensely red color of the nuclei of such Sc galaxies is a result of a new type of activity of these nuclei; and (3) some Sc galaxies show the characteristics of the Markarian objects

  13. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  14. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  15. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  16. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  17. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  18. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  19. Developments in undergraduate wood science education at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rypstra,Tim

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, Stellenbosch University (SU) is the designated provider of Bachelor, Master and Doctorate level qualifications in Forestry and Wood Products Science. SU provides educational programs to both mechanical (sawmilling, preservation, composite products, furniture, etc.) and the chemical (pulp & paper) processing sectors. To ensure academic quality, SU regularly has her academic programs assessed externally. In 2000, several changes to the then existing 4 year B.Sc. Wood Scienc...

  20. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  1. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  2. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  3. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  4. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  6. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  7. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  8. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  9. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  10. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  11. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  12. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter {sup 44}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruszynski, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka [Centre of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warszawa (Poland); Loktionova, Natalia S.; Eppard, Elisabeth [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Roesch, Frank, E-mail: frank.roesch@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The positron-emitting radionuclide {sup 44}Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a {beta}{sup +} branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a {sup 44}Ti/{sup 44}Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived {sup 44}Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 44}Sc. The {sup 44}Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of {sup 44}Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to {sup 44}Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95 Degree-Sign C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37 Degree-Sign C. Present study shows that nca {sup 44}Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeling of somatostatin analouges with positron emitter {sup 44}Sc was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DOTATOC was labeled with {sup 44}Sc isotope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal conditions for {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC synthesis were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stability of {sup 44}Sc

  13. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  14. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  15. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  16. Location of the major 2Psub(1/2) strength in 49Sc by forward angle heavy-ion j dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, K.W.; Zeller, A.F.; Ophel, T.R.

    1977-12-01

    Foward angle 48 Ca( 7 Li, 6 He) data show the 4.49 MeV state in 49 Sc to be 2Psub(1/2) and not 2Psub(3/2) as reported in an earlier 48 Ca( 15 N, 14 C) work. The ( 3 He,d) spectroscopic factor of 0.55 indicates that this state has the major components of the 2psub(1/2) strength in 49 Sc. (Author)

  17. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  18. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  19. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  20. SC-FDMA for mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2013-01-01

    SC-FDMA for Mobile Communications examines Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). Explaining this rapidly evolving system for mobile communications, it describes its advantages and limitations and outlines possible solutions for addressing its current limitations. The book explores the emerging trend of cooperative communication with SC-FDMA and how it can improve the physical layer security. It considers the design of distributed coding schemes and protocols for wireless relay networks where users cooperate to send their data to the destination. Supplying you with the re

  1. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  2. Properties of the low-lying negative parity states in 45Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.; Haas, B.; Schulz, N.; Toulemonde, M.

    1975-01-01

    The electromagnetic decay of negative parity states in 45 Sc up to an excitation energy of 2107keV have been investigated via the 42 Ca(α,pγ) 45 Sc reaction at a bombarding energy of 10.5MeV. Spin and lifetime of the levels as well as branching and mixing ratios of their decay γ-rays have been obtained from proton-gamma angular correlation measurements. Calculations based on the strong coupling model have been performed. The results are compared with experiment [fr

  3. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.0′ N. longitude 80°40.1′ W. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784...

  4. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on a wood substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Liu, Changyu; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-09-01

    A layer of lamellar superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on a wood surface through a wet chemical process. The superhydrophobic property of the wood surface was measured by contact angle (CA) measurements. The microstructure and chemical composition of the superhydrophobic coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). An analytical characterization revealed that the microscale roughness of the lamellar particles was uniformly distributed on the wood surface and that a zinc stearate monolayer (with the hydrophobic groups oriented outward) formed on the ZnO surface as the result of the reaction between stearic acid and ZnO. This process transformed the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic: the water contact angle of the surface was 151°, and the sliding angle was less than 5°.

  5. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  6. Effects of wood vinegar on properties and mechanism of heavy metal competitive adsorption on secondary fermentation based composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Guo, Xiaoping; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Lei; Zeng, Yang; Liu, Guanhong

    2018-04-15

    In this study, secondary municipal solid waste composts (SC) and wood vinegar treated secondary compost (WV-SC) was prepared to investigate the capability for single-heavy metals and multi-metal systems adsorption. The adsorption sequence of WV-SC for the maximum single metals sorption capacities was Cd (42.7mgg -1 ) > Cu (38.6mgg -1 ) > Zn (34.9mgg -1 ) > Ni (28.7mgg -1 ) and showed higher than that of SC adsorption isotherm. In binary/quaternary-metal systems, Ni adsorption showed a stronger inhibitory effect compared with Zn, Cd and Cu on both SC and WV-SC. According to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models, as well as desorption behaviors and speciation analysis of heavy metals, competitive adsorption behaviors were differed from single-metal adsorption. Especially, the three-dimensional simulation of competitive adsorption indicated that the Ni was easily exchanged and desorbed. The amount of exchangeable heavy metal fraction were in the lowest level for the metal-loaded adsorbents, composting treated by wood vinegar improved the adsorbed metals converted to the residue fraction. This was an essential start in estimating the multiple heavy metal adsorption behaviors of secondary composts, the results proved that wood vinegar was an effective additive to improve the composts quality and decrease the metal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  8. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  9. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  10. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  11. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  12. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  13. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  14. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  15. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  16. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  17. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  18. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  19. Structure and bonding of ScCN and ScNC: Ground and low-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemos, Apostolos; Metropoulos, Aristophanes; Mavridis, Aristides

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The experimentally unknown systems ScCN and ScNC have been studied through single reference CISD and CCSD(T) methods. A total of 20 = 10 (ScCN) + 10 (ScNC) states were examined. All states are quite ionic whereas ScNC(X ∼3 Δ) is stabler than ScCN(X ∼3 Δ) by ∼5 kcal/mol. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We have studied through ab initio methods the polytopic system Sc[CN]. ► A series of low lying states for both isomeric forms have been examined. ► Around equilibrium the system displays a pronounced Sc + [CN] − ionic character. - Abstract: We have studied the experimentally unknown Sc[CN] molecular system in both its isomeric forms, scandium cyanide (ScCN) and isocyanide (ScNC), through ab initio computations. We report energetics, geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dipole moments for the first 20 Sc[CN] states correlating diabatically to Sc + ( 3 D, 1 D, 3 F) + CN − (X 1 Σ + ). Both isomers have a pronounced ionic character around equilibrium due to the high electron affinity of the CN group and the low ionization energy of the Sc atom. According to our calculations the ScNC isomer (X ∼3 Δ) is stabler than the ScCN(X ∼3 Δ) by ∼5 kcal/mol.

  20. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  1. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  2. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  3. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  4. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  5. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  6. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  7. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  8. Platinum determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis with special reference to the spectral interference of Sc-47 on the platinum indicator nuclide Au-199

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfassi, Z.B.; Probst, T.U.; Rietz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is developed for the determination of platinum by the Au-199 daughter of Pt-199 in the presence of the spectral interference from the Sc-47 daughter of Ca-47. The contributions of the Pt and Ca signals to the integral 157-161 keV peak we...... separated by calculating the number of disintegrations due to the Sc-47 from the signal of her parent Ca-47 at 1297.1 keV gamma-ray. The method was used to calculate the trace concentrations of Pt in air samples, collected on filters, (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  9. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  10. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  11. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  12. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  14. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  16. Laser photoelectron spectrometry of Sc- and Y-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigerle, C.S.; Herman, Z.; Lineberger, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectron spectra of Sc - and Y - have been obtained in a crossed ion- and laser-beam experiment. Analysis of the Sc - spectrum yields two bound terms of 3d4s 2 4p configuration ( 1 D 0 and 3 D 0 ), with EA(Sc) = 0.189 +- 0.020 eV and an excited-state binding energy of 0.042 +- 0.020 eV. Similarly, the (4d5s 2 5p) 1 D 0 ground state of Y - is bound by 0.308 +- 0.012 eV and a (4d5s 2 5p) 3 D 0 excited term is bound by 0.165 +- 0.025 eV. With the determination of the bound electronic configuration of Sc - as 3d4s 2 4p, the order of filling of electron shells of the first transition series negative ions is found to be 4s 2 ep, 3d4s 2 4p, the order of filling of electron shells of the first transition series negative ions is found to be 4s 2 4p, 3d4s 2 4p, followed by 3dsup(k) 4s 2 (k = 3, 4, ..., 10). (orig.)

  17. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0008580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    We report scientific, technical, and organizational accomplishments under DE-SC0008580. This includes 10 publications, 5 patent or provisional patent applications, beamtime with important results at both LCLS and APS, and new progress in understanding target design for x-ray heating experiments at x-ray heating facilities.

  18. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  19. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator.

  20. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  1. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. ORF Alignment: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n CaO19.6989 [Candida albicans SC5314] ... Length = 94 ... Query: 11 ... VKNLPYNTSNSSLYEFFGKYGYINQIRINSSQPG...TCFIIYHNIKNAQRAAQDLNGVNFNG 70 ... VKNLPYNTSNSSLYEFFGKYGYINQIRINSSQPGTCFIIY...HNIKNAQRAAQDLNGVNFNG Sbjct: 1 ... VKNLPYNTSNSSLYEFFGKYGYINQIRINSSQPGTCFIIYHNIKNAQRAAQDLNGVNFNG 60 ...

  3. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of white oak wood in-situ using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis was performed on white oak wood using two zeolite-type catalysts as bed material in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The two catalysts chosen, based on a previous screening study, were Ca2+ exchanged Y54 (Ca-Y54) and a proprietary ß-zeolite type catalyst (catalyst M) both ...

  4. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  5. Mineral preservatives in the wood of Stradivari and Guarneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Nagyvary

    Full Text Available Following the futile efforts of generations to reach the high standard of excellence achieved by the luthiers in Cremona, Italy, by variations of design and plate tuning, current interest is being focused on differences in material properties. The long-standing question whether the wood of Stradivari and Guarneri were treated with wood preservative materials could be answered only by the examination of wood specimens from the precious antique instruments. In a recent communication (Nature, 2006, we reported about the degradation of the wood polymers in instruments of Stradivari and Guarneri, which could be explained only by chemical manipulations, possibly by preservatives. The aim of the current work was to identify the minerals from the small samples of the maple wood which were available to us from the antique instruments. The ashes of wood from one violin and one cello by Stradivari, two violins by Guarneri, one viola by H. Jay, one violin by Gand-Bernardel were analyzed and compared with a variety of commercial tone woods. The methods of analysis were the following: back-scattered electron imaging, X-ray fluorescence maps for individual elements, wave-length dispersive spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and quantitative microprobe analysis. All four Cremonese instruments showed the unmistakable signs of chemical treatments in the form of chemicals which are not present in natural woods, such as BaSO4, CaF2, borate, and ZrSiO4. In addition to these, there were also changes in the common wood minerals. Statistical evaluation of 12 minerals by discriminant analysis revealed: a. a difference among all four Cremona instruments, b. the difference of the Cremonese instruments from the French and English antiques, and c. only the Cremonese instruments differed from all commercial woods. These findings may provide the answer why all attempts to recreate the Stradivarius from natural wood have failed. There are many obvious

  6. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  7. NANOCOATING PROCESS FOR TEXTILES APPLICATIONS AND WOOD PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULESCU Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results obtained in ERA NET MANUCOAT project, coordinated by INCDTP in collaboration with the following partners: INCDMNR-IMNR, SC MGM STAR CONSTRUCT SRL –Romania and IRIS-Spain. The objective of the research was to develop and obtain textile and wood surfaces with self-cleaning, photo catalytic, antibacterial and antifungal properties. An innovative method of manufacturing nanoparticles by hydrothermal process in a single step without any further heat treatment and controlled stoichiometry, tested spray coating technology (sputtering were developed. Full characterization of nanostructured powders in terms of chemical, physical, structural, thermal and technological characteristics was performed. The most important features to be considered in the treatment of wood by sputtering in order to deposit thin layers of TiO2 NPs or TiO2/Ag as the humidity should be below 12% and the maximum roughness P150, depending on the species of wood. Future works envisage optimizing the existing sputtering systems for pilot stage, in order to make nanoparticles deposits on large areas of textile and wood. The results of the research are photocatalytic textiles for surgical gowns, operative fields, hospital bed sheets and curtains and drapes for public spaces.

  8. Soft spin-dipole resonances in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhl, L; Krasznahorkay, A; Csatlós, M; Gulyás, J; Marketin, T; Litvinova, E; Adachi, T; Fujita, H; Hatanaka, K; Hirota, K; Ong, H J; Ishikawa, D; Matsubara, H; Algora, A; Estevez, E; Molina, F; Daeven, J; Guess, C; Meharchand, R; Fujita, Y

    2012-01-01

    High resolution experimental data has been obtained for the 40,42,44,48 Ca( 3 He,t)Sc charge exchange reaction at 420 MeV beam energy, which favors the spin-isospin excitations. The measured angular distributions were analyzed for each state separately, and the relative spin dipole strength has been extracted for the first time. The low-lying spin-dipole strength distribution in 40 Sc shows some interesting periodic gross feature. It resembles to a soft, damped multi-phonon vibrational band with hω= 1.8 MeV, which might be associated to pairing vibrations around 40 Ca.

  9. Enrichment of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from bauxite ore residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Bona; Li, Guanghui, E-mail: liguangh@csu.edu.cn; Luo, Jun; Ye, Qing; Liu, Mingxia; Peng, Zhiwei; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from bauxite ore residue were successfully enriched. • H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaOH were efficient for enriching Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} by removing SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and partial Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO. • Enriching mechanism of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} was explicitly explained. - Abstract: As a major byproduct generated in the alumina industry, bauxite ore residue is an important reserve of scandium and titanium. In this study, the feasibility and mechanism of enriching Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from a non-magnetic material, which was obtained from carbothermal reductive roasting and magnetic separation of bauxite ore residue, were investigated based on a two-step (acidic and alkali) leaching process. It was revealed that approximately 78% SiO{sub 2} and 30–40% of CaO, FeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were removed from a non-magnetic material with 0.0134 wt.% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 7.64 wt.% TiO{sub 2} by phosphoric acidic leaching, while about 95% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were further leached by subsequent sodium hydroxide leaching of the upper-stream leach residue. A Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}-, TiO{sub 2}- rich material containing 0.044 wt.% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 25.5 wt.% TiO{sub 2} was obtained, the recovery and the enrichment factor of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were about 85% and 5, respectively. The enrichment of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attributed to higher pH (>3.3) of phosphoric acid solution than its dissolution pH{sup 0}, and the enrichment of TiO{sub 2} was mainly associated with the insoluble perovskite (CaTiO{sub 3}) in the acidic solution at ambient temperature. As Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} cannot be dissolved in the alkali solution, they were further enriched in the leach residue.

