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Sample records for saveurs lourdes predite

  1. Lourdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunvig, Katrine Frøkjær

    2017-01-01

    Denne artikel skitserer fremvæksten af Lourdes som helligsted fra midten til slutningen af 1800-tallet. Denne skitse tegner blandt andet konturerne af processionspraksissers betydning for helligtstedets etablering. Men artiklens egentlige tyngdepunkt er undersøgelsen af processionsskildringerne i...... overraskende slægtskab med den formative religionsvidenskabs interesse for ‘religiøse kræfter’ som den formuleres fx hos Émile Durkheim....

  2. Study of the muon production from open heavy flavours predicted by the Color Glass Condensate model in proton-proton and proton-lead collision with the Alice muon spectrometer at LHC; Etude de la production de muons issus des saveurs lourdes predite par le modele de Color Glass Condensate dans les collisions proton-proton et proton-plomb dans l'acceptance du spectrometre a muons de l'experience Alice du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy, A

    2007-10-15

    The whole particle physics community is waiting for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) commissioning at CERN. Indeed, the potential of discovery is very large in lots of themes. In particular, it will be possible to test the developments of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) achieved during last years. One of these, the Colour Glass Condensate, describes the parton distributions of the nucleus in the saturation region, i.e. at small x. This theoretical description of the initial conditions of the heavy ion collisions is necessary to predict the heavy quark cross section production which evolves in a possible deconfined matter: the Quark-Gluon Plasma (PQG). ALICE is the LHC experiment mainly dedicated to the study of the PQG produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The measurement of J /{psi} and {upsilon} resonance suppression is a signature of this deconfined medium which is studied with the ALICE muon spectrometer. Its acceptance at large rapidity is well adapted for studying the prediction of CGC at small-x. The first part of this report presents the results of beam test experiment at CERN. It was the first time that the muon spectrometer tracking chambers were tested equipped with the final version of the front end electronics and the data acquisition system CROCUS. The relevant calibration parameters of the front end electronics were introduced in the analysis in order to improve the quality of the track reconstruction. In the second part. these parameters were used in the simulations. The last part proposes a study of the CGC with the ALICE muon spectrometer. involving the measurements of open charm and open beauty. (author)

  3. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions; Les saveurs lourdes dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnet, Ph

    2008-01-15

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons.

  4. [Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukujima, M M; Cardeal, J O; Lima, J G

    1996-06-01

    Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke. Clinical features of 35 patients with ischemic stroke who developed epilepsy (Group 1) were compared with those of 35 patients with ischemic stroke without epilepsy (Group 2). The age of the patients did not differ between the groups. There were more men than women and more white than other races in both groups. Diabetes melitus, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, previous stroke, migraine, Chagas disease, cerebral embolism of cardiac origin and use of oral contraceptive did not differ between the groups. Smokers and alcohol users were more frequent in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Most patients of Group 1 presented with hemiparesis; none presented cerebellar or brainstem involvement. Perhaps strokes in smokers have some different aspects, that let them more epileptogenic than in non smokers.

  5. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process.

  6. PREditOR: a synthetic biology approach to removing heterochromatin from cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Oscar; Carmena, Mar; Maudlin, Isabella E; Earnshaw, William C

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that heterochromatin is necessary to maintain genomic stability. However, direct experimental evidence supporting this is slim. Previous studies using either enzyme inhibitors, gene knockout or knockdown studies all are subject to the caveat that drugs may have off-target effects and enzymes that modify chromatin proteins to support heterochromatin formation may also have numerous other cellular targets as well. Here, we describe PREditOR (protein reading and editing of residues), a synthetic biology approach that allows us to directly remove heterochromatin from cells without either drugs or global interference with gene function. We find that removal of heterochromatin perturbs mitotic progression and causes a dramatic increase in chromosome segregation defects, possibly as a result of interfering with the normal centromeric localization of the chromosomal passenger complex.

  7. Primequal-Predit 1996-2000: five years of research on air quality; Primequal-Predit 1996-2000: cinq ans de recherche sur la qualite de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    During five years, the French programme Primequal-Predit has financed the works of about 200 teams of researchers specialized in atmospheric pollution at the local scale. The aim is to better understand the chemical interaction of pollutants in the atmosphere, their emission sources and the public exposure to these pollutants. The mechanisms of ozone formation are now better identified, the emissions of organic volatile compounds (VOC) from vehicles are better known, and the concentration of airborne particulates are better defined. Information has been gained on the individual levels of exposure and the concentration of pollutants in public areas, and the epidemiologic and experimental studies have permitted to better understand the impacts, pathologies and mechanisms of action of pollutants in the organism. This document summarizes the informations gained during the five years of the programme. (J.S.)

  8. Heavy water reactors physics; Physique des reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    An important research programme on heavy water reactor physics has been carried out in France for quite a few years. The decision to build the EL 4 prototype and so to choose the heavy water gas cooled type has renewed the interest in this programme and at the same time given to it a more specific orientation A summary of the results gained in this field is presented in this paper. In the first part are described the experimental investigations, most of them were carried out in the criticality facility AQUILON II. The experiments are grouped in four parts - Systematic studies of lattices Buckling measurements. - Specific studies of gas-cooled lattices. - Fine structure, spectral indices measurements etc... - Measurements on lattices or samples containing Uranium of various enrichment or Plutonium. The second part is devoted to a summary of the theoretical studies. The whole results have allowed an improvement of the calculation methods, have led to a better understanding of the neutron balance in lattices, and have permitted the establishment of a set of formula to predict not only the clean fuel conditions but also the evolution of the nuclear properties with irradiation. Some specific studies on power reactor are quoted. (authors) [French] Un important programme d'etudes sur la physique des reacteurs a eau lourde est mene en France depuis assez longtemps. La decision de construire le prototype EL 4 et de s'engager ainsi dans la filiere des reacteurs a eau lourde refroidis par gaz a redonne un nouvel interet a ce programme et l'a en meme temps oriente dans une direction plus particuliere. La presente communication, rassemble les resultats des etudes faites dans ce domaine depuis la derniere conference de Geneve. Dans la premiere partie on decrit les etudes experimentales dont la plupart ont ete effectuees dans la pile d'experiences critiques Aquilon II. Les experiences sont groupees en quatre ensembles: etude systematique de reseaux (mesures de laplaciens) etudes

  9. Piégeage des métaux lourds dans le mortier à court terme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Kalai

    2014-04-01

    A travers les résultats des essais mécaniques, des essais de lixiviations, et des observations microscopiques, une bonne rétention des métaux lourds dans le mortier a été remarquée à court terme.

  10. Évaluation du niveau de pollution par les métaux lourds des lacs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif principal d'évaluer le niveau de pollution métallique des lacs Bini et Dang (Ngaoundéré, Cameroun) à travers l'analyse des eaux et des sédiments de surface. La concentration des métaux lourds (Ni, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn) a été mesurée par spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique.

  11. Before the apple: the concept of time in Voces de mujer of Lourdes Ortiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zovko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection of stories by Spanish contemporary writer Lourdes Ortiz, Voices of Women, first published in 1991 under the title The reasons of Circe and republished in 2007 (Iberoamericana–Vervuert, is dedicated to the great female characters of Greek mythology and the Judeo-Christian tradition. The author’s purpose is to revise and subvert the ancient stories from the original plot of the Odyssey and the Old Testament, as well as to strip the protagonists (Eve, Penelope, Circe, Salome and Bathsheba of the stereotypical image that has been attributed to them in previous centuries. By means of carefully premeditated language full of lyricism, Lourdes Ortiz successfully potrays the psychology of her characters, using a short original plot, enriched and intensified with a series of beautiful and suggestive images, complex metaphors and carefully chosen verb tenses. This study aims to investigate the concept of time in the collection Voices of Women of Lourdes Ortiz, challenging the linearity of the narrative, the cyclical and parallel constructions, the distribution of tenses and time references, which were elaborated according to the main objective of the author: to unravel the complex ancestral figures and thus provide a humane vision of the great stories of our collective memory.

  12. Concentration en métaux lourds des sédiments de l'estuaire du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2013 ... Objectifs : L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'état de la pollution en métaux lourds (Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn et. Pb) et leurs .... Tableau 3 : Concentration (moyenne ; écart-type) des métaux lourds (mg.kg-1) des sédiments aux différents sites de ..... lessivage des dépôts incontrôlés au bord de l'estuaire et.

  13. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que leurs caracteristiques

  14. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que

  15. Étude de la production de saveurs lourdes et de la multiplicité de particules chargées dans le cadre du formalisme du Color Glass Condensate pour les collisions p+p et p+Pb dans l'expérience ALICE au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, M

    The classical nuclear matter is characterized by an energy density of the order of " = 0.17 GeV/fm3. For the critical values of the energy density (5 -10 ") or the temperature (150 - 200 MeV), the Lattice QuantumChromo Dynamics (LQCD) calculations predict a phase transition from the classical to a new form of nuclear matter called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in which quarks and gluons are deconfined. Heavy ion collisions allow to create the thermodynamical conditions needed for the QGP formation. The LHC will collide p+p and Pb+Pb nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies, reaching a few TeV per nucleon. At such ultra-relativistic energies, new theoretical approaches of QCD developed to understand high energy hadronic collisions can be tested experimentally. One of the most discussed topic is the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach allowing the description of the initial conditions of the heavy ion collision. The CGC approach predicts the saturation of the parton density of the nucleus for small values of the B...

  16. Magnetic concentration of iron-titanium ore with vanadium concentrate from campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, O.; Silva, F.T. da; Ogasawara, T.; Soares, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility studies of magnetic concentration of the Campo Alegre de Lourdes ore were carried out, trying to obtain a maximum recovery of vanadium. As a consequence of the complex nature of the ore, mainly due to the presence of ilmenite as a exolutions in the interior of hematite/martite particles, it was not possible to separate the hematite-ilmenite eficiently, wich would be necessary for obtaining a high grade vanadium concentrate with low titanium content. (author) [pt

  17. Evaluation of exploitation alternatives of iron - titanium - vanadium ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassa, J.C.S.; Ogasawara, T.; Silva, F.T. da; Cuellar, O.D.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of experiences carried out in order to develop an economic process for vanadium, is presented. The attempts which are being developed in the Metallurgical Engineering Program at COPPE/UFRJ, are described, and the other technical and economical possibilities of existing technologies, are analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of integrated steel making process to recover iron, titanium and vanadium contained in the ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes deposit, in Bahia-Brazil are considered. (Author) [pt

  18. Behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors of the CEA; Comportement de l'eau lourde dans les piles du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In the two heavy water reactors of the CEA: Zoe and P-2, we do: A) the supervision of the isotopic composition of the heavy water; B) the supervision of gases released by the decomposition of the heavy water under radiation, and to their recombination; C) periodic analyses of impurities. (M.B.) [French] Dans les deux piles a eau lourde du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique: Zoe et P 2, nous effectuons: A) la surveillance de la composition isotopique de l'eau lourde; B) la surveillance des gaz degages par la decomposition de l'eau lourde sous radiation, et a leur recombinaison; C) des analyses periodiques d'impuretes. (M.B.)

  19. New structure for accelerating heavy ions; Une nouvelle structure acceleratrice d'ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author) [French] On decrit un nouveau type de structure acceleratrice, particulierement appropriee aux ions lourds (grande longueur d'onde, forte impedance-shunt, faibles dimensions). Ses proprietes sont analysees et comparees a celles d'autres structures (plus particulierement les lignes). On met en evidence un mode de fonctionnement pour lequel l'impedance shunt en regime stationnaire vaut 80 pour cent de l'impedance shunt en regime progressif. Enfin on decrit les resultats obtenus a l'aide d'une petite machine experimentale mettant en oeuvre cette structure. (auteur)

  20. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Maia Leite, C. de; Froes, R.J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO 2 -enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na 2 +K 2 O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author) [pt

  1. On the structure of heavy metals; Sur la structure des metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Paris, 75 (France)

    1958-07-01

    The properties of the last series of Mendeleef's table are compared with those of the elements of the preceding series. This comparison suggests an electronic structure of the 'transition metal' type, with narrow bands, at the beginning of this series (up to certain phases at least of plutonium); then of the rare earth metal type, with independent non-saturated internal layers, further on in the series. The 5 f orbits seem to play an important part in these two types of structure, from uranium on. A more detailed study of the very heavy elements (americium and beyond) and alloys would allow these conclusions to be confirmed. Certain general points, concerning the nature of homopolar connections and paramagnetism in the transition metals, are developed in an additional section. (author) [French] Les proprietes des elements de la derniere serie du tableau de Mendeleef sont comparees a celles des elements des series precedentes. Cette comparaison suggere une structure electronique du type 'metal de transition', a bandes etroites, au debut de cette serie (jusqu'a certaines phases au moins du plutonium); puis du type d'un metal des terres rares, a couches internes non saturees independantes, au-dela dans la serie. Les orbitales 5 f semblent jouer un r e important, dans ces deux types de structures, a partir de l'uranium. Une etude plus poussee des elements tres lourds (americium et au-dela) et des alliages permettrait de confirmer ces conclusions. Certains points generaux, concernant la nature des liaisons homopolaires et le paramagnetisme dans les metaux de transition, sont developpes en annexe. (auteur)

  2. Norovirus disease associated with excess mortality and use of statins : A retrospective cohort study of an outbreak following a pilgrimage to Lourdes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondy, M.; Koopmans, M.; Rotsaert, C.; van Loon, T.; Beljaars, B.; van Dijk, G.; Siebenga, J.; Svraka, S.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Teunis, P.; van Pelt, W.; Verhoef, L.

    Although norovirus infection is generally known to be a mild disease, there is some evidence for severe outcome. An outbreak in a Dutch psychiatric institution, originating from pilgrims returning from Lourdes (France), provided an opportunity for performing a retrospective cohort study in order to

  3. Estudo de fatores clínicos preditivos para crises epilépticas após acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Maiumi Fukujima

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos aspectos clínicos de 35 pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico que evoluíram com crises epilépticas (Grupo 1, comparando-os a 35 pacientes com AVCI sem crises epilépticas (Grupo 2. A comparação das idades entre os grupos não mostrou diferença significante. O sexo masculino e a raça branca predominaram em ambos os grupos. Diabetes melito, hipertensão arterial, ataque isquêmico transitório, acidente vascular cerebral pregresso, enxaqueca, doença de Chagas, embolia cerebral cardiogênica e uso de anticoncepcional oral não diferiram significantemente entre os grupos. Tabagismo e etilismo foram significantemente mais freqüentes no Grupo 1 (pPreditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke. Clinical features of 35 patients with ischemic stroke who developed epilepsy (Group 1 were compared with those of 35 patients with ischemic stroke without epilepsy (Group 2. The age of the patients did not differ between the groups. There were more men than women and more white than other races in both groups. Diabetes melitus, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, previous stroke, migraine, Chagas disease, cerebral embolism of cardiac origin and use of oral contraceptive did not differ between the groups. Smokers and alcohol users were more frequent in Group 1 (p<0,05. Most patients of Group 1 presented with hemiparesis; none presented cerebellar or brainstem involvement. Perhaps strokes in smokers have some different aspects, that let them more epileptogenic than in non smokers.

  4. Zola, Lourdes and the New Religious Crowd in Ideological Debates in Portugal (1894-1932 Zola, Lourdes et la foule religieuse dans les débats idéologiques au Portugal (1894-1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cintra Torres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Émile Zola’s novel on Lourdes was felt in Portugal even before its publication in France in 1894. The naturalist writer’s documentary fiction plucked a central chord in the political and religious debate of the time, particularly the dichotomy between science and religion, the renewal of faith and the legitimacy of the crowd in public spaces. This paper deals with only one aspect of that debate, active in Portugal between 1894 and 1932 – the impact of Zola´s innovative thesis about Lourdes’ new religious crowd and ‘the crowd’s healing power’. The development of the debates shows how Catholic sectors increasingly incorporated the ‘crowd’ into renewed Catholicism, especially after the Fátima events of 1917, while the liberal bourgeoisie continued to reject the masses.L’impact du roman Lourdes d’Émile Zola au Portugal s’est fait avant même sa publication en France en 1894. Cette fiction documentaire de l’écrivain naturaliste a touché une corde sensible dans les débats politiques et religieux de l’époque, notamment en atour de questions telles que la dichotomie entre science et religion, le renouveau de la foi catholique et la légitimité de la foule dans l’espace public. Cet article se penche sur un aspect particulier des débats qui furent actifs au Portugal entre 1894 et 1932 : l’impact de la thèse originale de Zola sur les foules religieuses de Lourdes et le pouvoir guérisseur de la foule. Le développement des débats montre comment les catholiques ont progressivement incorporé la « foule » dans leur vision d’un catholicisme renouvelé, alors que la bourgeoisie libérale continua à rejeter les masses, particulièrement après les apparitions de Fátima en 1917.

  5. Patients Attitude towards Surgeons Attire in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Drogheda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Meshkat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A doctor’s competence and professionalism is often judged on the basis of attire. Our Lady of Lourdes (OLOL is a leading Irish hospital in the implementation of Bare Below the Elbows (BBTE policy, however surgical attire is not standardised and there is great variability in attire worn on wards. We aimed to evaluate patients attitude towards surgeons attire in OLOL. Methods A prospective survey of adult surgical in-patients was conducted from October 2013 to February 2014. A twelve-question questionnaire was used as data collection tool, using a five point Likert scale to assess patients response to each question. Data were collected on patient demographics, patients level of trust and confidence based on different surgical attire, and patients perception of different attire worn by surgical teams. Results There were 150 completed surveys during the study period with a male to female ratio of 44% to 56% respectively. The mean patient length of in-hospital stay (LOS was 4.7 days (range 1–22. The most commonly represented age group was 30–40 years (18%, with a comparable spread among all age groups. The majority of patients found the attire worn by surgeons on the ward to be very appropriate (93%. Majority of responders believed scrubs to be the most appropriate attire for surgeons on wards (39%, followed by shirt and tie with white coat (38% followed by short sleeved shirt and no tie (18%. Shirt and tie with white coat had a positive effect on patients trust in 63% of responders, a negative effect in 10% and no effect in 26%. Scrubs had a positive effect on patients trust in 63%, negative effect in 11% and no effect in 25%. Short sleeved shirt and no tie had a positive effect in 44%, negative effect in 25% and no effect in 30% of patients. Conclusion Patients in OLOL find attire worn by surgeons to be appropriate. Shirt and tie with white coat or scrubs remains the patient’s choice attire for surgeons. Shirt and tie with white

  6. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Koechlin, J C; Moreau, J; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    all solid bars are considered and n an d the effective integrals are adjusted then a system of transposition of these results to more complex bars is sought. In the second step, one is compelled to improve the system in studying in greater detail each factor of the calculation of the lattice. A satisfactory interpretation of the results leads definitively to methods of calculation applicable to the most varied types of natural uranium-heavy water lattices. Attention has been given to results obtained in other countries, particularly in Canada. (author) [French] Un ensemble de mesures de Laplaciens a ete realise en regime critique dans une pile a eau lourde construite specialement a cette fin, soit sur reseaux complets, soit sur echantillons de reseaux par une methode a deux zones. L'appareillage experimental est brievement decrit: il a ete etudie pour permettre des modifications rapides du chargement. On decrit egalement sommairement les methodes de mesure: on opere soit par cartes de flux, sur des reseaux qui servent ensuite de reference soit par remplacement progressif des barres par couronnes concentriques et mesures de reactivite. Dans ce cas, on cherche a atteindre l'ecart entre le laplacien-matiere du reseau central inconnu et celui du reseau de reference. La methode a fait l'objet d'une mise au point destinee a la rendre precice. On donne les resultats des mesures de laplaciens pour tous ces types de reseaux, ce qui permet de construire un ensemble de courbes en fonction du pas. Divers effets ont ete egalement mesure: equivalent en reactivite du millimetre d'eau - anisotropie - effet de temperature, etc. On a cependant prefere, dans cette premiere campagne de mesures tout au moins, obtenir une grande variete de laplaciens plutot que des mesures fines dans des cas particuliers. C'est dans cet esprit qu'a ete conduite l'interpretation des resultats. Nombre de phenomenes tres complexes echappant encore a nos possibilites de calcul, on estime qu'un certain nombre d

  7. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y.; Koechlin, J.C.; Moreau, J.; Naudet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    all solid bars are considered and n an d the effective integrals are adjusted then a system of transposition of these results to more complex bars is sought. In the second step, one is compelled to improve the system in studying in greater detail each factor of the calculation of the lattice. A satisfactory interpretation of the results leads definitively to methods of calculation applicable to the most varied types of natural uranium-heavy water lattices. Attention has been given to results obtained in other countries, particularly in Canada. (author) [French] Un ensemble de mesures de Laplaciens a ete realise en regime critique dans une pile a eau lourde construite specialement a cette fin, soit sur reseaux complets, soit sur echantillons de reseaux par une methode a deux zones. L'appareillage experimental est brievement decrit: il a ete etudie pour permettre des modifications rapides du chargement. On decrit egalement sommairement les methodes de mesure: on opere soit par cartes de flux, sur des reseaux qui servent ensuite de reference soit par remplacement progressif des barres par couronnes concentriques et mesures de reactivite. Dans ce cas, on cherche a atteindre l'ecart entre le laplacien-matiere du reseau central inconnu et celui du reseau de reference. La methode a fait l'objet d'une mise au point destinee a la rendre precice. On donne les resultats des mesures de laplaciens pour tous ces types de reseaux, ce qui permet de construire un ensemble de courbes en fonction du pas. Divers effets ont ete egalement mesure: equivalent en reactivite du millimetre d'eau - anisotropie - effet de temperature, etc. On a cependant prefere, dans cette premiere campagne de mesures tout au moins, obtenir une grande variete de laplaciens plutot que des mesures fines dans des cas particuliers. C'est dans cet esprit qu'a ete conduite l'interpretation des resultats. Nombre de phenomenes tres complexes echappant encore a nos possibilites de

  8. Heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors; Filiere eau lourde - gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly du Bois, B; Bernard, J L; Naudet, R; Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    long terme de reacteurs rapides, s'est engagee egalement dans le developpement des reacteurs a eau lourde refroidis par gaz, qui semblent presenter les meilleures perspectives pour le moyen terme. L'economie de ces reacteurs, comme dans le cas du graphite, repose sur l'utilisation d'uranium naturel ou extremement peu enrichi. L'eau lourde permet d'en tirer le maximum d'avantages, tout en donnant lieu grace a ses performances plus poussees a des perspectives de developpement tres interessantes. Une centrale prototype EL 4 (70 MWe) est actuellement en construction: elle est decrite en detail dans un autre memoire. La presente communication fait le point du programme consacre en France au developpement de cette filiere. On indique d'abord quelles sont les raisons qui ont conduit a choisir ce type de reacteur: on montre l'Interet de la filiere, en soulignant ses atouts et ses difficultes. Passant en revue les principaux problemes technologiques et les travaux de developpement qui leur sont consacres, on analyse ensuite les resultats deja acquis et les points restant a confirmer. EL 4 est la premiere grande realisation: sa construction constitue une etape importante, aussi bien du point de vue demonstration de performances que possibilites d'experimentation et d'epreuve. Mais deja se pose le probleme de la conception d'une centrale de grande puissance unitaire. On a etudie a la fois l'adaptation ou l'amelioration des solutions mecaniques mises en oeuvre dans EL 4 et des variantes dont quelques-unes reposent sur des conceptions assez differentes. On indique ensuite quelles sont les caracteristiques envisagees pour une grande centrale dans l'etat actuel de la technique, compte tenu des etudes d'optimisation en cours. Des possibilites d'amelioration techniques existent d'ailleurs notamment en ce qui concerne les materiaux, ce qui pourrait conduire a des performances encore plus interessantes. Quelques perspectives a plus long terme sont evoquees. Finalement on aborde les

  9. Fast neutron flux in heavy water reactors; Flux de neutrons rapides dans les piles a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbois, J; Katz, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-07-01

    The possibility of calculating the fast neutron flux in a natural uranium-heavy water lattice by superposition of the individual contributions of the different fuel elements was verified using a one-dimension Monte-Carlo code. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental measurements done in the core and reflector of the reactor AQUILON. (author) [French] La possibilite de calculer le flux de neutrons rapides dans un reseau d'uranium naturel a eau lourde par superposition des apports des divers barreaux, a ete verifiee en utilisant un code Monte-Carlo monodimensionel. Les resultats obtenus concordent avec des mesures experimentales effectuees dans le coeur et reacteur de la pile Aquilon. (auteurs)

  10. Measurement of the purity of graphite and heavy water; Controle de purete du graphite et de l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H

    1959-02-01

    The analytical methods used by the C.E.A. are described, I -- Graphite. The determination of the change in the neutron capture cross section from sample to sample is determined by, an oscillation method in the Zoe reactor, or by measuring the attenuation of a neutron flux in the subcritical system Mireille. Methods of analysing total ash, B, H, Cl, Na, Ca. Fe, Mo, Ti, V, Sm, Eu, Dy, S, Co and Cd are described and mean results are given. The methods for sampling are indicated. II -- Heavy crater. The isotopic analysis of heavy water is carried out by infra-red absorption measurements. Chemical purity is evaluated by electrical conductivity measurements, B, Na, Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, are determined by spectrographic methods, and Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup --}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} by chemical methods; finally, sensitive pH measurements are described. [French] On decrit les methodes d'examen en usage au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. I -- Graphite. L'evaluation de la capture neutronique se fait par oscillation dans la pile Zoe, ou par mesure de l'attenuation d'un flux neutronique dans l'empilement sous critique Mireille. On indique les methodes de dosages et des resultats de: cendres, B, H, Cl, Na, Ca, Fe, Mo, Ti, V, Sm, Eu, Dy, et de S, Co, Cd, ainsi que les modalites d'echantillonnage. II.- Eau lourde. Le dosage isotopique dans les eaux lourdes se fait par absorptiometrie infrarouge. Leur purete chimique est evaluee par mesure de leur conductibilite electrique; les dosages d'impuretes se font par spectrographie d'emission (B, Na, Mg, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd) et par des methodes chimiques (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup --}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}). On decrit la delicate mesure de pH. (auteur)

  11. Présence de métaux lourds et de résidus médicamenteux dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les médicaments identifiés dans les effluents sont essentiellement des analgésiques et des psychotropes. La concentration en métaux lourds des effluents des trois hôpitaux est inférieure aux normes sénégalaises et de celles de L'OMS fixant les conditions de rejet de métaux dans les eaux usées. Cependant, bien que les ...

  12. Production of heavy water in France; Etude sur la production d'eau lourde en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerat, J M; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Lefrancois, B [Houllere du Bassin du Nord et du Pas de Calais (France)

    1964-07-01

    'eau lourde ont porte sur plusieurs procedes. Chacun a ete examine jusqu'a un stade plus ou moins pousse et finalement les efforts se sont concentres sur les echanges isotopiques Hydrogene Sulfure-Eau, et Ammoniac-Gaz de synthese, apres que l'experience pilote ait montre que la distillation d'hydrogene, bien que technologiquement au point, n'etait pas competitive. Procede d'echange NH{sub 3} - gaz de synthese: les recherches se sont poursuivies et ont abouti a la decision de construire une unite de production associee a une synthese d'ammoniac. Le procede est essentiellement dependant de la source de gaz de synthese; on a en effet ecarte, pour des raisons economiques, la mise en oeuvre d'un echange H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}, qui pouvait le rendre Independant. Parmi les differents schemas possibles de mise en oeuvre du procede, le choix s'est porte sur le monotherme qui, au prix de quelques problemes technologiques, offrait l'avantage de realiser un grand enrichissement avec un nombre reduit de moyens contacts. Ceux-ci sont actuellement au point, apres des essais pilote a grande echelle. L'experience industrielle originale qui va etre mise en oeuvre permettra de reunir des enseignements fructueux pour des usines de deuxiemes generations, qu'elles reprennent le schema monotherme ou qu'elles adoptent le schema bitherme. Procede d'echange H{sub 2}S - H{sub 2}O Les installations pilote, decrites en 1958, ont permis une etude systematique de la corrosion. On a pu passer a la definition d'avant-projets d'usines independantes, avec les variantes 2 et 3 etages en enrichissement primaire H{sub 2}S - H{sub 2}O, la finition etant confiee a la distillation d'eau, au-dela de la teneur de 10 a 20 p.100 en D{sub 2}O. Differents schemas d'echange de chaleur ont ete examines en detail et on a pu en conclure que le choix, comme celui du decoupage de la cascade, etait finalement fonction des conditions economiques du lieu d'implantation. (auteur)

  13. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    and BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminated with 10(4 CFU/ mL of salmonela in study. It was verified absence of isolation of this bacterium in aliquots of 25 mL, after periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at 36ºC, compromising the Preditive Validity of the Negative Results (PVR- of the test. One suggests that, in the inquiries epidemiologists of alimentary toxinfectives studies, information could be increased about vegetal condimentary, among others, pertinent to the increasing complexity of the system of feeding and nutrition.