  10. The effect of Sc additions on the microstructure and age hardening behaviour of as cast Al–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Puga, H.; Barbosa, J.; Pinto, A.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Sc effect on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of Al–Sc alloys is studied. ► Cast into copper mould allows the elimination of solution heat treatment. ► Directly aged as cast alloys exhibits higher hardness and precipitation kinetics. ► Sc addition and optimised ageing result in an increase in Al–Sc mechanical properties. -- Abstract: The grain refinement effect and the ageing behaviour of Al–0.5 wt.% Sc, Al–0.7 wt.% Sc, and Al–1 wt.% Sc alloys are studied on the basis of optic microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations and hardness measurements. In Al–Sc alloys the higher grain refinement is observed for Sc contents greater than 0.5 wt.% accompanied by a notorious morphology modification, from coarse columnar grains to a fine perfect equiaxed structure. The as cast structures are characterised by a rich supersaturated solid solution in Sc, that promotes a great age hardening response at 250 °C and 300 °C. The age hardening curves also demonstrate a low overageing kinetics for all the alloys. Although the higher Sc content in solid solution for the alloys with 0.7 and 1 wt.% Sc, the age hardening response of all the Al–Sc alloys remains similar. The direct age hardening response of the as cast Al–0.5 wt.% Sc is shown to be greater than the solutionised and age hardened alloy.

  11. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  12. 44gSc production using a water target on a 13 MeV cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia; Oehlke, Elisabeth; Benard, Francois; Lee, Chris Jaeil; Hou, Xinchi; Badesso, Brian; Ferguson, Simon; Miao, Qing; Yang, Hua; Buckley, Ken; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Ruth, Thomas; Celler, Anna; Schaffer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Access to promising radiometals as isotopes for novel molecular imaging agents requires that they are routinely available and inexpensive to obtain. Proximity to a cyclotron center outfitted with solid target hardware, or to an isotope generator for the metal of interest is necessary, both of which can introduce significant hurdles in development of less common isotopes. Herein, we describe the production of 44 Sc (t 1/2 = 3.97 h, E avg,β + = 1.47 MeV, branching ratio = 94.27%) in a solution target and an automated loading system which allows a quick turn-around between different radiometallic isotopes and therefore greatly improves their availability for tracer development. Experimental yields are compared to theoretical calculations. Methods: Solutions containing a high concentration (1.44–1.55 g/mL) of natural-abundance calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 · 4 H 2 O) were irradiated on a 13 MeV proton-beam cyclotron using a standard liquid target. 44g Sc was produced via the 44 Ca(p,n) 44g Sc reaction. Results: 44g Sc was produced for the first time in a solution target with yields sufficient for early radiochemical studies. Saturation yields of up to 4.6 ± 0.3 MBq/μA were achieved using 7.6 ± 0.3 μA proton beams for 60.0 ± 0.2 minutes (number of runs n = 3). Experimental data and calculation results are in fair agreement. Scandium was isolated from the target mixture via solid-phase extraction with 88 ± 6% (n = 5) efficiency and successfully used for radiolabelling experiments. The demonstration of the production of 44 Sc in a liquid target greatly improves its availability for tracer development

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEED TESTS AND FIELD EMERGENCE OF TWO MAIZE HYBRIDS (SC704 AND SC500)

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. ALILOO; B. SHOKATI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of maize (Zea mays L.) are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors. The influence of seed vigor on these factors is vital. Therefore, five laboratory tests and field experiment were conducted on basis of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications in 2011, to evaluate the correlation among the seed vigor tests and field emergence of two maize hybrids (SC704 and SC500). In laboratory tests, differences between ...

  14. Crystal structure and phase stability of AlSc in the near-equiatomic Al–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan; Huang, Li; Liang, Yongfeng [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Ye, Feng, E-mail: yefeng@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Junpin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Shang, Shunli; Liu, Zikui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Two lattice structures of equiatomic Al–Sc compounds are confirmed. • Al–Sc phase at Sc 50 at.% has a space group of Pbam. • Al–Sc phase at Sc 55 at.% has a space group of B2. • B2 AlSc is a metastable phase with Sc 50 at.%. • Lattice transition between two compounds is proposed under local thermal stress. - Abstract: Intermetallic compound AlSc is found in the equiatomic Al–Sc binary alloy. The present work indicates that the orthorhombic AlSc with the Au{sub 2}CuZn-type structure can be formed at 50 at.% Sc, while the CsCl-type (B2) AlSc will be formed at 55 at.% Sc. After annealing at 1100 °C, some orthorhombic AlSc grains transit to the B2 structure, and the annealing at lower temperatures leads to the disappearance of B2 phase, indicating that the B2 AlSc is also a metastable phase in the alloy at lower Sc content (<50 at.%). First-principle calculations at 0 K reveal that the orthorhombic AlSc is more stable than the B2 AlSc with the energy difference between them being 5.4 meV/atom. The fast transition between these two phases, which cannot be interpreted by the mechanism of atomic diffusion, was tentatively analyzed by the volume change based on the calculated atomic positions of these two phases.

  15. Effect of wood ash application on soil solution chemistry of tropical acid soils: incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkana, J C Voundi; Demeyer, A; Verloo, M G

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood ash application on soil solution composition of three tropical acid soils. Calcium carbonate was used as a reference amendment. Amended soils and control were incubated for 60 days. To assess soluble nutrients, saturation extracts were analysed at 15 days intervals. Wood ash application affects the soil solution chemistry in two ways, as a liming agent and as a supplier of nutrients. As a liming agent, wood ash application induced increases in soil solution pH, Ca, Mg, inorganic C, SO4 and DOC. As a supplier of elements, the increase in the soil solution pH was partly due to ligand exchange between wood ash SO4 and OH- ions. Large increases in concentrations of inorganic C, SO4, Ca and Mg with wood ash relative to lime and especially increases in K reflected the supply of these elements by wood ash. Wood ash application could represent increased availability of nutrients for the plant. However, large concentrations of basic cations, SO4 and NO3 obtained with higher application rates could be a concern because of potential solute transport to surface waters and groundwater. Wood ash must be applied at reasonable rates to avoid any risk for the environment.

  16. First-in-Human PET/CT Imaging of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms with Cyclotron-Produced 44Sc-DOTATOC: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aviral; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Müller, Cristina; Klette, Ingo; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; Baum, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    44 Sc is a promising positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide (T 1/2  = 4.04 hours, E β+average  = 632 keV) and can be made available, using a cyclotron production route, in substantial quantities as a highly pure product. Herein, the authors report on a first-in-human PET/CT study using 44 Sc-DOTATOC prepared with cyclotron-produced 44 Sc. The production of 44 Sc was carried out through the 44 Ca(p,n) 44 Sc nuclear reaction at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. After separation, 44 Sc was shipped to Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany, where radiolabeling was performed, yielding radiochemically pure 44 Sc-DOTATOC. Two patients, currently followed up after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, participated in this proof-of-concept study. Blood sampling was performed before and after application of 44 Sc-DOTATOC. PET/CT acquisitions, performed at different time points after injection of 44 Sc-DOTATOC, allowed detection of even very small lesions on delayed scans. No clinical adverse effects were observed and the laboratory hematological, renal, and hepatic profiles remained unchanged. In this study, cyclotron-produced 44 Sc was used in the clinic for the first time. It is attractive for theranostic application with 177 Lu, 90 Y, or 47 Sc as therapeutic counterparts. 44 Sc-based radiopharmaceuticals will be of particular value for PET facilities without radiopharmacy, to which they can be shipped from a centralized production site.

  17. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  18. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  20. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  1. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  2. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  3. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  4. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  5. Design of SC solenoid with high homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoliang; Liu Zhong; Luo Min; Luo Guangyao; Kang Qiang; Tan Jie; Wu Wei

    2014-01-01

    A novel kind of SC (superconducting) solenoid coil is designed to satisfy the homogeneity requirement of the magnetic field. In this paper, we first calculate the current density distribution of the solenoid coil section through the linear programming method. Then a traditional solenoid and a nonrectangular section solenoid are designed to produce a central field up to 7 T with a homogeneity to the greatest extent. After comparison of the two solenoid coils designed in magnet field quality, fabrication cost and other aspects, the new design of the nonrectangular section of a solenoid coil can be realized through improving the techniques of framework fabrication and winding. Finally, the outlook and error analysis of this kind of SC magnet coil are also discussed briefly. (authors)

  6. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  7. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  8. SC*994C>T causes the Sc(null) phenotype in Pacific Islanders and successful transfusion of Sc3+ blood to a patient with anti-Sc3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Marion E; Hue-Roye, Kim; Velliquette, Randall W; Larimore, Kathleen; Moscarelli, Sue; Ohswaldt, Nicolas; Lomas-Francis, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Antigens in the SC blood group system are expressed by the human erythrocyte membrane-associated protein (ERMAP).Two molecular bases have been reported for the Sc,un phenotype:SC*307del2 and SC*994C>T. We report our investigation of the molecular background of five Sc,n1 individuals from the Pacific Islands and describe the successful transfusion of Sc3+ blood to a patient with anti-Sc3 in her plasma. SC (ERMAP) exons 2,3, and 12 and their flanking intronic regions were analyzed. TheSC*994C>T change introduces a restriction enzyme cleavage site for Tsp45I, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from exon 12 were subjected to this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The five samples had the variant SC*994T/T. One sample, from a first cousin of one Marshallese proband, was heterozygous for SC*1514C/T (in the 3' untranslated region); the other four samples were SC*1514C/C(consensus sequence). Samples from white donors (n = 100) and African American donors (n = 99) were tested using the Tsp45IPCR-RFLP assay; all gave a banding pattern that was consistent with the SC*994C/C consensus sequence. In all five samples,our analyses showed homozygosity for the nonsense nucleotide change SC*994C>Tin an allele carrying the nucleotide associated with SLd. Further investigation determined that one of the probands reported previously with the SC*994C>T change was from the Marshall Islands (which form part of the Micronesian Pacific Islands) and the other was from an unspecified location within the large collection of Pacific Islands. Taken together, the five known probands with the SC*994C>T silencing nucleotide change were from the Pacific Islands.

  9. The SC gets ready for visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Hall 300, which houses the Synchrocyclotron (SC), CERN’s first accelerator, is getting ready to host a brand-new exhibition. The site will be one of the stops on the new visit itineraries that will be inaugurated for the 2013 CERN Open Day.   The Synchrocyclotron through the years. Just as it did in the late 1950s, when the accelerator was first installed, the gigantic red structure of the Synchrocyclotron's magnet occupies a large part of the 300-square-metre hall. “We have completed the first phase of the project that will give the SC a new lease of life,” says Marco Silari, the project leader and a member of CERN’s Radiation Protection Group. “We have removed all the equipment that was not an integral part of the accelerator. The hall is now ready for the civil-engineering work that will precede the installation of the exhibition.” The SC was witness to a big part of the history of CERN. The accelerator produced ...

  10. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  11. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  12. Determination of Sc and Th in ScI3-NaI-ThI4 sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hui; Yang Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    Determination of Sc and Th in ScI 3 -NaI-ThI 4 sample is studied by X-ray fluorescence and complexometry. The effect of working condition of Sc on X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and different sample-making method on the determination of Sc and Th are studied experimentally. The X-ray fluorescence analysis of determination of Sc and Th is developed by polyester film sample-making technique, the measuring precision of Sc and Th is better than 4%. The effect of acidity and temperature on the determining end point of titration is obvious. The results of different complexometric methods are compared. The precision of Sc and Th is less than 2% by comlexometry, it is fit for the routine analysis of ScI 3 -NaI-ThI 4 sample

  13. Electronic structure and physical properties of ScN in pressure: density-functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Pengfei; Wang Chongyu; Yu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Local density functional is investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method for ScN in the hexagonal structure and the rocksalt structure and for hexagonal structures linking a layered hexagonal phase with wurtzite structure along a homogeneous strain transition path. It is found that the wurtzite ScN is unstable and the layered hexagonal phase, labelled as h o , in which atoms are approximately fivefold coordinated, is metastable, and the rocksalt ScN is stable. The electronic structure, the physical properties of the intermediate structures and the energy band structure along the transition are presented. It is found that the band gaps change from 4.0 to 1.0 eV continuously when c/a value varies from 1.68 to 1.26. It is noticeable that the study of ScN provides an opportunity to apply this kind of material (in wurtzite[h]-derived phase). (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  15. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Measurement for commercial exposives with SC-DSC test. Sangyoyo bakuhayaku no SC-DSC sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabashi, H.; Wada, Y.; Hwang, D.; Akutsu, Y.; Tamura, M.; Yoshida, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Matsuzawa, T. (Nippon Kayaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-30

    The sealed cell differential scanning calorimetry (SC-DSC) was sintroduced of commercial blasting explosives. As a series of testing the commercial blasting explosives in performance, an SC-DSC test was made to compare the critical detonability line with that resulting therefrom. From the result of SC-DSC measurement, the critical dilution rate was estimated of commercial blasting explosives to become without detonating propagation. As a result, all the explosives with exception of ANFO one were assumed to have a possibility of detonating propagation so that the ANFO explosive was known to be material, unable to exactly evaluate the detonability by the SC-DSC test. The explosion heat, then calculated by the REITP2 in order to assume how the reaction proceeded in the DSC cell, was compared with the reaction heat measured by the SC-DSC test. As a result, the calculated value was known to be almost equal to or slightly larger than the measured one. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Heterogeneous studies in pulping of wood: Modelling mass transfer of alkali

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, João P. F.; Egas, Ana P. V.; Carvalho, M. Graça; Baptista, Cristina M. S. G.; Castro, José Almiro A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a heterogeneous lumped parameter model is proposed to describe the mass transfer of effective alkali during the kraft pulping of wood. This model, based on the spatial mean of the concentration profile of effective alkali along the chip thickness, enables the estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient that characterizes the internal resistance to mass transfer and the contribution of the external resistance to mass transfer which has often been neglected. http://www.sc...

  18. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  19. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  20. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces...... of incompletely combusted wood rich in Cr and Ca, and irregular particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was also found incorporated in silica-based matrix particles. As was associated with Ca in porous (char) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was associated with Cr...... in the incompletely combusted wood pieces and was also found in almost pure form in a surface layer of some matrix particles – indicating surface condensation of volatile Cu species. In treated ash, Ca and As were no longer found together, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been dissolved due to the electrodialytic...

  1. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  2. Modelling inorganic biocide emission from treated wood in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: Ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR792, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Universite Paris-Est, CSTB- Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24, rue Joseph Fourier, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} We developed a mechanistic model for biocide metals fixation/mobilisation in wood. {center_dot} This is the first chemical model explaining the biocide leaching from treated wood. {center_dot} The main fixation mechanism is the surface complexation with wood polymers. {center_dot} The biocide mobilization is due to metal-DOC complexation and pH effect. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a chemical model for explaining the leaching behaviour of inorganic biocides from treated wood. The standard leaching test XP CEN/TS14429 was applied to a commercial construction material made of treated Pinus sylvestris (Copper Boron Azole preservative). The experimental results were used for developing a chemical model under PHREEQC (a geochemical software, with LLNL, MINTEQ data bases) by considering the released species detected in the eluates: main biocides Cu and B, other trace biocides (Cr and Zn), other elements like Ca, K, Cl, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, dissolved organic matter (DOC). The model is based on chemical phenomena at liquid/solid interfaces (complexation, ion exchange and hydrolysis) and is satisfactory for the leaching behaviour representation. The simulation results confronted with the experiments confirmed the hypotheses of: (1) biocide fixation by surface complexation reactions with wood specific sites (carboxyl and phenol for Cu, Zn, Cr(III), aliphatic hydroxyl for B, ion exchange to a lesser extent) and (2) biocide mobilisation by extractives (DOC) coming from the wood. The maximum of Cu, Cr(III) and Zn fixation occurred at neutral pH (including the natural pH of wood), while B fixation was favoured at alkaline pH.

  3. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  4. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  5. Possibilities for the Use of Wood Ashes in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Symanowicz

    2018-05-01

    The following physical properties of the ashes were determined: colour, solubility, porosity, absorbability, compression strength, degree of fineness, moisture content and spreadability. In the ashes obtained from the combustion of wood in a fireplace furnace, the following parameters were determined: pH H2O, pHKCl (1 mole dm-3 KCl, pHCaCl2 (0.01 mole dm-3 CaCl2 and total alkalinity in terms of the suitability of ashes as a liming agent. The contents of Ctot. and Ntot. were determined with a CHNS/O elemental analyser by Perkin-Elmer and the contents of other elements (macronutrients and heavy metals were specified using the method of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma ICP-AES. Wood ashes are a source of macronutrients for plants. Their contents can be presented in the following series of decreasing values: Ca > C > K > Mg > P > S > N. Out of 1 t of wood ash, approx. 160 kg C, 6 kg N, 20 kg P, 98 kg K, 302 kg Ca, 39 kg Mg and 18 kg S can be introduced into the soil. The content of heavy metals in the analysed ashes was low, and exceeded the acceptable standards for their content in waste materials intended for liming soils. The analysed ashes exhibit good physical and chemical properties. They can be suitable for use in agriculture as a liming agent to be applied on medium and heavy soils.

  6. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  7. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  8. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  9. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  10. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  11. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  12. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  13. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  14. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  15. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  16. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  17. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  18. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  19. Bulk viscosity in 2SC quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G; Schmitt, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s ↔ u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature T c for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T ∼> T c /30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  1. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  2. Implementation of the environment management system within SC Aedificia Carpati S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanislav, A.; Rizea, D. [S.C Aedificia Carpati S.A, Bucharest (Romania)

    2000-07-01

    The implementation process followed by S.C Aedificia Carpati S.A for the Environment Management System (EMS) was explained. It took into account the requirements of sustainable development and environmental protection. Established in 1992, the company is active in the fields of monument restoration and the production of aluminium furnishings, marble, stone, wood processing, pre-cast concrete and concrete production. The implementation of EMS was based on aspects of: (1) human, physical and financial resources, (2) EMS alignment and integration, (3) consciousness and motivation of the environment protection, (4)knowledge, skills and training, (5) operational management, (6) preparation and reaction to critical situations, and (7) practical aspects regarding EMS within the company. The company practices wastes recycling of marble, plywood floors, walls and other demolition partitions and light concrete.

  3. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  4. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  5. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  6. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  7. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  8. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  9. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  10. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  11. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  12. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  13. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0002194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We provide the final scientific report for DE-SC0002194. During the term of this grant, 28 publications spanning a variety of topics were addressed under the rubric of advanced x-ray methods and their application to extreme conditions of time-resolution or x-ray intensities. Notable accomplishments include a new observation of XANES features associated with f-shell reconfiguration in lanthanides, size-dependent x-ray heating effects under XFEL illumination conditions, theoretical development of improved treatments of inelastic x-ray scattering for 'warm dense matter' conditions, and several new instrument develop efforts for atomic, molecular, and condensed phase studies in the lab and at major facility lightsources.

  14. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  15. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  16. Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49

  17. The SC State NSF PAARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean; Cash, Jennifer; Fogle, Bryan; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; King, Jeremy; Leising, Mark; Smith, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We report on the activities of our NSF PAARE program during Year 3 of the project. Our partnership under this award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and individual investigators at NASA Ames and elsewhere. Our partnership with the Citizen CATE Experiment and involvement in the total solar eclipse which passed through our campus on August 21, 2017, will be discussed. The PAARE project continues to strengthen our partnership with Clemson. We are close to completing a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Additionally, we have worked together under the Citizen CATE project and through other research activities. SC State is a member of the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) and participates through its faculty and undergraduates, one of whom (Wesley Red) is reporting on his summer internship at this conference. We also served as the state coordinator for South Carolina for the Citizen CATE Experiment. The August 21st path of totality crossed through our campus and the campus of our partner Clemson University. Additional colleges, universities and citizen scientist groups partnered with us to provide 7 sites of coverage across South Carolina from the foothills of the Appalachian mountains to the Atlantic Ocean near the site of departure of the shadow from the continental U.S. Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  18. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  19. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  20. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  1. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  2. Electron Microscopy Observation of Biomineralization within Wood Tissues of Kurogaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between minerals and microorganisms play a crucial role in living wood tissues. However, living wood tissues have never been studied in the field. Fortunately, we found several kurogaki (black persimmon; Diospyros kaki trees at Tawara in Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. Here, we report the characterization of kurogaki based on scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, associated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS analyses, X-ray fluorescence analyses (XRF and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD analyses. This study aims to illustrate the ability of various microorganisms associated with biominerals within wood tissues of kurogaki, as shown by SEM-EDS elemental content maps and TEM images. Kurogaki grows very slowly and has extremely hard wood, known for its striking black and beige coloration, referred to as a “peacock pattern”. However, the scientific data for kurogaki are very limited. The black “peacock pattern” of the wood mainly comprises cellulose and high levels of crystal cristobalite. As per the XRD results, the black taproot contains mineralized 7 Å clays (kaolinite, cellulose, apatite and cristobalite associated with many microorganisms. The chemical compositions of the black and beige portions of the black persimmon tree were obtained by ICP-MS analyses. Particular elements such as abundant Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn, Ba, S, Cl, Fe, Na, and Al were concentrated in the black region, associated with Pb and Sr elements. SEM-EDS semi-qualitative analyses of kurogaki indicated an abundance of P and Ca in microorganisms in the black region, associated with Pb, Sr, S, Mn, and Mg elements. On the other hand, XRF and XRD mineralogical data showed that fresh andesite, weathered andesite, and the soils around the roots of kurogaki correlate with biomineralization of the black region in kurogaki roots, showing clay minerals (kaolinite and

  3. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  4. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  5. Toxicity, tissue distribution and excretion of 46ScCl3 and 46Sc-EDTA in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachine, E.E.; Noujaim, A.A.; Ediss, C.; Wiebe, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    The acute toxicity, differential distribution in tissue, and elimination of ScCl 3 , 46 ScCl 3 , Sc-EDTA and 46 Sc-EDTA, in mice, has been investigated. The LD 50 sup(24hr) doses for ScCl 3 were 440 and 24 mg kg -1 respectively after intraperitioneal and intravenous injection, and 720 and 108 mg kg -1 respectively for Sc-EDTA. 46 ScCl 3 was extensively deposited in the liver and the spleen. 46 Sc-EDTA was rapidly taken up by the kidney with subsequent elimation via the urine. While-body desaturation kinetics for 46 Sc-EDTA were found to fit a three compartmental model. The fast elimination phase (T1/2 = 12.75 min; K = 0.05540 min -1 ) accounted for 74.6% of the dose; the intermediate phase (T1/2 = 40.2 min; K = 0.01722 min -1 ) for 21.8%, and the slow (T1/2 = 5351 min; K = 0.00013 min -1 ) for 3.6% of the dose. (author)

  6. IEC SC15E: Report on liaison activities of CIGRÉ-SC15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    WG’s activities under CIGRÉ SC15:WG 15.01 - Fluid impregnated systems.WG 15.02 - Dielectric Liquids.WG 15.03 - Gas Insulation.WG 15.04 - Outdoor Insulation.WG 15.05 - Capacitors.WG 15.07 - Solid Insulating Materials for Rotating Machines.WG 15/33.08 - Insulation Monitoring and Life Estimation. WG...

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  8. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  9. Methods for production of UNK SC-dipoles magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many SC-dipoles for UNK will require from the chosen magnetic measurement methods high accuracy and efficiency. The brief of using methods, their possibilities and analysis of their errors are given. The measurements results for a full-scale model of SC-dipole SPDM1 are presented. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  11. Sc-Decorated WS_2 Nanoribbons as Hydrogen Storage Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Wang Yu-Sheng; Zhang Jing; Song Na-Hong; Li Meng; Yi Lin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen storage behavior of Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer and WS_2 nanoribbons is systematically studied by using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The present results indicate that an Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer is not suitable for storing hydrogen due to the weak interaction between the monolayer WS_2 sheet and the Sc atoms. It is found that both the hybridization mechanism and the Coulomb attraction make the Sc atoms stably adsorb on the edges of WS_2 nanoribbons without clustering. The 2Sc/WS_2 NRs system can adsorb at most eight H_2 molecules with average adsorption energy of 0.20 eV/H_2. The results show that the desorption of H_2 is possible by lowering the pressure or by increasing the temperature. (paper)

  12. Superhydrophobic coatings on wood substrate for self-cleaning and EMI shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingjie; Xue, Yaping; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Yankui; Huang, Liu; Liu, Xin; Sun, Jing

    2018-04-01

    A layer of superhydrophobic coating having good electromagnetic shielding and self-cleaning performance was fabricated on a wood surface through an electroless copper plated process. The superhydrophobic property of the wood surface was measured by contact angle (CA) and roll-off angle (RA) measurements. The microstructure and chemical composition of the superhydrophobic coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis revealed that the microscale particles were uniformly distributed on the wood surface and the main component of the coating is metallic copper. The as-prepared Cu coatings on wood substrate exhibit a good superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160° and rolling angle less than 5°.

  13. Final Report: DOE Award Number: DE-SC0006398, University of CA, San Diego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-05-27

    The focus of the proposed research is to direct the assembly of single or binary nanoparticles into meso- or macroscale three-dimensional crystals of any desired configuration and crystallographic orientation without using prohibitively expensive lithographic processes. The epitaxial nucleation of defect-free, surface-bound bulk single crystals will revolutionize technologies for energy to generate new types of solar cells that yield maximum conversion efficiencies. It has been proposed that having a nanostructured bulk hetero-interface will enable efficient charge-carrier separations, similar to organic based heterojunction cells but with potential improvements, including thermal and long-term stability, tunability of energy levels, large adsorption coefficients and carrier multiplication. However, engineering such devices requires nanoscale control and ordering in both 2- and 3-dimensions over macroscopic areas and this has yet to be achieved. In Nature, bulk organic and inorganic materials are arranged into precise and ordered programmed assemblies through the sequestration of raw materials into confined spaces and association through highly specific non-covalent interactions between biomolecules. Using similar strategies, the proposed research will focus on confining metal and semiconductor nanocrystals to pre-determined surface patterns and controlling their arrangement through tunable, orthogonal biomolecular binding. Once a perfect two-dimensional seed layer has been constructed, successive layers of single nanocrystals will be nucleated epitaxially with long-range order and tunable crystallographic orientations. The proposed research exploits the ability of biomolecules to bind specific targets in a tunable, orthogonal, multivalent, and reversible manner to the arrangements of DNA-nanoparticle conjugates on chemically defined surfaces. Through careful balance of the attractive and repulsive forces between the particles, the array, and the outside surface, it is envisioned that single or mixed nanoparticles can be packed to adopt uniform crystal orientation in two and three dimensions from simple mixing and annealing of biomolecule-nanoparticle conjugates with biomolecule-stamped surfaces. To control the crystallographic alignment of each particle with its neighbors, the nanoparticles will be assembled using a mixture of non-covalent biomolecular interactions. To create solar cells in which layers of donor and acceptor nanocrystals that are not only oriented normal to the top and bottom electrodes but are also arranged in a checkerboard pattern, multicomponent nanocrystals (e.g. CdSe, CdTe) will be conjugated with biochemical linkers such that only interactions between the CdTe and CdSe promote particle packing within the array. The proposed research will: (1) elucidate the role of single and binary cooperative particle-DNA interactions in influencing nanoparticle crystallographic orientation in two and three dimensions; (2) understand how confinement of nanoparticles on patterned arrays of biomolecules and modification of the surrounding substrate can nucleate long-range order over macroscopic areas via predefined grain boundaries; and (3) synthesize and characterize DNA conjugated semiconductor nanocrystals and assemble them into 2- and 3-D binary superlattice arrays for photovoltaics.