  14. The spectrographic analysis of inorganic impurities in heavy water; Analyse spectrographique des impuretes minerales dans l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Normand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et de Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Vie, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Etude de Traitement des Combustibles Irradies, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Inorganic impurities in heavy water are determined by two spectrographic methods. First is described the copper-spark method which is sensitive and directly applicable, and is particular useful because of the absence of a support. Secondly the graphite impregnation method is given; this is used when the first method is not applicable (determination of copper) and for the alkali metals. For the usual elements, the sensitivity of the copper spark method is of the order of 0,1 {mu}g/ml whereas for the graphite impregnation method the sensitivity is only 0,3 {mu}g/ml. (author) [French] Les impuretes minerales dans l'eau lourde sont dosees au moyen de deux methodes spectrographiques. On decrit en premier lieu la methode 'copper spark' sensible directement applicable, et particulierement favorable du fait de l'absence de matrice. En second lieu, on decrit la methode d'impregnation du graphite, utilisee lorsque la methode precedente tombe en defaut (recherche du cuivre) et pour les alcalins. Avec la methode 'copper spark' nous obtenons pour les elements courants, des sensibilites de l'ordre de 0,1 {mu}g/ml, alors qu'elles ne sont que de 0,3 {mu}g/ml pour les alcalins doses a l'arc sur graphite impregne. (auteur)

  15. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, E.M.; Ogasawara, T.; Silva, F.T. da; Fontes, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author) [pt

  16. Rewriting Classical Myths: Women's Voices in “Los motivos de Circe” and “Penélope” by Lourdes Ortiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgado, Nuria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mythical representations in two of the six short stories that make up Lourdes Ortiz's Voces de mujer (2007, previously published under the title Los motivos de Circe. It is well known that most rewritings of the classical myths have been faithful to the “official truth” of the original versions. But recent works in search of other meanings, have explored dimensions often hidden or blurred by the “official” version. This is the case of the short stories in this collection whose protagonists are six archetypal or mythical women and their respectful references to the biblical, Homeric and pictorial world: Eve, Circe, Penelope, Betsabé, Salomé and Gioconda. The perspective offered by Lourdes Ortiz about the history of these myths allows us to read the story from the point of view of her female heroines. As such, then, in this article I will focus on two female characters from the Homeric epic: Circe and Penelope.El propósito de este artículo es explorar las representaciones míticas en dos de los seis cuentos que componen Voces de mujer (2007, de Lourdes Ortiz, publicado anteriormente bajo el título Los Motivos de Circe. Es bien sabido que la mayoría de las reescrituras de los mitos clásicos han sido fieles a la “verdad oficial” de las versiones originales. Sin embargo, trabajos recientes han explorado las dimensiones a menudo silenciadas por la versión “oficial”. Este es el caso de los cuentos de esta colección cuyas protagonistas son seis mujeres arquetípicas o míticas, y sus referencias con el mundo bíblico, homérico y pictórico: Eva, Circe, Penélope, Betsabé, Salomé y Gioconda. La perspectiva ofrecida por Lourdes Ortiz sobre estos mitos nos permite leer la historia desde el punto de vista de sus heroínas femeninas. Este artículo se centra en dos personajes femeninos de la épica de Homero: Circe y Penélope.

  17. État des connaissances sur le traitement thermique des produits lourds State of the Art of the Thermal Treatment of Heavy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouri B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après rappel du traitement thermique des hydrocarbures comme un moyen de viscoréduction des charges lourdes, craquage en oléfines gazeuses, ou pyrolyse totale en gaz de synthèse, le mécanisme réactionnel de vapocraquage des produits lourds constitue la première partie de l'article. Le craquage des huiles lourdes s'effectue selon un mécanisme radicalaire, tandis que les dépôts de carbone sont formés par des réactions de cycloadditions et polycondensations à des températures moyennes et par l'intermédiaire des radicaux à haute température. L'étude expérimentale du craquage thermique du n-tétracosane, du méthyl-6 eicosane et du dodécylbenzène constitue la deuxième partie de l'article et elle met en évidence, grâce à un mécanisme réactionnel du type moléculaire, la possibilité de craquage contrôlé d'une isoparaffine ou d'un hydrocarbure aromatique lourd en hydrocarbure liquide plus léger. After reviewing the thermal treatment of hydrocarbons as a way of visbreaking heavy feedstock, cracking them into gaseous olefins, or totally pyrolyzing them into synthetic gas, the first part of this article describes the reac-tion mechanism of the steam cracking of heavy products. Heavy oils are cracked by a radical mechanism, while carbon deposits are formed by cycloaddition and polycondensation reactions at mean temperatures and by the intermediary of radicals at high temperature. An experimental investigation of the thermal cracking of n-tetracosane, 6-methyleicosane and dodecylbenzene makes up the second part of the article. A reaction mechanism of the molecular type is used to describe the possibility of the controlled cracking of an isoparaffin or of a heavy aromatic hydrocarbon into a lighter liquid hydrocarbon.

  18. Clinical audit of patients with cerebrovascular accident and transient ischemic attack in our lady of lourdes hospital drogheda, ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, D.; Aamar, A.; Rahim, I.; Sadaf, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is a major health problem and is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Methods: A clinical audit comprising retrospective chart review of 101 patients randomly selected from admission register in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Drogheda, Ireland, was done during the first quarter of 2009. Keeping in view the recommendations, in this audit the following areas were evaluated: type of event, time of event and arrival to hospital, thrombolytic therapy, past medical history, investigations, smoking history, utilization of multidisciplinary services (physiotherapy and occupational therapy, speech and language therapy), medications, referral to GP, carotid pathology, and outcome. Results: Of the 101 patients, 43 (42.5%) were males and 58 (57.4%) were females. 47.5% (48/101) had TIA while 52.5% (53/101) had CVA. Of the total patients, 62.8% males and 56.8% females were hypertensive and 48.8% of males and 36.2% of females had hypercholesterolemia. Of the total number of patients, 23% of males and 15.5% of females were smokers. Utilization of different multidisciplinary services for males and females was following: physical therapy (46.5% and 45.8%); occupational therapy (11.6% and 15.3%); speech and language therapy (13.9% and 22%). Of all the patients 5% died in the hospital, 77.2% were discharged home and 17.8% were sent to Nursing home for long term care. Conclusion: The commonest risk factor for CVA / TIA is hypertension followed by hypercholesterolemia. Smoke cessation advice should be given to all at risk. (author)

  19. Développements récents dans le domaine de l'hydrotraitement des fractions lourdes Advances in the Hydrotreatment of Heavy Petroleum Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquin Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évolution du raffinage vers une utilisation des produits pétroliers pour les usages des transports et comme base pour la pétrochimie renforce l'intérêt pour les procédés de transformation des fractions lourdes du pétrole en fractions légères correspondant au marché actuel. Les problèmes posés par le raffinage des résidus de distillation sont semblables à ceux rencontrés pour le traitement des bruts lourds non conventionnels. Les méthodes qui sont actuellement envisagées peuvent être classées en 2 catégories : les méthodes de raffinage avec rejet de carbone comme la cokéfaction et le désasphaltage et les méthodes sans rejet de carbone comme la viscoréduction, l'hydroviscoréduction et l'hydrotraitement catalytique. Chacune de ces techniques est examinée en précisant les rendements en produits liquides qu'elle permet d'atteindre et les hydrotraitements complémentaires nécessaires pour obtenir des produits répondant aux spécifications du marché des produits pétroliers. Les progrès réalisés dans la conception des catalyseurs utilisés pour le traitement des produits lourds permet aujourd'hui d'envisager l'hydrotraitement direct des résidus sous vide de la majorité des bruts raffinés. The increasing use of refined petroleum products for transportation purposes and as petrochemical bases reinforces interest in processes for converting heavy fractions into light fractions suitable for today's market. The refining of distillation residues involves difficulties similar to unconventional heavy-crude processing. As of now methods may be classified in two categories: (i refining methods with carbon rejection such as coking and deasphalting processes, and (ii methods without carbon rejection such as visbreaking, hydrovisbreaking and catalytic hydrotreating. Each of these techniques is examined, taking into account the liquid-product yields it may reach, and the additional hydrotreatments necessary to meet market

  20. “Present Your Bodies”: Film Style and Unknowability in Jessica Hausner’s Lourdes and Dietrich Brüggemann’s Stations of the Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Wheatley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, a number of European films have emerged examining the legacy of Christianity in Western Europe, and the ways in which men, women and children struggle to negotiate questions of religion and secularity, the personal and the institutional, faith and doubt. This article looks at two of these films—Jessica Hausner’s Lourdes (2009 and Dietrich Brüggemann’s Stations of the Cross (2014—in relation to questions of religious experience, the female body and film style. In both films the battle between these opposing categories is played out on the bodies of women—a paraplegic MS sufferer in Lourdes, an anorexic teen in Stations of the Cross—and both the films end ambiguously with what may, or may not, be a miracle of sorts: a confirmation of faith or a rebuttal. I wish to connect this ambiguity to the use of a very distinctive mise-en-scene in both films, which relies on a heavily restricted colour palate; highly formalised, painterly-compositions; and crucially what David Bordwell has termed “planimetric photography”: a shooting style that eschews depth or diagonals, refusing the spectator entrance into the image and holding her instead at a deliberate distance. My argument, in short, is that these stylistic choices—while gesturing towards a tradition of Christian art—also refuse the spectator either visual or haptic knowledge of the events that the characters undergo. Rather, they are suggestive of the fundamental unknowability that characterises religious experience, leaving us alone, outside of the action, forced to negotiate ourselves between belief and doubt.

  1. Contribution à l'évaluation de la pollution marine par le métaux lourds (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) chez la coralline (Corallina officinalis) de la baie de Ghazaouet (W. de Tlemcen)

    OpenAIRE

    DOUAHI, Somia

    2015-01-01

    Ce travail consiste à démontrer la présence des métaux lourds chez la coralline et cela dans le cadre d'une contribution a une étude de la bioaccumulation des éléments métallique dans le littoral de Ghazaouet. Cette étude quantitative permet d'une part de consolider les résultats des études antérieurs en démontrant la présence des métaux lourds dans le littoral, et d'autre part, de démontrer l'évolution quantitative de cinq polluants, notamment, le Cadmium, le cuivre, le fer...

  2. Containment for Heavy-Water Gas-Cooled Reactors; Le Confinement des Reacteurs a Eau Lourde Refroidis par Gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, P.; Lehmann, D.; Lafitte, R. [Bonard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1967-09-15

    The safety principles applicable to heavy-water, gas-cooled reactors are outlined, with a view to establishing containment specifications adapted to the sites available in Switzerland for the construction of nuclear plants. These specifications are derived from dose rates considered acceptable, in the event of a serious reactor accident, for persons living near the plant, and are based on-meteorological and demographic conditions representative of the majority of the country's sites. The authors consider various designs for the containment shell, taking into account the conditions which would exist in the shell after the maximum credible accident. The following types of shell are studied: pre-stressed concrete; pre-stressed concrete with steel dome; pre-stressed concrete with inner, leakproof steel lining; steel with concrete side shield to protect against radiation; double shell. The degree of leak proofing of the shells studied is regarded as a feature of the particular design and not as a fixed constructional specification. The authors assess the leak proofing properties of each type of shell and establish building costs for each of them on the basis of precise plans, with the collaboration of various specialized firms. They estimate the effectiveness of the various shells from a safety standpoint, in relation to different emergency procedures, in particular release into the atmosphere through appropriate filters and decontamination of the air within the shell by recycling through batteries of filters. The paper contains a very detailed comparison of about 10 cases corresponding to various combinations of design and emergency procedure; the comparison was made using a computer programme specially established for the purpose. The results are compared with those for a reactor of the same type and power, but assembled together with the heat exchangers in a pre-stressed concrete shell. (author) [French] Les principes de securite des reacteurs a eau lourde refroidis

  3. L'hydrodésazotation des distillats issus de la conversion des hydrocarbures lourds Hydrodenitrogenation of Distillates Issuing from the Conversion of Heavy Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toulhoat H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'hydrodésazotation catalytique (HDN est un des points clés de la valorisation des hydrocarbures lourds par leur conversion en carburants. Les coupes lourdes sont riches en azote, et leur conversion produit des distillats eux-mêmes très riches en azote, qui ne pourront être absorbés par une raffinerie classique sans un sévère prétraitement désazotant. Ce problème se pose quel que soit le procédé de conversion mis en oeuvre. On propose donc une analyse de l'HDN comprenant la description des structures azotées rencontrées dans les coupes à traiter, la mise en évidence des réactions à promouvoir, et les règles de choix de catalyseurs et de conditions opératoires en découlant compte tenu des principales déterminantes thermodynamiques et cinétiques. Cette analyse s'appuie sur des résultats de recherche très récents. Elle conduit à la mise en évidence de solutions actuelles au problème posé, et ouvre des perspectives pour des améliorations futures. Catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN is one of the key steps in the upgrading of heavy hydrocarbons by converting them into fuels. Heavy cuts are rich in nitrogen, and their conversion produces distillates that are also very rich in nitrogen, making them unable to be absorbed by a conventional refinery without a severe denitrogenation pretreatment. This problem occurs no matter what conversion process is implemented. Therefore, an analysis of HDN is proposed, including the description of the nitrogen structures encountered in the cuts to be treated, the description of the reactions to be promoted, and the resulting rules for choosing catalysts and operating conditions, in the light of the principal thermodynamic and kinetic constraints. This analysis is based on very recent research results. It leads to the recommending of solutions to the problem at hand and opens up prospects for future improvements.

  4. Mesure asymétrie avant-arriere des quarks lourds a LEP1 avec le détecteur OPAL

    CERN Document Server

    Lafoux, H

    A partir de l'ensemble des données accumulées par OPAL au cours de la première phase de fonctionnement du LEP, nous avons mesuré l'asymétrie avant-arrière des quarks b et c au voisinage du pic du Zo. Utilisant une méthode traditionnelle, basée sur la détection des leptons produits dans les désintégrations semi-leptoniques des hadrons lourds, nous avons cherché à optimiser chaque étape de la mesure, en mettant en œuvre les algorithmes les plus appropriés. Le recours aux réseaux de neurones artificiels s'est en particulier avéré d'une grande utilité lorsque le problème à résoudre impliquait la prise en compte simultanée de multiples sources d'informations, d'origine et de nature très variées. Nos résultats sont en bon accord avec ceux des autres mesures effectuées à LEP et compatibles avec les prédictions du Modèle Standard pour un quark top de 174 ± 31 GeV/c2 et un boson de Higgs de masse comprise entre 60 et 1000 GeV/c2

  5. Transport de pétroles bruts lourds sous forme d'émulsion huile dans eau Transporting Heavy Crude Oils in Oil in Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Des études préliminaires concernant le comportement visqueux d'émulsions d'un pétrole lourd très visqueux (Boscan, Venezuela dans de l'eau additionnée d'un tensioactif anionique ont été réalisées. Elles montrent que, pour la gamme des vitesses de cisaillement existant dans le transport par oléoduc, des réductions de viscosité de plusieurs ordres de grandeur par rapport à la viscosité du pétrole peuvent être obtenues avec des fractions volumiques de la phase dispersée de l'ordre de 60 %. This article describes a preliminary research on the viscous behavior of emulsions of a highly viscous heavy crude oil (Boscan, Venezuela in water containing an anionic surfactant. In the range of the shear rates usually encountered in pipelines, it is shown that the viscosity can be reduced by several orders of magnitude as compared with the crude oil viscosity, and th is for volume fractions of the dispersed phase in the range of 60%.

  6. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R; Gaudez, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration, l'equilibrage des pression entre l'eau lourde et le gaz, le montage

  7. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R.; Gaudez, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration

  8. Influence de la nature des fuels lourds sur la qualité de leur combustion Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition on Particulate Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir d'études de combustion de fuels lourds numéro 2 effectuées dans une chaudière de 1 MW et dans un foyer de 0,1 MW, on conclut que le résidu de Carbone Conradson (CCR des fuels est un bon indicateur de leur combustibilité, mais qu'il n'est pas suffisant dans tous les cas, c'est-à-dire que pour un même CCR, on peut mesurer des valeurs différentes en indice pondéral. Plusieurs interpréta. tions possibles ont été proposées et vérifiées : a Le résidu de Carbone Conradson, résultat d'une pyrolyse lente, est une procédure qui n'est pas suffisamment représentative des conditions réelles. Or, en soumettant un certain nombre de fuels à une pyrolyse flash (technique de la grille chauffée, on observe une bonne corrélation entre la quantité de résidu résultant et le CCR. Donc, ce dernier reste un bon indicateur de combustibilité. b Pour les fuels ex résidu atmosphérique, ex résidu sous-vide et ex désasphaltage, on détermine de satisfaisantes corrélations entre le CCR et certaines caractéristiques physico-chimiques de la fraction lourde des fuels (point de coupe choisi 450°C : polyaromaticité (mesurée par RMN du Carbone 13, C/H, masse moléculaire. Cependant, les fuels de visco-réduction satisfont à d'autres corrélations, de même que les résidus de vapocraquage. Donc, pour ces classes de fuels, on peut prévoir des anomalies entre indice pondéral et CCR, ce qui est observé dans certains équipements. c On observe que pour une même valeur de CCR, la proportion relative entre fractions légères et fractions lourdes des fuels peut parfois varier très sensiblement avec pour conséquence des modifications dans les cartes de richesse et de température des flammes résultantes, et donc des variations dans les émissions particulaires. L'importance de telles variations dépendra des types de brûleurs et de chambres de combustion dans lesquelles la flamme se développera. On the basis of combustion runs of

  9. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  10. Calculation of the anti-trap factor in heavy water lattices; Calcul du facteur antitrappe dans les reseaux a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, R; Mougey, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The calculation of the anti-trap factor of a lattice is complex when a large fraction of captures occurs in a range of energies where the spectrum in the fuel is considerably different from the simple dE/E law. This is particularly true for heavy water lattices in which the distances. between the bars are generally fairly large with respect to the slowing-down length. In order to take into account this effect it is necessary both to know the constitution of the effective resonance integral as a function of the energy, and to be able to calculate the distribution in the fuel. This report is devoted to these two problems. An improved method of treating the statistical domain makes it possible to plot the curves of the cross-sections per unit lethargy for various shapes of the fuel. Furthermore, the slowing-down of the neutrons is studied using a Monte-Carlo method which makes it possible in particular to take into account the perturbations caused by the non-moderating rods. A study is also made of the problem of shielding effects due to the captures themselves. (authors) [French] Le calcul du facteur antitrappe dans un reseau est complique lorsqu'une fraction importante des captures a lieu dans un domaine d'energie ou le spectre dans le combustible s'ecarte sensiblement de la loi simple en dE/E. Ceci est particulierement vrai pour les reseaux a eau lourde dans lesquels les distances entre barres sont en general assez grandes vis-a-vis de la longueur de ralentissement. Pour tenir compte de cet effet il faut connaitre d'une part la decomposition de l'integrale de resonance effective en fonction de l'energie, d'autre part savoir calculer le spectre dans le combustible. Le rapport est consacre a ces deux problemes. Un traitement ameliore du domaine statistique permet de tracer des courbes de sections de capture par unite de lethargie pour differentes geometries de barreaux. D'autre part le ralentissement des neutrons est etudie par une methode de Monte Carlo, qui permet

  11. Preditive Models And Health Sciences: A Brief Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sales Paulino, Msc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predictive Models are an important tool in event predicting and health planning. Despite this, there are few works focusing this area. Thus, the analysis of the real benefits of these models in Health Sciences is necessary to be performed. Results: Predictive techniques largely evolved in second half of XX century. The development of AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models, through Box-Jenkins methodology, constitute a robust conjunct of mechanisms able to help in solution of epidemiological modeling problems, mainly in Health Sciences, once it allows to evaluate individual characteristics of living beings and its correlation with pathologies in the same space-time. Nevertheless, AR, MA and ARMA does not have tendency in seasonality, which weakens the analysis. Conclusions: To predict the natural history of endemic/epidemic and its health-disease processes in a determined population is a sine que non condition to its adequate management in Public Health context and in adoption of affirmative measures concerning health promotion. Thus, the predictive models, with emphasis in ARIMA, SARIMA, Artificial Neural Networks and Formalism of Copulas are alternatives that can be feasible.

  12. Contribution de la pyrolyse des produits lourds à la valorisation des pétroles bruts Contribution of the Pyrolysis of Heavy Products to the Upgrading of Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlot J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le raffineur achète des pétroles bruts, de différentes qualités et d'origines variées, et il fabrique un certain nombre de produits répondant à des spécifications de qualité pour les vendre dans des proportions correspondant aux besoins du marché. Il est nécessaire pour cela d'assurer l'équilibre général entre l'approvisionnement en brut et la demande du marché en produits finis. Les facteurs traduisant l'évolution des pétroles bruts (souci de diversification géographique et politique, désir des producteurs de traiter les bruts faciles et d'exporter les lourds, compétitivité de plus en plus grande des bruts non-conventionnels, grande disponibilité d'huiles lourdes montrent l'alourdissement progressif des approvisionnements. L'enchérissement des produits pétroliers provoque de plus en plus un allègement des besoins du marché (légère augmentation des carburants, baisse des distillats moyens, chute importante des fuels lourds. Du fait de l'alourdissement des bruts conventionnels, de la grande disponibilité des huiles lourdes et de l'allègement considérable du marché des produits finis, il devient nécessaire d'utiliser des charges de plus en plus lourdes dans les procédés de conversion. La production d'oléfines peut s'effectuer à partir d'une gamme très large de coupes pétrolières, mais lorsqu'on cherche à alourdir la charge des unités de pyrolyse, il faut se poser les questions suivantes : - quelle est la souplesse des unités existantes et à venir par rapport à la charge ? - quelle est la limite industrielle et l'alourdissement de la charge ? - quel est le rôle des impuretés sur le fonctionnement des unités ? - quels sont les problèmes technologiques posés par le traitement de ces charges ? - qu'en est-il de l'amélioration des bilans énergétiques et économiques lorsque la charge s'alourdit ? A refiner buys crude oils of different qualities and varying origins and he manufactures a certain number

  13. Etude des propriétés rhéologiques des coupes lourdes à haute température et pression Study of the Rheological Properties of Heavy Cuts At High Temperature and Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les procédés rencontrés dans la valorisation des résidus et des huiles lourdes font appel à des équipements dont le dimensionnement optimal exige la connaissance précise des propriétés rhéologiques de la phase hydrocarbonée impliquée et ce, dans un large domaine de température et de pression. En conséquence, le Laboratoire de Thermodynamique du Centre Réacteurs et Processus de l'École Nationale Supérieure des Mines (ENSM de Paris s'est attaché au développement d'un viscosimètre approprié à ces mesures. Il est basé sur la détermination du couple résistant provoqué par le fluide à étudier, cisaillé entre deux cylindres coaxiaux en rotation relative. Le domaine de viscosité balayé s'étend de 10 à 40 000 cP, les température et pression maximales d'utilisation étant respectivement de 500°C et 30 MPa. La qualité des résultats fournis par cet appareillage a été testée, à des températures et dilution variables, sur quelques coupes lourdes issues des bruts Safaniya et Boscan après désasphaltage ou hydroviscoréduction. On obtient ainsi des valeurs fiables, reproductibles et précises de la viscosité des coupes lourdes hydrocarbonées sur un large domaine de température. Au-delà de 430-440°C toutefois, la pression opératoire de la cellule, fixée par la quantité du gaz admis, augmente brusquement, révélant un craquage thermique important des échantillons et offrant ainsi un moyen d'étude et de simulation des procédés industriels de viscoréduction. Processes used for the upgrading of residues and heavy oils makes use of equipment for which the optimal sizing requires the exact understanding of the rheological properties of the hydrocarbon phase involved over a wide temperature and pressure range. Therefore, the thermodynamics laboratory of the ENSM Center for Reactors and Processes has carried out the development of a viscosimeter suited for such measurements. It is based on determining the

  14. Construction of the core of the 'heavy water-gas' reactor EL 4; Structures du coeur du reacteur 'eau- lourde-gaz EL 4'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J L; Foulquier, H; Thome, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    problem of thermal insulation around a zirconium alloy liner tube. The neutron absorption equivalent is about 1, 1 mm of Al, and the mean loss around 2 p. 100 of the thermal power of the reactor. The methods proposed have proved practicable as a result of important research and developments on automatic remote control for all the operations which make up the sequences of mounting, demounting and repairing of the construction components. In particular the possibilities opened up by the new techniques of welding tubes from the inside have been extended to other problems connected with the assembling of a reactor. (authors) [French] Le coeur de ce reacteur est constitue par une cuve contenant l'eau lourde, cuve traversee d'une serie de tubes de force dans lesquels circule le gaz caloporteur sous pression de 60 at. Les specifications de depart qui ont joue un role important dans la conception de ces structures concernent des aspects de securite de fonctionnement (chargement du combustible par les deux faces du reacteur, remplacement des structures sur les deux faces du reacteur), des necessites neutroniques (absorption des structures minimum, pas du reseau, diametre des tubes de force) et des considerations thermiques (temperature de sortie 500 C). Ces specifications ont entraine une disposition horizontale des tubes de force et des problemes d'encombrement tres delicats qui ont elimine (pour les dimensions d'EL 4) toute possibilite de recourir a des compensateurs de dilatation sur les tubes de force. II s'ensuit un dessin de cuve semi-rigide dans lequel les tubes de force contribuent pour une part importante a la resistance mecanique de l'ensemble en jouant le role de tirant, d'ou des contraintes elevees sur les jonctions et tubes de force (et le choix des alliages de zirconium). Les structures comprennent le tube de force, les jonctions, l'isolement thermique et le tube de guidage. On expose brievement les moyens d'essais mis en oeuvre et les performances de ces diverses

  15. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  16. A new temperature effect in ionized media in the presence of heavy negative electrical charges; Sur un nouvel effet de temperature dans des milieux ionises en presence de charges electriques negatives lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    A relatively large electromotive force appears between two electrodes having different temperatures in an atmosphere of ionized vapours. The theoretical interpretation of this phenomenon is based essentially on the one hand on the massive formation of heavy negative electrical charges near the 'cold' electrode and on the other hand, in the case of flames, on the existence of an electronic temperature much higher than that predicted by conventional theory. This temperature effect makes it possible to convert the ionizing energy directly into electricity. (author) [French] Une force electro-motrice relativement importante apparait dans des vapeurs ionisees entre deux electrodes maintenues a des temperatures differentes. L'interpretation theorique, de ce phenomene est essentiellement basee, d'une part sur la formation massive de charges electriques negatives lourdes pres de l'electrode ''froide'' et, d'autre part, dans le cas des flammes sur l'existence d'une temperature electronique beaucoup plus elevee que celle prevue par la theorie classique. Cet effet de temperature permet de convertir directement l'energie ionisante en electricite. (auteur)

  17. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  18. Purification by ion exchange resins of the heavy water of the reactors EL 1 and EL 2. A - the purifying process. Equipment and results; Purification par resines echangeuses d'ions de l'eau lourde des reacteurs EL1 et EL2. A - conduite de la purification. Installations et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Roth, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The heavy water was purified by tapping off part of the moderator over a mixed bed of anion and cation exchangers. The heavy water leaving the columns has a resistivity reaching several-meg-ohms, which allows the resistivity of the moderator to be maintained between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} ohms/cm. Two methods of deuteration of the ion exchangers are described, as well as the heavy water recuperation from resins charged with radioactive products. The influence of the purity of the water on the radiolytic dissociation is investigated. An interpretation of the variations in pH and of the formation of hydrogen peroxide is given. In addition the report contains a general description of the EL1 and EL2 purification installations. (author) [French] L'epuration de l'eau lourde a ete effectuee en derivant une partie du moderateur sur un lit melange d'echangeurs d'anions et de cations. Les colonnes delivrent de l'eau lourde dont la resistivite atteint plusieurs megohms; ceci permet d'entretenir la resistivite du moderateur entre 10{sup 5} et 10{sup 6} ohms/cm. Deux procedes deuteriation des echangeurs d'ions sont decrits de meme que la recuperation de l'eau lourde partir des resines chargees de produits radioactifs. L'influence de la purete de l'eau sur sa dissociation radiolytique est etudiee. Une interpretation est donnee des variations de pH et de la formation d'eau oxygenee. Le rapport comprend en outre une description generale des installations d'epuration de EL1et EL2. (auteur)

  19. Purification by ion exchange resins of the heavy water of the reactors EL 1 and EL 2. A - the purifying process. Equipment and results; Purification par resines echangeuses d'ions de l'eau lourde des reacteurs EL1 et EL2. A - conduite de la purification. Installations et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The heavy water was purified by tapping off part of the moderator over a mixed bed of anion and cation exchangers. The heavy water leaving the columns has a resistivity reaching several-meg-ohms, which allows the resistivity of the moderator to be maintained between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} ohms/cm. Two methods of deuteration of the ion exchangers are described, as well as the heavy water recuperation from resins charged with radioactive products. The influence of the purity of the water on the radiolytic dissociation is investigated. An interpretation of the variations in pH and of the formation of hydrogen peroxide is given. In addition the report contains a general description of the EL1 and EL2 purification installations. (author) [French] L'epuration de l'eau lourde a ete effectuee en derivant une partie du moderateur sur un lit melange d'echangeurs d'anions et de cations. Les colonnes delivrent de l'eau lourde dont la resistivite atteint plusieurs megohms; ceci permet d'entretenir la resistivite du moderateur entre 10{sup 5} et 10{sup 6} ohms/cm. Deux procedes deuteriation des echangeurs d'ions sont decrits de meme que la recuperation de l'eau lourde partir des resines chargees de produits radioactifs. L'influence de la purete de l'eau sur sa dissociation radiolytique est etudiee. Une interpretation est donnee des variations de pH et de la formation d'eau oxygenee. Le rapport comprend en outre une description generale des installations d'epuration de EL1et EL2. (auteur)

  20. Caractérisation des différents types de fibres musculaires dans plusieurs espèces : production et utilisation d'anticorps monoclonaux dirigés contre les chaînes lourdes de myosine rapide IIa et IIb

    OpenAIRE

    Société Biocytex; Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Fauconneau, Benoit; Rémignon, Hervé; Cherel, Yan; Barrey, Eric; Nédelec, J.

    1998-01-01

    Des anticorps monoclonaux dirigés contre les chaînes lourdes de myosine (MHC : myosin heavy chain) de différentes espèces d’animaux : bovin, porc, poisson, poulet, dinde, cheval ont été produits. Ils ont été testés par immunohistologie sur des coupes de muscle squelettique chez le bovin, le porc, le poisson, le poulet et la dinde et par ELISA chez le cheval. Les différents anticorps retenus dans ce projet permettent de nouvelles applications pour l’étude du muscle squelettique. En particulier...