  14. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  16. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non-wood

  17. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  18. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  19. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Wu, Yiqiang, E-mail: wuyq0506@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Luo, Sha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Qing, Yan, E-mail: qingyan0429@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Chen, Haibo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was fabricated using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was efficiently fabricated using nanoparticles modified by VTES. • The superhydrophobic surface exhibited a CA of 154° and a SAclose to 0°. • The superhydrophobic surface showed a durable and robust wear-resistance performance. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  20. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface and its prospects in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattcacharia, S.K.; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2005-01-01

    Photocuring technique has unveiled a new horizon in polymer science. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface has enhanced the use of low grade wood. As Bangladesh is an overpopulated country, necessity of good quality wood is increasing day by day. So low grade wood, like Simul or Partex, locally produced particleboard, would come out with great use. As Partex board, produced from Jute sticks and various types of indigenous low grade wood and particle board are abundant in Bangladesh, so photocuring could play a major role to improve the quality of low grade wood and serve the nation. Already, a lot of research works were carried out by the local scientists to improve the wood surface using UV curing method. Different formulations were also developed by the local scientists using various oligomer, monomer and different types of additives. The used oligomers are epoxy, polyester, urethane, etc. and monomers of different functionalities and used additives are acrylic monomer, CaCO 3 , sand, MgSiO 3 , talc, etc. Thin films were prepared on glass plate with different formulations using UV radiation and different characteristics properties (pendulum hardness, abrasion, gloss (60 deg. and 20 deg.), microscratch hardness, weathering effect, adhesion strength, etc.) were studied. Now, a Pilot Plant has already been established with the financial assistance by the government of Bangladesh, worth US$ 3.5 million

  1. Process of DC-SC photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Rong; Zhao Kui; Quan Shengwen; Ding Yuantao; Zhang Baocheng; Lu Xiangyang; Lin Lin; Wang Lifang; Chen Jiaer

    2004-01-01

    The DC-SC photoinjector at Beijing University is designed to provide an electron beam of average current 1 mA with the energy of 2-3 MeV and normalized rms transverse emittance of 3πmm-mrad at an 81.25 MHz repetition rate. The test facility has been completely installed in our lab. In this paper some of the ongoing experimental activities are summarized. First results from the cold test of superconducting cavity have been presented. According to the results, authors have improved the main coupler to repress the multipacting. The beam test of 100 μA on the DC gun has been done, photocathode preparation chamber can produce Cs 2 Te cathodes, and the laser system can provide laser pulse with 266 nm wavelength. The time synchronization between laser and RF power has been achieved by a timing stabilizer. A new method using 'due image pattern' of Cherenkov radiation will be commissioned to measure beam emittance. The next step is under way, to prepare all the equipment for the beam tests. (authors)

  2. Effective single chain antibody (scFv) concentrations in vivo via adenoviral vector mediated expression of secretory scFv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, WO; Gomez-Navarro, J; Buchsbaum, DJ; Xiang, J; Casado, E; Barker, SD; Mahasreshti, PJ; Haisma, HJ; Barnes, MN; Siegal, GP; Alvarez, RD; Hemminki, A; Nettelbeck, DM; Curiel, DT

    Single chain antibodies (scFv) represent powerful interventional agents for the achievement of targeted therapeutics. The practical utility of these agents have been limited, however, by difficulties related to production of recombinant scFv and the achievement of effective and sustained levels of

  3. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  5. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  6. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  7. Investigation of Sc(3) state in nonaqueous solutions by the 45Sc NMR method of high permission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buslaev, Yu.A.; Kirakosyan, G.A.; Tarasov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    The ScCl 3 + CH 3 CN and ScCl 3 + KNCS + CH 3 CN solutions have been studied by a high-resolution NMR 45 Sc method. It has been estimated that in acetonitrile solutions, with competing ligands of Cl - and NCS - being available, hexacoordination Sc(3) complexes of various compositions are formed, and solvent molecules also take part in formation of the coordination sphere of scandium. Chemical shifts in NMR 45 Sc signals depend linearly on the number of chlor- or NCS - ions bound to scandium(3). This made it possible to determine the value of chemical shifts in signals of all 28 potential complexes formed in a system with three competing ligands

  8. Effect of lime and wood ash on the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla chemical and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, María Renée; de Palomo, Patricia Palacios; Bressani, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the chemical composition, functional properties, sensory quality and protein value of tortillas made from the nixtamalization of maize using either lime or wood ashes. The Ca, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn content of lime and wood ashes showed lime to be high in Ca content while wood ash contained more K and about 71% of the Ca content of lime. Both contained relatively high levels of Mg, Fe and Zn, but more so in the wood ashes. The level of reagent for nixtamalization was set at 0.8% of the maize weight. All other processing conditions were kept constant. The pH of the cooking solution was 12.0 for lime and 10.9 for wood ash. The moisture content of maize at 60 min of cooking was 45.8% for both treatments, however after 12 h of soaking, moisture level was 51.0% for the lime treatment and only 46.8% for the ash treatment. Solids (2.4%) in the lime cooking liquor were higher than in the wood ash liquor (1.0%). Chemical composition changes were similar between treatments in masa and tortilla; however, both masa and tortillas absorbed relatively high levels of all minerals including Fe and Zn from the wood ash treatment. The different treatment influenced functional properties particularly hardness and color. Tortilla characteristics were also similar. Protein quality of both alkali cooked products was lower than that of raw corn, more so the product from the wood ash treatment. Although some differences were observed in the sensory studies, human subjects did not dislike the wood ash made tortillas.

  9. Novel 2D or 3D alkaline-earth metal sulfonate-phosphonates based on [O 3S-C 2H 4-PO 3H] 2- ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zi-Yi; Wen, He-Rui; Xie, Yong-Rong

    2008-11-01

    Three novel alkaline-earth metal sulfonate-phosphonates based on [O 3S-C 2H 4-PO 3H] 2- ligand, namely, [Ca(O 3SC 2H 4PO 3H)(H 2O) 2] ( 1), [Sr(O 3SC 2H 4PO 3H)] ( 2) and [Ba 2(O 3SC 2H 4PO 3H) 2] ( 3), have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. They represent the first structurally characterized alkaline-earth metal complexes of phosphonic acid attached with a sulfonate group. The structure of compound 1 features a 2D layer based on 1D chains of [Ca 2(PO 3) 2] bridged by -CH 2-CH 2-SO 3- groups. Compounds 2 and 3 show pillar-layer architecture based on two different inorganic layers linked by -CH 2-CH 2- groups. The inorganic layer in compound 2 features a 1D chain of edge-sharing SrO 8 polyhedra whereas that in compound 3 features an edge-sharing Ba 2O 14 di-polyhedral unit which is further corner-shared with four neighboring ones. The [O 3S-C 2H 4-PO 3H] 2- ligand shows diverse coordination modes in the three alkaline-earth metal sulfonate-phosphonates.

  10. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  11. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  12. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  14. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  15. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  16. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  17. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumohan Misra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gd2Sc3Ge4 adopts the orthorhombic Pu5Rh4-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4:0.033 (4 and 0.031 (3:0.969 (3, one site (.m. symmetry is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  18. Pascal-SC a computer language for scientific computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlender, Gerd; von Gudenberg, Jürgen Wolff; Rheinboldt, Werner; Siewiorek, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Perspectives in Computing, Vol. 17: Pascal-SC: A Computer Language for Scientific Computation focuses on the application of Pascal-SC, a programming language developed as an extension of standard Pascal, in scientific computation. The publication first elaborates on the introduction to Pascal-SC, a review of standard Pascal, and real floating-point arithmetic. Discussions focus on optimal scalar product, standard functions, real expressions, program structure, simple extensions, real floating-point arithmetic, vector and matrix arithmetic, and dynamic arrays. The text then examines functions a

  19. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  20. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  1. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  2. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  3. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  4. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  5. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  6. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  7. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  8. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  9. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.T.; Filippova, T.G.; Rajchuk, F.Z.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  10. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  11. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  12. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  13. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Proves the Presence of Penta-coordinated Sc Sites in MIL-100(Sc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovine, Raynald; Volkringer, Christophe; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Trébosc, Julien; McKay, David; Loiseau, Thierry; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier; Pourpoint, Frédérique

    2017-07-18

    Advanced solid-state NMR methods and first-principles calculations demonstrate for the first time the formation of penta-coordinated scandium sites. These coordinatively unsaturated sites were shown during the thermal activation of scandium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). A 45 Sc NMR experiment allows their specific observation in activated Sc 3 BTB 2 (H 3 BTB=1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene) and MIL-100(Sc) MOFs. The assignment of the ScO 5 groups is supported by the DFT calculations of NMR parameters. The presence of ScO 5 Lewis acid sites in MIL-100(Sc) explains furthermore its catalytic activity. The first NMR experiment to probe 13 C- 45 Sc distances is also introduced. This advanced solid-state NMR pulse sequence allows the demonstration of the shrinkage of the MIL-100(Sc) network when the activation temperature is raised. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  15. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  16. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  17. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  18. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin; Stulí ková , Ivana; Smola, Bohumil; Kekule, Tomá š; Kudrnová , Hana; Daniš, Stanislav; Gemma, Ryota; Očená šek, Vladivoj; Má lek, Jaroslav; Tanprayoon, Dhritti; Neubert, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  1. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  2. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  3. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  4. Advances and challenges of wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood flour and fiber have been blended with thermoplastic such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polylactic acid and polyvinyl chloride to form wood plastic composites (WPC). WPCs have seen a large growth in the United States in recent years mainly in the residential decking market with the removal of CCA treated wood decking from residential markets. While there are...

  5. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  6. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  7. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  8. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  9. Characteristics and availability of commercially important woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures, furniture, tools, vehicles, and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons, wood is prized for a multitude of uses. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous...

  10. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by .... Stop watch-used to indicate the exact time the mould has remained in the press before wood .... There is abundance of saw dust the source of which is the ... Madison, Wisconsin: Wiley Interscience. Usoro, H. S. ...

  11. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  12. The data acquisition system (DAS) for the improved CERN SC

    CERN Document Server

    Beger, H; Fiebig, A; Schroot, H

    1975-01-01

    A digital data acquisition system (DAS) based on a minicomputer is described which registers the failure sequences in various equipment areas of the CERN synchrocyclotron (henceforward referred to as the SC). The avalanches of failure signals which occur from time to time are tapped from the alarm/security systems, time-resolved to 10 msec and recorded on a printer in order to aid SC failure diagnosis. The mechanisms of the DAS and its relation to the SC equipment are explained in some detail. All programs were constructed at assembler language level for speed and for ease of on-line program maintenance. The alarm sequences recorded have been of considerable help during the running in of the new radiofrequency system. Now that the new SC is operational, the DAS furnishes useful data from several equipment areas to the operators and engineers.

  13. Cytogenetic diagnosis of Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome: First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tahir M. Malla

    2015-07-14

    /licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). 1. Introduction. Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by pre and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies,.

  14. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  15. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Taeyoup

    2008-01-01

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  16. EVALUATION OF CEMENT-BONDED PARTICLE BOARD PRODUCED FROM AFZELIA AFRICANA WOOD RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUFEMI A. SOTANNDE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was design to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboards produced from Afzelia africana wood residues. The production variables investigated were three wood particle types (flakes, flake-sawdust mix and sawdust, three chemical accelerators (CaCl2, MgCl2 and AlCl3 and four wood-cement ratios (1:2.0, 1:2.5, 1:3.0 and 1:3.5. The accelerators were based on 2% by weight of cement used. The boards produced were subjected to physical tests such as density, percentage water absorption and thickness swelling. Mechanical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength and compressive strength. The results revealed that the type of particle used, wood-cement ratio and chemical additives had a marked influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards (p < 0.05. From quality view point, flake-sawdust composite ranked best while flake boards ranked least. Similarly, CaCl2 had the best influence on the setting of the boards followed by MgCl2 and AlCl3. Finally, it has been shown that particle boards that satisfied the BISON type HZ requirement and ISO 8335 can be produced from Afzelia africana particularly at wood-cement of 1:2.5 and above.

  17. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Ni/(Sc)YSZ cermets for solid oxide cells (SOCs) were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), under varying experimental conditions and upon redox cycling, using three different designs of symmetric cells. The deconvolution and fitting of the obtained impedance...... parameters. Initial degradation results for both Ni/ScYSZ and Ni/YSZ based anodes under very high steam content are also reported. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  18. Mathematical models of some geomagnetic storms with SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Regressive equations for H horizontal component of three geomagnetic storms with Sc:0.1.03.82, 24.01.74 and 23.03.69 -are calculated using step-by-step regression analysis. These equations relate H with parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. Nonlinear, square, logarithmic and trigonometric dependences are considered, as well. Most essential parameters, which contribute mostly into Sc, are determined from multiplicity (46 factors) of independent parameters

  19. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Permian Silicified Wood in Oman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Grygar, Tomáš

    -, č. 15 (2009), s. 14-18 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : silicified wood * Oman * geology Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry www.geologyoman.com/gso/Haj(Nov09).pdf

  1. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  2. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  3. Detecting decay in wood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  4. Effect of combustion condition on cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of residential wood combustion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Salonen, Raimo O.; Nuutinen, Kati; Pennanen, Arto S.; Happo, Mikko S.; Tissari, Jarkko; Frey, Anna; Hillamo, Risto; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2010-05-01

    Residential heating is an important local source of fine particles and may cause significant exposure and health effects in populations. We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of particulate emissions from normal (NC) and smouldering (SC) combustion in one masonry heater. The PM 1-0.2 and PM 0.2 samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM-samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (IL-6, TNFα and MIP-2), and cytotoxicity (MTT-test), were measured. Furthermore, apoptosis and cell cycle of macrophages were analyzed. The HVCI particulate samples were characterized for ions, elements and PAH compounds. Assays of elemental and organic carbon were conducted from parallel low volume samples. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. SC samples were more potent than NC samples at inducing cytotoxicity and MIP-2 production, while the order of potency was reversed in TNFα production. SC-PM 1-0.2 sample was a significantly more potent inducer of apoptosis than the respective NC sample. After adjustment for the relative toxicity with emission factor (mg MJ -1), the SC-PM emissions had clearly higher inflammatory and cytotoxic potential than the NC-PM emissions. Thus, operational practice in batch burning of wood and the resultant combustion condition clearly affect the toxic potential of particulate emissions.

  5. α-ScVSe2O8, β-ScVSe2O8, and ScVTe2O8: new quaternary mixed metal oxides composed of only second-order Jahn-Teller distortive cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Hun; Lee, Dong Woo; Ok, Kang Min

    2013-10-07

    Three new quaternary scandium vanadium selenium/tellurium oxides, α-ScVSe2O8, β-ScVSe2O8, and ScVTe2O8 have been synthesized through hydrothermal and standard solid-state reactions. Although all three reported materials are stoichiometrically similar, they exhibit different crystal structures: α-ScVSe2O8 has a three-dimensional framework structure consisting of ScO6, VO6, and SeO3 groups. β-ScVSe2O8 reveals another three-dimensional framework composed of ScO7, VO5, and SeO3 polyhedra. ScVTe2O8 shows a layered structure with ScO6, VO4, and TeO4 polyhedra. Interestingly, the constituent cations, that is, Sc(3+), V(5+), Se(4+), and Te(4+) are all in a distorted coordination environment attributable to second-order Jahn-Teller (SOJT) effects. Complete characterizations including infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, thermal analyses, dipole moment calculation, and the magnitudes of out-of-center distortions for the compounds are reported. Transformation reactions suggest that α-ScVSe2O8 may change to β-ScVSe2O8, and then to Sc2(SeO3)3·H2O under hydrothermal conditions.

  6. Effects of acidity on primary productivity in lakes: phytoplankton. [Lakes Panther, Sagamore, and Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G R

    1979-01-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity are being studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed as of July 31, 1979 are Woods 27, Sagamore 38, and Panther 64, conforming to other observations that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity found in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly instead of occuring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton (net > 48 ..mu..m), nannoplankton (48 > nanno > 20 ..mu..m) and ultraplankton (20 > ultra >0.45 ..mu..m) to productivity per m/sup -2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of /sup 14/C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (/sup 14/C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This is consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. (ERB)

  7. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of

  9. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  10. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  11. Wood as a home heating fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

  12. Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Rößler, Ronny; Ślipiński, Adam; Labandeira, Conrad

    2017-09-15

    Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis. This earliest evidence for a component community of several trophically interacting taxa is frozen in time by exceptional preservation. The combination of an entry tunnel through bark, a cambium mother gallery, and up to 11 eggs placed in lateral niches-from which emerge multi-instar larval tunnels that consume cambium, wood and bark-is ecologically convergent with Early Cretaceous bark-beetle borings 120 million-years later.Numerous gaps remain in our knowledge of how groups of organisms interacted in ancient ecosystems. Here, Feng and colleagues describe a late Permian fossil wood-boring beetle microcosm, with the oldest known example of complex tunnel geometry, host tissue response, and the presence of fungi within.

  13. Compensation of native donor doping in ScN: Carrier concentration control and p-type ScN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Garbrecht, Magnus; Perez-Taborda, Jaime A.; Fawey, Mohammed H.; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Hultman, Lars; Sands, Timothy D.

    2017-06-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is an emerging indirect bandgap rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential applications in thermoelectric energy conversion devices, as a semiconducting component in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices and as a substrate material for high quality GaN growth. Due to the presence of oxygen impurities and native defects such as nitrogen vacancies, sputter-deposited ScN thin-films are highly degenerate n-type semiconductors with carrier concentrations in the (1-6) × 1020 cm-3 range. In this letter, we show that magnesium nitride (MgxNy) acts as an efficient hole dopant in ScN and reduces the n-type carrier concentration, turning ScN into a p-type semiconductor at high doping levels. Employing a combination of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and room temperature optical and temperature dependent electrical measurements, we demonstrate that p-type Sc1-xMgxN thin-film alloys (a) are substitutional solid solutions without MgxNy precipitation, phase segregation, or secondary phase formation within the studied compositional region, (b) exhibit a maximum hole-concentration of 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 and a hole mobility of 21 cm2/Vs, (c) do not show any defect states inside the direct gap of ScN, thus retaining their basic electronic structure, and (d) exhibit alloy scattering dominating hole conduction at high temperatures. These results demonstrate MgxNy doped p-type ScN and compare well with our previous reports on p-type ScN with manganese nitride (MnxNy) doping.

  14. Nano-rod Ca-decorated sludge derived carbon for removal of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjun; Han, Meina; Shih, Kaimin; Su, Minhua; Diao, Zenghui; Long, Jianyou; Chen, Diyun; Hou, Li'an; Peng, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Recovering phosphorus (P) from waste streams takes the unique advantage in simultaneously addressing the crisis of eutrophication and the shortage of P resource. A novel calcium decorated sludge carbon (Ca-SC) was developed from dyeing industry wastewater treatment sludge by decorating calcium (Ca) to effectively adsorb phosphorus from solution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to characterize the Ca-SCs, followed by isotherm and kinetic sorption experiments. A preferred design with CaCO 3 to sludge mass ratio of 1:2 was found to have a sorption capacity of 116.82 mg/g for phosphorus. This work reveals the crucial role of well-dispersed nano-rod calcium on the Ca-SC surface for the sorption of phosphorus. Moreover, the decoration of nano-rod calcium was found to further promote the uptake of phosphorus through the formation of hydroxylapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)). Thus, the development of decorated Ca-SC for sorption of phosphorus is very important in solving the P pollution and resource loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  16. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  17. Micron-scale intra-ring analyses of δ13C in early Eocene Arctic wood from Ellesmere Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L.

    2009-12-01

    Early Eocene (ca. 53 Ma) fossil assemblages on Ellesmere Island (75 oN paleolatitude), provide rich information about the plant and animal life of the lush polar ecosystems of the time. Fossil wood recovered from Ellesmere Island is abundant and not permineralized; however, morphological features such as growth rings and resin canals have been obliterated by compression. We report on exceptionally high-resolution intra-ring analyses of δ13C within fossil wood, sampled at ~30 micron intervals across several centimeters of wood sample. Clear patterns in systematic seasonal increases and decreases in wood δ13C allowed us to identify at least 5 annual cycles in the wood. The patterns of increase and decrease in δ13C were consistent with patterns observed for evergreen wood, and distinct from the deciduous patterns we have observed for Metasequoia fossil wood from the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) Arctic site on Axel Heiberg Island. We believe that the high point in the δ13C value of wood seen in each cycle corresponds to the highest environmental temperatures during the annual cycle, as has been seen for modern evergreens (e.g., Barbour et al., 2002). Modern studies have also noted that high temperature periods are correlated with the highest vapor-pressure and soil-water deficits of the annual cycle; these environmental factors would cause the plant to change its discrimination during photosynthesis. We will discuss the relatively low amplitude of δ13C fluctuations (0.5-1.0 ‰) clearly defined by Ellesmere fossil wood, in comparison to observations on modern common evergreens (2.0-4.0 ‰), and speculate that this difference implies greatly dampened seasonal temperature fluctuations in Eocene polar environments, relative to today. Barbour M.M., Walcroft A.S., Farquhar G.D., 2002, Seasonal variation in δ13C and δ18O of cellulose from growth rings of Pinus radiata. Plant, Cell and Environment: v. 25, p. 1483-1499.

  18. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  19. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  20. Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Daniel A. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Discovering how aerosol particles, present in the atmosphere in sizes of a few nanometers to hundred micrometers, initiate ice crystal formation represents a great challenge. Atmospheric ice nucleation is important because ice crystals alter the radiative properties of clouds and thus climate, and impact precipitation and thus the hydrological cycle. The difficulty in predicting atmospheric ice formation is attributable at least in part, to the diversity of ice nucleation pathways, the physical and chemical complexity of the ice nucleating particles (INPs), and the relatively small numbers of INPs (compared with all other aerosol particles), sometimes less than one in 100000. These factors in turn makes constraining ice nucleation parameterizations for modeling applications challenging. The majority of airborne particles are known to be organic in nature or contain organic biogenic material. The presence of organic material adds to the complexity of the particles and therefore the predictability of ice nucleation events since the organic species can display different phase states, e.g. liquid or solid, in response to temperature and humidity. The award DE-SC0008613 to PI Prof. Daniel Knopf at Stony Brook University, “Relating the Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols to the Water Uptake and Ice Nucleation Potential of Particles Collected During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)”, allowed examination of laboratory generated aerosol particles and field-collected particles for their propensity to nucleate ice under typical tropospheric conditions and relate ice nucleation to the physicochemical properties of the particles including their morphology and chemical composition. This in turn allowed for development of ice nucleation parameterizations for implementation in cloud models. The award resulted in 10 peer-reviewed publications and more than 20 seminar and conference presentations. We demonstrated that the rate of immersion

  1. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca2+ Signaling during Myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca2+ increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.

  2. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Aarnio, J.; Maekinen, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m 3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m 3 /a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m 3 /a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m 3 . A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m 3 . One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m 3 . It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m 3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m 3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations

  3. Fusion hindrance for 27Al+45Sc and other systems with a positive Q value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Esbensen, H.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Pardo, R. C.; Seweryniak, D.; Ugalde, C.; Zhu, S.; Collon, P.; Notani, M.; Tang, X. D.; Deibel, C. M.; Figueira, J. M.; Marley, S. T.; Patel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Fusion evaporation cross sections for the 27 Al+ 45 Sc (Q=9.63 MeV) system are measured down to about 300 nb. Deviations from standard coupled-channels calculations were observed in this system at the lowest energies. The steep fall-off of the fusion cross sections can be reproduced by calculations using a shallow potential model, which was originally developed to explain the hindrance behavior of heavy-ion fusion in medium-mass systems with negative Q values. Comparisons of the hindrance behavior between the present experiment and other systems, for example, 28 Si+ 30 Si (Q=14.3 MeV) and 36 S+ 48 Ca (Q=7.55 MeV) are presented.

  4. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  5. Polymorphous GdScO3 as high permittivity dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, A.; Rahmanizadeh, K.; Bihlmayer, G.; Luysberg, M.; Wendt, F.; Besmehn, A.; Fox, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four different polymorphs of GdScO 3 are assessed theoretically and experimentally with respect to their suitability as a dielectric. The calculations carried out by density functional theory reveal lattice constants, band gaps and the energies of formation of three crystal phases. Experimentally all three crystal phases and the amorphous phase can be realized as thin films by pulsed laser deposition using various growth templates. Their respective crystal structures are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reflecting the calculated lattice constants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy unveils the band gaps of the different polymorphs of GdScO 3 which are above 5 eV for all films demonstrating good insulating properties. From capacitance voltage measurements, high permittivities of up to 27 for hexagonal GdScO 3 are deduced. - Highlights: • Different epitaxial polymorph phases of GdScO 3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition. • The cubic phase of GdScO 3 is reported for the first time. • All phases are proven to be useful for the use in silicon based and III–V based microelectronic devices.

  6. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Miguel A; Laurila, Tomi; Zhang, Siyuan; Moram, Michelle A; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Molarius, Jyrki; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc x Al 1−x N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e ij , piezoelectric moduli d ij and elastic constants C ij . The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e 33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material. (paper)

  7. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  8. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  9. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  10. Pine Wood Treated with a Citric Acid and Glycerol Mixture: Biomaterial Performance Improved by a Bio-byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatien Geraud Essoua Essoua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood material is a good reservoir for biogenic carbon storage. The use of wood material for outdoor products such as siding in the building construction sector presents limits. These limits are bound to the nature of wood material (hygroscopic property and anatomical structure. They are responsible for the dimensional variation associated with moisture content variations. Fungal attacks and coating layers adhesion on wood surface, are other problems. This research investigated the feasibility of impregnation with environmentally friendly chemicals, i.e., a citric acid-glycerol mixture (CA-G. The anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, hardness, biodegradation, and coating adhesion tests were performed on softwood specimens. ASE results were up to 53%. The equilibrium moisture content of the treated specimens was less than half of the untreated ones. FTIR spectroscopy showed bands at 1720 to 1750 cm-1, indicating the presence of ester bonds, and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the polymerization and condensation of treatment solution inside the wood structure. Hardness and decay resistance were increased; however, treatment reduces coating adhesion. In conclusion, CA-G represents a promising eco-responsible solution for improving the technical performance of outdoor wood products.

  11. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  12. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  13. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of the Sc-Zn system coupled with first-principles calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sc-Zn system has been critically reviewed and assessed by means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram approach. By means of first-principles calculation, the enthalpies of formation at 0 K for the ScZn, ScZn2, Sc17Zn58, Sc3Zn17 and ScZn12 have been computed with the desire to assist thermodynamic modeling. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the Sc-Zn system is then obtained. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties agree well with the experimental data and first-principles calculations, respectively.

  15. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  16. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  17. Effect of scandium on structure and hardening of Al–Ca eutectic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, N.A., E-mail: nikolay-belov@yandex.ru [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Naumova, E.A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 5, 2 ul. Baumanskaya, Moscow, 105005 (Russian Federation); Alabin, A.N. [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, I.A. [UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The phase composition, structure and hardening of alloys in the aluminium corner of the Al–Ca–Sc system were studied in the range up to 10% Ca and up to 1% S≿. The experimental study (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy with electron-microprobe analysis, differential thermal analysis and hardness measurements) was combined with Thermo-Calc software simulation for the optimization of the alloy composition. It was shown that only phases of the binary systems (Al{sub 4}Ca and Al{sub 3}Sc) might be in equilibrium with the aluminium solid solution. It was shown that the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic had a much finer structure as compared with the Al–Si eutectic, which suggests a possibility of reaching higher mechanical properties as compared to commercial alloys of the A356 type. The influence of the annealing temperature within the range up to 600 °C on the structure and hardness of the Al–Ca–Sc experimental alloys was studied. It was determined that the maximum hardening corresponded to the annealing at 300 °C, which was due to the precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles with their further coarsening. With an example of an Al-7.6% Ca-0.3% Sc model experimental alloy, a principal possibility of manufacturing aluminium casting alloys based on the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic was demonstrated. Unlike commercial alloys of the A356 type, the model alloy does not require quenching, as hardening particles are formed in the course of annealing of casting. - Highlights: • Al–Ca–Sc phase diagram in aluminum corner. • Formation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles in eutectic (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca during heating at 300–450 °C. • Hardening and thermal stability of proposed (Al–Ca–Sc) and commercial (Al–Si–Mg, 356 type) eutectic alloys.