  1. Study of the behaviour of some heavy elements in solvents containing hydrogen fluoride; Etude du comportement de quelques elements lourds dans des solvants a base d'acide fluorhydrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnero, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The anhydrous liquid mixtures: dinitrogen tetroxide-hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride-hydrogen fluoride were studied as solvents for heavy elements interesting nuclear energy: uranium, thorium, zirconium and for some of their compounds. For N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures, electric conductivity measurements and liquid phase infrared spectra were also obtained. Uranium and zirconium tetrafluoride are much more soluble in N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures than in pure hydrogen fluoride. Uranium dissolved in these mixtures is pentavalent. In SbF{sub 5}-HF mixtures, uranium dissolves with hydrogen evolution and becomes trivalent. The solid compound resulting from the dissolution is a fluoro-antimonate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (author) [French] On a etudie les melanges liquides anhydres: peroxyde d'azote-acide fluorhydrique et pentafluorure d'antimoine-acide fluorhydrique comme solvants d'elements lourds interessant l'energie nucleaire: uranium, thorium, zirconium et de quelques uns de leurs composes. Pour les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF on a egalement effectue des mesures de conductivite electrique, ainsi que des spectres d'absorption infrarouge en phase liquide. Le tetrafluorure d'uranium et le tetrafluorure de zirconium sont beaucoup plus solubles dans les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF que dans l'acide fluorhydrique. L'uranium dissous dans ces melanges est a l'etat pentavalent. Dans les melanges SbF{sub 5}-HF l'uranium se dissout avec degagement d'hydrogene et passe a l'etat trivalent. Le compose solide resultant de la dissolution est un fluoantimoniate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (auteur)

  2. Problems related with the power regulation of reactors by physico-chemical methods, and the behaviour of water and heavy water in nuclear reactors; Comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires et problemes de la regulation de puissance par voie physico-chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L; Conan, D; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Experience of the CEA heavy water reactors and a systematic study of the radiolytic decomposition of water in the core of swimming-pool reactors are described. Setting up of reactivity control by physico-chemical methods. Reactivity control by homogeneous poisoning of the reactor A comparison of the evolution of xenon poisoning with the residual anti reactivity of the poison in solution during its nuclear consumption establishes the programme which must govern the variation in its concentration if the exact compensation is to be produced The behaviour of the poison towards the reactor materials under the particular operational conditions must be taken into account. Radiolytic decomposition of water in the reactors in the presence of soluble poisons: A study of the effect of certain chemically inert salts, present in small concentrations in the water, on its radiolytic decomposition rate, has led to some new results which are discussed. The choice of a soluble poison is justified on the basis of the above results. Reactivity control by the use of a gaseous absorbent The use of a gas control rod circuit for compensation purposes, in place of solid control rods is described. The use of soluble poisons in the moderator to compensate the xenon effect, and of a gaseous absorbent in a circuit known as a gas control rod form original aspects of the reactivity control in the reactor EL 4. (authors) [French] L'observation du comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs en exploitation, contribue au fonctionnement sur de ceux-ci et oriente certaines etudes relatives aux techniques de controle de la reactivite par mise en oeuvre de poisons solubles. L'utilisation de poisons nucleaires dissous dans l'eau du reacteur entraine une pollution chimique de celle-ci. Les conditions d'emploi permettant d'eviter les effets indesirables de cette pollution sont etudiees. Les problemes analytiques - bien qu'importants - ne sont pas abordes dans le cadre de la communication

  3. MANUFACTURE OF BANANA FLAVORED LIQUEURS FABRICATION DES LIQUEURS A SAVEUR DE BANANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the obtention of banana flavored liqueurs aromatized with different natural ingredients. For this, different maceration types were compared: maceration of fruit in alcohol (group A, maceration of fruit in sugar (group B and maceration of fruits in alcohol - sugar mixture (group C. In this work, we also studied the influence of: the variation of the concentration of sugar used for liqueurs (10 % sugar - common liqueurs - and 40 % sugar – fine liqueurs, the variation of the maceration time (7 days and 42 days and of the addition of different natural ingredients on the liquour flavor. All the liquors were evaluated by a sensory analysis. Performing this study we were able to put in evidence some herbs that can give harmony to the taste of the liquor and can highlight the banana flavor.

  4. La conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes : au carrefour du thermique et du catalytique Conversion of Residues and Heavy Oils At the Crossroads of Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les diverses familles de procédés de conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes. Tous les résultats semblent converger pour accréditer l'idée que dans tous ces procédés, y compris les procédés dits catalytiques, l'essentiel de la conversion des espèces de poids moléculaire élevé, résines et asphaltènes, procède par mécanisme radicalaire : la clef de la conversion profonde, c'est paradoxalement la maîtrise de la condensation radicalaire de ces espèces. Hydrogène seul, hydrogène en présence de solvant donneur, d'additifs ou encore mieux de catalyseurs, sont les armes dont dispose tout raffineur pour affirmer cette maîtrise, dans la mesure où il ne tient pas à fabriquer du coke. Tous ces procédés de conversion des résidus donnent par ailleurs naissance à des produits craqués dont la nature et la distribution rappellent celles des produits de première distillation du pétrole brut dont est issu le résidu soumis au craquage. This article reviews the different families of conversion processes for residues and heavy oils. All the results seem to converge to support the idea that in all these processes, including so-called catalytic processes, most of the conversion of high-molecular-weight species (resins and asphaltenes operates by a radical mechanism. The key to in-depth conversion is, paradoxically, the mastery of the radical condensation of these species. Hydrogen alone, hydrogen in the presence of a donor solvent, of additives or, better yet, of catalysts, are the arms at the disposal of all refiners to assert this mastery, to the extent that they do not want to manufacture coke. All such conversion processes for residues also give rise to cracked products whose nature and distribution recall those of first-distillation products of crude oil, from which the residue comes that is subjected to cracking.

  5. The purification by ion exchange resins of the heavy water la the reactors EL1 and EL2. B - study of the general properties of the resins used; Purification par resines echangeuses d'ions de l'eau lourde de reacteurs EL1 et EL2. B - etude des proprietes generales des resines utilisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourre,; Platzer, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Within the programme of the pile heavy water purification project, organized by the stable Isotopes Section, we have carried out a certain number of tests on ion exchange resins. The problem posed by the stable Isotopes Section was to determine the conditions of utilisation of ion exchange resins, knowing that they would be employed in a system branching off the heavy water circuit in the piles. These investigations were carried out in close collaboration with the stable Isotopes Section, and were guided chiefly by the extremely short delay permitted between the laboratory study and its application to the piles. The tests are divided into two groups: 1- General properties of the resins. 2- Utilisation of the resins, particularly in an apparatus similar to those mounted on the piles but of smaller dimensions. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet d'epuration de l'eau lourde des piles, traite par la Section des Isotopes stables, nous avons fait un certain nombre d'essais sur les resines echangeuses d'ions. Le probleme pose par la Section des Isotopes stables etait de determiner les conditions d'utilisation des resines echangeuses d'ions sachant qu'elles devraient etre employees dans un appareil place en derivation sur le circuit d'eau lourde des piles. L'ensemble de l'etude a ete mene en collaboration etroite avec la Section des Isotopes stables et a ete guide principalement par le delai extremement court dans lequel l'etude de laboratoire devait etre appliquee aux piles. Les essais se divisent en deux groupes: 1- Proprietes generales des resines. 2- Utilisation des resines, en particulier dans un appareil analogue a ceux montes sur les piles, mais de dimensions reduites. (auteur)

  6. Modélisation de la combustion de fuels lourds prenant en compte la dispersion des asphaltènes Modeling Heavy Fuel-Oil Combustion (While Considering Or Including Asphaltene Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Divers modèles, ayant pour but de prédire le taux d'imbrûlés solides lors de la combustion du fuel lourd, ont été mis au point dans le passé. Les paramètres entrant en ligne de compte sont le plus souvent les teneurs en résidus lourds hydrocarbonés (asphaltènes précipités au pentane ou à l'heptane et carbone Conradson et en métaux : c'est le cas des modèles Exxon et Shell développés respectivement en 1979 et 1981. D'autres modèles tiennent compte, en plus de la composition du fuel, de son mode d'atomisation, de son mode de diffusion dans le foyer et de la cinétique de combustion : on peut citer les travaux du Laboratoire Energie du MIT publiés en 1986. Néanmoins, ces facteurs ne sont pas les seuls à intervenir : l'expérience a montré que l'état de dispersion des asphaltènes peut jouer également un grand rôle, notamment dans le cas d'installations de combustion à injection mécanique, pour lesquelles la dispersion des gouttelettes n'est pas aussi fine que pour des installations munies d'une injection assistée par la vapeur. Cette influence de la dispersion des asphaltènes sur la combustion a été mise en évidence dans le passé par l'utilisation d'additifs dispersants et également par la combustion de fuels lourds constitués par dilution d'asphaltes précipités au pentane avec un gas-oil de cracking catalytique de raffinerie (LCO. Ce sont ces fuels que l'on a considérés dans la présente étude. L'effet de ce facteur dispersion n'a pas été quantifié jusqu'alors, la difficulté étant de définir une grandeur mesurable représentant la répartition des agglomérats d'asphaltènes. Dans cette étude, on a essayé en un premier temps de faire une approche fractale de la répartition des asphaltènes à partir de clichés (préparés par la société Total, cette méthode ayant déjà été utilisée avec succès pour décrire des structures d'aspects comparables. Malheureusement, on s'est heurté à des

  7. Study of new structures adapted to gas-graphite and gas-heavy water reactors; Etude de structures nouvelles adaptees aux reacteurs graphite-gaz et eau lourde-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R; Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    'EDF d'une part, les conclusions des etudes et essais effectues hors pile d'autre part, conduisent a un changement considerable de la physionomie des reacteurs de la filiere Graphite-Gaz, Les principales modifications envisagees sont analysees dans la communication. L'adoption d'un element combustible annulaire et d'un soufflage descendant permettront d'accroitre considerablement la puissance specifique et la puissance developpee par canal; il en resultera une reduction sensible du nombre des canaux et un accroissement correlatif de la maille du reseau - L'empilement de graphite devra etre adapte a ces nouvelles conditions - Des raisons de securite conduisent a generaliser l'emploi du beton precontraint pour la construction du caisson; elles pourront amener a integrer a l'interieur de celui-ci les echangeurs et l'appareil de manutention du combustible (dispositif dit: 'en grenier'). Une maquette en vraie grandeur de ce grenier a ete construite a Saclay avec la participation d'EURATOM; les resultats d'exploitation en sont presentes, ainsi que des idees de barres de controle de conception nouvelle. En ce qui concerne la filiere Eau-Lourde-Gaz, les etudes sont poursuivies dans deux voies principales; la premiere, qui conserverait l'usage de tubes de force horizontaux, tient compte de l'experience acquise au cours de la construction du reacteur EL4 dont elle constituerait une extrapolation; la seconde, inspiree des etudes poursuivies au titre de la filiere Graphite-Gaz, ferait appel a un caisson en beton precontraint pour tenir la pression, le moderateur etant sensiblement a la pression du fluide refrigerant et le combustible etant dispose dans des canaux verticaux. Les merites respectifs de ces deux variantes sont analyses dans la communication. (auteurs)

  8. Improvements in gas supply systems for heavy-water moderated reactors; Etudes de perfectionnements aux systemes d'alimentation en gaz d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, G; Hassig, J M; Laurent, N; Thomas, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In a heavy-water moderated reactor cooled by pressurized gas, an important problem from the point of view, of the reactor block and its economics is the choice of the gas supply system. In the pressure tube solution, the whole of the reactor block structure is at a relatively low temperature, whereas the gas supply equipment is at that of the gas, which is much higher. These parts, through which passes the heat carrying fluid have to present as low a resistance as possible to it so as to avoid costly extra blowing power. Finally, they may only be placed in the reactor block after it has been built; the time required for putting them in position should therefore not be too long. The work reported here concerns the various problems arising in the case of each channel being supplied individually by a tube at the entry and the exit which is connected to a main circuit made up of large size collectors. This individual tubing is sufficiently flexible to absorb the differential expansion and the movement of its ends without stresses or prohibitive reactions being produced; the tubing is also of relatively short length so as to reduce the pressure head of the pressurized gas outside the channels; the small amount of space taken up by the tubing makes it possible to assemble it in a manner which is satisfactory from the point of view both of the time required and of the technical quality. (authors) [French] Dans un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz sous pression, un probleme important du point de vue du trace du bloc pile et de son economie est le choix du systeme d'alimentation en gaz. Pour une solution a tubes de force, l'ensemble des structures du bloc reacteur est a temperature relativement faible, alors que les organes d'alimentation en gaz sont a celle, notablement plus elevee, du gaz. Ces organes, traverses par le debit du caloporteur, doivent lui opposer le minimum de resistance afin de ne pas necessiter un supplement onereux de puissance de

  9. Accounting Systems for Heavy Water and Fissionable Materials; Comptabilite de l'Eau Lourde et des Matieres Fissiles; Sistema ucheta tyazheloj vody i delyashchikhsya materialov; Sistemas de Contabilidad para el Agua Pesada y los Materiales Fisionables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, G. W.; Reid, H. B.; Jenkinson, W. G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1966-02-15

    ] Les aureurs du memoire decrivent les methodes de gestion comptable utilisees par l'Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) pour assurer l'enregistrement et le controle des stocks d'eau lourde et de matieres fissiles; ils decrivent egalement les fonctions et les responsabilites de ceux qui sont charges d'administrer ce systeme. Ils determinent la valeur de ces methodes et etudient dans quelle mesure elles sont adaptables et applicables aux programmes de recherche et de production d'energie qui se developpent rapidement; ils examinent en particulier les avantages du systeme electronique de traitement des donnees. Un comite de gestion a la responsabilite d'assurer la bonne marche du systeme de comptabilite, d'etablissement des rapports et de controle des matieres fissiles. A la Division des operations du Laboratoire nucleaire de Chalk River, le service de planification et de controle de la production est responsable envers le comite de la tenue de tous les registres et du fonctionnement general du systeme. Les differentes taches que cela implique sont decrites en detail dans le memoire. Le systeme de comptabilite des matieres fissiles est divise en un certain nombre de sections comptables dont 15 sont du ressort des differents departements de l'AECL et les autres confiees a des industries canadiennes et a des organismes de recherche. Pour chaque section, le service de planification et de controle de la production tient un livre; ces sections ont toutefois la responsabilite de preparer des etats comptables detailles pour toutes les matieres soumises a leur controle. Les principales methodes comptables utilisees pour enregistrer les transferts de matieres d'une section a l'autre, les transformations subies par les matieres dans une meme section, le traitement des gains et les pertes de matieres, l'elimination des dechets, sont exposees dans le memoire. La transcription de ces donnees sur carte IBM, leur traitement final a l 'aided'une calculatrice IBM 1401 et la preparation des

  10. Improvement of Heavy Oil Recovery in the VAPEX Process using Montmorillonite Nanoclays Amélioration de la récupération d’huile lourde par utilisation de nanoargiles de Montmorillonite dans le procédé VAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourabdollah K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nanoclay particles were introduced as mobile adsorbents in oil reservoirs to adsorb the asphaltenes, reduce the viscosity and enhance the dispersion. The objective of this paper is experimental investigation of enhanced heavy oil recovery using in situ nanoparticles for the first time. Moreover, two thermal analysis methods (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used to analyze the asphaltene content of residue hydrocarbons in the swept chambers in nano-assisted and conventional VAPEX processes. Experiments were carried out using Iranian heavy oil and propane: the setup consisted of two sand-packed cells; one packed only with glass beads as the oil matrix and the other with glass beads and modified montmorillonite as the nanoclay, while they had similar porosity and permeability. The content of deposited asphaltene in swept matrixes, the propagation pattern of vapor chambers in heavy oil matrixes, and the rates of solvent consumption and oil production were determined. The results elucidated that montmorillonite changed the matrix heterogeneity and led to forming enhanced breakthroughs, to increasing the interfacial surface of vapor/bitumen and to accelerating the oil production. It was found that not only was the rate of vapor injection diminished, but the heavy oil recovery was also markedly enhanced by 30(±4%. Dans cet article, on decrit l’utilisation de particules de nanoargile en tant qu’adsorbant mobile dans des reservoirs d’huile afin d’adsorber les asphaltenes, reduire la viscosite de l’huile et renforcer la dispersion. L’objectif de cet article consiste en la description d’une etude experimentale de recuperation amelioree d’huile lourde par l’utilisation de nanoparticules in situ. Ce qui constitue une premiere. En outre, deux methodes d’analyse thermique (thermogravimetrie et analyse thermique differentielle ont ete utilisees pour analyser la teneur en asphaltene des residus d

  11. Cycle counting procedure for fatigue failure preditions for complicated multi-axial stress histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.; Friedrich, C.M.; Hoppe, R.G.

    1977-12-01

    A procedure has been developed to determine the cumulative fatigue damage in structures experiencing complicated multi-axial stress histories. The procedure is a generalization of the rainflow method developed by Matsuishi and Endo for one-dimensional situations. It provides a consistent treatment of three-dimensional stress states that is especially suited to computer programming applications for the post-processing of finite element stress data. The procedure includes a unique method to account for the rotation of principal stresses with time during the stress history and for the cumulative fatigue damage resulting from partial stress reversals within a stress cycle. The general procedure and necessary equations for programming are presented. Comparisons are made with life predictions using Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for two hypothetical multi-axial stress histories for which the principal stresses are rotating with time. These comparisons show that the cycle counting method provides a consistent unambiguous interpretation of the fatigue design procedure in the ASME Code for these cases. Finally, the fatigue life of a perforated plate, as analyzed by finite elements, is computed for the combination of several hypothetical stress histories. This example demonstrates the utility of the proposed method when used in conjunction with finite element programs

  12. Relative performance of different numerical weather prediction models for short term predition of wind wnergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G; Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Moennich, K; Waldl, H P [Carl con Ossietzky Univ., Faculty of Physics, Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor, Oldenburg (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In several approaches presented in other papers in this conference, short term forecasting of wind power for a time horizon covering the next two days is done on the basis of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. This paper explores the relative merits of HIRLAM, which is the model used by the Danish Meteorological Institute, the Deutschlandmodell from the German Weather Service and the Nested Grid Model used in the US. The performance comparison will be mainly done for a site in Germany which is in the forecasting area of both the Deutschlandmodell and HIRLAM. In addition, a comparison of measured data with the forecasts made for one site in Iowa will be included, which allows conclusions on the merits of all three models. Differences in the relative performances could be due to a better tailoring of one model to its country, or to a tighter grid, or could be a function of the distance between the grid points and the measuring site. Also the amount, in which the performance can be enhanced by the use of model output statistics (topic of other papers in this conference) could give insights into the performance of the models. (au)

  13. Quasicrystalline Approach to Prediting the Spinel-Nepheline Liquidus: Application to Nuclear Waste Glass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol

    2005-10-10

    The crystal-melt equilibria in complex fifteen component melts are modeled based on quasicrystalline concepts. A pseudobinary phase diagram between acmite (which melts incongruently to a transition metal ferrite spinel) and nepheline is defined. The pseudobinary lies within the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} quaternary system that defines the crystallization of basalt glass melts. The pseudobinary provides the partitioning of species between the melt and the primary liquidus phases. The medium range order of the melt and the melt-crystal exchange equilibria are defined based on a constrained mathematical treatment that considers the crystallochemical coordination of the elemental species in acmite and nepheline. The liquidus phases that form are shown to be governed by the melt polymerization and the octahedral site preference energies. This quasicrystalline liquidus model has been used to prevent unwanted crystallization in the world's largest high level waste (HLW) melter for the past three years while allowing >10 wt% higher waste loadings to be processed.

  14. Overview and Computational Approach for Studying the Physicochemical Characterization of High-Boiling-Point Petroleum Fractions (350°C+ Approche informatique pour l’étude des propriétés physico-chimiques de fraction pétrolière lourde (350°C+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plazas Tovar L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing and upgrading of high-boilingpoint petroleum fractions, containing a large number of components from different groups (paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, aromatics require an in-depth evaluation. In order to characterize them, their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties must be determined. This work presents a computational approach based on the breakdown of the petroleum fraction into pseudocomponents defined by a trial-and-error exercise in which the mass- and molar-balance errors were minimized. Cases studies are illustrated to three heavy residues 400°C+ from “W, Y and Z” crude oil. This procedure requires the boiling point distillation curve and the density of the whole fraction as the input bulk properties. The methods proposed according to available correlations in the literature and standard industrial methods were mainly used to estimate properties that include the basic properties (normal boiling point, density and Watson factor characterization, the thermodynamic properties (molar mass and critical properties and the thermophysical and transport properties (kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and vapor pressure. The methodology developed has shown to be a useful tool for calculating a remarkably broad range of physicochemical properties of high-boiling-point petroleum fractions with good accuracy when the bulk properties are available, since computational approach gave an overall absolute deviation lower than 10% when compared with the experimental results obtained in the research laboratories LDPS/LOPCA/UNICAMP. Le traitement et la valorisation des fractions pétrolières lourdes nécessitent une étude très détaillée dans la mesure où le pétrole contient un très grand nombre de composants différents (paraffines, oléfines, naphtènes, arômes. Afin de caractériser les fractions, il est indispensable de déterminer les propriétés thermodynamiques et thermophysiques des

  15. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  16. Influence sur les imbrûlés solides de composés métalliques particuliers et du taux de dispersion des asphaltènes dans les fuels lourds Influence of Unburned Solids Made of Unusual Metal Compounds and of the Asphaltene Dispersion Rate in Heavy Fuel Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La diversité croissante des origines de bruts a conduit, en combustion, a prendre en considération dans les modèles la teneur en métaux en plus du carbone Conradson ou des asphaltènes au C7 dans les fuels lourds. De tels modèles ont été développés par Exxon (1979 et Shell (1981 notamment. Des travaux récents faits à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP sur une chaudière de 2 MW ont montré l'influence de composés métalliques particuliers présents dans le fuel oil sous forme de sulfures imprégnant des particules de carbone poreux. Ces microparticules peuvent être générées lorsque l'on applique des conditions opératoires sévères à la viscoréduction de fuels résiduaires en présence d'hydrogène et d'un catalyseur approprié. Ces microparticules se sont révélées très actives en combustion et ont montré que la concentration du métal n'était pas le seul facteur à prendre en considération mais que la manière dont il était combiné pouvait être prépondérante. Pour étendre le domaine d'application des modèles, d'autres paramètres comme les conditions de fonctionnement de la chaudière et l'atomisation du fuel ont été pris en compte en plus des paramètres d'influence propres au fuel (travaux du Laboratoire Énergie du MIT publications 1986. En ce qui concerne la prédiction d'émissions particulaires une méthode complémentaire aux tests de résidu de Conradson et d'insolubilité à l'heptane normal a été appliquée à I'IFP dans le cadre d'un programme de valorisation des huiles lourdes en association avec les compagnies pétrolières Elf et Total France. Cette méthode consiste à évaluer à la microscopie électronique par transmission le taux de dispersion des asphaltènes, selon une méthode développée par Total France (M. Peyrot. Il existe une relation entre ce taux de dispersion et l'émission particulaire. Ce phénomène a été nettement observé dans le cas de fuels lourds constitués par

  17. Improving the Modeling of Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Oil Cuts Using an Augmented Grayson Streed (AGS Approach Modélisation améliorée de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes lourdes par l’approche de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres R.

    2013-04-01

    cependant que sa précision se dégrade rapidement pour les coupes lourdes. Une amélioration est proposée dans ce travail, basée sur l’ajout d’un terme de Flory dans le calcul du coefficient d’activité. L’étude de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans les n-alcanes du n-C7 au n-C36 fait apparaître que la constante de Henry diminue avec la masse molaire. L’analyse de ce comportement suggère la présence d’une déviation entropique à l’idéalité non prise en compte dans le modèle des solutions régulières. L’utilisation d’une correction de Flory permet de garder l’aspect prédictif du modèle. Elle nécessite néanmoins un nouveau calage de certains paramètres de la corrélation d’origine pour l’hydrogène. Le modèle qui résulte se comporte mieux pour les composés lourds et aromatiques. La qualité du nouveau modèle de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA est évaluée sur des données de solubilité d’hydrogène dans des coupes pétrolières issues de Cai et al. [Cai H.Y. et al. (2001 Fuel 80, 1055-1063] ainsi que Lin et al. [Lin H.M. et al. (1981 Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 20, 2, 253-256]. L’importance de la caractérisation de ces coupes est mise en avant. Une analyse de sensibilité montre qu’une perturbation du paramètre de solubilité a un effet beaucoup plus important que pour les autres paramètres. Il en résulte qu’un grand soin doit être apporté au calcul de cette grandeur. La prédiction de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des fractions pétrolières lourdes et dans des charbons liquéfiés a été améliorée par rapport au modèle de Grayson Streed : une déviation absolue moyenne de 30 % est obtenue pour GSA, à comparer avec 55 % avec la méthode GS, avec les données utilisées dans un domaine de 80-380 °C et 6,3-258,9 bar.

  18. Pore-Level Investigation of Heavy Oil Recovery using Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD Étude à l’échelle des pores de la récupération d’huiles lourdes par drainage gravitaire assisté par injection de vapeur (SAGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh O.

    2010-12-01

    entrapment of steam due to the capillarity followed by condensation, steam condensation at the interface due to temperature gradient, and snap-off of liquid films are also illustrated using glass micromodels in pore-level visualization experiments. L’application réussie du procédé de drainage gravitaire assisté par injection de vapeur à l’aide de puits horizontaux lors de divers essais de champ, essentiellement au Canada, montre qu’on peut atteindre un taux de récupération élevé et des rapports vapeur injectée/pétrole récupéré économiquement viables. Le procédé de récupération par SAGD a été développé sur le plan théorique, testé sur pilote et commercialisé, tout cela au Canada; il reste cependant encore plusieurs problèmes techniques à résoudre dans ce procédé. Les phénomènes qui se développent à l’échelle des pores lors de la récupération d’huiles lourdes à l’aide du procédé SAGD ne sont pas encore très bien compris, ce qui conduit à intégrer la physique du processus au niveau des pores dans des modèles mathématiques. L’étude à l’échelle des pores des phénomènes physiques concernant la distribution des fluides et les types d’écoulement dans le milieu poreux dans ce procédé devrait apporter une nette amélioration de la compréhension des phénomènes macroscopiques observés aussi bien en laboratoire que sur le terrain. L’objectif principal de cet article est l’étude visuelle et la description des phénomènes à l’échelle des pores par l’utilisation d’un micromodèle en verre. Des expériences de SAGD ont été effectuées au laboratoire sur des micromodèles de réseaux capillaires gravés sur des plaques de verre qui, au départ, ont été saturés d’huile lourde. Ces expériences furent réalisées dans une chambre à vide pour éviter des pertes de chaleur excessives vers l’extérieur. Les premiers résultats montrent que lorsque l’interface huile lourde/vapeur est établie, un

  19. Study of the consequences of the rupture of a pressure tube in the tank of a gas-cooled, heavy-water moderated reactor; Etude des consequences de la rupture d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareux, F; Roche, R; Vrillon, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Bursting of a pressure tube in the tank of a heavy water moderated-gas cooled reactor is an accident which has been studied experimentally about EL-4. A first test (scale 1) having shown that the burst of a tube does not cause the rupture of adjacent tubes, tests on the tank resistance have been undertaken with a very reduced scale model (1 to 10). It has been found that the tank can endure many bursts of tube without any important deformation. Transient pressure in the tank is an oscillatory weakened wave, the maximum of which (pressure peak) has been the object of a particular experimental study. It appears that the most important parameters which affect the pressure peak are; the pressure of the gas included in the bursting pressure tube, the volume of this gas, the mass of air included in the tank and the nature of the gas. A general method to calculate the pressure peak value in reactor tanks has been elaborated by direct application of experimental data. (authors) [French] L'eclatement d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi par un gaz sous pression est un accident qui a ete etudie experimentalement a propos d'EL-4. Un premier essai a l'echelle 1 ayant montre que l'eclatement d'un tube ne provoque pas celui des tubes voisins, des essais relatifs a la tenue de la cuve ont ete effectues sur maquettes a echelle tres reduite (l/lO). Il a ete trouve que la cuve peut supporter plusieurs eclatements de tubes sans deformations notables. La pression transitoire dans la cuve a une allure oscillatoire amortie dont le maximum (pression de pic) a fait l'objet d'une etude experimentale detaillee. Il apparait que les parametres essentiels influant sur cette pression sont: la pression du gaz contenu dans le tube de force, le volume du gaz qui participe a l'eclatement, la flexibilite de la cuve, la masse d'air empoisonnee dans la cuve, la nature du gaz explosant. Une methode generale d'estimation des pics de pression dans

  20. Heavy Element Staining of Sedimentary Organic Matter Functional Groups for Backscattered Electron Imaging Marquage par éléments lourds de la matière organique sédimentaire pour la microscopie électronique en électrons rétrodiffusés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin-Geindre S.