  18. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  20. Paracyclophane functionalized with Sc and Li for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Rohit Y.; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    Li and Sc metals functionalized on the delocalized π -electrons of benzene rings in [2,2]paracyclophane structure are studied for hydrogen storage efficiency by using the M06 DFT functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. It is found that Sc and Li functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane complexes can hold up to 10 H2 molecules and 8 H2 molecules by Kubas-Niu-Jena interaction and charge polarization mechanism with hydrogen weight percentage of 11.4 and 13.5, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation at various temperatures showed appreciable thermal stability while the chemical potential calculation at room temperature reveals that Sc functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane system will be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  1. Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite on the PEG-grafted surface of wood from Chinese Glossy Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Cai, Chuanjie; Cai, Dongqing; Cheng, Junjie; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhengyan

    2012-10-01

    Wood-hydroxyapatite composite material was developed by depositing hydrated calcium hydrogen phosphate (HCHP) on the surface of wood from Chinese Glossy Privet (CGP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG, HO(CH2CH2O)nH) as the grafting agent and subsequent hydrothermal vapor treatment. The results illustrated that HCHP could adhere quickly and strongly on the PEG-grafted wood surface. Moreover, this HCHP could be efficiently transformed to hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) by hydrothermal vapor treatment. IR, XRD analysis and SEM observation indicated that the fabricated hydroxyapatite was pure and its morphology was uniform and microporous. This work provides a new fabricating approach of biocompatible material which may have some potential applications as bone-repairing material.

  2. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  3. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  4. Band structure of the quaternary Heusler alloys ScMnFeSn and ScFeCoAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, N.; Teja, Y. N.; Shaji, Shephine M.; Hosamani, Shashikala; Divya, H. S.

    2018-04-01

    In our quest for materials with specific applications, a theoretical study plays an important role in predicting the properties of compounds. Heusler alloys or compounds are the most studied in this context. More recently, a lot of quaternary Heusler compounds are investigated for potential applications in fields like Spintronics. We report here our preliminary study of the alloys ScMnFeSn and ScFeCoAl, using the ab-initio linear muffin-tin orbital method within the atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA). The alloy ScMnFeSn shows perfect half-metallicity, namely, one of the spins shows a metallic behaviour and the other spin shows semi-conducting behaviour. Such materials find application in devices such as the spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-MRAM). In addition, the alloy ScMnFeSn is found to have an integral magnetic moment of 4 µB, as predicted by the Slater-Pauling rule. The alloy ScFeCoAl does not show half-metallicity.

  5. Lightweight hydrogen-storage material Mg0.65Sc0.35D2 studied with 2H and 2H–{45Sc} MAS NMR exchange spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, S.; Magusin, P.C.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using double-quantum 2H MAS NMR with 45Sc recoupling and Bloch–Siegert compensated 2H–{45Sc} TRAPDOR we have identified the overlapping NMR signals of deuterium with and without scandium neighbors in Mg0.65Sc0.35D2, a candidate lightweight material for hydrogen storage. At room temperature we also

  6. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Frihart; Rishawn Brandon; James Beecher; Rebecca Ibach

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood...

  7. Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Robert; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

  8. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  9. Low-β SC linacs: past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a general review of superconducting low-β technology and applications from its beginning in 1969 into the near-term future. The emphasis is on studies of accelerating resonators and on SC linacs that boost the energy of heavy-ion beams from tandem electrostatic accelerators used for nuclear-physics research. Other topics are positive-ion SC injectors to replace tandems and the need for accelerating structures with β outside of the present proven range, 0.008 < β < 0.2

  10. Emission ability of La-Sc-Mo cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiancan; Nie Zuoren; Xi Xiaoli; Wang Yiman

    2004-01-01

    In this paper La-Sc-Mo cathode has been prepared and its electron emission ability was measured. This type of cathode shows good electron emission performance that the saturated current density is 6.74 A cm -1 and the work function is about 2.59 eV at 1300 deg. C, which is much lower than thoriated tungsten cathode (Th-W). So it is a potential cathode to replace the Th-W cathode with radioactive pollution. Surface analysis shows that good emission ability due to the 20 nm surplus La layer and the element Sc may do good to the La diffusion to the surface

  11. Bayesian narrowband interference mitigation in SC-FDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum; Masood, Mudassir; Al-Ghadhban, Samir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel narrowband interference (NBI) mitigation scheme for SC-FDMA systems. The proposed scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown NBI signal and adopts a low complexity Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. In practice, however, the sparsity of the NBI is destroyed by a grid mismatch between NBI sources and SC-FDMA system. Towards this end, an accurate grid mismatch model is presented and a sparsifying transform is utilized to restore the sparsity of the unknown signal. Numerical results are presented that depict the suitability of the proposed scheme for NBI mitigation.

  12. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  13. Bayesian narrowband interference mitigation in SC-FDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum

    2015-08-12

    This paper presents a novel narrowband interference (NBI) mitigation scheme for SC-FDMA systems. The proposed scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown NBI signal and adopts a low complexity Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. In practice, however, the sparsity of the NBI is destroyed by a grid mismatch between NBI sources and SC-FDMA system. Towards this end, an accurate grid mismatch model is presented and a sparsifying transform is utilized to restore the sparsity of the unknown signal. Numerical results are presented that depict the suitability of the proposed scheme for NBI mitigation.

  14. Radiation protection Group (SC/RP) desperately seeking...

    CERN Document Server

    A. Hervé, Y. Donjoux / SC

    2006-01-01

    We are trying to trace two transit permits (passavants), which constitute the customs clearance documentation for two 'AD6'portable radiation detectors. The two permits (No. 1308 and No. 1309) were sent in the same internal mail envelope towards the middle of March 2006 but never reached their final destination. After weeks of searching in vain, we are now appealing for your help. If you have these two permits in your possession, please get in touch with us. Many thanks in advance. A.HERVE - SC/RP- ( 163168 / 70927) Y.DONJOUX - SC/RP - (160105 / 73171)

  15. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  16. Mise en scène ja kertova lavastus

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii mise en scèneä ja lavastuksen kerronnallista vaikutusta elokuvassa. Työ on toteutettu toiminnallisena ja koostuu kirjallisesta osasta ja teososasta. Teososa on vuonna 2012 ensi-iltansa saanut fiktiivinen lyhytelokuva Varjelus. Toimin elokuvassa lavastajana ja rekvisitöörinä. Kirjallinen osuus alkaa käsittelemällä mise en scènen, eli ’näyttämöllepanon’ määritelmää ja sen syntyä elokuvalliseksi konseptiksi. Työ etenee esittelemään ja tarkastelemaan käsitteen eri vis...

  17. Input-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA2 Region and Its Potential Role in Social Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Felix; Brann, David H; Meira, Torcato; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2017-08-30

    Input-timing-dependent plasticity (ITDP) is a circuit-based synaptic learning rule by which paired activation of entorhinal cortical (EC) and Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) produces a long-term enhancement of SC excitation. We now find that paired stimulation of EC and SC inputs also induces ITDP of SC excitation of CA2 PNs. However, whereas CA1 ITDP results from long-term depression of feedforward inhibition (iLTD) as a result of activation of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors on cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons, CA2 ITDP results from iLTD through activation of δ-opioid receptors on parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Furthermore, whereas CA1 ITDP has been previously linked to enhanced specificity of contextual memory, we find that CA2 ITDP is associated with enhanced social memory. Thus, ITDP may provide a general synaptic learning rule for distinct forms of hippocampal-dependent memory mediated by distinct hippocampal regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. crdi.ca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et des enfants d'Afrique. INITIATIVE CONCERTÉE. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique. Centre de recherches pour le développement international. CP Box 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Téléphone : +1 613 236 6163 • Télécopieur : +1 613 657 7749 ismea@crdi.ca | www.crdi.ca/ismea crdi.ca.

  19. Ethanol from wood 'can be competitive'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-19

    Estimates by Stones and Webster indicate that the cost of producing ethanol for fuel purposes from wood will be as cheap as any other method and comparable with proven sugarcane and maize technology. In coming to this conclusion, it was assumed that significant advances would be made in the hydrolysis of wood and that saleable by-products would be possible from the lignin and hemicellulose of the feedstock wood.

  20. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  1. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  2. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  3. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  4. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  5. Reliable and non-destructive positioning of larvae of wood-destroying beetles in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, G.; Thiele, H.; Unger, W.

    1980-01-01

    Living larvae of wood-destroying insects (house longhorn beetle, deathwatch) can be determined in wood by both X-ray technique and vibration measurements. For such examinations convenient commercial devices were used and tested under laboratory conditions. The methods complement each other and lead to a rationalization of the tests of wood preservatives against wood-destroying insects. It seems to be promising to apply the test methods also to timber already used for building

  6. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  7. Optimization of reaction conditions for the radiolabeling of DOTA and DOTA-peptide with (44m/44)Sc and experimental evidence of the feasibility of an in vivo PET generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huclier-Markai, S; Kerdjoudj, R; Alliot, C; Bonraisin, A C; Michel, N; Haddad, F; Barbet, J

    2014-05-01

    Among the number of generator systems providing radionuclides with decay parameters promising for imaging and treatment applications, there is the (44)Ti (T1/2=60 years)/(44)Sc (T1/2=3.97 h) generator. This generator provides a longer-lived daughter for extended PET/CT measurements compared to the chemically similar system (68)Ge/(68)Ga. Scandium also exists as (47)Sc, a potential therapeutic radionuclide. It is possible to produce (44)Sc in a cyclotron using, for example, the (44)Ca (d, n) (44)Sc nuclear reaction. In that case, the isomeric state (44 m)Sc (T1/2=58.6h) is co-produced and may be used as an in vivo(44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of this in vivo(44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator and to demonstrate that the daughter radionuclide stays inside the chelator after decay of the parent radionuclide. Indeed, the physico-chemical process occurring after the primary radioactive decay (EC, IT, Auger electron …) has prevented in many cases the use of in-vivo generator, because of the post-effect as described in the literature. The DOTA macrocyclic ligand forms stable complexes with many cations and has been shown to be the most suitable chelating moiety for scandium. Initially, the radiolabeling of DOTA and a DOTA-peptide (DOTATATE) with Sc was performed and optimized as a function of time, pH, metal-to-ligand ratio and temperature. Next, the physico-chemical processes that could occur after the decay (post-effect) were studied. (44 m)Sc(III)-labeled DOTA-peptide was quantitatively adsorbed on a solid phase matrix through a hydrophobic interaction. Elutions were then performed at regular time intervals using a DTPA solution at various concentrations. Finally, the radiolabelled complex stability was studied in serum. Radiolabeling yields ranged from 90% to 99% for metal-to-ligand ratio ranging from 1:10 to 1:500 for DOTA or DOTATATE respectively. The optimum physico-chemical parameters were pH=4-6, t=20 min, T=70°C. Then

  8. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Taeyoup [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). {open_square} SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure {center_dot} Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC {center_dot} SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action {open_square} Benefits of SC Structure {center_dot} Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works {center_dot} Minimize Site Labors {center_dot} Improve the Construction Quality {center_dot} Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean {open_square} SC Modularization {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules {center_dot} Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization {open_square} Project Overview {center_dot} Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP {center_dot} Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) {center_dot} Duration: Sep. 2005 {approx} Aug. 2008 (36 Months) {center_dot} Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design

  9. Wood-energy - The sector get worried

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Bohlinger, Philippe; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Sredojevic, Alexandre; Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Wood energy is, today and certainly also tomorrow, one of the most important renewable energies in France. However, the wood-energy sector seems to slow down as hydrocarbon prices stay extremely low. This document presents 8 articles, describing the context and the characteristics of this evolution, plus some examples of developments in France. The themes of the articles are: the activity of the wood-energy sector should be reinforced to meet the objectives of the French energy multi-year plan; The 2035 prospective of the wood yield in the French forest will meet the future demand, however this evaluation does not take into consideration the effects of the climatic change; the conversion to biomass of the 'Fort de l'Est' (near Paris) heating system (equipped with a boiling fluidized bed boiler) has enabled the heat network to beat the 50 pc share of renewable energy; wood-energy professionals use the 'quality' lever to challenge their fossil fuel competitors; the city of Orleans is now equipped with an innovative biomass cogeneration plant; the example of wood waste valorization in a French sawmill; the French ONF (Forest Administration) Wood-Energy actor has just inaugurated its largest biomass dryer, in order to develop the domestic market for wood as a fuel; analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of using wood to generate electric power or replacing electric space heating by heat network

  10. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  11. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  12. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  13. Insights into intraspecific wood density variation and its relationship to growth, height and elevation in a treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, A

    2018-05-01

    The wood economics spectrum provides a general framework for interspecific trait-trait coordination across wide environmental gradients. Whether global patterns are mirrored within species constitutes a poorly explored subject. In this study, I first determined whether wood density co-varies together with elevation, tree growth and height at the within-species level. Second, I determined the variation of wood density in different stem parts (trunk, branch and twigs). In situ trunk sapwood, trunk heartwood, branch and twig densities, in addition to stem growth rates and tree height were determined in adult trees of Nothofagus pumilio at four elevations in five locations spanning 18° of latitude. Mixed effects models were fitted to test relationships among variables. The variation in wood density reported in this study was narrow (ca. 0.4-0.6 g cm -3 ) relative to global density variation (ca. 0.3-1.0 g cm -3 ). There was no significant relationship between stem growth rates and wood density. Furthermore, the elevation gradient did not alter the wood density of any stem part. Trunk sapwood density was negatively related to tree height. Twig density was higher than branch and trunk densities. Trunk heartwood density was always significantly higher than sapwood density. Negative across-species trends found in the growth-wood density relationship may not emerge as the aggregate of parallel intraspecific patterns. Actually, trees with contrasting growth rates show similar wood density values. Tree height, which is tightly related to elevation, showed a negative relationship with sapwood density. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Differential Functionalization of Presumed ScALT1 and ScALT2 Alanine Transaminases Has Been Driven by Diversification of Pyridoxal Phosphate Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erendira Rojas-Ortega

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae arose from an interspecies hybridization (allopolyploidiza-tion, followed by Whole Genome Duplication. Diversification analysis of ScAlt1/ScAlt2 indicated that while ScAlt1 is an alanine transaminase, ScAlt2 lost this activity, constituting an example in which one of the members of the gene pair lacks the apparent ancestral physiological role. This paper analyzes structural organization and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP binding properties of ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 indicating functional diversification could have determined loss of ScAlt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine metabolism. It was found that ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 are dimeric enzymes harboring 67% identity and intact conservation of the catalytic residues, with very similar structures. However, tertiary structure analysis indicated that ScAlt2 has a more open conformation than that of ScAlt1 so that under physiological conditions, while PLP interaction with ScAlt1 allows the formation of two tautomeric PLP isomers (enolimine and ketoenamine ScAlt2 preferentially forms the ketoenamine PLP tautomer, indicating a modified polarity of the active sites which affect the interaction of PLP with these proteins, that could result in lack of alanine transaminase activity in ScAlt2. The fact that ScAlt2 forms a catalytically active Schiff base with PLP and its position in an independent clade in “sensu strictu” yeasts suggests this protein has a yet undiscovered physiological function.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Differential Functionalization of Presumed ScALT1 and ScALT2 Alanine Transaminases Has Been Driven by Diversification of Pyridoxal Phosphate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Ortega, Erendira; Aguirre-López, Beatriz; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; González-Andrade, Martín; Campero-Basaldúa, Jose C.; Pardo, Juan P.; González, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae arose from an interspecies hybridization (allopolyploidiza-tion), followed by Whole Genome Duplication. Diversification analysis of ScAlt1/ScAlt2 indicated that while ScAlt1 is an alanine transaminase, ScAlt2 lost this activity, constituting an example in which one of the members of the gene pair lacks the apparent ancestral physiological role. This paper analyzes structural organization and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding properties of ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 indicating functional diversification could have determined loss of ScAlt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine metabolism. It was found that ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 are dimeric enzymes harboring 67% identity and intact conservation of the catalytic residues, with very similar structures. However, tertiary structure analysis indicated that ScAlt2 has a more open conformation than that of ScAlt1 so that under physiological conditions, while PLP interaction with ScAlt1 allows the formation of two tautomeric PLP isomers (enolimine and ketoenamine) ScAlt2 preferentially forms the ketoenamine PLP tautomer, indicating a modified polarity of the active sites which affect the interaction of PLP with these proteins, that could result in lack of alanine transaminase activity in ScAlt2. The fact that ScAlt2 forms a catalytically active Schiff base with PLP and its position in an independent clade in “sensu strictu” yeasts suggests this protein has a yet undiscovered physiological function. PMID:29867852

  16. Ab-initio studies of the Sc adsorption and the ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J.; Sánchez-Ochoa, F.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    First principles total energy calculations have been performed to investigate the initial stages of the Sc adsorption and ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface. Studies are done within the periodic density functional theory as implemented in the PWscf code of the Quantum ESPRESSO package. The Sc adsorption at high symmetry sites results in the bridge site as the most stable structure. When a Sc monolayer is deposited above the surface the T4 site results as the most stable geometry. The Sc migration into the first Ga monolayer induces the Ga displaced ad-atom to be adsorbed at the T4-2 site. A ScN bilayer may be obtained under the Ga monolayer. Finally a ScN bilayer may be formed in the wurtzite phase above the surface. The formation energy plots show that in the moderate Ga-rich conditions we obtain the formation of a ScN bilayer under the gallium monolayer. However at N-rich conditions the formation of ScN bilayer above the surface is the most favorable structure. We report the density of states to explain the electronic structure of the most favorable geometries. - Highlights: • Studies of the initial stages in the formation of Sc and ScN structures on GaN • In the adsorption of Sc on the GaN the Br site is the most favorable geometry. • When a Sc replaces a Ga of the first monolayer the displaced Ga occupies a T4-2 site. • For Ga-rich conditions there is formation of ScN under the Ga monolayer. • In N-rich conditions there is formation of ScN in the wurtzite phase

  17. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  18. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  19. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  20. The central role of wood biology in understanding the durability of wood-coating interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2007-01-01

    To design effectively for durability, one must actively and honestly assess the material properties and limitations of each of the components in the design system; wood or wood composite, and the coating. Inasmuch as wood coatings are manufactured to specified tolerances from known materials, we have control of that component of the system. Compared to manmade...

  1. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  2. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  3. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  4. Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that...

  5. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institute...

  6. Calibration of the DLP-SC-3300-02 probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report douments the calibration measurement of the DLP-SC-3300-02 dual-linearly polarized near-field probe. The measurement comprises radiation pattern, diretivity, gain, spetra of spherial wave coefients, polarization charateristis, and complex channel balance at 41 frequencies, as well...

  7. Determining volume sensitive waters in Beaufort County, SC tidal creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Tweel; Denise Sanger; Anne Blair; John Leffler

    2016-01-01

    Non-point source pollution from stormwater runoff associated with large-scale land use changes threatens the integrity of ecologically and economically valuable estuarine ecosystems. Beaufort County, SC implemented volume-based stormwater regulations on the rationale that if volume discharge is controlled, contaminant loading will also be controlled.

  8. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  9. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  10. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The catalogue contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  11. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalogue contains a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  12. Transmission/reception of a partial sc-fdm symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method is disclosed for signal processing in a radio system. The method comprises generating (801), in an apparatus (602), a single carrier frequency division multiplexing SC-FDM signal having a shorter duration than a time symbol duration defined by a radio standard applied in the radio system...

  13. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  14. Analytical electron microscopy of combustion particles: a comparison of vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, A.; Johansen, B.V.; Schwarze, P.E.; Namork, E.

    2005-01-01

    Particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Since combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke are common constituents of ambient air, the morphology and elemental composition of particles from these two sources were analysed and compared using single particle analysis. Ambient air particles were collected in locations dominated by vehicle exhaust or residential wood smoke. To verify the source contributions to the ambient air samples, particles were collected directly from the combustion sources. All particulate samples were analysed on carbon extraction replica by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Carbon aggregates were the only particles identified to originate from combustion sources and accounted for more than 88% of the particle numbers in the ambient air samples from both sources. The carbon aggregates were therefore further analysed with respect to morphology and elemental composition on germanium extraction replica. Carbon aggregates from vehicle exhaust were characterised by higher levels of Si and Ca compared to wood smoke aggregates that contained higher levels of K. The S content in aggregates from both sources was probably caused by interaction with gases in the air. Furthermore, the diameters of primary particles from vehicle exhaust were significantly smaller (27±7 nm) than the diameters for wood smoke (38±11 nm). The observed differences in elemental profiles and primary particle diameters for vehicle exhaust and wood smoke may influence the health effects caused by these particles

  15. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikus, K.; Sersa, I.; Policnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanic, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  16. Role of cell death in the propagation of PrP(Sc) in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have suggested that macrophages, dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells play an important role in the propagation of PrP(Sc). Both accumulation and proteolysis of PrP(Sc) have been demonstrated in peripheral macrophages. Macrophages may act as reservoirs for PrP(Sc) particles if the cells die during transient PrP(Sc) propagation. However, whether cell death plays a role in PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the possibility of propagation and transmission of PrP(Sc) between dead immune cells and living neural cells. We found that under specific conditions, transient PrP(Sc) propagation occurs in dead cells, indicating that interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) on plasma membrane lipid rafts might be important for PrP(Sc) propagation. Co-culturing of killed donor PrP(Sc)-infected macrophages with recipient N2a-3 neuroblastoma cells accelerated PrP(Sc) transmission. Our results suggest that cell death may play an important role in PrP(Sc) propagation, whereas transient PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages has little effect on PrP(Sc) transmission.

  17. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  18. Update on the NSF PAARE Program at SC State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on results from our NSF PAARE program during Year 2 of the project. Our partnership under this PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented. We have successfully piloted sharing our teaching resources by offering an upper-level astrophysics course taught at Clemson via video conferencing , allowing a graduating senior from SC State to take a course not available through his home institution. Additionally, we are working on a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Our curriculum work includes new web-based cosmology activities and laboratory experiments. SC State undergraduates are reporting at this conference on their work with the light curves of semiregular variables using Kepler data. Additionally, we are heavily involved in the Citizen CATE Experiment. A PAARE scholarship student from SC State and the PAARE PI traveled to Indonesia for the March 2016 solar eclipse. Their results are also being presented elsewhere at this conference (see Myles McKay’s poster). Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Additional support has been provided by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium and from NASA to SC State under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  19. Manufacturing methods and magnetic characteristics of magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.; Hojo, A.; Osada, H.; Namizaki, Y.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between wood construction and DC magnetic characteristics for three types of magnetic wood was experimentally investigated. The results show that the magnetic characteristics of each type of magnetic wood are dependent on the magnetic materials, the density of the magnetic material and the construction of the wood. Furthermore, it was determined that the relationship between the fiber direction and the magnetic path direction of the magnetic wood influenced the wood's magnetic characteristics

  20. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  1. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  2. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  3. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells [nl

  4. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  5. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  6. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  7. Business environment in the wood fuels field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, H.; Ranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this publication the business environment in the wood fuels sector and the internal and external factors affecting it are studied. It has been considered important to describe both the present situation and future possibilities of the business in order to develop it so that the planned increase in the use of wood fuels can be achieved

  8. Wood energy markets, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the 2012 International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, in this chapter we consider in some depth the sustainability of wood energy. To do so, we evaluate the traditional economic, environmental and social dimensions of the sustainability concept. We also address how public policy has influenced wood energy sustainability across the UNECE region.

  9. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  10. Potential for Biobased Adhesives in Wood Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest and research on using bio-based materials as wood adhesives; however, they have achieved only limited market acceptance. To better understand this low level of replacement, it is important to understand why adhesives work or fail in moisture durability tests. A holistic model for wood adhesives has been developed that clarifies...

  11. Chapter 16: Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Protein adhesives allowed the development of bonded wood products such as plywood and glulam in the early 20th century. Petrochemical-based adhesives replaced proteins in most wood bonding applications because of lower cost, improved production efficiencies, and enhanced durability. However, several technological and environmental factors have led to a resurgence of...

  12. Peter Koch: wizard of wood use

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Lora

    1978-01-01

    Like his pioneer forefathers, Peter Koch sees opportunity where others see obstacles. And his vision is helping to reshape the wood industry. Since 1963 Koch has directed research on processing southern woods for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, Louisiana. In that time, he has invented six revolutionary machines, developed...

  13. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  14. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  15. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 93 (2013), s. 52-52 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  16. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  17. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  18. Micromechanical measurement of wood substructure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Troy W. Schmidt; Roderic S. Lakes; Steven M. Cramer

    2002-01-01

    The annual rings of softwoods are visually obvious and represent cylindrical layers of primarily cellulosic material that possess significantly different properties. For simplicity, wood construction products are designed assuming a material homogeneity that does not exist. As rapidly grown plantation trees are used for wood products, fewer rings are contained in an...

  19. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  20. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Ginwal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT. The database is freely available on www.wgdb.in.

  1. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  2. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive...

  3. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only the most widely used building material in the United States but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees range from a minimally processed log at a log-home building site to a...

  4. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  6. Wood products research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Forest biomass conversion to biofuels and other value-added co-products; hyper-performance advanced composites custom tailored to end use requirements; advanced high performance wood-based structures; and nanomaterials and nano-enable high performance products from wood represent important research and development investment areas for the successful transformation of...

  7. Heating and ignition of small wood cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace L. Fons

    1950-01-01

    The literature provides limited information on the time of ignition of wood under conditions of rapid heating such as occur in forest and structure fires. An investigation was made of ease of ignition as affected by such physical properties of wood as initial temperature, size, and moisture content and by temperature of ambient gas or rate of heating. Temperature-time...

  8. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  9. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  10. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  11. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  13. Apical P2XR contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling and Isc in mouse renal MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Lynch, I Jeanette; Zheng, Wencui; Cash, Melanie N; Teng, Xueling; Wingo, Charles S; Verlander, Jill W; Xia, Shen-Ling

    2007-08-03

    We examined P2X receptor expression and distribution in the mouse collecting duct (CD) and their functional role in Ca(2+) signaling. Both P2X(1) and P2X(4) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated apical P2X(1) and P2X(4) immunoreactivity in principal cells in the outer medullary CD (OMCD) and inner medullary CD (IMCD). Luminal ATP induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in native medullary CD (MCD) as measured by fluorescence imaging. ATP also induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in MCD cells grown in primary culture but not in the presence of P2XR antagonist PPNDS. Short circuit current (I(sc)) measurement with mouse IMCD cells showed that P2XR agonist BzATP induced a larger I(sc) than did P2YR agonist UTP in the apical membrane. Our data reveal for the first time that P2X(1) and P2X(4) are cell-specific with prominent immunoreactivity in the apical area of MCD cells. The finding that P2XR blockade inhibits ATP-induced Ca(2+) signaling suggests that activation of P2XR is a key step in Ca(2+)-dependent purinergic signaling. The result that activation of P2XR produces large I(sc) indicates the necessity of P2XR in renal CD ion transport.

  14. Search for the weak non-analog Fermi branch in the 42Sc ground state beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelVecchio, R.M.; Daehnick, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have searched for the β-decay branch from the 4 2Sc ground state to the 1.837 MeV level in 4 2Ca. Since both states are J/sup π/ = 0 + , T = 1, this decay is an example of a non-analog Fermi decay which could occur by reason of some mixing of the analog ground states into the lowest excited 0 + state in both 4 2Sc and 4 2Ca. As a signal for this branch, we looked for a subsequent cascade γ ray with a Ge(Li) detector-rabbit arrangement. We found a branching ratio of (2.2 +- 1.7) x 10 - 5 relative to the superallowed ground state to ground state decay. Interpreted as an upper limit, this corresponds to a branching ratio - 5 at the 68% confidence level. This result is at the lower bound of what present theory can predict with a Coulomb force mixing calculation

  15. Construction, expression, and function of 6B11ScFv-mIL-12, a fusion protein that attacks human ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongyan; Ye, Xue; Chang, Xiaohong; Ma, Ruiqiong; Cong, Xu; Niu, Yidong; Zhang, Menglei; Liu, Kai; Cui, Heng; Sang, Jianli

    2015-04-01

    We previously produced an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, 6B11, which mimics ovarian cancer antigen CA166-9 and induces cellular and humoral immunity. Here, to enhance the immunogenicity of 6B11, we constructed the 6B11ScFv-mIL-12 fusion protein (FP), by fusing single-chain fragment of 6B11 variable region (6B11ScFv) with mouse interleukin-12 (mIL-12), which was expressed in eukaryotic 293EBNA cells transfected with pSBI vectors. A binding activity assay showed 6B11ScFv-mIL-12 to have activities of both 6B11 and mIL-12-it specifically bound both ovarian monoclonal antibody COC166-9 and rabbit anti-mouse IL-12 antibody. The immune activity assay showed 6B11ScFv-mIL-12 to promote proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, increase the absolute numbers and percentages of CD3(-)/CD56(+) natural killer cells and CD3(+)/CD56(+) natural killer T cells among peripheral lymphocytes, and increase interferon-γ. The FP was specifically cytotoxic to the CA166-9(+) ovarian cancer cell lines HOC1A and SKOV3 and inhibited growth of ID8 subcutaneous tumors in C57BL/6J mice. This study provides an experimental basis for clinical use of 6B11ScFv-mIL-12 in ovarian cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a fusion protein from an anti-idiotypic antibody and IL-12.