    2006-11-01

    , 1992. Son imagerie est basée sur les contrastes de numéro atomique (Z existant entre les divers constituants. La matière organique apparaît noire et les minéraux gris. Cependant il n'est pas possible de distinguer plusieurs types de matière organique avec le MEB/ER. Afin de mettre en évidence des contrastes au MEB/ER entre différentes matières organiques, les échantillons ont été marqués par des éléments lourds qui ont la particularité de se fixer de manière sélective et spécifique sur les groupes fonctionnels. Cette méthode est largement employée par la biologie cellulaire pour révéler divers corps organiques (Soligo et Lambertenghi-Deliliers, 1987; Langsdorff et al. , 1990; Clark, 1991; Namimatsu, 1992 ou bien par la science des matériaux dans le domaine des polymères (Sawyer et Grubb, 1987; Ohlsson et Törnell, 1990; Sue et al. , 1991; Janik et al. , 1992. L'application à la géologie et à la pétrographie est restée jusqu'à présent assez réduite : sédiments argileux (Whitlatch et Johnson, 1974; Green et al. , 1979; Bishop et al. , 1992; Hillier et Clayton, 1992, charbons (Corcoran et Stephens, 1987; Sommerfeld et al. , 1992, sols (Foster, 1981. Les éléments lourds utilisés pour le marquage sont très variés et présentent une spécificité plus ou moins large (Reynolds, 1963; Lewis et Knight, 1976; Takeuchi et Takeuchi, 1990. La matière organique sédimentaire est un mélange complexe de macromolécules dont la composition dépend de la nature de la matière organique originelle et de son degré d'évolution (Tissot et Welte, 1984. La matière organique peu évoluée possède de nombreuses variétés de groupes fonctionnels (Rouxhet et al. , 1980; Béhar et Vandenbroucke, 1987. La faisabilité de la méthode a d'abord été testée sur des polymères contenant des fonctions chimiques susceptibles d'exister dans les kérogènes naturels (tableau 1. Puis elle a été appliquée à des sédiments presque exclusivement formés de

  1. Impact of tissue specific parameters on the predition of the biological effectiveness for treatment planning in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Rebecca Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Treatment planning in ion beam therapy requires a reliable estimation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the irradiated tissue. For the pilot project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH and at other European ion beam therapy centers RBE prediction is based on a biophysical model, the Local Effect Model (LEM). The model version in use, LEM I, is optimized to give a reliable estimation of RBE in the target volume for carbon ion irradiation. However, systematic deviations are observed for the entrance channel of carbon ions and in general for lighter ions. Thus, the LEM has been continuously developed to improve accuracy. The recent version LEM IV has proven to better describe in-vitro cell experiments. Thus, for the clinical application of LEM IV it is of interest to analyze potential differences compared to LEM I under treatment-like conditions. The systematic analysis presented in this work is aiming at the comparison of RBE-weighted doses resulting from different approaches and model versions for protons and carbon ions. This will facilitate the assessment of consequences for clinical application and the interpretation of clinical results from different institutions. In the course of this thesis it has been shown that the RBE-weighted doses predicted on the basis of LEM IV for typical situations representing chordoma treatments differ on average by less than 10 % to those based on LEM I and thus also allow a consistent interpretation of the clinical results. At Japanese ion beam therapy centers the RBE is estimated using their clinical experience from neutron therapy in combination with in-vitro measurements for carbon ions (HIMAC approach). The methods presented in this work allow direct comparison of the HIMAC approach and the LEM and thus of the clinical results obtained at Japanese and European ion beam therapy centers. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the RBE on the model parameters was evaluated. Among all parameters the characterization of the photon dose-response curve has been found to be of particular importance for the determination of RBE. The application of the LEM IV for proton beams more correctly represents the experimentally observed increase of RBE towards the distal end of the irradiation field compared to the clinically considered constant value of 1.1. It further allowed a better systematic characterization of the increased effective range of proton beams that is a consequence of the RBE enhancement at the distal edge of the treatment field. The results of this work underline the importance of detailed RBE modeling for a long-term improvement of treatment planning in particle therapy and the better exploitation of advantages inherent to this radiation modality.

  2. Errors in terrain-based model preditions caused by altered forest inventory plot locations in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei-Jin Wang; Stephen Prisley; Philip Radtke; John Coulston

    2012-01-01

    Forest modeling applications that cover large geographic area can benefit from the use of widely-held knowledge about relationships between forest attributes and topographic variables. A noteworthy example involved the coupling of field survey data from the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program of USDA Forest Service with digital elevation model (DEM) data in...

  3. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    compositions of bioDiesel in steam at 1.8 MPa pressure and 205°C are at least one order of magnitude higher than the requested bioDiesel dosages. Further tests are planned by reducing bioDiesel dosages to about 0.5 to 1.0 g-bioDiesel/kilogram-steam and by monitoring the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen. L’utilisation d’additifs pour améliorer l’efficacité des procédés de récupération thermique d’huile lourde et de bitume a été étudiée de manière approfondie pendant des décennies. Deux types courants d’additifs utilisés dans des applications thermiques, principalement en récupération assistée par injection de vapeur, consistent en des solvants et des agents tensioactifs. L’utilisation de solvants présente des inconvénients du fait de leur coût élevé et de la difficulté à les récupérer. Le coût et la stabilité des agents tensioactifs aux température et pression de réservoir limitent leur usage. Nous proposons l’utilisation d’un biogazole tel qu’un ester méthylique d’acides gras en tant qu’additif tensioactif pour réduire la tension interfaciale huile lourde/bitume-eau dans les procédés de récupération assistée par injection de vapeur. Les avantages de l’utilisation d’un biogazole en tant qu’additif tensioactif consistent en ce que le biogazole est chimiquement stable aux pression et température d’exploitation du réservoir, qu’il ne dégrade pas la qualité des hydrocarbures produits ni la composition chimique des eaux de production et que son utilisation est économiquement viable. Nous avons mené une série d’expériences de récupération assistée de bitume par injection de vapeur afin de clarifier le potentiel de récupération additionnelle et la capacité d’amélioration d’efficacité du biogazole. De la vapeur à 1,8 MPa et 205 °C a été utilisée au cours de ces essais, à un débit de 900 g/h. Le milieu poreux utilisé consistait en un sable pétrolifère à teneur normale en bitume

  4. Comparative Ebulliometry: a Simple, Reliable Technique for Accurate Measurement of the Number Average Molecular Weight of Macromolecules. Preliminary Studies on Heavy Crude Fractions Ébulliométrie comparative : technique simple et fiable pour déterminer précisément la masse molaire moyenne en nombre des macromolécules. Etudes préliminaires sur des fractions lourdes de bruts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the authors present a comparison of the major techniques for the measurement of the molecular weight of macromolecules. The bibliographic results are gathered in several tables. In the second part, a comparative ebulliometer for the measurement of the number average molecular weight (Mn of heavy crude oil fractions is described. The high efficiency of the apparatus is demonstrated with a preliminary study of atmospheric distillation residues and resins. The measurement of molecular weights up to 2000 g/mol is possible in less than 4 hours with an uncertainty of about 2%. Cet article comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les auteurs présentent une comparaison entre les principales techniques de détermination de la masse molaire de macromolécules. Les résultats de l'étude bibliographique sont rassemblés dans plusieurs tableaux. La seconde partie décrit un ébulliomètre comparatif conçu pour la mesure de la masse molaire moyenne en nombre (Mn des fractions lourdes des bruts. Une illustration de l'efficacité de cet appareil est indiquée avec l'étude préliminaire de résidus de distillation atmosphérique et de résines. En particulier, la mesure de masses molaires pouvant atteindre 2000 g/mol est possible en moins de 4 heures avec une incertitude expérimentale de l'ordre de 2 %.

  5. Our Lady of Lourdes Care Facility, Kilcummin Village, Killarney, Kerry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30 min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P = 0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P = 0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30 min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6 h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P = 0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72 h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1) vs 7.6(1.8), P = 0.014].ConclusionsCFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  6. Grupo parroquial de Ntra. Sra. De Lourdes, en Roma (Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancellotti, G.

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available This church group involves the church itself, the parish hall and the priest's house. The external aspect of the buildings, with their highly decorative brickwork, is noteworthy. The interior of the church is impressive in that the congregation, on lifting their eyes to heaven, see around them a very simple, clean structure, without artifice: an environment highly favourable to prayer. The resistant structure is of reinforced concrete, and the pavement has been designed by the painter Adriano Alessandrini.El conjunto Parroquial construido comprende: la iglesia, el salón parroquial, y la casa del párroco. Destacan, en la composición arquitectónica de las fachadas exteriores, el decorativo aparejo que presenta la fábrica de ladrillo. Y en el interior, el logrado propósito de que los fieles, al alzar los ojos al Cielo, puedan contemplar una estructura limpia, serena y sin artificios, que contribuye a crear un ambiente adecuado para la oración. La estructura cortante es de hormigón armado y el diseño del pavimento es obra del pintor Adriano Alessandrini.

  7. Determination of D{sub 2}O-2% Enriched Uranium Lattice Parameters by Means of a Critical System; Determination des Parametres d'un Reseau Uranium Enrichi a 2%-Eau Lourde au Moyen d'un Ensemble Critique; Opredelenie s pomoshch'yu kriticheskoj sistemy parametrov reshetki s 2%-nym obog ashcheniem Urana i s zamedlitelem D{sub 2}O; Determinacion, Mediante un Conjunto Critico, de los Parametros de un Reticulado de D{sub 2}O y Uranio Enriquecido al 2%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N.; Takac, S.; Markovic, H.; Bosevski, T. [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1964-02-15

    The paper describes a series of experiments performed to determine the basic parameters of a D{sub 2}O-2% enriched-uranium lattice. The fuel elements were hollow cylinders, canned in aluminium and wetted by heavy water both on the inside and outside. The experiments were performed on the RB critical assembly of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Belgrade. The clean geometry of this system enables a rather simple theoretical interpretation of experimental results, and straightforward comparison with two-group diffusion-theory calculations. Measurements performed for ten different lattice configurations included determination of buckling, water-level reactivity coefficient and disadvantage factors for thermal-and epithermal-neutron flux inside a reactor cell. Techniques for these measurements are described. The experimental data are then used to derive the lattice parameters defined by the four-factor formula and two-group diffusion-theory treatment of the reactor core. The results are compared with the standard calculations of the same parameters for measured lattice configurations. Deviations are found in the value of n and resonance integral for U{sup 238}. In conclusion, an analysis is made of the usefulness and accuracy of information obtained from critical experiments for design and exploitation of a research reactor, composed of D{sub 2}O and enriched uranium. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une serie d'experiences qu'ils ont faites pour determiner les parametres fondamentaux d'un reseau uranium enrichi a 2%-eau lourde. Les elements combustiblesetaient des cylindres creux, gaines d'aluminium et baignant'dans l'eau lourde, a l'interieur comme a l'exterieur. Ils se sont servis de l'assemblage critique RB de l'Institut Boris Kidric des sciences nucleaires a Belgrade. La geometrie de cet assemblage non empoisonne a permis d'interpreter le resultat experimental a l'aide d'une theorie assez simple et de le comparer directement aux calculs

  8. Comparison Of The Worth Of Critical And Exponential Measurements For Heavy-Water-Moderated Reactors; Valeur Relative des Mesures Critiques et Exponentielles pour l'Etude des Reacteurs Ralentis a l'Eau Lourde; Sravnenie tsennosti kriticheskikh i ehksponentsial'nykh izmerenij dlya reaktorov s tyazhelovodnym zamedlitelem; Valor Relativo de las Mediciones Criticas y Exponenciales para los Reactores Moderados por Agua Pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, W. E.; Hennelly, E. J. [Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1964-02-15

    direct effects in mock-ups and as a test for heterogeneous and two-dimensional diffusion calculations. (6) Criticality studies of heavy-water lattice fuel in light water The SRL exponentials have proved particularly valuable for criticality studies to determine safe methods of handling enriched fuel in light water. High accuracy is not required in this case, and the generalized exponential buckling studies are definitely preferable to the more particularized critical studies. (author) [French] En regle generale, les experiences critiques et exponentielles sur des reseaux de reacteurs fournissent des renseignements qui font double emploi. Durant les dix dernieres annees, le Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) a fait fonctionner simultanement un ensemble critique a eau lourde (PDP) et un ensemble exponentiel (SE). Les auteurs exposent brievement l'experience acquise au SRL, indiquent les resultats obtenus et font des recommandations au sujet de la possibilite d'appliquer ces deux genres d'installations dans differentes experiences. Les auteurs examinent les six types d'experiences ci-apres: 1. Mesures du laplacien dans les reseaux isotropiques uniformes Le SRL a procede a de nombreuses comparaisons entre les mesures faites a l'aide d'ensembles critiques a une seule region, d'ensembles exponentiels, d'ensembles critiques a substitution et du reacteur d'essai des constantes physiques (PCTR). El semble que les seules difficultes que presentent les experiences exponentielles, resident dans les determinations du laplacien dans le sens radial. Si l'on reussit a faire ces determinations, les experiences exponentielles peuvent etre comparees favorablement aux experiences critiques. Les ensembles critiques a une seule region necessitent le plus de matieres; viennent ensuite les ensembles critiques a substitution et les ensembles exponentiels dont les besoins sont en gros comparables; enfin le PCTR ou les mesures en exigent le moins. 2. Effets anisotropiques et effets cavitaires Des

  9. Physics of flavor beyond the standard model and extra-dimensions; Physique de la saveur au-dela du modele standard et dimensions supplementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, J

    2006-11-15

    Even if the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics meets an extraordinary experimental success, some fundamental questions remain unanswered (origin of hierarchies, observed mixing pattern in neutrino and quark sectors...). We need to go beyond the SM and to find new principles/symmetries. The aim of this thesis is to study the phenomenology of supersymmetric and/or extra-dimensional models and to look at deviations from the SM, in the flavour sector. First, we addressed the question of baryon- and lepton-number conservation through R-parity in low-energy supersymmetric models. Precisely, we studied its violation using experimental data and the rare kaon decay K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}-bar to derive upper limits on R-parity violating couplings involved in it. In this context we have pointed out the importance of R-parity conserving contributions and their interferences with R-parity violating ones. In the second part, we studied effects of an extra dimension (space-like and compactified) on several examples: quantum electrodynamics and gauge invariance, strong and electroweak unification, neutrino masses and mixing angles. Typically, adding an extra dimension reduces the predictive power. However, we are still able to know generic behaviours (order of magnitude predictions). In particular, we pointed out the possibility of a weak neutrino mixing pattern (CKM-like) at high energy for a relevant and reasonable parameter space. This opens up new perspectives in the study of flavour symmetries and bonds between quark and leptons. (author)

  10. Le renouvellement des pratiques territoriales a travers la fonction alimentaire. Leçons a partir du cas « Saveurs du Coin » et du projet Confluent 1

    OpenAIRE

    Buclet , Nicolas; Debuisson , Marion

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Les politiques alimentaires représentent un enjeu politique fondamental pour les sociétés, dictant parfois des orientations d'aménagement urbain dans le but de garantir la sécurité alimentaire pour un territoire donné. Les politiques d'aménagement se sont longtemps détournées du système alimentaire, laissant la définition de sa stratégie et de son organisation aux acteurs privés. Ajouté à cette évolution des échelles de décision, un changement de périmètre d'action s'est op...

  11. Muon trigger, flavour tagging and physics performance of the LHCb experiment; Trigger a muons, etiquetage de la saveur et performances physiques de l'experience LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, O

    2007-10-15

    The LHCb experiment that is being settled in CERN is dedicated to the study of CP violation and rare decays in the field of beauty hadrons. The phenomenological background necessary to an adequate understanding of the physics of flavor is presented in the first chapter, it is shown how the flavordynamics can open the way to new physics. The second chapter is dedicated to a brief presentation of the LHCb detector. Two aspects of the design of the muon trigger are more detailed: the radiation resistance of the opto-electronic transmitters and the simulated performances of the trigger. The third chapter reviews the tasks linked to the tagging of the savors of B mesons which will be an important step in all the experiments made at LHCb. The recent progress in heavy savor physics as well as the expected contribution of LHCb in this field are presented in the fourth chapter, especially the search for new physics in penguin diagrams b {yields} s.

  12. Phénoménologie d'annihilation de matière noire et de violation non-minimale de la saveur dans le MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Björn

    In absence of direct experimental evidence, it is essential to constrain the parameter space of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) both at the Supersymmetry breaking and the electroweak scale. After a brief introduction to Supersymmetry (SUSY), we present an extensive analysis of electroweak, low energy, and cosmological constraints in minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) and gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking (GMSB) scenarios. We include the possibility of non-minimal flavour violation (NMFV) in the squark sector and define ``collider-friendly'' benchmark points based on detailed scans of the parameter space. We then consider neutralino pair annihilation into quark-antiquark pairs that dominates wide ranges of the mSUGRA parameter space. We present the corresponding full one-loop QCD and SUSY-QCD calculation and show numerically that the loop diagrams have an important impact on the annihilation cross section and, in consequence, in the prediction of the dark matter relic density, resulting in a modificatio...

  13. LHC France 2013: French Meeting on High Energy Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cette 1ère édition des rencontres françaises sur la physique des hautes énergies au Large Hadron Collider réunira près de 300 physiciens membres des laboratoires IN2P3-CNRS et IRFU-CEA, participants aux collaborations Atlas, CMS, LHCb et Alice. La rencontre LHC France, aura lieu à une période particulièrement cruciale pour la discipline, les derniers résultats des expériences LHC, basés sur toutes les données collectées en 2011 et 2012 y seront présentés et discutés. Elle sera l'occasion de faire le point et le bilan des avancées des diverses thématiques de recherche: boson de Higgs, les interactions électrofaibles, le quark top, la Supersymétrie, les saveurs lourdes, la violation de CP et le Plasma de Quarks et de Gluons. Elle sera aussi l'occasion de discuter des plans d'amélioration des détecteurs en vue des futures phases de fonctionnement du LHC ainsi que les perspectives pour la physique. Cette rencontre se veut un moment d'échange privilégié pour la communauté française des ...

  14. Recherche d’un neutrino lourd avec le détecteur ATLAS au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bazid, Houriya

    This M.Sc. thesis describes a search for fourth generation heavy leptons using data from the ATLAS detector at LHC. The total integrated luminosity is 1.02 fb-1 in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. This analysis study the single production of fourth generation neutral heavy lepton (N) via the charged channel and where W decays leptonically : pp -> W -> Ne -> eWe -> eevl (l = e ou ), which depends on the mixing element between the heavy lepton and the light lepton. The model of fourth generation leptons is constructed using FeynRules while the production of events is done by MadGraph 5.1.2.4. As point of reference, we chose a mass of 100 GeV for the fourth generation neutral heavy lepton (N) with $\\xi^2_{N_e}$ = 0.19, which produce a cross section of 0.312 pb. The generation of the signal was done privately in Montreal and not by the ATLAS collaboration. Therefore the results cannot be considered official. With the simulation, the expected superior limit at 95% C.L. on the cross section is 0.145 pb with 0.294 ...

  15. Profil des métaux lourds contenus dans les plantes vivrières ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 déc. 2015 ... périurbain, et de ce fait peuvent être impactées par des industries polluantes passées ... suburban areas, and thus can be affected by past or active polluting industries. ... most cases, these metals are beyond the normal limits.

  16. Transient regimes in a heavy water reactor; Regimes transitoires dans un reacteur a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We studied the variations of power and reactivity of a reactor when we raise in a continuous way the starting plates. During the subcritical regime (negative reactivity), the power is determined by reactivity and by the intensity of the sources of photo neutrons, produced during the previous work of the reactor. When, during the rise of the plates, the reactor, pass by the critical regime (zero reactivity), one notes that the reached power is independent of the initial reactivity. During the sur-critical regime (positive reactivity), the elevation of temperature of the uranium bars slows down the growth of reactivity due to the movements of the plates. The power stretches then toward a value that depends only on the regime of cooling of the reactor and the excess of the available reactivity. This survey permits to choose such a rise speed, that reactivity remains constantly lower to a value beyond which the piloting of the reactor becomes difficult. This result is not more valid, if the intensity of the sources is insufficient, what takes place during the first divergences and after a stop of long length. (author) [French] On etudie les variations de puissance et de reactivite d'un reacteur quand on leve d'une facon continue les plaques de demarrage. Pendant le regime subcritique (reactivite negative), la puissance est determinee par la reactivite et par l'intensite des sources de photoneutrons, produites pendant la marche anterieure du reacteur. Quand, au cours de la montee des plaques, le reacteur passe par le regime critique (reactivite nulle), on constate que la puissance atteinte est independante de la reactivite initiale. Pendant le regime surcritique (reactivite positive), l'elevation de temperature des barres d'uranium ralentit l'accroissement de reactivite due aux mouvements des plaques. La puissance tend alors vers une valeur qui ne depend plus que du regime de refroidissement du reacteur et de l'exces de la reactivite disponible. Cette etude permet de choisir une vitesse de montee telle, que la reactivite reste constamment inferieure a une valeur au dela de laquelle le pilotage du reacteur est repute difficile. Ce resultat n'est plus valable, si l'intensite des sources est insuffisante, ce qui a lieu pendant les premieres divergences et apres un arret de longue duree. (auteur)

  17. Effet des sels de métaux lourds (chlorure de Cobalt et chlorure de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2014 ... Ces effets se caractérisent par des dommages sur la membrane plasmique, plus ... These effects are characterized by damage to the plasma membrane, more pronounced ..... des cellules végétales en carence de phosphate.

  18. Production of heavy water in France; Production d'eau lourde en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E; Stouls, L; Dirian, G; Lazard, B; Nief, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Four processes which can be employed on there own or in combination with others, are at present being studied and tried out in France, 1) Process of exchange between H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}O. A certain amount of laboratory research has been carried out. Also a study of corrosion and operation has been carried out in pilot plants at the same time as the process investigation. 2) Process involving the catalytic exchange H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. Studies of liquid phase catalysts are being carried out. 3) The liquid hydrogen distillation process. It has been necessary to resolve numerous theoretical and technological questions. The pilot plant at Toulouse, designed to treat 4000 Nm{sup 3}/h of synthesis gas will soon start production. 4) Process involving the catalytic exchange NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}. A certain number of investigations have been carried out: the separation coefficient, catalysts, reaction kinetics. The process is promising. The development of a very accurate mass spectrograph has contributed to the success of this work. (author) [French] En France, actuellement, quatre procedes, qui peuvent etre employes seuls ou combines, font l'objet d'etudes et de travaux. 1) Procede d'echange H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}O. Un certain nombre de recherches de laboratoire ont ete faites. Par ailleurs, des pilotes ont permis d'etudier les problemes de corrosion et de fonctionnement, en meme temps que des etudes de procede ont ete realisees. 2) Procede d'echange catalytique H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. Des etudes de catalyseurs en phase liquide se poursuivent. 3) Procede par distillation de H{sub 2} liquide. II y a eu a resoudre de nombreux problemes theoriques ou technologiques. L'usine Pilote de Toulouse, prevue pour traiter 4000 Nm{sup 3}/h de gaz de synthese, doit prochainement entrer dans la phase de production. 4) Procede d'echange catalytique NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}. Un certain nombre d'etudes sont entreprises: coefficients de separation, catalyseurs, cinetique de reaction. Le procede est prometteur. La mise au point d'un spectrometre de masse tres precis a contribue au succes des etudes. (auteur)

  19. Report of the unannounced inspection at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda, Co. Louth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, M A

    2017-06-01

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP)¹ proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine)² guidelines were identified as ‘gold standard’ for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from ‘gold standard’ guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI\\/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  20. 184 Évaluation du niveau de pollution par les métaux lourds des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afrique Sciences

    l'environnement. L'importance de l'étude de la pollution des eaux a cru considérablement depuis le début des années soixante dans le monde entier à cause des effets .... Le courant d'alimentation était de 4 mA. .... ces eaux ont été comparées à la norme sur les eaux de boisson de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé [18].

  1. The search for super-heavy ions; La quete des noyaux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevy, St. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL-LPC), IN2P3 - CNRS / Ensicaen et Universite, 14 - Caen (France); Stodel, Ch. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA-CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2003-07-01

    The authors present the search for heavy nuclei, they briefly draw a historical review of the production of heavy isotopes and then describe the means and possibilities the French GANIL (national great accelerator of heavy ions) facility offers. The different steps of the experimental process are described: production, selection, detection and identification. The production cross-sections are so weak that every parameter involved in the production process has to be optimized. It appears that the limit of our technological knowledge has been reached and unless an important technical step forward it seems impossible to go down below the pico-barn (10{sup -12}*10{sup -24} cm{sup 2}) for production cross-sections. The 2 remaining ways to improve the situation are: 1) to increase the intensity of the incident particle beam (today we have < 10{sup 13} pps), this implies that an important development about accelerators and ion sources has to be achieved, 2) the other way is to use radioactive ion beams, the excess of neutrons of the incident ion gives a better production rate and will allow us to reach the neutron-rich part of the stability island. (A.C.)

  2. L'accumulation des métaux lourds au niveau des cultures : Cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le Bassin de Sebou présente une importance socio-économique pour le Maroc. En effet, il est sujet de diverses utilisations ; eau potable, eau d'irrigation et eau industrielle. Toutefois, ce bassin subit des pressions multiples, notamment par la pollution métallique. Considérant le risque de bioaccumulation des métaux par ...

  3. QCD-resummation and non-minimal flavour-violation for supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders; Resommation des corrections radiatives QCD et violation de la saveur non-minimale pour la production de particules supersymetriques aupres des collisionneurs hadroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, B

    2007-06-15

    Cross sections for supersymmetric particles production at hadron colliders have been extensively studied in the past at leading order and also at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD. The radiative corrections include large logarithms which have to be re-summed to all orders in the strong coupling constant in order to get reliable perturbative results. In this work, we perform a first and extensive study of the resummation effects for supersymmetric particle pair production at hadron colliders. We focus on Drell-Yan like slepton-pair and slepton-sneutrino associated production in minimal supergravity and gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking scenarios, and present accurate transverse-momentum and invariant-mass distributions, as well as total cross sections. In non-minimal supersymmetric models, novel effects of flavour violation may occur. In this case, the flavour structure in the squark sector cannot be directly deduced from the trilinear Yukawa couplings of the fermion and Higgs supermultiplets. We perform a precise numerical analysis of the experimentally allowed parameter space in the case of minimal supergravity scenarios with non-minimal flavour violation, looking for regions allowed by low-energy, electroweak precision, and cosmological data. Leading order cross sections for the production of squarks and gauginos at hadron colliders are implemented in a flexible computer program, allowing us to study in detail the dependence of these cross sections on flavour violation. (author)

  4. Spectroscopy of very heavy nuclei with a view to study super-heavy nuclei; Spectroscopie de noyaux tres lourds en vue de l'etude des noyaux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalfallah, F

    2007-08-15

    Within the recent years, the spectroscopic study of single particle orbitals of very heavy elements (VHE) has become possible with the development of increasingly efficient experimental setups. This allows us, through nuclear deformation, to access with these deformed nuclei to orbitals situated around the Fermi level in the spherical superheavy elements (SHE) and learn more about the nuclear structure of these nuclei. The aim of this work is the spectroscopic studies of heavy and very heavy elements. Because of the experimental difficulties associated with the fusion reactions in the VHE region, a detailed optimization studies is essential. Simulation of energy loss and angular straggling of these nuclei due to the interaction in the target and to neutron's evaporation was carried out and allowed us to optimize the angular acceptance of the separators according to the target thickness. An extensive survey and exploration in the VHE region was also conducted on the basis of cross section's systematics in the literature and simulations carried out using the statistical code Hivap. In this framework, the possible extension of the range of validity of a set of Hivap parameters was investigated. This work has enabled us to prepare a list of experiments of interest for the production of very heavy nuclei. In this thesis, our work was concentrated on the spectroscopy of the nuclei No{sup 256} et Rf{sup 256} for which two experimental proposals were accepted. The octupole deformations predicted in the actinides region is studied in another part of this thesis, a part witch is dedicated to the gamma spectroscopy of Pa{sup 223}. The data from a new experiment carried out using the Jurogam-Ritu-Great setup are analysed and compared to previous results. They confirm the octupole deformed shape in this nucleus. (author)

  5. 36 Évaluation des risques de pollution en métaux lourds (Hg, Cd, Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    eaux et des sédiments de l'estuaire du fleuve Konkouré (Rep. de Guinée) .... ont été effectués en période de fin d'étiage au mois d'avril 2009 à bord d'une ... Tableau 1 : Résultats des analyses physicochimiques de l'eau in situ des différentes ...

  6. The technologies for heavy vehicles motors and their fuels; Les technologies des moteurs de vehicules lourds et leurs carburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassat, G

    2005-07-01

    The heavy vehicles are those the total weight (charged) is more than 3,5 tons. This document provides a comparative and parametric analysis of the main technologies developed for the future buses. A detailed presentation is done for each technique, as the operating principles and the advantages and disadvantages facing the today solution. More particularly the author presents the evolution of the diesel-fuel motor, the motor optimization for specific fuel as the natural gas and the liquefied petroleum gas, the hybrid thermal-electric motor, the hydrogen fuel cells, the biofuels and the de-pollution systems to eliminate the NO{sub X} and the particles. (A.L.B.)

  7. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminated soils; Phytoremediation des sols contamines aux metaux lourds et aux hydrocarbures recalcitrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Chateauneuf, G.; Sura, C. [Inspec-Sol Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Labrecque, M.; Galipeau, C. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale; Greer, C.; Delisle, S.; Roy, S.; Labelle, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Research in Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to decontaminate soils and underground water. Inspec-Sol, a company located in Montreal, Quebec, conducted a two-year study to evaluate the decontamination capabilities of this technology. Trials in greenhouses and field studies at the Pitt Park along the Lachine Canal were conducted. The soils chosen for the studies were soils with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc) higher than those prescribed for the safe utilization of soils. The trials identified the three plant species (Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Festuca arundinacea) which had the best characteristics for phytoremediation. Controlled experiments were performed to optimize the technology to achieve the maximum extraction of contaminant. It was concluded that phytoremediation has potential for the remediation of urban soils contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants.

  8. Neutronic study of the two french heavy water reactors; Etude neutronique des deux piles francaises a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The two french reactors - the reactor of Chatillon, named Zoe, and the reactor of Saclay - P2 - were the object of detailed neutronic studies which the main ideas are exposed in this report. These studies were mostly done by the Department of the Reactor Studies (D.E.P.). We have thus studied the distribution of neutronic fluxes; the factors influencing reactivity; the link between reactivity and divergence with the formula of Nordheim; the mean time life of neutrons; neutron spectra s of P2; the xenon effect; or the effect of the different adjustments of the plates and controls bar. (M.B.) [French] Les deux reacteurs francais - la pile de Chatillon, appelee ZOE, et la pile de Saclay, designee dans la suite par P2 - ont fait l'objet d'etudes neutroniques detaillees dont les principales sont exposees dans ce rapport. Ces etudes ont ete pour la plupart effectuees dans le cadre du Departement des Etudes de Piles (D.E.P.). Nous avons ainsi entre autre etudie la distribution du flux neutronique; les facteurs influencants la reactivite; le lien entre reactivite et divergence par la formule de Nordheim; le temps de vie moyen des neutrons; les spectres de neutrons de P2; l'effet xenon; ou encore l'effet des differents reglages des plaques et barres de controles. (M.B.)

  9. Multifragmentation of heavy systems: partitions and phase transition signals; Multifragmentation de systemes lourds: partitions et signaux de transition de phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, E

    2006-09-15

    This work studies mononuclear systems produced in heavy ion collisions with large (peripheral: Au+Au) and small (central: Xe+Sn et Gd+U) impact parameters. These two classes of collisions need specific selections in order to isolate sources in thermal equilibrium (quasi-projectiles and quasi-fusion sources). We perform analyses on the statistical ensembles of events obtained after those selections to evidence phase transition signatures. First, a bimodal behaviour of the biggest fragment (Z{sub 1}) distribution, in peripheral collisions, is related to an order parameter using a renormalisation with an equiprobable excitation energy (E{sup *}) distribution constraint. A comparison with a canonical ensemble gives us information on the coexistence region location. Then, we compare static and dynamical properties of fragments produced by these sources in peripheral and central collisions. Differences on fragment multiplicities and charge asymmetry of partitions are observed. They find their origins in the presence or not of a velocity field mostly related to collective radial expansion during fragment formation. Analyses of the signal related to abnormal fluctuations of configurational energies and of the fossil signal related to spinodal decomposition for Au quasi-projectiles are performed to establish a link with the same signals already observed for central collisions. Finally, the location of events of the two types of sources in the E{sup *} - Z{sub 1} plane, are compared with a phase diagram, particularly the boundaries of the coexistence region deduced from the previous signals. (author)

  10. Théorie et Phénoménologie du MSSM avec des Scalaires Lourds

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolás, Bernal Hernández

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in the scenario where the scalar partners of the fermions and the Higgs particles (except for the Standard-Model-like one) are assumed to be very heavy and are removed from the low-energy spectrum. We first summarize our determination of the mass spectrum, in which we include the one-loop radiative corrections and resum to all orders the leading logarithms of the large scalar masses. We then study in detail the phenomenology of the model in scenarios where the gaugino mass parameters are non-universal at the GUT scale. We discuss the constraints from collider searches and high-precision measurements, the cosmological constraints on the relic abundance of the neutralino candidate for the Dark Matter in the Universe and the gluino lifetime. We then analyze the decays of the Higgs boson, of charginos and neutralinos and of gluinos, and highlight the differences from the case of universal gaugino masses. In a second part, we analyse ...

  11. Inelastic collisions of heavy ions and their reaction mechanisms; Collisions inelastiques d'ions lourds et mecanismes de reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpaci, J.A

    2004-06-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of inelastic collisions of heavy ions. Most experiments took place in Ganil facility. The 2 first chapters introduce the notion of inelastic scattering of heavy ions. The third chapter deals with target excitation, giant monopolar or dipolar or quadrupolar resonances ant the multi-phonon concept and presents relevant experimental results from the Ca{sup 40} + Ca{sup 40} nuclear reaction at 50 MeV/A. The fourth chapter is dedicated to nuclear processes involved in inelastic collisions: pick-up break-up mechanisms, the angular distribution of emitted protons and the towing mode. These notions are applied to the reaction Zr{sup 90}(Ar{sup 40}, Ar{sup 40}'). The fifth chapter presents the solving of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) applied to the wave function of a particle plunged in a variable potential. TDSE solving is applied to the break-up of Be{sup 11}. These calculations have been validated by comparing them with experimental results from the nuclear reaction Ti{sup 48}(Be{sup 11}, Be{sup 10} + n + {gamma}) that is described in the chapter 6. The last chapter presents the advantages of inelastic scattering considered as a tool to study exotic nuclei.

  12. Equations of state of heavy metals: ab initio approaches; Equations d'etat des metaux lourds: approches ab initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.; Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Siberchicot, B.; Torrent, M.; Zerah, G.; Amadon, B.; Bouchet, J.; Richard, N.; Robert, G. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of equations of states of heavy metals through ab initio calculation, i.e. without any adjustable parameter, allows to access to pressure and temperature thermodynamic conditions sometimes inaccessible to experiment. To perform such calculations, density functional theory (DFT) is a good starting point: when electronic densities are homogeneous enough, the local density approximation (LDA) remarkably accounts for thermodynamic properties of heavy metals, such as tantalum, or the light actinides, as well for static properties - equilibrium volume, elastic constants - as for dynamical quantities like phonon spectra. For heavier elements, like neptunium or plutonium, relativistic effects and strong electronic interactions must be taken into account, which requires more sophisticated theoretical approaches. (authors)

  13. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area heavy metals; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Heavy metals: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  14. The coupling of heavy mesons to the pion on the lattice; Couplage des mesons lourds au pion sur reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdoiza, G

    2004-04-15

    The QCD non-perturbative effects are among the main sources of uncertainty in our present knowledge of the Standard Model phenomenology. I will present some of the methods which can be used to study these effects, and I will particularly treat the case of lattice QCD. Effective theories can be combined to the lattice approach in order to study the chiral and the heavy quark sectors. I will give some examples of how these properties can be successfully applied to the quark flavour phenomenology. The coupling of heavy mesons to the pion is related to a non-perturbative quantity, noted g-bar, which is required to extract physical results from the effective theory combining both chiral and heavy quark symmetry. This coupling is also involved in the study of the form factors appearing in the heavy to light semi-leptonic decays. These heavy meson decays are used to extract some of the CKM matrix elements which are know, up to now, only with large uncertainties. Moreover, the chiral effects of heavy mesons depend on pion loops whose vertices are precisely the coupling g-bar. These are some of the reasons why the theoretical and experimental determination of this coupling is required. I will present the results of its studies on the lattice and I will compare them to those obtained through several other methods. I will therefore describe these different approaches, their limitations and possible improvements, both from the point of view of the method and of its application to the determination of the coupling g-bar. (author)

  15. Co-existence of TV Broadcast and Wireless Systems for Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety ... medical emergencies, threats to public order and a host of other ..... Predition for Primary Multi-Transmitter Networks Operating in the TV ...

  16. SiO{sub 2} on silicon: behavior under heavy ion irradiation; SiO{sub 2} sur silicium: comportement sous irradiation avec des ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, C

    2004-03-15

    Heavy ion irradiation was performed on a-SiO{sub 2} layers deposited on Si. Damage of the surface was studied by means of Atomic Force Microscopy. Hillocks appear for an electronic stopping power higher than 16 keV/nm. The height of the hillocks decreases with the thickness of the oxide layer. Infrared Spectroscopy studies show that the damage threshold for a-SiO{sub 2} is at an electronic stopping power of 2 keV/nm. Therefore it is probable that the origin of the hillocks comes from the silicon layer. This could be explain within the frame of thermal spike model. The theoretical thresholds are 8 keV/nm and 1.8 keV/nm for silicon and a-SiO{sub 2} respectively. Chemical etching after irradiation gives a technical possibility to create nano-pits, whose size and shape can be controlled. Additionally, these structures allowed to determine the AFM tip radius. (author)

  17. Performance du spectrometre a muons d’ALICE. Production et mesure des bosons faibles dans des collisions d’ions lourds aupres du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Moreno, F Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions are the unique tool available to investigate the QCD matter phase diagram in the laboratory. A lot of work has been devoted to explore it in different domains in the last 3 decades, and the forthcoming LHC collider will contribute to such research increasing the collision center-of-mass energy by a factor 30 and the energy densities by a factor 1-10 with respect to the RHIC collider [C+04, A+06].Only a comprehensive analysis of a wide spectrum of experimental observables can help to fully characterize the prospected matter. In particular, valuable information is expected from charm and beauty production, the situation from SPS and RHIC charmonia data being puzzling [GdC07, Lei07, A+00a, Sco07], and the c¯c (b¯b) yields per central nucleon-nucleon collision being increased from 10 (0.1) to 110 (5) from RHIC to LHC [C+04, MG07]. Whether quarkonia will thermalize, will develop collective motion, will be further suppressed or regenerated are still open questions that LHC data might re...

  18. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in {alpha} poly(vinylidene fluoride); Etude des effets induits par les ions lourds energetiques dans le poly(fluorure de vinylidene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bouedec, A

    1999-11-29

    The goal of this study is to characteristic and to localised defects created in {alpha} Poly (vinylidene fluoride) after swift heavy ion irradiations. PVDF films are irradiated with several Swift Heavy Ions (SHI), in the electronic stopping power (dE/dx){sub e}, in order to study the influence of irradiation parameters (absorbed dose, ion). These irradiated films are studied by different analysis techniques such as FTIR, ESR (X and Q band) spectroscopies and DSC. The crystalline level of PVDF is about 50% and we follow it destruction and amorphization as the absorbed dose increase by DSC and FTIR studies. The variation of the various FTIR bands allow us to observe the unsaturations induced by SHI radiations. Two sets of defects are observed: those which yield is sensitive to an increase of (dE/dx){sub e} and those that are not. A spatial distribution of the various defects within the talent track is provided and defects that are difficult to create are the closest of the ion path. The different kind of radicals created after irradiations are studied by ESR spectroscopy. Alkyl, peroxy and polyenyl radicals are detected after SHI radiations like after electron or {gamma} irradiations. Their yield of creation is independent of (dE/dx){sub e} and their localised in the crystalline zone or/and at the interfacial zone between crystalline and amorphous one. An other kind of radicals is created only after SHI radiations that are specific of the SHI-polymer interaction. We observe that these radicals are localised on a carbon cluster, in the core of the latent track for low doses and highly sensitive at the (dE/dx){sub e} of the ion. (author)

  19. Heavy particle scattering by atomic and nuclear systems; Etude de la diffusion de particules lourdes sur des systemes atomiques et nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazauskas, R

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis quantum mechanical non-relativistic few-body problem is discussed. Basing on fundamentals ideas from Faddeev and Yakubovski three and four body equations are formulated and solved for fermionic atomic and nuclear systems. Former equations are modified to include long range interactions. Original results for nuclear and molecular physics were obtained: -) positively charged particle scattering on hydrogen atoms was considered; predictions for {pi}{sup +} {yields} H, {mu}{sup +} {yields} H and p{sup +} {yields} H scattering lengths were given. Existence of an unknown, very weakly bound H{sup +}{sub 2} bound state was predicted. -) Motivated by the possible observation of bound four neutron structure at GANIL we have studied compatibility of such an existence within the current nuclear interaction models. -) 4 nucleon scattering at low energies was investigated. Results for n {yields} {sup 3}H, p {yields} {sup 3}H and p {yields} {sup 3}He systems were compared with the experimental data. Validity of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models is questioned. (author)

  20. Colloidal Structure of Heavy Crudes and Asphaltene Soltutions Structure colloïdale des bruts lourds et des suspensions d'asphaltènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barre L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial problems that arise during petroleum processing are related to the high concentration of asphaltenes. A good knowledge of the chemical composition of these macromolecules and a detailed understanding of the evolution of the colloïdal structures present in oil and its derivatives can play a decisive role in improving processing facilities. Asphaltenes are defined by their insolubility in n-heptane. Soluble molecules are called maltenes which can be fractionated by liquid chromatography in so-called resins, aromatic and saturated fractions. The major part of the research carried out on these complex molecules concerned the chemical composition determination from powerful techniques measurements as for instance IR or NMR methods. Nevertheless, very little information on the colloïdal structure of asphaltenes or resins in pure solvent or in real systems is accessible.The molecular weight determination was the first objective; several techniques, as vapour pressure osmometry (VPO, were used. The main conclusion of these determinations was the huge variation of the molecular weight measured by different methods. We used X-ray and neutron small angle scattering techniques in order to deduce the size polydispersity and the weight average molecular weight. Different systems as (i asphaltenes or resins in solution with different solvents, or (ii asphaltene and resin mixtures in suspension with good or bad solvents were investigated as a function of temperature increase. We have exhibited that the aggregation number, i.e. the number of smaller entities , can strongly vary with solvent composition and temperature. Resins appear as very good solvent for asphaltene molecules. Scattering measurements often exhibit strong scattered intensity at small scattering vector, showing the presence in the suspension of large heterogeneities in diluted solutions of asphaltenes and resins. We can suggest that these heterogeneities are due to concentration fluctuations. It exists in the diluted suspension regions more or less extended, where the asphaltene concentration is greater than the average asphaltene concentration. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy has confirmed the system inhomogeneity. A two phase system was clearly highlighted. The flocculation process was followed during n-heptane addition by scattering measurements and microscopy observations. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS appears as a powerful tool for non-fractionated systems, as crude oil or other heavy derivatives. Density fluctuations were observed for a vacuum residue. L'industrie pétrolière est souvent confrontée a des problèmes industriels importants liés, entre autre, à la présence d'une forte concentration d'asphaltènes dans les fluides traités. Une meilleure connaissance de la composition de ces molécules et de l'évolution de leur structure colloïdale en solution ou dans leur milieu naturel est d'une grande importance pour mieux comprendre les mécanismes mis en jeu, et ainsi, pouvoir agir et limiter les problèmes rencontrés. Les asphaltènes correspondent à la fraction insoluble dans le n-heptane. Les molécules solubilisées dans l'alcane sont appelées maltènes et peuvent à leur tour être fractionnées par chromatographie en phase liquide; on obtient alors trois nouvelles fractions appelées résines, aromatiques et saturées. La plupart des travaux de recherche réalisés sur ces molécules complexes concernent la détermination de la composition chimique obtenue à l'aide de diverses techniques d'analyse telles la spectroscopie infrarouge et la résonance magnétique nucléaire. En revanche, peu d'informations sur la macrostructure colloïdale des asphaltènes sont disponibles dans la littérature. La détermination de la masse moléculaire a été le premier objectif : plusieurs méthodes, comme l'osmométrie à tension de vapeur, ont été appliquées. La conclusion principale de ces déterminations est la grande variation de la masse moléculaire mesurée suivant la technique employée. Nous avons fait appel à la diffusion des rayons X et des neutrons aux petits angles afin de mesurer la polydispersité en taille et la masse moléculaire moyenne en poids des macromolécules d'asphaltènes. Nous avons étudié différents systèmes constitués, soit par les asphaltènes ou les résines en solution dans différents solvants, soit par le mélange asphaltènes et résines en solution dans de plus ou moins bons solvants. Nous avons également suivi l'effet de la température sur ces systèmes. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l'agrégation, en d'autres termes, le nombre d'entités élémentaires formant la molécule, peut fortement varier en fonction de la nature du solvant et de la température. Les résines apparaissent comme un très bon solvant des asphaltènes. Les mesures de diffusion montrent une forte intensité diffusée à petites valeurs du vecteur de diffusion; elle traduit la présence dans le milieu d'hétérogénéités de taille assez étendue probablement dues à des fluctuations de la concentration en asphaltènes. Ainsi, il existe dans la suspension des régions plus ou moins étendues où la concentration en asphaltènes est supérieure à la concentration moyenne. La microscopie en mode cryogénique a permis de confirmer l'inhomogénéité du système. Un milieu composé de deux phases a clairement été visualisé. La diffusion des rayons X aux petits angles s'avère être une technique importante pour étudier les milieux non fractionnés, comme les bruts ou les résidus de distillation, pour lesquels aucune séparation au n-heptane n'a été réalisée. Nous avons pu mettre en évidence, pour ces systèmes, l'existence de fluctuations de densité à grande échelle.

  1. Production and semileptonic decays of heavy quarks at LEP with the ALEPH detector; Production et desintegrations semileptoniques des quarks lourds au LEP avec le detecteur ALEPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteil, St.

    1996-05-15

    The four LEP experiments have collected nearly 16 million Z. These very high statistics allow to perform a large field of precision tests of the standard model of electroweak interactions with a very high accuracy. One of the most promising channel in order to observe a deviation with respect to the SM predictions is the study of the b quark production in the Z boson decay. Two observables are of interest in that respect: the Z partial decay width in b quarks, denoted R{sub b} and the b forward-backward asymmetry. A measurement of R{sub b} using both the long lifetime of b hadrons and the kinematical properties of the leptons coming from the semileptonic decays of b hadrons is presented in the first part of this document. The c partial decay width, denoted R{sub c}, is simultaneously measured. 1.3 million of Z have been analyzed and the following results have been obtained: R{sub b} = 21.82 {+-}0.25{+-}0.24%; R{sub c} = 16.02{+-}0.56{+-}1.41%. The former error is statistical and the latter systematics. These two results are in good agreement with the SM predictions. The semileptonic branching ratios of the b hadrons, denoted Br(b {yields} l{sup -}) for the primary decay and Br(b {yields} c {yields} l{sup +}), for the cascade decay, on one hand, and the B{sup 0} {r_reversible} B-bar{sup 0} mixing parameter, denoted X, on another hand are needed in the b asymmetry measurement with the leptons. The second part of this document is devoted to their measurement. This is done by using both lifetime of b hadrons and kinematical characteristics of the leptons coming from semileptonic decays of b hadrons. The following results have been obtained: Br(b {yields} l) 11.03 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.21 + 0.24%- 0.17%; Br(b {yields} C {yields} l) 7.84 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.30 + 0.34% - 0.43%; X 12.62 {+-} 0.56 {+-} 0.24 + 0.42% - 0.41%. Those results are found in a good agreement with the heavy quark theory predictions. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Relations between interfacial properties and heavy crude oil emulsions stability; Relations entre les proprietes interfaciales et la stabilite des emulsions de brut lourd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebler-Poteau, S.

    2006-02-15

    Oil in water emulsions are currently being investigated to facilitate the transport of viscous heavy oils. The behavior of these emulsions is largely controlled by oil / water interfaces. The surface-active components of crude oil such as asphaltenes and naphthenic acids compete among themselves at these interfaces and also with possibly added synthetic surfactant emulsifier.Here, we present a study of dynamic interfacial tension and rheology of interfaces between water and a model oil (toluene) in which asphaltenes and other surface active molecules from crude oil are dissolved. We show that different parameters such as aging of the interface, asphaltenes concentration, the pH and salinity of the aqueous phase have a strong influence on interfacial properties of asphaltenes at the oil/water interface. Several micro-pipette experiments, in which micrometric drops have been manipulated, are described as well as small angle neutron scattering measurements. The influence of lower molecular weight surface-active species, such as the natural naphthenic acids contained in maltenes (crude oil without asphaltenes) has been investigated, and an interaction between asphaltenes and maltenes which facilitates molecular arrangement at the interface was detected. The microscopic properties of the different interfaces and the stability of the corresponding emulsions are determined to be correlated.The results obtained on model emulsions and model oil/water interfaces were found to be helpful in order to explain and predict the behavior of heavy crude oil emulsions. (author)

  3. Synthèse des noyaux super-lourds : Rôle de l'analyse d'incertitude dans la modélisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy elements (SHE) has been predicted by the nuclear shell model. However, thenuclear reaction theory for heavy systems, which is essential for the synthesis of SHE, has not been wellestablished yet. Although we have reached a general agreement on the reaction mechanism, large discrepanciesbetween quantitative predictions still persist because of the presence of the fusion hindrance phenomenon. Thefirst aim of this Ph.D. work is to investigate different models associa...

  4. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  5. Heavy quarks fragmentation in charmed mesons in DELPHI experiment at LEP; Etude de la fragmentation des quarks lourds en mesons charmes dans l`experience Delphi au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    With the big statistics expected at LEP, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model can be tested as well as the theory of strong interactions. Quantum Chromo-Dynamics is indeed predictive for quarks properties, but does not explain how quarks fragment into hadrons. So far the hadronization can only be described with phenomenological models. The work presented in this thesis was performed on the DELPHI experiment at LEP and concerns the production and the fragmentation of heavy quarks into charmed mesons D , D* and D**. With the whole statistics of 1991 and 1992 (1 013 300 hadronic decays of the Z), more than 4500 charmed mesons decays have been reconstructed in the channels D{sup 0}{yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} , D{sup +}{yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}+ and D{sup *}+{yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} followed by D{sup 0}{yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} . Using also 1993 data and the channel D{sup 0}{yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} , evidence for D** production is presented. For the first time, the production rate is measured for each D meson separately for cc and bb contributions. In fact, D mesons can be produced either directly from the fragmentation of c quark or un-directly from the fragmentation of b quark into B mesons which decay into D mesons. (authors). 120 refs.

  6. Report on the environmental and health effects of heavy metals; Rapport sur les effets des metaux lourds sur l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the bond between the environment and the health, a major interest of the today political debate, the author proposes a report on the environmental and health effects of the heavy metals to help political deciders in the technological and scientific choices. The first part is devoted to the dental amalgam and more specially the use, the environmental and the health aspects of the mercury. The second part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the environment. The sources, the atmospheric emissions, the releases in water and soils, the heavy metals wastes are detailed. In parallel the third part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the health, including the toxicity, the risks evaluation, the food exposure, the heavy metals in the life places and the mercury in Guyana. (A.L.B.)

  7. Contribution to the study of deformed heavy nuclei by means of nuclear reactions; Contribution a l'etude des noyaux lourds deformes au moyen de reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastebois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The experimental results obtained in the study of the (d,p) reactions, at E{sub d} = 12 MeV, on the three even-even deformed nuclei {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb and {sup 174}Yb have been analysed in terms of DWBA calculations. The spectroscopic information relative to the odd final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the collective model and of the Nilsson's model. The effect of various parameters used in the DWBA analysis (form factors, optical wave functions) has been carefully studied. The observed differences between the three final nuclei are qualitatively reproduced in the experimental study of resonances, seen in excitation functions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons on the same target nuclei, and corresponding to analogue states in the three nuclei {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu and {sup 175}Lu. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de l'etude des reactions (d.p) a E{sub d} = 12 MeV, sur les noyaux deformes pairs-pairs {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb et {sup 174}Yb ont ete interpretes dans le cadre de l'approximation de Born des ondes deformees. Les informations spectroscopiques relatives aux noyaux impairs finals ont ete comparees aux predictions du modele collectif et du modele de Nilsson, apres avoir examine avec soin l'influence des differents parametres (facteurs de forme, fonctions d'onde 'optiques') utilises lors de l'analyse. Les differences observees entre les trois noyaux finals sont qualitativement reproduites par les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de resonances dans les fonctions d'excitation de diffusion elastique et inelastique de protons sur les memes noyaux-cibles, lors de la recherche d'etats analogues dans les noyaux {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu et {sup 175}Lu. (auteur)

  8. Study of heavy ions collision at SIS energies with the detector FOPI; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de SIS avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N

    1999-09-23

    The present work has been carried out in the framework of experiments performed with the FOPI detector at the SIS/ESR accelerator facility of GSI-Darmstadt. It is devoted to the study of central and semi-central heavy ion collisions at beam energies ranging from 100 MeV to 2 GeV per nucleon. We present first generalities on relativistic heavy ion collisions then the FOPI detector with a special attention to the FOPI Inner Wall constructed by the Clermont-Ferrand group. The main results of the FOPI collaboration obtained with light and intermediate mass fragments and kaons are presented. A systematic study of the different forms of collection motion of nuclear matter, radial flow in very central reactions, sideward flow and squeeze-out in semi-central collisions, is performed. Further exciting possibilities concerning production and propagation of strangeness at SIS energies will be offered soon with the upgrade of the FOPI detector. The FOPI data have introduced constraints on parameters of theoretical models. Important progress concerning the knowledge of the properties of nuclear matter, the dynamics of the collisions and in-medium effects have been achieved. (author)

  9. Bose-Einstein correlations between hard photons produced in heavy ions collisions; Correlations Bose-Einstein entre photons durs produits dans les collisions d`ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F M

    1994-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions offer the unique possibility to create in the laboratory nuclear matter far from equilibrium. The electromagnetic probe constituted by hard photons and the Bose-Einstein correlations were used to study the properties of such a matter (size, density, temperature...). It is shown how the formalism has evolved from Young experiments to heavy-ion collisions experiments. The experiments performed with the photon multidetector TAPS at Ganil are described. The systems studied are: {sup 86}KR + {sup nat}Ni at 60.0 A.MeV, and {sup 181}Ta + {sup 197}Au at 39.5 A.MeV. Results are presented concerning the production of gamma, pi{sup 0}, e{sup +-} and {gamma}{gamma} correlation. The results are interpreted with the help of static and dynamic calculations describing hard photon production in heavy ion collisions. For the first time in Nuclear Physics, the existence of the Bose-Einstein effect for photons in the range of gamma is demonstrated, and the existence of two different photon sources is postulated, reflecting the density oscillations taking place in the nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions. (from author) 55 figs., 22 tabs., 76 refs.

  10. Problems connected with the production of heavy water in France; Problemes relatifs a la production d'eau lourde en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The decision to study the nuclear energy in France in 1945 has seen the construction of the first natural uranium reactor for research purpose only, Zoe reactor. The utilization of heavy water as moderator was motivated by permitting the economical utilization of natural uranium oxides as fuel and a good handling. The five tons of heavy water required by the Zoe reactor were initially obtained from Norway production. With nuclear development and the construction of the first power reactors for electricity production, the demand in heavy water increased. The heavy water production by French industry became of a great interest. The first production started in the southwest of France using a fertilizers production plant and the electrolytic process used in Norway. The electrolytic process of hydrogen was quickly limited by the limited number of large fertilizers plants in France. Thus, in 1953, French nuclear research concentrated on the distillation of liquid hydrogen and water distillation for the heavy water production. The liquid hydrogen distillation presents a better yield in heavy water extraction than the electrolytic process but it was still depending from large fertilizers production plants. Although the water distillation process is simple, the high purity required for nuclear uses induced a high cost. The advantages and disadvantages of these two processes are discussed as well as others heavy water production processes using concentration process of already enriched water and the prospect of the use of the natural gas from the Lacq deposit. Economical aspect and cost production for each of heavy water production processes will be also discussed. (M.P.)

  11. Mobilité relative des métaux lourds issus de la décharge d'Akouédo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative mobility of heavy metals resulting from Akouédo landfill and assessment of Continental Terminal groundwater contamination risk(Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire). The aim of this study is to know the geochemical mechanisms which control the vertical migration of heavy metals and to evaluate the risk of the Continental ...

  12. Report on the environmental and health effects of heavy metals; Rapport sur les effets des metaux lourds sur l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the bond between the environment and the health, a major interest of the today political debate, the author proposes a report on the environmental and health effects of the heavy metals to help political deciders in the technological and scientific choices. The first part is devoted to the dental amalgam and more specially the use, the environmental and the health aspects of the mercury. The second part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the environment. The sources, the atmospheric emissions, the releases in water and soils, the heavy metals wastes are detailed. In parallel the third part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the health, including the toxicity, the risks evaluation, the food exposure, the heavy metals in the life places and the mercury in Guyana. (A.L.B.)

  13. Release kinetics and mechanisms of trace heavy metals from cement based material; Cinetiques et mecanismes de relargage des metaux lourds presents en traces dans les matrices cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudilou, E.

    2002-12-15

    Chemical species contained in a solid matrix may be transferred to the environment through water leaching. Previous studies of trace metals released from building materials (particularly cement-based ones) highlight an important analytical difficulty. The aim of this study is to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms involved in the release of trace heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) from industrial cement pastes (usually ranging from 20 to 300 ppm). The development of a dynamic leaching system, named CTG-LEACHCRETE, (used at pH=5, 20 C) which permits the evaluation of the kinetics of trace heavy metals is presented in the first part. Also, innovative solid analysis techniques (ICP-MS-Laser Ablation, local and Grazing Incidence X-rays Diffraction (GIXD) technique) were used to characterise the cement-degraded layers formed during leaching experiments. These techniques enable to monitor the mineralogical evolution and the distribution of trace metals in these areas. The confrontation of these two approaches, kinetic and solid analysis, coupled with a thorough investigation of previously developed models, lead to proposals concerning the mechanisms of release of the trace heavy metals studied. In all the cement pastes studied (CPA-CEM I, CPJ-CEM II/A and CLC-CEM V/A), chromium is trapped in ettringite by substitution SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}(U)CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and its release is then controlled by the dissolution of this hydrate. The behaviour of copper, nickel and zinc in degraded areas and in leachates, are correlated to the silicon of the hydrated calcium silicate (CSH), which imply that they are localised there. Lead, was never detected in the leachates. But it is also correlated to the silicon in the degraded layers. (author)

  14. Emission of fragments in heavy ion-collisions at Fermi energy; Modes de production des fragments dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, J

    2001-10-01

    The study of reaction mechanisms in Fermi energy domain has shown the dominant binary character of the process. The two heavy sources produced after the first stage of the interaction (the quasi-projectile QP and the quasi-target QT) can experience various decay modes from evaporation to multifragmentation. However, the presence of light fragments at mid rapidity cannot be explained by the standard decay of the QP and the QT. To understand the mechanisms producing such a contribution, the break-up of the QP has been studied on the following systems: Xe+Sn from 25 to 50 MeV/A, Ta+Au and Ta+U at 33, 39.6 MeV/A and U+U at 24 MeV/A. The experiment has been performed at GANIL with the INDRA multidetector. The particular behaviour of the heaviest fragment and the correlation between the charge and the velocity of the fragments suggest a shape deformation followed by the rupture of a neck formed in between the two partners of the collision. The heaviest fragment could be the reminiscence of the projectile. A method based on the angular distribution of the heaviest fragment has allowed to separate the statistical break-up of the QP and the non equilibrated break-up. The statistical break-up ranges from 30 % to 75 % of the break-ups. The comparison of the statistical component with a statistical model gives information about the charge, the angular momentum and the temperature of the QP. The comparison of the non equilibrated component with dynamical models could give information about the parameters of the nuclear interaction in medium. (author)

  15. Isospin and angular momentum effects in the peripheral heavy ion reactions; Effets d`isospin et de moment angulaire dans les reactions d`ions lourds peripheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouault, B.; De La Mota, V.; Sebille, F.; Royer, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France); Lecolley, J. F. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1997-10-01

    The semi-classical Landau Vlasov model has been used to investigate the decay modes of peripheral Pb + Au reactions at 29 MeV/n. Statics and dynamics of these very massive nuclei are analyzed especially through the isospin dependence of the effective nuclear force. The degree of dissipation of the collisions is studied for different bins of impact parameter pointing out the influence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section. The appearance of intermediate mass fragments from neck-like structures is evidenced and the effects of angular momentum transfers are shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, showing the importance of the dynamical and out of equilibrium effects on the observables. (authors) 7 refs.

  16. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  17. 2520-IJBCS-Article-Emile N Houngbo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Agadès) et l'oignon Dendi de Malanville (ou oignon rouge, oignon local). Les caractéristiques qui les distinguent sont les suivantes. L'oignon de Galmi : Moyennement gros par rapport à l'oignon rouge ; peau relativement lisse ; moins difficile à conserver; moins piquant (moins acide) ; donne une saveur agréable à la sauce ...