  16. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The best-known and most-studied petrified wood specimens are those that are mineralized with polymorphs of silica: opal-A, opal-C, chalcedony, and quartz. Less familiar are fossil woods preserved with non-silica minerals. This report reviews discoveries of woods mineralized with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various iron and copper minerals, manganese oxide, fluorite, barite, natrolite, and smectite clay. Regardless of composition, the processes of mineralization involve the same factors: availability of dissolved elements, pH, Eh, and burial temperature. Permeability of the wood and anatomical features also plays important roles in determining mineralization. When precipitation occurs in several episodes, fossil wood may have complex mineralogy.

  19. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...... with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety of possible applications together with a high level of improvements, alongside commercial factors...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  20. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  1. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  3. Two anionically derivatized scandium oxoselenates(IV): ScF[SeO3] and Sc2O2[SeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Chou, Sheng-Chun; Schleid, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Scandium fluoride oxoselenate(IV) ScF[SeO3] and scandium oxide oxoselenate(IV) Sc2O2[SeO3] could be synthesized through solid-state reactions. ScF[SeO3] was obtained phase-pure, by reacting mixtures of Sc2O3, ScF3 and SeO2 (molar ratio: 1:1:3) together with CsBr as fluxing agent in corundum crucibles embedded into evacuated glassy silica ampoules after firing at 700 °C for seven days. Sc2O2[SeO3] first emerged as by-product during the attempts to synthesize ScCl[SeO3] following aforementioned synthesis route and could later be reproduced from appropriate Sc2O3/SeO3 mixtures. ScF[SeO3] crystallizes monoclinically in space group P21/m with a=406.43(2), b =661.09(4), c=632.35(4) pm, β=93.298(3)° and Z=2. Sc2O2[SeO3] also crystallizes in the monoclinic system, but in space group P21/n with a=786.02(6), b=527.98(4), c=1086.11(8) pm, β=108.672(3)° for Z=4. The crystal structures of both compounds are strongly influenced by the stereochemically active lone pairs of the ψ1-tetrahedral [SeO3]2- anions. They also show partial structures, where the derivatizing F- or O2- anions play an important role. For ScF[SeO3] chains of the composition 2+∞ 1[FS c 2 / 2 ] form from connected [FSc2]5+ dumbbells, while [OSc3]7+ pyramids and [OSc4]10+ tetrahedra units are condensed to layers according to 2+ ∞ 2[O2Sc2 ] in Sc2O2[SeO3].

  4. Topotactic oxidation pathway of ScTiO3 and high-temperature structure evolution of ScTiO3.5 and Sc4Ti3O12-type phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid P; Hernden, Bradley C; Cranswick, Lachlan M D; Hansen, Thomas C; Bieringer, Mario

    2012-02-06

    The novel oxide defect fluorite phase ScTiO(3.5) is formed during the topotactic oxidation of ScTiO(3) bixbyite. We report the oxidation pathway of ScTiO(3) and structure evolution of ScTiO(3.5), Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12), and related scandium-deficient phases as well as high-temperature phase transitions between room temperature and 1300 °Cusing in-situ X-ray diffraction. We provide the first detailed powder neutron diffraction study for ScTiO(3). ScTiO(3) crystallizes in the cubic bixbyite structure in space group Ia3 (206) with a = 9.7099(4) Å. The topotactic oxidation product ScTiO(3.5) crystallizes in an oxide defect fluorite structure in space group Fm3m (225) with a = 4.89199(5) Å. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis experiments combined with in-situ X-ray powder diffraction studies illustrate a complex sequence of a topotactic oxidation pathway, phase segregation, and ion ordering at high temperatures. The optimized bulk synthesis for phase pure ScTiO(3.5) is presented. In contrast to the vanadium-based defect fluorite phases AVO(3.5+x) (A = Sc, In) the novel titanium analogue ScTiO(3.5) is stable over a wide temperature range. Above 950 °C ScTiO(3.5) undergoes decomposition with the final products being Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) and TiO(2). Simultaneous Rietveld refinements against powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data showed that Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) also exists in the defect fluorite structure in space group Fm3m (225) with a = 4.90077(4) Å. Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) undergoes partial reduction in CO/Ar atmosphere to form Sc(4)Ti(3)O(11.69(2)).

  5. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, SC, during the Labor Day fireworks... [[Page 51476

  6. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  7. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO 2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  8. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Economic evaluation: wood stave pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rook, M.E.

    The spray of leakage from the wood stave water supply pipeline serving the New England Power Company's (NEPCO) Searsburg hydroelectric development had caused this facility to be dubbed ''The Searsburg Car Wash.'' In July, 1982, excessive leakage from this pipeline prompted NEPCO to perform a technical inspection which would inform the company's decision to replace, repair, or abandon the pipeline. The inspection indicated that a combination of interrelated factors has led to rapid deterioration. The feasibility study, which included a benefit -cost analysis of a times replacement with a continued repair program weighed annually by a risk factor representing the probability of pipeline failure during the replacement period, determined that direct replacement was most advantageous. 4 figures, 1 figures.

  10. Wood-starved and footsore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, T.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly half the people on earth soon may find themselves a little colder and a little hungrier as sources of cheap fuel for cooking and heating begin to disappear. Traditional wood-base fuels such as firewood and charcoal are becoming scarce as populations increase and forest land is converted to other uses. For more than 100 million people, this shortage has reached crisis proportions. In just seven years the world population, now estimated at 5.5 billion, is expected to exceed 6.25 billion. Almost half-including nearly 600 million urban dwellers-may not have enough fuel to heat their homes and feed their families. By 2025, when the world population could reach 10 billion, finding fuel supplies that are reliable and inexpensive will be both a rural and an urban problem. Solutions are being explored in several areas, based on more efficient and more effective tree planting and more energy efficient technologies

  11. Metal leaching in mine tailings: short-term impact of biochar and wood ash amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; Clemente, Joyce S; MacKinnon, Ted; Tisch, Bryan; Lastra, Rolando; Smith, Derek; Kwong, John

    2015-01-01

    Biochar is perceived as a promising amendment to reclaim degraded, metal-contaminated lands. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of biochar and wood ash amendments to reduce metal(loid) leaching in mine tailings. A 2-mo leaching experiment was conducted in duplicate on acidic and alkaline tailings, each mixed with 5 wt.% of one of the following amendments: three wood-derived, fast-pyrolysis biochars (OC > 57 wt.%) and two wood ash materials (organic carbon [OC] ≤ 16 wt.%); a control test with no carbon input was also added. The columns were leached with water after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 d, and the leachates were monitored for dissolved metals, OC, and pH. For the acidic and alkaline tailings, the most significant impact on metal mobility was observed with wood ash materials due to their greater neutralization potential (>15% CaCO eq.) compared with biochar (≤3.3% CaCO eq.). An increase of 1 pH unit in the wood ash-treated alkaline tailings led to an undesirable mobilization of As and Se. The addition of biochar did not significantly reduce the leaching of the main contaminants (Cu and Ni in the acidic tailings and As in the alkaline tailings) over 2 mo. The Se attenuation noted in some biochar-treated acid tailings may be mainly due to a slight alkaline effect rather than Se removal by biochar, given the low capacity for the fresh biochars to retain Se under acidic conditions (pH 4.5). The increased loss of dissolved OC in the biochar-amended systems was of short duration and was not associated with metal(loid) mobilization. Copyright © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  12. Wood chemistry symposium: from muka to lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian Wood Chemistry Symposium held during September, 1979, is reviewed. The chemical and physical explanations of delignification were debated. Problems of mechanical pulping include insufficient brightness, yellowing, and low strength relative to energy consumption. A session on chemicals, energy, and food from wood began with criteria for a viable project, which included adequate return on investment, modest capital investment requirements, identified pre-existing markets, and favorable thermodynamic balances. The pulp and paper industry should improve its methods of using bark and wood waste in direct combustion (by pre-drying wastes and improving furnace efficiency) rather than supporting oil-from-wood projects, since using a waste for fuel will free fossil fuels for uses in synthetic fibers and thermoplastics. In the area of food, there are modest successes with cellulose fiber additives to bread and snack food and single cell protein (which, though made from wastes, cannot compete with soy protein). However, making monomeric sugars from wood polysaccharides is not an efficient process, and muka, animal feed supplement from foliage, is successful only in Russia. In Canada it cannot compete with agricultural products. Alpha cellulose is a major wood chemical product. Promising uses include cellulose derived thermoplastics and lignosulphonates for secondary oil recovery. Instead of breaking wood polysaccharides and lignin into monomers and then repolymerizing them, it is possible to use the pre-built polymers; such an approach is illustrated by use of lignin in polyurethane foams, adhesives, and coatings.

  13. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  14. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  15. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  16. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF BAKERY PRODUCTS: A CASE STUDY IN SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta- Luminiţa STRÂMBEANU RISTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the benefits of implementing HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points to company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania. The data have been provided by the above mentioned manufacturer. The objectives of S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. are protecting the health of the consumers of the products and their satisfaction regarding the consumption of products that are nutritional, tasty, fresh, free from microbiological, chemical and physical hazard, as well as possessing stable properties during the validity for consumption. In this respect, there has been implemented and maintained an integrated management system of food quality and safety according to SR EN ISO 9001:2008, SR EN ISO 22000:2005 and according to IFS standard, version 5/2007, which consists of determining the potential biological, chemical and physical hazards that might affect the safety of bread and bakery products, or the health of the consumer. HACCP team is analyzing hazard using one of the recommended techniques: brainstorming or the cause - effect diagram. In conclusion, the company S.C. "DOBRE AND SONS" S.R.L. Constanta, Romania provides awareness and employee involvement at all levels in achieving the appointed objectives.

  17. SC-HTGR Performance Impact for Arid Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommers, L.; Geschwindt, J.; Southworth, F.; Shahrokhi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The SC-HTGR provides high temperature steam which can support industrial process heat applications as well as high efficiency electricity generation. The increased generating efficiency resulting from using high steam temperature provides greater plant output than lower temperature concepts, and it also reduces the fraction of waste heat which must be rejected. This capability is particularly attractive for sites with little or no water for heat rejection. This high temperature capability provides greater flexibility for these sites, and it results in a smaller performance penalty than for lower temperature systems when dry cooling must be used. The performance of the SC-HTGR for a conventional site with wet cooling is discussed first. Then the performance for arid sites is evaluated. Dry cooling performance is evaluated for both moderately arid sites and very hot sites. Offdesign performance of the dry cooling system under extreme conditions is also considered. Finally, operating strategies are explored for sites where some cooling water may be available but only in very limited quantities. Results of these assessments confirm that the higher operating temperatures of the SC-HTGR are very beneficial for arid sites, providing significant advantages for both gross and net power generation. (author)

  18. Functional lignocellulosic material for the remediation of copper(II) ions from water: Towards the design of a wood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitas, Selin; Keplinger, Tobias; Reichholf, Nico; Figi, Renato; Cabane, Etienne

    2018-05-09

    In this study, the chemical modification of bulk beech wood is described along with its utilization as biosorbent for the remediation of copper from water. The material was prepared by esterification using anhydrides, and reaction conditions were optimized to propose a greener process, in particular by reducing the amount of solvent. This modification yields a lignocellulosic material whose native structure is preserved, with an increased amount of carboxylic groups (up to 3 mmol/g). We demonstrate that the material can remove up to 95% of copper from low concentration solutions (100- 500 ppm). The adsorption efficiency decreases with concentrated copper solutions, and we show that a limited number of -COOH groups participate in copper binding (ca. 0.1 Cu/-COOH). This result suggests a limited accessibility of -COOH groups in the wood scaffold. This was demonstrated by the characterization of -COOH and copper distributions inside wood. Raman and EDX imaging confirmed that most -COOH groups are located inside the wood cell walls, thereby limiting interactions with copper. According to this study, critical limitations of bulk wood as a biosorbent were identified, and the results will be used to improve the material and design an efficient wood filter for heavy metal remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074905,SRX1074908 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiSC SRX1074917,SRX1...074908,SRX1074905 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiSC.bed ...

  2. Level densities and γ strength functions in light Sc and Ti isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Larsen, A.C.; Syed, N.U.H.; Guttormsen, M.; Nyhus, H.; Siem, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Perdidakis, G.; Spyrou, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Mazurek, K.; Krticka, M.; Loennroth, T.; Norby, M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a measurement of nuclear level densities and the γ-ray strength of light Sc (Sc 43 , Sc 45 ) and Ti (Ti 44 , Ti 45 and Ti 46 ) isotopes using the Oslo Method. The article begins with a presentation of the experimental setup. (authors)

  3. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  4. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  5. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  6. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  7. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  8. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  9. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  10. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  11. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  12. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...

  13. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  14. Methods for Mitigating the Environmental Risks Associated with Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Hayward; Stan T. Lebow; Kenneth M. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    As noted in earlier chapters, the treatment of wood is both art and science. Wood is a variable material; treatment results tend to vary with the preservative and wood species and even within boards of the same species. This means that treated wood often contains a range of preservative retentions. Some pieces will have less than the desired retention, while others may...

  15. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  16. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  17. Wood construction codes issues in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The current wood construction codes find their origin in the 1935 Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material published by the USDA Forest Service. Many of the current design recommendations can be traced back to statements from this book. Since this time a series of development both historical and recent has led to a multi-layered system for use of wood products in...

  18. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  19. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  20. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)