  18. 2607-IJBCS-Article-André Sawa Kpaibe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    artéméther exprimant l'absorbance (Abs) en fonction du temps en minute (min). Tableau 1 : Caractères organoleptiques des médicaments M1 et M2. M1. M2. Aspect. Liquide visqueux. Liquide visqueux. Couleur. Jaune citron. Orange. Saveur. Bon goût.

  19. THE FLAVOURS OF LITERATURE OR: HOW GASTRONOMY SUPPORTS ITSELF ON WAYS OF SAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alzira Seixo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the relation between the concepts of savoir and saveur (savoir [to know] and saveur [savor, flavor] have the same root in Latin, addressed since the already classic The Pleasure of the Text, by Roland Barthes, this work comprises two reflexive movements: the first is about the way Lite­rature, and specially Portuguese Literature, represents Gastronomy, con­cerning authors such as Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Vitorino Nemésio, José Saramago, and António Lobo Antunes; in the second, what is emphasized is the way how Gastronomy uses the word to make itself ex­plicit in terms that imply a knowledge that appeals to the “literariness”, i.e., to the insistence on the literary “flavor/ saveur”.

  20. Jet measurements in ATLAS Detector for making evident the deconfinement in heavy ion collisions; Mesure des jets dans le detecteur ATLAS en vue de la mise en evidence du deconfinement dans les collisions d`ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirot, S. [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique

    1996-12-13

    In this thesis the two kinds of works encountered in the preparation of a big experiment at LHC are considered: R and D on the optimization of the light collection from the hadronic tile calorimeter of ATLAS, using new photomultipliers (PM), and physical simulations of the search for nuclear matter deconfinement in heavy ion collisions. The interest of using LHC is to obtain thermodynamical conditions better than those offered for the present or future experiments, by the SPS and RHIC accelerators, respectively. ATLAS is a general purpose p-p experiment that offers the additional possibility of studying the behaviour of heavy quarkonia and jets as deconfinement external probes, in terms of the global variables characterizing the collision geometry and thermodynamics. The definition of a proper strategy for ATLAS requires a comparison with the other experiments (ALICE and CMS) at LHC. It is shown that the search of the jet quenching at a reduced luminosity is the most promising approach for ATLAS. The experiment is described, and in particular the hadronic tile calorimeter, especially designed for the jet studies. The produced light is readout by a new PM the optimisation of which is described in order to design the PM blocks containing the light mixing, the PM itself, the divider bridge and associated electronics. Special attention is paid to the PM gains, the optimisation of the light guides and magnetic shielding. That is retained by ATLAS as the base line solution. (author) 68 refs.

  1. Recording hydrometer for liquids especially adapted to the continuous measurement of heavy water (1962); Densimetre enregistreur pour liquides specialement adapte au dosage continu de l'eau lourde (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatel, S; Nief, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A glass float, containing a magnetic device, is immersed in the water whose density is to be measured. It is free to move between two stops inside a differential transformer excited by an alternating current. The signal thus produced has an amplitude which increases with the distance separating the float from the lower stop. This signal is amplified, rectified, filtered and re-amplified. The current obtained passes through a coil which attracts the float downwards. The float sets to the level which the ascensional forces is exactly compensated. The intensity of the corresponding current is recorded. The concentration of D{sub 2}O in water can be measured between 0 and 8 per cent with a relative error of about 0.3 per cent without however an absolute possible error of under 20 deuterium atoms per million approximately (0.002 per cent). (authors) [French] Un flotteur en verre, contenant un equipage magnetique, baigne dans l'eau dont on veut mesurer la densite. Il est mobile entre deux butees a l'interieur d'un transformateur differentiel excite par un courant alternatif. Il en resulte un signal dont l'amplitude croit avec la distance du flotteur a la butee inferieure. Ce signal est amplifie, redresse, filtre, amplifie a nouveau. Le courant obtenu est envoye dans une bobine qui attire le flotteur vers le bas. Ce dernier se fixe au niveau pour lequel sa force ascensionnelle est exactement compensee. On enregistre la valeur du courant correspondant. La teneur d'une eau en D{sub 2}O peut etre mesuree entre 0 et 8 pour cent avec une erreur relative de l'ordre de 0,3 pour cent sans que l'erreur absolue, possible puisse descendre cependant au-dessous de 20 atomes de deuterium par million environ (0,002 pour cent). (auteurs)

  2. Signature of a spinodal decomposition in the multifragmentation process of very heavy nuclear systems; Signature fossile d'une decomposition spinodale dans la multifragmentation de systemes nucleaires tres lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabacaru, G

    2000-12-01

    A dynamical description of the multifragmentation process shows that mechanical instabilities are responsible for spinodal decomposition of a nuclear system that spend sufficient time in the low-density region. The Xe + Sn system at 32 MeV/A incident energy, measured with INDRA multidetector, was chosen to prove experimentally this hypothesis. High performance techniques in energy calibration of Silicon detectors and CsI(Tl) scintillators were developed in order to exploit the excellent detection qualities of the multidetector. For the first time, the contribution of {delta} rays to the light output emitted by scintillators was quantitatively derived. Multifragmentation events coming from a system composed by almost all of nucleons of the reaction entrance channel were selected using detection completeness and event shape criteria. The dynamical model BoB realistically simulates the spinodal instabilities. This model reproduces all of dynamic and static observables. More exclusive comparisons were made to constrain again the model. Reduced velocity correlation functions were studied and gave information about the topology of the fragments at freeze-out. Charge correlation of the fragments showed that a small proportion of events (0.1 %) emits equal-sized fragments. This was interpreted as a fossil signature of the spinodal decomposition in a finite system. Indirectly, this is a proof of a first order phase transition associated to the multifragmentation of hot nuclei. (author)

  3. Optimal Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Trucks Using Route Information Optimisation de la gestion de l’énergie dans des véhicules poids lourds électriques hybrides utilisant le guidage d’itinéraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To benchmark a hybrid vehicle’s Energy Management Strategy (EMS usually a given, often certified, velocity trajectory is exploited. In this paper it is reasoned that it is also beneficial to optimize the velocity trajectory. Especially optimizing the vehicle braking trajectories, through maximization of energy recuperation, results in considerable fuel savings on the same traveled distance. Given future route (target velocities as function of traveled distance/location, traffic, and possibly weather information, together with the vehicle’s road load parameters, the future power request trajectory can be estimated. Dynamic Programming (DP techniques can then be used to predict the optimal power split trajectory for the upcoming route, such that a desired state-of-charge at the end of the route is reached. The DP solution is re-calculated at a certain rate in order to adapt to changing conditions, e.g., traffic conditions, and used in a lower level real-time EMS to guarantee both battery state-of-charge as well as minimal fuel consumption. Pour évaluer la Stratégie de Gestion de l’Énergie (SGE d’un véhicule hybride, on exploite généralement un cycle de conduite donné, souvent certifié. Dans cet article, l’optimisation de l’itinéraire apparaît aussi comme nécessaire. L’optimisation, en particulier, des conditions de freinage du véhicule, par la maximisation de la récupération d’énergie, permet des économies considérables de combustible sur une même distance parcourue. Pour un itinéraire donné (vitesses cibles en fonction de la distance parcourue et de la position, compte tenu des conditions de circulation, des éventuelles données météorologiques et des paramètres de perte du véhicule, on peut estimer les besoins en puissance nécessaire pour le parcourir. Des techniques de Programmation Dynamique (PD peuvent alors être employées pour prévoir la répartition de puissance optimale pour un parcours donné, sous condition qu’un état de charge cible soit atteint à la fin du parcours. La solution est recalculée périodiquement afin de l’adapter aux nouvelles conditions du parcours (par exemple, aux conditions de circulation et est utilisée dans une couche plus basse de la SGE en temps réel pour garantir l’état de charge de la batterie ainsi que la consommation d’essence minimale.

  4. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  5. LEP1 measurement of heavy quark forward-backward asymmetries with Opal detector; Mesure de l`asymetrie avant-arriere des quarks lourds a LEP1 avec le detecteur Opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafoux, H

    1996-04-30

    Using all data collected by OPAL during the first phase of LEP operation, called LEP1, we have measured the b and c quark forward-backward asymmetries on and around the Z{sup 0} peak. The measurement, which is based on prompt leptons produced in semileptonic decays of heavy quarks, has been optimized using artificial neural networks whenever necessary, that is whenever the problem to solve implied taking into account simultaneously a large number of parameters. Our results are compatible with other LEP measurements and with the Standard Model predictions for a top quark of 174{+-}31 GeV/c{open_square} and a Higgs boson mass between 60 and 1000 GeV/c{open_square}. (author). 159 refs., 88 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste incineration and thermodynamic study of the behaviour of heavy metals; Modelisation de l'incineration sur grille d'ordures menageres et approche thermodynamique du comportement des metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Y

    2003-07-15

    The present dissertation describes experimental and theoretical investigations undertaken for the mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in a grate furnace and the thermodynamic study of the speciation of heavy metals (HM), originally contained into MSW, during combustion. Thermogravimetric and gaseous analysis (mass spectrometry and gas chromatography) experiments were performed on MSW samples to get pyrolysis kinetics and to quantify the gaseous species that evolve during the primary reactions of devolatilization. Other experiments were carried out in a fixed bed pilot-scale reactor: the combustion of two types of solids (wood chips and MSW) was studied, and the influence of operating conditions (flow rate, staging and temperature of the primary air) as well as fuel characteristics (moisture content, inert material fraction, lower calorific value) was investigated. A mathematical model was developed for simulating the combustion of a solid fuel, either in a fixed bed reactor or on the grate of an incineration plant. It has been validated by comparison of the calculated results and the experiments carried out on the pilot. Thanks to this model, we have been able to localize the different processes taking place in the fuel bed and to evaluate the influence of the operating conditions on the combustion efficiency. Numerical simulations of the gas flow and combustion in the post-combustion chamber and the heater of an incineration plant were performed using the CFD code FLUENT. The local thermal conditions as well as local gaseous species concentrations obtained from these simulations were eventually used to carry out thermodynamic calculations of the speciation of HM during incineration. (author)

  7. Statistical and off-equilibrium production of fragments in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Production statistique et hors-equilibre de fragments dans les collisions d`ions lourdes aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocage, Frederic [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-15

    The study of reaction products, fragments and light charged particles, emitted during heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies has shown the dominant binary dissipative character of the reaction, which is persisting for almost all impact parameters. However, in comparison with this purely binary process, an excess of nuclear matter is observed in-between the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. To understand the mechanisms producing such an excess, this work studies more precisely the breakup in two fragments of the quasi-projectile formed in Xe+Sn, from 25 to 50 MeV/u, and Gd+C and Gd+U at 36 MeV/u. The data were obtained during the first INDRA experiment at GANIL. The angular distributions of the two fragments show the competition between statistical fission and non-equilibrated breakup of the quasi-projectile. In the second case, the two fragments are aligned along the separation axis of the two primary partners. The comparison of the fission directions and probabilities with statistical models allows us to measure the fission time, as well as the angular momentum, temperature and size of the fissioning residue. The relative velocities are compatible with Coulomb and thermal effects in the case of statistical fission and are found much higher for the breakup of a non-equilibrated quasi-projectile, which indicates that the projectile was deformed during interaction with the target. Such deformations should be compared with dynamical calculations in order to constrain the viscosity of nuclear matter and the parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, (author) 148 refs., 77 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Contribution to the study of collective states of heavy nuclei by means of coulomb excitation; Contribution a l'etude des etats collectifs des noyaux lourds par excitation coulombienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    The following nuclei were excited by protons of 5 MeV maximum energy: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. The reduced probabilities of the various transitions were deduced from the coulomb excitation cross-section measurements. For some even-even nuclei two 2 + levels were excited. The properties of the excited levels are interpreted in terms of the collective model. (author) [French] Au moyen de protons d'energie inferieure a 5 MeV, l'excitation coulombienne des noyaux suivants a ete etudiee: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. La mesure de la section efficace d'excitation coulombienne a permis de deduire les -probabilites reduites des diverses transitions observees. Dans certains noyaux pair-pair, deux niveaux de caractere 2 + ont ete excites. L'interpretation de ces niveaux en termes de niveaux de rotation et de niveaux de vibration a l'aide du modele collectif est discutee. En particulier, la variation des proprietes de ces niveaux avec la deformation nucleaire permet de fixer des limites a la validite des diverses hypotheses entrant dans le modele collectif. (auteur)

  9. Relation between hard photon production and impact parameter in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Dependance de la production de photons durs avec le parametre d`impact dans les collisions entre ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, G.

    1994-06-01

    Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.

  10. Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector; Etude complete du mouvement collectif de la matiere nucleaire dans les collisions centrales d'ions lourds avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendarag, A

    1999-07-09

    In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

  11. Study on molecular modelling of the selectivity of catalysts for heavy petroleum fractions hydrocracking; Etude sur molecule modele des parametres regissant la selectivite des catalyseurs d'hydrocraquage des charges lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.

    2000-10-19

    Hydrocracking is a catalytic petroleum refining process that is commonly applied to upgrade the heavier fractions obtained from the distillation of crude oils. Nowadays the European demand for good quality middle distillates (kerosene and gas-oil) is high and one important goal for the refining is to transform selectively feedstocks into middle distillates. To understand how this transformation occurs, studies on model compounds have been investigated. Numerous studies have been devoted to paraffin hydrocracking. However theses molecules do not fully represent heavy petroleum fraction. Taking into account that the trend in the future will be to treat heavier feedstocks containing a large quantity of PNA (Polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbons), the understanding of their transformation under hydrocracking conditions is a key point. In this study, we studied hydrocracking of phenanthrene over platinum on acid solids catalysts. Our main aim was to compare hydrocracking catalysts in term of catalytic activity and selectivity toward primary products thanks to our model reaction and to correlate these catalytic performances with acid solid properties and especially to rationalize the effects due to the acidity and the porosity of the acid solids. Catalytic experiments emphasised an effect of the porous structure on the selectivities. The acidity of the catalysts seemed to impose the catalytic activity but did not permit to explain the selectivities. This 'effect of the structure' has been clarified with the simulation of intermediate products adsorption and diffusion in the studied structures thanks to a molecular modelling study. Indeed, the selectivities obtained during phenanthrene hydrocracking have been linked up with the intermediate products adsorption energies in the structures. The results of this study permit to propose that the key-step for selectivities determination is the physical desorption of the primary products. (author)

  12. The Alice experiment for the study of ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions; Experience ALICE pour l'etude des collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes au CERN-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forestier, B

    2003-12-01

    Alice is the detector dedicated to the study of heavy ions at the LHC (large hadron collider). It will allow scientists to investigate all the signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The spectrometer of the dimuon arm of Alice has been designed to study the production of high mass resonances through their dimuon decay. The first chapter is dedicated to some aspects of the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion: confinement and de-confinement of quarks, the absence of heavy resonances as a signature for the presence of QGP. The second chapter presents Alice and its ancillary detectors. The third chapter deals with the trigger system of the dimuon spectrometer, a detailed algorithm of this system is given. A method for the optimization of the trigger response is presented in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter describes the testing of a prototype of the trigger system, this testing with muons has shown that the efficiency of the track reconstruction of the trigger system and the efficiency of the resistive plate chamber reach 98%.In the sixth chapter the author comments the simulations of the production of heavy resonances from Pb-Pb collisions as a function of centrality. (A.C.)

  13. Intermediate energies heavy ion collisions : study of the charged particles emission dynamics and emitters characterization; Collisions d`ions lourds aux energies intermediaires: etude de la dynamique d`emission des particules chargees et caracterisation des emetteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E

    1994-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, reaction processes are ranging from slow processes where equilibrium is achieved between every emission, up to direct processes where nucleon nucleon scattering and phase space availability are the deciding factors. In order to investigate this transition, both the emission dynamics and the characteristics of the emitter have been studied, both theoretically and experimentally in the AMPHORA detector, for the systems 7, 17, 27 and 34 AMeV, {sup 40}Ar+Al, {sup 40}Ar+Cu and {sup 40}Ar+Ag. First, the linear momentum transfer of the most central collisions has been evaluated for these systems, by measuring the velocity of heavy residues. Then, by measuring azimuthal angle correlations functions, and by comparing them with statistical model predictions, the average angular momentum of the emitter has been evaluated. To study the charged particles emission dynamics, experimental azimuthal angle and relative momentum correlation functions have been compared with simulations based on a classical trajectory model. Finally, predictions of an advanced BUU model have been studied for the system 34 AMeV 40 Ar+Al. (authors). 69 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Study of heavy ion collisions at Fermi energy: is the methodology orientating our understanding of physics?; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de Fermi: les demarches utilisees orientent-elles notre comprehension de la physique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, Ch.O

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of the reaction products in the case of a multi-fragmentation reaction requires an efficient sorting of the experimental data. A collision, detected in a 4{pi} detector generates about 100 parameters that are measured. Experimental data have to be reduced to the part most meaningful of the studied event. A model of the reaction is necessary to discard or value variables on which the sorting could be based. The selection of experimental data implies almost always the introduction of a bias that is necessary to know in order to continue a thorough analysis of the experimental results. A theoretical work is then necessary not only in the view of the comparison between results and predictions but also to validate the assumptions that have been made to sort out the experimental data. This method is applied to the study of the nuclear reaction: Gd + U at 36 MeV/U. (A.C.)

  15. Modeling of gas condensates properties using continuous distribution functions for the characterization of the plus fraction; Modelisation des proprietes thermodynamiques des gaz a condensat par representation de la fraction lourde a l`aide de fonctions de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sportisse, M.

    1996-12-20

    The modeling of thermodynamic behaviour for gas condensates is not yet satisfactory and it involves an adjustment of thermodynamic models. We propose here a fitting based on the characterization of the plus fraction using three continuous distribution functions associated to the following families: n-alkanes, n-alkylbenzenes and poly-aromatics. No continuous thermodynamic model is used and PVT calculations are made with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. For poly-aromatics, a simple correlation of {l_brace} T{sub c}, P{sub c}, {omega} {r_brace} is given. The parameters of the distributions are fitted in order to improve the accuracy of the liquid deposit curve calculation. A continuous minimization by simulated annealing has been used to avoid local minima. Good results on fitting PVT properties have been obtained with more than twenty gas condensates from different areas. Moreover, the prediction of tank liquid and heavy-plus fraction densities are given with an average deviation of 1.2 % and 3.6 %. Tests on temperature extrapolation show that our modeling yields a good representation of pressure and temperature influence on gas condensates behaviour. (author) 89 refs.

  16. Deep catalytic oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; Oxydation catalytique totale des hydrocarbures lourds sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, F.

    1998-12-09

    Deep oxidation by air on Pt supported on alumina of a large number of heavy hydrocarbons representative of those found in a real Diesel car exhaust has been studied. Light-off temperatures between 140 and 320 deg. C on 1%Pt/alumina (80% metal dispersion) have been found. Results show that not only the physical state around the conversion area but also the chemical nature of the hydrocarbon plays an important role. Heavy hydrocarbons deep oxidation behaviour has been classified as a function of their chemical category (alkane, alkene, aromatics etc..). Oxidation of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons has shown strong inhibition effects on n-alkane or CO oxidation by polycyclic compounds like 1-methyl-naphthalene. In some cases, by-product compounds in the gas effluent (other than CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) have been identified by mass-spectrometry leading to oxidation mechanism proposals for different hydrocarbons. Catalyst nature (metal dispersion, content) influence has also been studied. It is shown that turn-over activity is favoured by the increase of the metal bulk size. Acidity influence of the carrier has shown only very little influence on n-alkane or di-aromatic compound oxidation. (author)

  17. Heavy element concentration determination by the x-ray fluorescence analysis using radioisotope {gamma}-ray sources; Dosage d'elements lourds par fluorescence X utilisant des radio-sources de rayons gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Materiaux et des Combustibles Nucleaires, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has been made on the fluorescence analysis of high atomic number element, using {gamma}-ray sources for excitation and characteristic K X-rays for the measurement. The choice of the proper {gamma}-ray energy according to the conditions of the determination is considered. The author has studied the usefulness of using the backscattered {gamma}-rays as a correction mean for matrix and grain-size effects. Sources of {sup 153}Gd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs have been used for excitation using collimated geometries. Concentration measurements of tungsten in steel, tungsten and lead in aqueous solution, PbS in SiO{sub 2}-PbS powder mixtures have been done, as well as thickness evaluation of gold layers on copper. A precision of about 0.2 per cent (abs.) is obtained for lead determination in light matrixes. A probe design is proposed for the continuous determination of lead in aqueous solutions. (author) [French] On etudie de maniere theorique et experimentale l'analyse d'elements a nombre atomique eleve par fluorescence en utilisant des sources de rayons {gamma} pour l'excitation, et des rayons-X K caracteristiques pour la mesure. On considere le choix de l'energie appropriee des rayons {gamma} suivant les conditions experimentales. L'utilite d'employer les rayons {gamma} retrodiffuses pour corriger les effets de la matrice et de la dimension des grains est etudiee. Des sources de {sup 153}Gd, de {sup 57}Co et de {sup 137}Cs a geometrie collimatee ont ete utilisees pour l'excitation. Des mesures de la concentration du tungstene dans l'acier, du tungstene et du plomb en solutions aqueuses, et du PbS dans des melanges de poudre SiO{sub 2}-PbS ont ete entreprises ainsi que l'evaluation de l'epaisseur des couches d'or sur le cuivre. On obtient une precision d'environ 0,2 pour cent (en absolu) pour la determination du plomb dans des matrices legeres. On propose un modele de sonde pour la determination en continu du plomb en solution aqueuse. (auteur)

  18. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption in heterogeneous lattices. I- Apollo 2 self-shielding formalism; Absorption resonnante des noyaux lourds dans les reseaux heterogenes. I -Formalisme du module d`autoprotection d`Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, M.

    1994-01-01

    This note gives in detailed way the self-shielding formalism which is used in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. The self-shielded cross-sections are performed with the same scheme as in APOLLO1. We use two equivalencies, first an heterogeneous/homogeneous equivalence which gives the reaction rates and then a multigroup equivalence in order to obtain the cross-sections which preserve these reaction rates. However, numerous improvements were implemented, specially in the homogenization step. Homogenization can be performed group per group with different modelizations of the heavy slowing-down operator (statistical, intermediary and ``wide resonance`` models), which allows us to fit correctly the resonance shapes. Moreover, we can take exactly into account the spatial interferences between resonant isotopes with the background matrix model. Consequently, we are now able to perform, for instance, the radial distribution of the resonant absorption inside a fuel pin. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Révéler la chimie des préparations antiques, à usage cosmétique ou médical, impliquant des sels de métaux lourds

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin , Marlène

    2016-01-01

    In the Antiquity, oculists (eye care specialised physicians) mixed mineral, vegetal and animal substances to prepare elaborate solid medicines termed collyria. In an interdisciplinary work, we investigated the chemical composition, the inorganic phases structure and the manufacturing process of such collyria. The implemented analytical techniques were Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The stability of metallic salts based replicas prepared according to ...

  20. Methods of Containment Adopted for the EL4 Reactor and Projected Heavy-Water, Gas-Cooled Plants; Mode de Confinement Adopte pour le Reacteur EL4 et les Projets de Centrales Eau Lourde-Gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulhof, P.; Justin, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1967-09-15

    After a brief description of the plant, the paper explains the principles adopted for preventing the release of waste gas, from the EL4 reactor and refers to some of the difficulties associated with this type of containment. From the economic standpoint, the authors present the results of a comparative civil engineering study of pre-stressed concrete and steel shells for a projected 60 MW(e) power station, giving various values for accidental pressures. They demonstrate the influence of the stress values adopted. (author) [French] Les auteurs rappellent les principes adoptes dans le reacteur EL4 pour le confinement des rejets gazeux, apres une description sommaire des installations. Suivent quelques aspects des difficultes introduites par ce type de confinement. Dans le domaine economique, ils presentent le resultat d'une etude comparative de genie civil d'enceintes en beton precontraint et en acier pour un projet de centrale de 600 MW(e), avec diverses valeurs de pression accidentelle. Dans cette etude, ils font ressortir l'influence des valeurs admises pour le taux de travail des materiaux. (author)

  1. Formation and evolution of point defects created in alkali halogen compounds irradiated by heavy ions; Formation et evolution des defauts ponctuels crees dans certains halogenures alcalins irradies par des ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdequin, E [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1993-07-16

    The goal of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the heavy-ion material interaction. Alkali halogen crystals were chosen since the color centers produced by heavy ions can be distinguished easier from those generated by X rays. Measurements on KI irradiated at low temperature showed that the usual process of non radiative de-excitation of self-captured exciton is not prevailing. As the main objective of this work was the exact determination of the defects created by accelerated heavy ions, an important effort was dedicated to the spectrum deconvolution. Due to the high quality of the obtained spectra the V band analyse was possible. The defect stability was found to have the same nature in all the cubical alkali halogens and depend essentially on the crystal type. The defect evolution after irradiation is related to the diffusion coefficients corresponding to each mobile species and to the crystal lattice in which they move. Based on measurements made at different temperatures a simple modeling of the recombination kinetics was proposed. This effect was found to be specific to irradiation by heavy ions. It is difficult to determine the initial processes from the fossil defects, so, the defect history must be known as the described investigation methods do not permit to establish the transient aspect of defect creation. The important role of impurities should be stressed as the third intruder in the ion/crystal configuration; it can modify significantly the final state of the irradiated crystal, as it was found in KI, for instance. The open problems underlined in this study will probably be solved by using the atomic force microscopy and diffraction or on-line Raman measurements in ISOC chamber to avoid the passage to ambient conditions of the crystals irradiated at low temperatures 60 refs.

  2. Study of the light emitted in the moderation of a heavy-water pile; Etude de la lumiere emise dans le moderateur d'une pile a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    During the running of a reactor which uses water as a neutron moderator, a bluish light is seen to appear inside the liquid. A detailed study of this radiation, undertaken on the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile, has shown that the spectrum is identical with that which characterises the light produced by the Cerenkov effect. The light intensity as a function of the pile power grows exponentially as a function of time when the pile diverges, with a lifetime equal to that of the rise in power. An examination of the various particles present in the pile has led to the conclusion that only electrons with an energy greater than 260 keV con produce the Cerenkov light. The light source thus produced is about 2.10{sup 6} photons/cm{sup 2} of water, when the pile power equals 1 watt. (author) [French] Lors du fonctionnement d'un reacteur utilisant l'eau comme moderateur de neutrons, on constate l'apparition d'une lumiere bleutee au sein du liquide. Une etude approfondie de ce rayonnement, entreprise sur la pile Fontenay-aux-Roses a montre que le spectre est identique a celui caracterisant la lumiere produite par effet Cerenkov. L'intensite lumineuse en fonction de Ia puissance de la pile, lors d'une divergence croit exponentiellement en fonction du temps avec une periode egale a celle de la montee en puissance. L'examen des diverses particules presentes dans la pile a permis de conclure que seuls les electrons ayant une energie superieure a 260 keV peuvent produire la lumiere Cerenkov. La source lumineuse ainsi constituee est d'environ 2.10{sup 6} photons/cm{sup 2} d'eau, lorsque la puissance de la pile est egale a 1 watt. (auteur)

  3. Mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste incineration and thermodynamic study of the behaviour of heavy metals; Modelisation de l'incineration sur grille d'ordures menageres et approche thermodynamique du comportement des metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Y.

    2003-07-15

    The present dissertation describes experimental and theoretical investigations undertaken for the mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in a grate furnace and the thermodynamic study of the speciation of heavy metals (HM), originally contained into MSW, during combustion. Thermogravimetric and gaseous analysis (mass spectrometry and gas chromatography) experiments were performed on MSW samples to get pyrolysis kinetics and to quantify the gaseous species that evolve during the primary reactions of devolatilization. Other experiments were carried out in a fixed bed pilot-scale reactor: the combustion of two types of solids (wood chips and MSW) was studied, and the influence of operating conditions (flow rate, staging and temperature of the primary air) as well as fuel characteristics (moisture content, inert material fraction, lower calorific value) was investigated. A mathematical model was developed for simulating the combustion of a solid fuel, either in a fixed bed reactor or on the grate of an incineration plant. It has been validated by comparison of the calculated results and the experiments carried out on the pilot. Thanks to this model, we have been able to localize the different processes taking place in the fuel bed and to evaluate the influence of the operating conditions on the combustion efficiency. Numerical simulations of the gas flow and combustion in the post-combustion chamber and the heater of an incineration plant were performed using the CFD code FLUENT. The local thermal conditions as well as local gaseous species concentrations obtained from these simulations were eventually used to carry out thermodynamic calculations of the speciation of HM during incineration. (author)

  4. Study of the light emitted in the moderation of a heavy-water pile; Etude de la lumiere emise dans le moderateur d'une pile a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    During the running of a reactor which uses water as a neutron moderator, a bluish light is seen to appear inside the liquid. A detailed study of this radiation, undertaken on the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile, has shown that the spectrum is identical with that which characterises the light produced by the Cerenkov effect. The light intensity as a function of the pile power grows exponentially as a function of time when the pile diverges, with a lifetime equal to that of the rise in power. An examination of the various particles present in the pile has led to the conclusion that only electrons with an energy greater than 260 keV con produce the Cerenkov light. The light source thus produced is about 2.10{sup 6} photons/cm{sup 2} of water, when the pile power equals 1 watt. (author) [French] Lors du fonctionnement d'un reacteur utilisant l'eau comme moderateur de neutrons, on constate l'apparition d'une lumiere bleutee au sein du liquide. Une etude approfondie de ce rayonnement, entreprise sur la pile Fontenay-aux-Roses a montre que le spectre est identique a celui caracterisant la lumiere produite par effet Cerenkov. L'intensite lumineuse en fonction de Ia puissance de la pile, lors d'une divergence croit exponentiellement en fonction du temps avec une periode egale a celle de la montee en puissance. L'examen des diverses particules presentes dans la pile a permis de conclure que seuls les electrons ayant une energie superieure a 260 keV peuvent produire la lumiere Cerenkov. La source lumineuse ainsi constituee est d'environ 2.10{sup 6} photons/cm{sup 2} d'eau, lorsque la puissance de la pile est egale a 1 watt. (auteur)

  5. Characterization of the rheological behavior of heavy crude oils for the optimization of their transport; Caracterisation du comportement rheologique des bruts lourds en vue de l'optimisation de leur transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coustet Pierre, C.

    2003-10-01

    Despite their huge reserves, production of heavy crude oils remains weak, partially because of the high viscosity. This work aims to understand the origin of this viscosity in a view of diminishing In this context, we performed structural (SAXS) and rheological studies (under shearing and oscillatory regime) in order to link macroscopic and microscopic properties of heavy oils. investigated the effect of asphaltenes and resins which are the two most polar and the high molecular mass components of heavy oils. Most of the literature work performed measures organic solvents which are considered as model solvents in a first assumption. These media haw structure too simple compared to oils. That is why we decided to complete this work by experiments in the crude. We shed some light on asphaltenes described as colloidal particles with fractal dimension of 2. Their overlapping, due to numerous polar and hydrogen bonds, responsible for the high viscosity. The contribution of asphaltenes on viscosity is lowered by resins who are able to dissociate aggregates and to reduce the interactions, so to diminish the overlapping The kinetics of formation of bonds involved in asphaltenes overlapping are strongly slower at low temperatures, which implies a shear thinning behavior under sufficiently high shearing. This allow us to describe the crude as a transient network of fractal aggregates. (author)

  6. Multidetector system for the identification of and measurement of the energies of heavy ions at intermediate energies; Systeme multidetecteur pour l`identification et la mesure des energies des ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samri, M; Beaulieu, L; Djerroud, B [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Physique; and others

    1994-12-31

    A scintillation multidetector system composed (at the present time) of 80 detectors is described and its performance reported. It contains both phoswich and CsI detectors. A number of recent publications have shown that CsI or phoswich detectors do not have an adequately quantitative response to heavy ions in the intermediate energy range, but this difficulty can be avoided by calibrating the detectors for energy. In the present case, the use of the technique of secondary detector clusters is shown to be effective. Detection over a wide solid angle is possible. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Development and performance of charged particle detectors applied to the study of heavy ion reactions; Developpement et performances de detecteurs de particules chargees appliques a l`etude des reactions avec ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourde, M; Beaulieu, L; Dore, D; Laforest, R; Pouliot, J; Roy, R; St-Pierre, C [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Physique

    1994-12-31

    The new type of charged particle detector described comprises a thin layer of plastic scintillator over a much thicker CsI(Tl) crystal, an optical guide, and a photomultiplier. Results obtained at Chalk River Laboratories for the identification of particles with Z = 1-6 from the {sup 12}C + {sup 197}Au reaction are shown. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R

    1994-09-26

    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  9. Fission of heavy nuclei: microscopic study of fission barriers and fragments angular momentum; Fission des noyaux lourds: etude microscopique des barrieres de fission et du moment angulaire des fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, L

    2003-11-01

    A lot of experimental data on nuclear fission has been being collected for the last 65 years, allowing theoreticians to confront their models with reality. The first part of this work is dedicated to the computation of fission barriers. We have extended the HF + BCS (Hartree Fock + Bandeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) method in order to include a new set of polynomials on which wave functions can be broken to, more accurately than on Hermite's polynomials in the 2 fragment configuration. The fission barriers of 26 heavy nuclei from Thorium-230 to Nobelium-256 have been assessed and compared to experimental data, it appears that differences are no greater than 1 MeV. We have discovered a neat correlation between the variation of the experimental fission lifetimes of even Fermium isotopes and the computed heights of second barriers. Moreover our model reproduces the hyper-deformed well of Thorium-230 with a good agreement on the well depth. The second part deals with the scission region. We have performed Hartree-Fock calculations in order to explore different ways of fragmentation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator gives a valid description of such ways. In order to compute the mean value of J{sup 2} in the fragments we have been driven to propose an adequate definition of that quantity consistent with the non-locality property of the J{sup 2} operator. (A.C.)

  10. Study of heavy ion collisions at Fermi energy: is the methodology orientating our understanding of physics?; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de Fermi: les demarches utilisees orientent-elles notre comprehension de la physique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, Ch O

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of the reaction products in the case of a multi-fragmentation reaction requires an efficient sorting of the experimental data. A collision, detected in a 4{pi} detector generates about 100 parameters that are measured. Experimental data have to be reduced to the part most meaningful of the studied event. A model of the reaction is necessary to discard or value variables on which the sorting could be based. The selection of experimental data implies almost always the introduction of a bias that is necessary to know in order to continue a thorough analysis of the experimental results. A theoretical work is then necessary not only in the view of the comparison between results and predictions but also to validate the assumptions that have been made to sort out the experimental data. This method is applied to the study of the nuclear reaction: Gd + U at 36 MeV/U. (A.C.)

  11. Relation between the swelling and the disordering in ionic crystals irradiated by fast heavy ions; Relation entre le gonflement et la creation de defauts dans les cristaux ioniques irradies par des ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccanfuso, M

    2001-12-01

    When fast heavy ions penetrate in matter, they slow down essentially by depositing their energy on the electrons. This can lead to strong electronic excitation densities in the solid and then to structural modifications. In this work, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) was used to look further into the damage induced by irradiation with fast heavy ions in ionic crystals. Four techniques were mainly employed to characterise this damage. These techniques of analysis are wide angle X-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. The results of this work show that CaF{sub 2} answers in a multiple way to the electronic excitations. For stopping powers higher than approximately 5 keV/nm, a polygonization seems to occur. This causes a structural disorder, a swelling of 0.27 % and the formation of fractures in the material. A second damage mechanism is caused above approximately 13 keV/nm and results in a loss of the initial crystalline structure. However, optical centres appear whatever the ion stopping power, which indicates that these defects cannot be the cause of the two above mentioned damage mechanisms. According to a thermal spike model, the two thresholds can be linked to melting and sublimation energy of the material, respectively. (author)

  12. Fission of heavy nuclei: microscopic study of fission barriers and fragments angular momentum; Fission des noyaux lourds: etude microscopique des barrieres de fission et du moment angulaire des fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, L

    2003-11-01

    A lot of experimental data on nuclear fission has been being collected for the last 65 years, allowing theoreticians to confront their models with reality. The first part of this work is dedicated to the computation of fission barriers. We have extended the HF + BCS (Hartree Fock + Bandeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) method in order to include a new set of polynomials on which wave functions can be broken to, more accurately than on Hermite's polynomials in the 2 fragment configuration. The fission barriers of 26 heavy nuclei from Thorium-230 to Nobelium-256 have been assessed and compared to experimental data, it appears that differences are no greater than 1 MeV. We have discovered a neat correlation between the variation of the experimental fission lifetimes of even Fermium isotopes and the computed heights of second barriers. Moreover our model reproduces the hyper-deformed well of Thorium-230 with a good agreement on the well depth. The second part deals with the scission region. We have performed Hartree-Fock calculations in order to explore different ways of fragmentation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator gives a valid description of such ways. In order to compute the mean value of J{sup 2} in the fragments we have been driven to propose an adequate definition of that quantity consistent with the non-locality property of the J{sup 2} operator. (A.C.)

  13. SLAC linear collider: the machine, the physics, and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1981-11-01

    The SLAC linear collider, in which beams of electrons and positrons are accelerated simultaneously, is described. Specifications of the proposed system are given, with calculated preditions of performance. New areas of research made possible by energies in the TeV range are discussed

  14. Dosage de l'acide nitro-5 furylacrylique dans les vins blancs (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lafon-Lafourcade

    1975-09-01

    Rappelons que l'acide nitro-5 furylacrylique est une substance jaune, inodore et sans saveur, stable à la lumière et à la chaleur. Ses sels de sodium et de potassium sont très solubles dans l'eau, dans l'alcool et le méthanol, mais insolubles dans les solvants non miscibles à l'eau. Le 5-NFA ne distille pas et n'est pas entraînable par la vapeur d'eau. (1 Travail réalisé en collaboration avec le Conseil Interprofessionnel du Vin de Bordeaux.

  15. la lagune Aghien

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTRAOREABOU

    21 déc. 2008 ... Mots-clés : lagune Aghien, métaux lourds, sources anthropiques, ... Keywords : Aghien lagoon, heavy metals, anthropic origin, factors of enrichment. 1. ...... elements in Kosovo: a source identification and apportionment study.

  16. Caracterisation de la qualite des eaux de I' oued Kebir Quest (Nord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots cles : Kebir Ouest - Skikda - Bassin versant - Qualite - Pollution - Metaux lourds. Abstract .... approche servira au suivi de l 'evolution annuelle des concentrations des ..... Watershed Management: principles and practice. New York, Wiley ...

  17. Mõned vaated tänavusele PÖFFile / Donald Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Donald, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    "EurAsia" võistlusprogrammi filmidest "Leierkastiviis" ("Meloodia väntorelile", rež. Kira Muratova, Ukraina), "Lourdes" (rež. Jessica Hausner, Austria - Prantsusmaa - Saksamaa) ja "Kahe maailma vahel" (rež. Vimukthi Jayasundra, Sri Lanka)

  18. 1746-IJBCS-Article-Momar Ndiaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Mots clés: Métaux lourds, moule, sédiment, toxicité, émission atomique. ... teneurs des métaux lourds cadmium, chrome et plomb dans les sédiments et les moules. MATERIEL ET ..... les sédiments, des éléments minéraux et organiques provenant des eaux usées, des.

  19. 2657-IJBCS-Article-Dr Aminata Touré

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Présence de métaux lourds et de résidus médicamenteux dans les effluents des établissements de ... L'objectif de cette étude est de quantifier les concentrations en métaux lourds et de rechercher la présence de ..... produits solubles représentent donc un danger de pollution de ..... residential, industrial, and agricultural.

  20. Influence of climatic factors in productivity of three been of the genus Boletus associated with hybrid of Castanea

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Fernandez de Ana Magan, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    Phenologic response of three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Boletus fragans, Boletus edulis and Boletus erythropus) asociated with hybrid chestnut were analized. To this objective, we use the data of ten years (1984-1993) and the principal component analysis was applied to delimit the climatic variables that have influence on these species yield. We obtained an equations that could permit to predit the number of fruitbody produced depending on climatic conditions

  1. O jornalista gastronômico e a arte de julgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Atália Pietrolungo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Análise do julgamento de gosto e das imagens de jornalista produzidas nas revistas gastronômicas Saveurs, GaultMillau, La Bonne Cuisine e Cuisine et Vins de France, à luz da análise semiolinguística do discurso de Patrick Charaudeau e de conceitos sociológicos de Pierre Bourdieu.Palavras-chave: Análise do discurso; semiolingüística; revista; gastronomia.Résumé: Ce travail propose une analyse du jugement de goût et des images du journaliste gastronomique, présentes dans les revues Saveurs, GaultMillau, La Bonne Cuisine e Cuisine et Vins de France, à partir de la théorie sémiolinguistique du discours de Patrick Charaudeau et des concepts sociologigues de Pierre Bourdieu. Mots-clés: Analyse du discours; sémiolinguistique; revue; gastronomie.Keywords: Discourse analysis; semiolinguistics; magazine; gastronomy.

  2. Study of the point defect creation and of the excitonic luminescence in alkali halides irradiated by swift heavy ions; Etude de la creation de defauts ponctuels et de la luminescence excitonique d`halogenures d`alcalins irradies par les ions lourds de grande vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protin, L

    1994-10-05

    The aim of this experimental thesis is to study the excitonic mechanisms and of the defect creation, in NaCl and KBr, under dense electronic excitations induced by swift heavy ion irradiations. In the first part, we present the main features of the interaction of swift heavy ions with solid targets, and after we review the well known radiolytic processes of the defect creation during X-ray irradiation. In the second chapter, we describe our experimental set-up. In the chapter III, we present our results of the in-situ optical absorption measurements. This results show that defect creation is less sensitive to the temperature than during a classical irradiation. Besides, we observe new mechanisms concerning the defect aggregation. In the chapter IV, we present the results of excitonic luminescence induced by swift by swift heavy ions. We observe that the luminescence yields only change with the highest electronic stopping power. In the chapter V, we perform thermal spike and luminescence yields calculations and we compare the numerical results to the experiments presented in the chapter IV. (author). 121 refs., 65 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  4. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  5. Strange particle correlations measured by the Star experiment in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions a RHIC; Etude des correlations de particules etranges mesurees par l'experience STAR dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, G

    2004-09-01

    Non-identical correlation functions allow to study the space-time evolution of the source of particles formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The STAR experiment is dedicated to probe the formation of a new state of nuclear matter called Quark Gluon Plasma. The proton - lambda correlation function is supposed to be more sensitive to bigger source sizes than the proton - proton because of the absence of the final state Coulomb interaction. In this thesis, proton - lambda, anti-proton - anti-lambda, anti-proton - lambda and proton - anti-lambda correlation functions are studied in Au+Au collisions at {radical}S{sub NN} = 200 GeV using an analytical model. The proton - lambda and anti-proton - anti-lambda correlation functions exhibit the same behavior as in previous measurements. The anti-proton - lambda and proton - anti-lambda correlation functions, measured for the first time, show a very strong signal corresponding to the baryon - anti-baryon annihilation channel. Parameterizing the correlation functions has allowed to characterize final state interactions. (author)

  6. The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

    2001-07-01

    After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

  7. Contribution to the study of sputtering and damage of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions; Contribution a l'etude de la pulverisation et de l'endommagement du dioxyde d'uranium par les ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlutig, S

    2001-03-01

    Swift heavy ion-solid interaction leads in volume to track creation and on the surface to the ejection of particles into the vacuum. To learn more about initial mechanisms of track formation, we are focused on the sputtering of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions. This present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power on the emission of neutral particles and especially on their angular distribution. These measurements are completed by those of the ions emitted from UO{sub 2} targets bombarded with swift heavy ions. The whole experimental results give access to: i) the nature of the sputtered particles; ii) the charge state of the emitted particles; iii) the direction of ejection of the sputtered particles ; iv) the sputtering yields deduced from the angular distributions. These results are compared to the prediction of the sputtering models proposed in the literature and it seems that the supersonic gas flow model is well suited to describe our results. Finally, the sputtering yields are compared with a set of earlier experimental data on uranium dioxide damage obtained by T. Wiss and we observe that only a small fraction of UO{sub 2} monolayers are sputtered. (author)

  8. Chemical and dynamics properties of heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies by the measurement of the production of the doubly strange baryons in the STAR experiment; Proprietes chimiques et dynamiques des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies du RHIC par la mesure de la production des baryons doublement etranges dans l'experience STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estienne, M

    2005-04-15

    Lattice QCD calculations predict, at {mu}{sub B} {approx} 0, a crossover from ordinary hadronic matter to a Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy ion collisions have been proposed to recreate it in the laboratory and to study its properties. The Au+Au, d+Au collisions at {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV and the Au+Au ones at 62.4 GeV delivered at RHIC have been probed by the measurement of the {xi} particles in the STAR experiment. Their yield evolution with collision energy and system size gives size to the chemical properties of the reaction in the framework of hadronic and statistical models. The {xi} R{sub CP} shows: (1) a meson/baryon dependence for 2 < {sub pT} < 5 GeV/c well reproduced by quark coalescence and recombination models, (2) the formation of a dense matter signed by a R{sub CP} suppression at {sub pT} > 3 GeV/c, (3) strong interactions between constituents suggesting the existence of strong collectivity in the medium. The {xi} transverse flow seems to be interesting to probe the early stage the collision with presumably partonic degrees of freedom. (author)

  9. Fusion-Fission process and gamma spectroscopy of binary products in light heavy ion collisions (40 {<=} A{sub CN} {<=} 60); Processus de fusion-fission et spectroscopie gamma des produits binaires dans les collisions entre ions lourds legers (40 {<=} A{sub NC} {<=} 60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouicer, Rachid [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-11-21

    During the work on which this Thesis is based, the significant role of the Fusion-Fission Asymmetric mechanism in light heavy ion collisions (A{sub NC} {<=} 60) has been emphasized. The Spin Dis-alignment in the oblate-oblate system has supplied evidence for the first time for the Butterfly mode in a resonant-like reaction. These two aspects, one macroscopic and the other more closely related to microscopic effects are certainly different from a conceptual point of view but are quite complementary for a global understanding of dinuclear systems. In the first part, inclusive and exclusive measurements of the {sup 35}Cl + {sup 12}C and {sup 35}Cl + {sup 24}Mg reaction have been performed at 8 MeV/nucleon in the Saclay experiment. These measurements have permitted us to verify the origin of products which have given rise of the asymmetric fusion-fission mechanism and which have demonstrated that the three-body process in this energy range is very weak. In the second part the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si reaction has been performed at the resonance energy E{sub lab}> = 111.6 MeV at Strasbourg with the Eurogam phase II multi-detector array and VIVITRON accelerator. An angular momentum J{sup {pi}} 38{sup +} for inelastic and mutual channels of the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si exit channel has been measured and has supplied evidence for a spin dis-alignment which has been interpreted in the framework of a molecular model by Butterfly motion. The spectroscopic study of {sup 32}S nucleus, has revealed the occurrence of a new {gamma}-ray transition 0{sup +}(8507.8 keV) {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}(2230.2 keV). (author) 105 refs., 116 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Search for (exotic) strange matter in the Star and Alice experiments with the ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders RHIC and LHC; Recherche de matiere etrange (exotique) dans les experiences STAR et ALICE aupres des collisionneurs d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes RHIC et LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, R

    2006-02-15

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions offer the possibility to create conditions of temperature and density that could lead nuclear matter to a state of deconfined partons, the quark-gluon plasma. Strange baryon production is one of the essential observables to understand the mechanisms involved in the medium. Furthermore, theories predict a possible production of strange dibaryons, still hypothetical particles, from which one could draw important inferences in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The experiments STAR at RHIC, and, soon, ALICE at LHC, allow one to search for strange baryons and dibaryons. The STAR sensitivity to the metastable dibaryon H{sup 0} in the {lambda}p{pi}{sup -} decay mode was calculated thanks to a dedicated simulation. The search for the H{sup 0}, and for the {xi}{sup -}p resonance as well, was performed in the STAR Au+Au data at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 62.4 and 200 GeV energies. Within the framework of the preparation of ALICE to the first Pb+Pb data, the detector ability to identify strange baryons {lambda}, {xi} and {omega}, was estimated via several simulations. So as to favour the reconstruction efficiency in a large range of transverse momentum while keeping a reasonable S/B ratio, the influence of the geometrical selections and the size of the reconstruction zone was emphasized. The ALICE sensitivities to the metastable strange dibaryons H{sup 0} and ({xi}{sup 0}p){sub b} and to the {lambda}{lambda} resonance were calculated as well. (author)

  11. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  12. Contribution to the study of the {alpha} spectrometry by the impulse ionization chamber. Application to the study of the beam fine structure of some heavy nuclei; Contribution a l'etude de la spectrometrie {alpha} par la chambre d'ionisation a impulsion. Application a l'etude de la structure fine du rayonnement de quelques noyaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-05-15

    In the first part, it studies an impulse spectrometer of which the resolution and stability have been pushed to their maximum possibilities. It uses an ionization chamber because of its simple and steady functioning. The general characteristics and building of the ionization chamber are described. The electronic devices are described as well as the recording system. The theoretical study of the amplifier has allowed to reduce the amplitude dispersion from electronic devices as background noise. The resolution in energy of an {alpha} spectrometer using an impulse ionization chamber is studied and results are discussed. The spectral lines display of the fine structure under the effect of conversion electrons emitted by coincidence in the ionization chamber is studied. Finally, the detection possibilities of very low intensity spectral lines of fine structure of detection are considered. In the second part, the {alpha} emission of fine structure of {sup 230}Th, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U nuclei is studied. (M.P.)

  13. Study of the reactions resulting in heavy fragment formation in the collisions {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag and Au at 8 to 115 MeV/u; Etude des reactions avec formation d`un fragment lourd dans les collisions {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag et Au de 8 a 115 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Eric Yves [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-11-06

    This work concerns the study of nuclear collisions showing a heavy fragment in {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag and Au from 8 A MeV to 115 A MeV. The reactions are classified by centrality or collision violence via the multiplicity of charged particles detected in a 4{pi} array. For the most peripheral reactions (low multiplicities) we always find a projectile-like fragment with velocity near to that of the beam and a heavy target-like fragment with very small velocity. For the more central collisions we find the well-known incomplete fusion reactions at 17 and 27 A MeV. Above 27 A MeV two groups of very dissipative reactions are observed, both with high charged particle multiplicities. The first reaction group forms several fragments with Z {<=} 10 and average longitudinal velocity near to that of c.m. These are very rare, and are found only for the highest 1% of multiplicities. They produce a heavy fragment and a forward spray ({theta}{<=}60 angle) of particles with charge going from 1 to {approx_equal}13. The momentum carried out by the spray is randomly spread over all the particles. In spite of the increase of momentum carried by this spray with increasing beam energy, a heavy emission source is formed with 1 - 2 GeV of excitation energy. After a phase of expansion, especially signaled by Z = 1 particles, this source then evaporates many particles. Finally we observed the remaining heavy residual nucleus. (author) 117 refs., 85 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Study of the production of {phi}, {rho}, {omega} mesons in the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the SPS of CERN; Etude de la production des mesons {phi}, {rho} et {omega} dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes au SPS du CERN (dans l'experience NA50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villatte, L

    2001-03-28

    The NA50 experiment is one of the experiment using the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) beam at CERN (european laboratory for particle physics). One of the common aim of the SPS experiment is to look for the existence of a new state of the nuclear matter: the quark-gluon plasma. Among the proposed signatures of the quark-gluon plasma is the enhanced production of particles containing strange quarks. In the current work, the NA50/NA38 experiment data are analysed and the relative production of the {phi} and {rho} + {omega} mesons are obtained from Pb-Pb collisions at 158 and S-U at 200 GeV per nucleon. The measured ({phi}/({rho} +{omega})){mu}{mu} ratio as a function of the transverse mass does not present any unexpected behavior, however, central collisions as compared to peripheral collisions show an increase by a factor 1.7. The {phi} and {rho}+{omega} multiplicities are extracted for the Pb-Pb collisions and show that the enhancement of the ({phi}/({rho}+{omega})){mu}{mu} ratio is due to the {phi} meson production increase. The evolution of the {phi} meson multiplicity, versus the number of participant nucleus (N{sub part}), is different from that of the multi-strange baryons. The effective temperatures are deduced from the study of the {phi} and {rho} + {omega} production cross sections with respect to the transverse mass and compared to those obtained by other experiments and other particles. An additional study is done to extract the K/{pi} ratio versus N{sub part}. (authors)

  15. Translation into Spanish of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Carmen Ulloa Ulloa, Lourdes Rico Arce, and Renée H. Fortunato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  16. Void Reactivity Effects in the Second Charge of the Halden Boiling Water Reactor; Effets Cavitaires dans la Deuxieme Charge du Reacteur a Eau Lourde Bouillante de Halden (HBWR); Ehffekty pustotnoj reaktivnosti vo vtoroj zag HBWR; Effectos de Cavitacion en la Segunda Carga del Reactor de Agua Pesada Hirviente de Halden (HBWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, J. E. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    1964-02-15

    The reactivity effect of voids caused by boiling inside the coolant channels in the second fuel charge of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor has been measured both in void-simulated zero-power experiments and under actual power conditions. The void-simulated experiments consisted of measuring the reactivity effect of introducing void columns inside thin-walled tubes to various depths. The tubes were placed at different positions between die stringers in a single 7-rod cluster element practically identical with the normal second-charge fuel elements. This experiment enables an investigation of the reactivity dependence upon void fraction, and also the reactivity dependence of steam-bubble position in the coolant channel. The experiment was carried out in the Norwegian zero-power facility NORA, with a core consisting of 36 second-charge elements and with a lattice geometry identical to the one in HBWR. The temperature dependence of the void effect was investigated in a zero-power experiment with the 100 fuel-element core of HBWR. In a single fuel element the water level inside the coolant channel was depressed to various depths, and the reactivity effect of this perturbation was measured at different temperatures in the temperature interval 50 Degree-Sign C-220 Degree-Sign C. The power void reactivity has been measured in HBWR as a function of nuclear power at different moderator temperatures between 150 Degree-Sign C and 230 Degree-Sign C at powers up to about 16 MW at the highest temperature. The power-void reactivity coefficient is an important quantity in determining the dynamic behaviour of a boiling- water reactor. The theoretical determination of this quantity is, however, complicated by the fact that knowledge about the void distribution in the core is required. The detailed power-void distribution is not easily amenable to experimental determination, and accordingly the void-simulated experiments represent a better case for testing the reactor physics calculation of void effects. Preliminary theoretical comparisons are made for these experiments. Two-group diffusion theory is applied, and the conclusion can be drawn that fair agreement is obtained between theory and experiment for the perturbations in the lattice parameters for a void fraction equal to one, both at low and high temperatures. For intermediate void fractions, however, somewhat less satisfactory agreement is found. (author) [French] L'auteur a mesure, aussi bien lors d'experiences avec vide simule a puissance nulle que dans les conditions normales de puissance, l'effet cavitaire, provoque par l'ebullition qui se produit a l'interieur des canaux du refroidisseur, dans la deuxieme charge de HBWR. Les experiences avec vide simule ont consiste a mesurer les effets que produit sur la reactivite le fait d'enfoncer a des profondeurs differentes des tubes plus ou moins vides a paroi mince. Les tubes ont ete places en plusieurs endroits entre les barres, dans une seule cartouche formee de sept barres en grappe et pratiquement identique aux cartouches de combustible de la deuxieme charge. Cette experience permet de determiner comment la reactivite varie en fonction du volume cavitaire relatif et de l'emplacement des bulles dans le canal du refroidisseur. L'experience a ete effectuee dans le reacteur NORA de puissance zero, avec un coeur compose de 36 cartouches de la deuxieme charge de HBWR et dans une geometrie de reseau identique a celle de ce reacteur. L'auteur a observe comment l'effet cavitaire variait avec la temperature dans un ensemble de puissance zero avec le cceur a 100 cartouches de HBWR. Dans une seule cartouche, il a abaisse le niveau de l'eau a l'interieur du canal de refroidissement a des niveaux differents et mesure l'effet de cette perturbation sur la reactivite a differentes temperatures comprises entre 50 et 220 Degree-Sign C. L'auteur a mesure l'effet cavitaire, a l'interieur de HBWR et dans les conditions de puissance, en fonction de la puissance nucleaire a des temperatures differentes du ralentisseur comprises entre 150 et 230 Degree-Sign C et, a la. temperature la plus elevee, pour des puissances allant jusqu'a 16 MW. Le coefficient cavitaire est une quantite qu'il importe de connaitre lorsqu'on veut determiner le comportement dynamique d'un reacteur a eau bouillante. Or, la determination theorique de cette quantite est difficile du fait qu'il faut connaitre en detail la repartition des cavites dans le coeur. Cette repartition dans les conditions de puissance ne se prete pas facilement a une determination experimentale de sorte que les experiences avec vide simule conviennent mieux pour verifier les calculs de physique des reacteurs portant sur les effets cavitaires. Les donnees de ces experiences ont ete comparees aux resultats theoriques. On a applique la theorie de la diffusion a deux groupes et on peut conclure qu'il y a bon accord entre la theorie et l'experience en ce qui concerne les perturbations dans les parametres du reseau pour un coefficient cavitaire egal a 1, tant aux basses qu'aux hautes temperatures. Toutefois, pour les valeurs intermediaires du coefficient cavitaire, l'accord est moins bon. Pour le calcul macroscopique de l'effet sur la reactivite, on utilise une theorie de perturbation. (author) [Spanish] La ebullicion que se produce en el interior de los canales refrigerantes de la segunda carga de combustible del reactor de agua pesada hirviente de Halden provoca efectos de cavitacion que afectan a la reactividad. Este efecto se ha medido tanto en experimentos con vacio simulado de potencia nula como en condiciones de regimen normal. Los experimentos con vacio simulado consistieron en medir las alteraciones de la reactividad al introducir hasta diversas profundidades tubos vacios de paredes delgadas, que se colocaron en distintas posiciones entre las piezas de union de un haz combustible de siete barras, practicamente identico a los que constituyen la segunda carga de combustible. Este experimento permite investigar las variaciones de la reactividad en funcion del volumen relativo de los vacios y de la posicion de las burbujas de vapor en el canal refrigerante. Se ejecuto en el conjunto noruego de energia nula, NORA, con un cuerpo consistente en 36 elementos de la segunda carga dispuestos en un reticulado de geometria identica a la del reactor HBWR. El autor estudio la variacion del efecto de cavitacion en funcion de la temperatura en un conjunto de potencia nula provisto de 100 elementos combustibles. En un elemento redujo el nivel de agua en el interior del canal refrigerante a varios valores y midio el efecto que ejercia esta perturbacion sobre la reactividad a temperaturas comprendidas entre 50 Degree-Sign C y 220 Degree-Sign C. El efecto de los huecos sobre la reactividad a regimen normal se ha medido en el reactor HBWR en funcion de la potencia para temperaturas del moderador que oscilaron entre 150 Degree-Sign C y 230 Degree-Sign C, alcanzandose a esta ultima temperatura hasta unos 16 MW. El coeficiente de cavitacion en regimen normal constituye un parametro que conviene conocer cuando se trate de determinar el comportamiento dinamico de un reactor de agua hirviente. Sin embargo, su determinacion teorica se complica por el hecho de que es preciso conocer la distribucion de las cavidades en el cuerpo. Tampoco es facil determinarla por via experimental con exactitud cuando el reactor funciona a regimen normal y, por tanto, los calculos de fisica de los reactores de los efectos de las cavidades se comprueban mejor simulando los huecos experimentalmente. Se han efectuado comparaciones preliminares entre los resultadas de esos experimentos y los datos teoricos. Los calculos se realizan por una teoria de difusion de dos grupos y se aprecia que los resultados teoricos y experimentales sobre las perturbaciones de los parametros del reticulado, para un volumen relativo de los vacios igual a 1, concuerdan satisfactoriamente tanto a temperaturas bajas como a temperaturas elevadas. La concordancia es menos satisfactoria para valores intermedios del volumen relativo de los vacios. El efecto de reactividad se calcula macroscopicamente mediante una teoria de las perturbaciones. (author) [Russian] Jeffekt reaktivnosti pustot, vyzvannyh kipeniem v kanalah dlja teplonositelja vo vtoroj zagruzke Haldejskogo kipjashhego tjazhelovodnogo reaktora (HBWR) byl izmeren kak v jeksperimentah nulevoj moshhnosti s imitaciej pustot, tak i v uslovijah fakticheskoj moshhnosti. Jeksperimenty s imitirovannymi pustotami sostojali v izmerenii jeffekta reaktivnosti pustotnyh kolonn, vvodimyh v tonkostennye trubki na razlichnuju glubinu. Trubki byli ustanovleny v raznyh polozhenijah mezhdu prodol'nymi rebrami v odinochnoj sborke, sostojashhej iz semi sterzhnej, prakticheski identichnoj normal'nym toplivnym jelementam vtoroj zagruzki. Jetot jeksperiment pozvolil izuchit' zavisimost' reaktivnosti ot pustogo ob{sup e}ma, a takzhe zavisimost' reaktivnosti ot polozhenija puzyr'kov para v kanale dlja teplonositelja. Jeksperiment byl vypolnen na norvezhskoj ustanovke nulevoj moshhnosti NORA s aktivnoj zonoj iz 36 jelementov vtoroj zagruzki i s geometriej reshetki, analogichnoj geometrii reshetki reaktora HBWR. Temperaturnaja zavisimost' pustotnogo jeffekta byla izuchena na jeksperimental'noj ustanovke nulevoj moshhnosti, imevshej aktivnuju zonu Iz 100 toplivnyh jelementov reaktora HBWR. V odinochnom toplivnom jelemente uroven' vody v kanale dlja teplonositelja snizhalsja do razlichnyh glubin i vlijanie na reaktivnost' jetogo otklonenija ot normal'nyh uslovij izmerjalos' pri razlichnyh temperaturah a intervale temperatur 50 -220eS. Vlijanie pustotnoj reaktivnosti na moshhnost' bylo izmereno na reaktore HBWR kak funkcija jadernoj jenergii pri razlichnyh temperaturah zamedlitelja v diapazone 150 -230e S pri moshhnostjah do 16mgvt (pri samoj vysokoj temperature). Kojefficient pustotnoj reaktivnosti na moshhnosti javljaetsja vazhnym pokazatelem pri opredelenij dinamicheskogo povedenija kipjashhego reaktora. Odnako teoreticheskoe opredelenie jetogo pokazatelja uslozhnjaetsja tem, chto neobhodimo znat' raspredelenie pustot v aktivnoj zone, podrobnye dannye o vlijanii raspredelenija pustot na moshhnost' trudno poddajutsja jeksperimental'nomu opredeleniju, i pojetomu jeksperimenty s imitirovannymi pustotami byli prigodny dlja proverki raschetov jeffektov pustoty. Dlja jetih jeksperimentov delajutsja predvaritel'nye teoreticheskie sravnenija. Primenjaetsja dvugruppovaja teorija diffuzii, i mozhno sdelat' vyvod o tom, chto dostignuta spravedlivaja soglasovannost' mezhdu teoriej i jeksperimentom dlja perturbacij v parametrah reshetki pri pustotnoj chasti ravnoj edinice pri nizkoj i vysokoj temperaturah. Odnako dlja promezhutochnyh pustotnyh chastej ustanovlena menee udovletvoritel'naja soglasovannost'. Dlja makroskopicheskogo rascheta jeffekta reaktivnost' primenjaetsja teorija vozmushhenij. (author)

  17. Analysis of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures and of mixtures of heavy-water and light-water by means of a mass spectrometer; Analyse des melanges hydrogene-deuterium et des melanges d'eau lourde et d'eau legere au moyen du spectrometre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Gueron, J; Roth, E

    1951-07-01

    The differences between hydrogen and deuterium with respect to the capture of thermal neutrons (hydrogen = 0.31 barn; deuterium 0.00065 barn) explains the interest of detecting small variations of the isotopic composition of the heavy waters used in the Chatillon nuclear pile. The aim of this report is to describe and discuss the method used since more than a year for the dosimetry of heavy waters. After a recall of the principle of mass spectroscopy analysis of deuterium-hydrogen mixtures, the preciseness of the results is presented and the balancing method used for the determination of the isotopic composition of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures is explained in detail. Finally, a brief comparison of the preciseness of mass spectroscopy measurements with the analyses made with other methods is performed. Some calculations and the tables of results are presented in appendixes. (J.S.)

  18. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de transfert d`energie au cours d`une collision entre un ion lourd rapide multi-charge et un atome neutre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature < 1 K). The association of time of flight and localisation techniques allows us, for each ionised target atom, to determine the three recoil velocity components with a very good accuracy (a few tens of meters per second). In chapter three, we describe the data analysis method. And then we present in the last chapter the results we have obtained for the collision systems Xe{sup 44+}(6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe{sup 44} + Ar{sup q+}+qe{sup -} (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe{sup 44+} (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe{sup 44+} He{sup 1+,2+}+1e{sup -},2e{sup -}. We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author) 44 refs.

  19. Study of uranium dioxyde sputtering induced by multicharged heavy ions at low and very low kinetic energy: projectile charge effect; Etude de la pulverisation du dioxyde d'uranium induite par des ions lourds multicharges de basse et tres basse energie cinetique; effet de la charge du projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranger, F

    2003-12-01

    Ion beam irradiation of a solid can lead to the emission of neutral or ionized atoms, molecules or clusters from the surface. This comes as a result of the atomic motion in the vicinity of the surface, induced by the transfer of the projectile energy. Then, the study of the sputtering process appears as a means to get a better understanding of the excited matter state around the projectile trajectory. In the case of slow multicharged ions, a strong electronic excitation can be achieved by the projectile neutralization above the solid surface and / or its deexcitation below the surface. Parallel to this, the slowing down of such ions is essentially related to elastic collision with the target atoms. The study of the effect of the initial charge state of slow multicharged ions, in the sputtering process, has been carried out by measuring the absolute angular distributions of emission of uranium atoms from a uranium dioxide surface. The experiments have been performed in two steps. First, the emitted particles are collected onto a substrate during irradiation. Secondly, the surface of the collectors is analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). This method allows the characterization of the emission of neutrals, which are the vast majority of the sputtered particles. The results obtained provide an access to the evolution of the sputtering process as a function of xenon projectile ions charge state. The measurements have been performed over a wide kinetic energy range, from 81 down to 1.5 keV. This allowed a clear separation of the contribution of the kinetic energy and initial projectile charge state to the sputtering phenomenon. (author)

  20. Methods of selection in heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies and de-excitation modes with the INDRA multi-detector; Methodes de tri dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de Fermi et modes de desexcitation avec le multidetecteur INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautesse, Ph

    2005-11-15

    The progress made in particle detection, particularly the design of multi-detectors, like INDRA, that cover a solid angle of almost 4{pi}, have given a new impetus to heavy ion collisions. These detectors are demanding for an efficient way of selecting events that have a common history or similar features, for instance the events representing the de-excitation of a unique emitter. The problem is to find the adequate variable on which the discrimination can be based. Different methods are proposed in this work, the common point is that they require efficient models to reproduce and analyse experimental data in order to apprehend the equation of state of nuclear matter. Most of these models are based on the numerically solving of the nuclear Boltzmann equation. The application to the Ni + Ni reaction with an energy ranging from a few A.MeV to more than 50 A.MeV illustrates this work. (A.C.)

  1. Performance of the Alice muon spectrometer. Weak boson production and measurement in heavy-ion collisions at LHC; Performance du spectrometre a muons d'ALICE. Production et mesure des bosons faibles dans des collisions d'ions lourds aupres du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa del valle, Z

    2007-07-15

    Lattice QCD predicts a transition from a hadronic phase to a Quark Gluon Plasma phase, QGP, for temperatures above 10{sup 13} K. Heavy-ion collisions are proposed to recreate it in laboratory. With such a purpose, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will provide Pb-Pb collisions at 5.5 TeV/u, and the ALICE experiment will permit to explore them. In particular, the ALICE muon spectrometer will permit to investigate the muon related probes (quarkonia, open beauty,...). The expected apparatus performances to measure muons and dimuons are discussed. A factorization technique is employed to unravel the different contributions to the global efficiency. Results indicate that the detector should be able to measure muons up to pT {approx} 100 GeV/c with a resolution of about 10 per cent. We show that weak bosons production could be measured for the first time in heavy-ion collisions. Single muon p{sub T} and dimuons invariant mass distributions will probe W and Z production. As mainly muons from b- and c-quarks decays will populate the intermediate-p{sub T} of 5 - 25 GeV/c, heavy quark in-medium energy loss calculations indicate that the single muon spectra would be suppressed by a factor 2-4 in the most central 0 - 10% Pb-Pb collisions at 5.5 TeV. However, for p{sub T} > 35 GeV/c the weak boson decays are predominant, and no suppression is expected. Estimations indicate that the b- and W-muons crossing point shifts down in transverse momenta by 5 to 7 GeV/c in the most central 0 - 10% Pb-Pb collisions at 5.5 TeV. (author)

  2. Study of {upsilon} family resonances in ultrarelativistic heavy ions collisions within the frame of the Alice experiment at CERN-LHC; Etude des resonances de la famille du {upsilon} dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes a 2.75 TeV/ nucleon et par faisceau sur l'experience Alice du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumonteil, E

    2004-09-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics foresees, at high temperature and/or high energy density, a phase transition between hadronic matter and a phase where quarks and gluons are no more confined in the nucleons: the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). During the past fifteen years, a large experimental program has taken place at CERN and at BNL, to identify the QGP. ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of the plasma via ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at 2.75 TeV/nucleon per beam. The measure of Upsilon's resonances suppression, a powerful signature of a deconfined medium, with the ALICE dimuon spectrometer, is the main topic of this thesis. The first part of the work aims at studying the multi-wires pad chambers of the dimuon arm, used to track the muons from resonances decays. The second part presents an in-beam alignment algorithm able to calculate the positions of the different chambers with a very good accuracy. Finally, the last part proposes a study to lead with the ALICE muon spectrometer, involving the measure of Upsilon and Upsilon's production ratio as a function of the transverse momentum. It has been showed that this study should allow to evidence the QGP and to extract some of its properties. (author)

  3. Mise en oeuvre du calorimètre électromagnétique d'ATLAS et de la reconstruction des électrons avec les premières données du collisionneur de protons LHC. Détermination du potentiel de découverte d'un boson de jauge lourd chargé W^(' )→ev

    CERN Document Server

    Kuna, Marine

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector based at the Large Hadron Collider which has been delivering collisions since the beginning of 2010, with an energy in the centre of mass of 7 TeV. The electron and the discovery potential it carries is the subject of my thesis. The electromagnetic calorimeter is a crucial sub-detector for the measurement of electrons kinematic properties. In order to verify its functioning, I contributed to the first in situ data analysis, cosmic muons in 2008 and LHC beam data in 2009. These analyses showed the electromagnetic calorimeter was operational and efficient over its whole coverage. The knowledge of the electrons energy losses before they reach the calorimeter is mandatory to achieve precise measurements. For that purpose, I contributed to a method evaluating the amount of material upstream using Monte Carlo simulations of high transverse momentum electrons. The information from the electron allows mapping of the material from the inner tracker to the calorimeter entran...

  4. Study of very heavy systems by means of INDRA: First evidence for a volume effect in the nuclear multifragmentation process; Etude de systemes tres lourds observes avec INDRA: Premiere mise en evidence d`un effet de volume dans le processus de multifragmentation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, John David [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-12-10

    We present a study of Gd+U collisions at 36 AMeV measured with the INDRA multidetector, permitting almost complete detection (over 80%) of all the reaction products. We show that events exist which correspond to the multifragmentation of a single system comprising the majority of the nucleons for a cross-section of 2.6 mbarn, by isolating reactions for which the emitted fragments have lost all memory of the entrance channel. Such reactions correspond to neither the most central collisions nor the most isotropic events (in the fragments` momentum space), and therefore cannot be correctly distinguished from the dominant binary deeply-inelastic collisions using these criteria. An initial comparison of the selected data with a statistical code indicates that fragments are formed in a dilute, compact system, undergoing a self-similar expansion corresponding to a collective energy of between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Comparison with the same type of events observed in Xe+Sn collisions at 32 AMeV reveals the existence of a scaling law for the multifragmentation of systems of different mass at the same excitation energy per nucleon: fragment Z distributions are identical while their multiplicity increases proportionally to the mass of the multi-fragmenting system. This observation is interpreted as an experimental signal that this multifragmentation originates in a bulk instability of low-density nuclear matter (spinodal region). A complete semi-classical microscopic calculation for the two reactions, including the formation and multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition of very heavy, low-density systems, reproduces very well not only the experimental fragment multiplicities and Z distributions but also their mean kinetic energies, as well as the size distributions of the largest fragments. (author) 156 refs., 76 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Pulsed-Source Experiments with Multiplying and Non-Multiplying Heavy Water Systems; Experiences a l'Aide de Sources Pulsees sur des Systemes Multiplicateurs et Non Multiplicateurs a Eau Lourde; Ehksperimenty s pul'siruyushchim istochnikom na nerazmnozhayushchikh i razmnozhayushchikh ustrojstvakh s tyazheloj vodoj; Experimentos con Fuentes Pulsadas en Sistemas de Agua Pesada Multiplicadores y No Multiplicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, E.; Heer, W.; Lutz, H. R. [Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1965-10-15

    An extensive series of measurements with a pulsed source of the {sup 3}T(d, n)He{sup 4} type has been performed at the subcritical facility MINOR of the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen. Three types of experiments were carried out to measure: (a) Decay constants of prompt neutron modes in natural and slightly enriched lattices; (b) Subcritical reactivity by means of the prompt decay and delayed neutron tails in natural and slightly enriched lattices; (c) Anisotropy of the thermal diffusion constant in D{sub 2}O containing different numbers of parallel empty tubes of various size. The time-dependent thermal neutron flux was measured in each system at different axial positions to obtain decay constants of the prompt modes for different axial bucklings (Fourier analysis) without changing the actual height of the D{sub 2}O level. The experimental values were compared with theoretical two-group parameters. Limitations of the technique are discussed. In addition, reactivity in highly subcritical systems with p {>=} -40$ was measured directly by utilizing the delayed neutron tail of the pulses. Results are compared with static measurements and show rather good agreement. (author) [French] Une longue serie de mesures a l'aide d'une source puisee du type {sup 3}T(d,n){sup 4}He a ete faite avec l'assemblage sous-critique MINOR de l'Institut federal suisse de recherches nucleaires, a Wuerenlingen. Il s'agissait d'experiences de trois types visant a mesurer les caracteristiques suivantes: a) Les constantes de decroissance des modes de neutrons instantanes dans des reseaux a uranium naturel et des reseaux a uranium faiblement enrichi; b) La reactivite sous-critique au moyen de la decroissance des neutrons instantanes et de la queue des bouffees constituee par des neutrons retardes, dans des reseaux naturels et des resaux faiblement enrichis; c) L'anisotropie de la constante de diffusion des neutrons thermiques dans D{sub 2}O contenant des tubes vides paralleles de diverse dimension, en nombres differents. Les auteurs ont mesure le flux de neutrons thermiques variable dans le temps pour chaque systeme a differentes positions axiales en vue d'obtenir les constantes de decroissance des modes de neutrons instantanes pour differents laplaciens axiaux (analyse de Fourier) sans modifier la hauteur du niveau de D{sub 2}O. Ils ont compare les valeurs experimentales avec les parametres obtenus a l'aide d'une theorie a deux groupes. Ils discutent les limitations de la technique. En outre, ils ont mesure directement la reactivite dans des systemes fortement sous-critiques ou p Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To -40$ en utilisant la queue des bouffees constituee par des neutrons retardes. Enfin, ils comparent les resultats avec ceux de mesures statiques et montrent qu'ils sont en assez bon accord. (author) [Spanish] Los autores utilizaron la instalacion subcritica ' MINOR' del Eidgenoessisches Institut fuer Reaktorforschung de Wuerenlingen para una larga serie de mediciones con una fuente de neutrones pulsados utilizando la reaccion {sup 3}T(d, n){sup 4}He. Llevaron a cabo tres clases de experimentos a fin de medir: 1. Las constantes de decrecimiento de los modos correspondientes a los neutrones instantaneos en reticulados de uranio natural y ligeramente enriquecido. 2. La reactividad en el estado subcritico, partiendo del decrecimiento de los neutrones instantaneos y de los datos proporcionados por las 'colas' de neutrones retardados en reticulados de uranio natural y ligeramente enriquecido. 3. La anisotropia de la constante de difusion termica en D{sub 2}O previa introduccion de un numero variable de tubos paralelos de diversos tamaflos. Se midio el flujo de neutrones termicos en funcion del tiempo en cada uno de los sistemas con distintas posiciones del eje, a fin de obtener las constantes de decrecimiento de los modos de los neutrones instantaneos para distintos laplacianos axiales (analisis de Fourier) sin modificar el nivel real del D{sub 2}O. Los autores comparan los valores experimentales con los parametros de la teoria dedos grupos y examinan seguidamente las limitaciones de esta tecnica. Ademas, midieron directamente, utilizando los datos proporcionados por la 'cola' de neutrones retardados de los impulsos, los valores de la reactividad en sistemas acusadamente subcriticos con p Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To -40 dolares. Estos resultados concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los de las mediciones estaticas. (author) [Russian] Na podkriticheskom ustrojstve MINOR Shvejcarskogo federal'nogo instituta po reaktornym issledovanijam v Wuerenlingen osushhestvlena shirokaja programma izmerenij pri pomoshhi pul'sirujushhego istochnika tipa {sup 3}T(d,n){sup 4}He. Provedeny tri kategorii jeksperimentov dlja izmerenija: a) konstant raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov v estestvennyh i slegka obogashhennyh re- shetkah; b) urovnja reaktivnosti v podkriticheskom sostojanii pri pomoshhi raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov i hvostov zamedlennyh nejtronov v estestvennyh i slegka obogashhennyh reshetkah; i v) anizotropii diffuzionnoj konstanty teplovyh nejtronov v tjazheloj vode s pogruzhen- nym v nee raznym kolichestvom parallel'no raspolozhennyh pustyh trubok raznyh razmerov. Dlja kazhdogo ustrojstva potok teplovyh nejtronov, zavisjashhij ot vremeni, izmerjali v razlichnyh polozhenijah po vysote dlja poluchenija konstant raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov dlja razlichnyh osevyh laplasianov (analiz Fur'e) bez izmenenija vysoty dejstvitel'nogo urovnja tjazheloj vody. Jeksperimental'nye znachenija sravnivajutsja s teoreticheskimi dvu- gruppovymi parametrami. Obsuzhdajutsja nedostatki jetogo metoda. 'dopolnenie k jetomu putem ispol'zovanija hvosta zamedlennyh pul'sirujushhih nejtronov neposredstvennym obra- zom byla izmerena reaktivnost' v sil'no podkriticheskih sistemah s p Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To -40$. Rezul'taty sravnivajutsja so statisticheskimi izmerenijami, i oni dajut ves'ma horoshee sovpadenie. (author)

  6. Heavy metals speciation in solid household waste incineration residues and contribution to the interpretation of volatilization processes; Speciation des metaux lourds dans les residus solides d'usines d'incineration d'ordures menageres et contribution a l'interpretation des processus de vaporisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnepain, B.

    1998-07-01

    Different types of solid residues of incineration plants have at first been analyzed by complementary techniques. Relative tendencies to the heavy metals speciation have been established. On the one hand, the chemical trapping of heavy metals by ashes as well as their respective mobilities have been characterized by the sequential extraction method. On the other hand, morphology of ashes, localization, repartition and chemical environment of heavy metals have been studied by X-ray microanalysis. It has been shown that Cd and Zn are highly leachable, Cr, Ni and Cu are trapped in ashes and Pb, As have intermediary behaviours with a slow mobility. Concentration gradients of heavy metals in terms of the ashes granulometry have been deduced. An experimental device for studying the vaporization of heavy metals in a fluidized bed (simulation of the heavy metals release during the incineration of household wastes) has been perfected. Experiments have been carried out in conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere, residence time) near those of the real processes. A model, coupling the mass and heat transfers with a thermodynamic anticipation of the heavy metals behaviour has been developed and has allowed to exploit these obtained results. (O.M.)

  7. Atmospheric pollution and heating plants in urban area. What technical solutions for the coal and the heavy oil? For which costs?; Pollution atmospherique et chaufferies en milieu urbain. Quelles solutions techniques pour le charbon et le fioul lourd?. A quel couts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In France, furnaces fed with coal and heavy fuel and established in urban area, are bound by many restraints: a reinforcement of the regulations on atmospheric emissions, a strong social demand bound to the urban air quality improvement and a necessary costs mastership. So buildings managers and persons responsible for district heating are confronted with technical and strategical choices. To answer their questions ADEME organized a day of information around four main themes: the urban heating in France, actions on fuels, possible technics for the smokes desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, costs and financing of the solutions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Relationship between Statistical and Dynamical properties of fragments produced at Fermi Energy in Heavy ion collisions: ng; Liens entre les proprietes statistiques et dynamiques des fragments produits lors des collisions d'ions lourds autour de l'energie de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehaut, G.

    2009-10-15

    The properties of the fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy have been studied through the isospin degree of freedom. First, a theoretical approach based on a lattice gas model with two types of particles (neutron,proton) interacting by an isospin dependent and Coulomb interactions was developed. The study of the phase diagram shows that this system presents three different phases (liquid, gas, fission). In the liquid and gas phases, the energy of the system was described by a density functional, where the temperature dependence acts only on the density. The symmetry term of this functional was related to the isotopic content of the biggest fragment via an iso-scaling analysis. Secondly a systematic study of the stopping power of the nuclear matter and isospin equilibration of light particles in the most violent collisions was carried out using the experimental data taken by the INDRA multidetector at GANIL and GSI. Two stopping power regimes appear; at low energy (< 40 MeV/A) the stopping power decreases with increasing beam energy, whereas at high energy the stopping power is governed by the quantity of matter along the beam direction. An other study has been focused on the Xe+Sn reaction at 32 and 45 MeV/A with different isospin systems. The separation of three different reaction mechanisms by use of a principal component analysis allowed us to observe that the isospin content of light particles seems to be independent on the mechanism, but depends on the violence of the collision (i.e. impact parameter). (author)

  9. Methods of selection in heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies and de-excitation modes with the INDRA multi-detector; Methodes de tri dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de Fermi et modes de desexcitation avec le multidetecteur INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautesse, Ph

    2005-11-15

    The progress made in particle detection, particularly the design of multi-detectors, like INDRA, that cover a solid angle of almost 4{pi}, have given a new impetus to heavy ion collisions. These detectors are demanding for an efficient way of selecting events that have a common history or similar features, for instance the events representing the de-excitation of a unique emitter. The problem is to find the adequate variable on which the discrimination can be based. Different methods are proposed in this work, the common point is that they require efficient models to reproduce and analyse experimental data in order to apprehend the equation of state of nuclear matter. Most of these models are based on the numerically solving of the nuclear Boltzmann equation. The application to the Ni + Ni reaction with an energy ranging from a few A.MeV to more than 50 A.MeV illustrates this work. (A.C.)

  10. Determination of the excitation energy and angular momentum of the quasi-projectiles produced in the heavy ion collisions Xe + Sn; Determination de l'energie d'excitation et du moment angulaire des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions d'ions lourds Xe + Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genouin-Duhamel, Emmanuel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 Caen (France)

    1999-04-08

    This work is a contribution to the study of properties of hot nuclei formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. It is shown that most of the reaction cross section is associated with binary dissipative collisions, accompanied by the production of particles from a region between the two reaction partners. This study is focussed on excitation energy and angular momentum of projectile-like fragment (PLF) in {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn reactions from 25 to 50 MeV per nucleon. Several methods are used to characterize hot nuclei (velocity, charge, mass and excitation energy). All these methods are compared between them and indicate that high energies are deposited in the nuclei during collision (it may exceed the nucleus binding energy). The angular momentum transferred into intrinsic spin to PLF in the peripheral collisions has been deduced from angular distributions and kinetic energies of the emitted light charged particles (atomic number smaller ar equal to 2). Both methods agree qualitatively. The spin values decrease with the violence of the collision. These values correspond to values averaged over the whole deexcitation chain of nuclei. The predictions of transport models reproduce qualitatively the most peripheral collisions and suggest that high spins are transferred to PLF (from 30 to 50 {Dirac_h}). Larger angular momentum values are observed at the lowest incident energy. The time hierarchy in the evaporation process and the role of mid-rapidity emission are also discussed.

  11. Study of the heavy ions (Au+Au at 150 AMeV) collisions with the FOPI detector. Comparison with the Landau-Vlasov model; Etude des collisions d`ions lourds AU+AU a 150 A.MeV avec le detecteur FOPI. Comparaison avec le modele de Landau-Vlasov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussange, S

    1995-09-15

    In this thesis, heavy ions (Au+Au) collisions experiments are made at 150 AMeV.In the first part, a general study of the nuclear matter equation is presented. Then the used Landau-Vlasov theoretical model is describe. The third part presents the FOPI experience and the details of how to obtain this theoretical predictions (filter, cuts, corrections, possible centrality selections).At the end, experimental results and comparisons with the Landau-Vlasov model are presented. (TEC). 105 refs., 96 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. 827-IJBCS-Article-Elisabeth Yehouenou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    La zone nord est surélevée par rapport à la zone sud. Taux de métaux lourds dans le sol. La Figure 1 montre la teneur en métaux lourds dans les échantillons de sols prélevés aussi bien du côté sud que du côté nord du site. Il en ressort que lesdits sols sont contaminés par des métaux toxiques comme le zinc, le chrome, le ...

  13. 2140-IJBCS-Article-Koffi Marcelin Yao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Mots clés : Métaux traces, matière organique, adsorption, désorption, Estuaire. INTRODUCTION. La contamination de l'atmosphère, de l'hydrosphère et des sédiments par les métaux lourds est aujourd'hui très préoccupant pour les pays développés et émergents. Les métaux lourds sont des éléments métalliques dont la.

  14. Entraide bénévole Suisse - Thaïlande

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Qui sommes-nous ? Une équipe de bénévoles désireux d’améliorer le quotidien de familles productrices, au sud-est de la Thaïlande, en vous offrant une production artisanale d’excellentes épices et tisanes de première qualité. CULTIVÉES SANS PESTICIDES NI ENGRAIS. Nous vous offrons plus de 30 moyens de prendre soin de vous et de ceux que vous aimez! Rejoignez-nous sur : www.saveursdusiam.net  Nous serons le jeudi 1er décembre dans le Bâtiment principal de 10 h 00 à 16 h 00. Les Saveurs du Siam sont parties intégrantes de la FONDATION HOPE-HOUSE «SAWATDI» www.hopehouse.ch

  15. Un polar métonymique : Hotel Brasil, de Frei Betto

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hotel do Brasil constitue un exemple de roman à double détente. En effet, entre deux tranches d’histoire policière traditionnelle, à base de crime mystérieux et d’enquête difficile, se trouve une tranche de Brésil authentique, cru et saignant, d’une saveur âpre incontestable. Hôtel du Brésil se présente sous la forme, classique, d’un rassemblement de personnes (représentation métonymique de la société brésilienne) dans un hôtel bon marché, d’un quartier populaire de Rio, où est commis un crim...

  16. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....

  17. Hydroplaning speed and infrastructure characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    CEREZO, Véronique; GOTHIÉ, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The frictional forces developed between the tire and wet pavement have a great effect on the safety of vehicles. This paper exposes the results of a study, which aims at modeling the hydroplaning phenomenon taking into account the load transfer between the rear and the front wheels, the water depth on the road, the skid resistance before total hydroplaning. A part of this work was funded by the PREDIT 3 (IRCAD project). In a first step, a comparison of the main existing tire/road contact m...

  18. Etude des désintégrations $\\boldsymbol{B^0_{(s)}\\to\\bar{D}^0 K^+ K^-}$ et des sous-modes $\\boldsymbol{B^0_{(s)}\\to \\bar{D}^{(*)0}\\phi}$ avec le détecteur LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389141; T'Jampens, Stéphane

    L'expérience LHCb a été conçue pour étudier la physique des saveurs, dont entre autre la violation de CP, sur le collisioneur proton-proton LHC. La première phase de fonctionnement du LHC a durée de 2011 à 2012, ce qui a permis à LHCb de collecter $3.19~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ de données à une énergie dans le centre de masse des collisions de $\\sqrt{s} = 7~TeV$ et $\\sqrt{s} = 8~TeV$. L'analyse présentée dans cette thèse est basée sur l'ensemble des données collectées par LHCb lors de la première phase de fonctionnement (2011-2012). Le mécanisme de Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) est le mécanisme décrivant les transitions entre les différentes familles de quarks et la violation de CP dans le cadre du Modèle Standard. Les expériences de la décennie précédente dédiées à la physique des saveurs, BaBar et Belle, ont permis de démontrer le fonctionnement du mécanisme CKM et qu'il est majoritairement standard. A présent LHCb a pour objectif de mesurer avec précision les paramètres de ce...

  19. Dynamics of heavy nucleus collisions in the reaction {sup 86}Kr+{sup 165}Ho at 60 MeV/n by means of the DeMoN neutron multi-detector; Etude de la dynamique des collisions entre noyaux lourdes dans la reaction {sup 86}Kr + {sup 165}Ho a 60 MeV/n a l`aide du multidetecteur de neutron DeMoN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorvaux, Olivier [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires de Strasbourg-Cronenbourg, 67 (France)

    1997-01-14

    This work is dedicated to the study of binary dissipative collisions for the system Kr + Ho at 60 AMeV. The first chapter is devoted to the used experimental set-up. In particular, the neutron detector DeMoN and a new parallel plate avalanche counter, achieved for this experiment are described. In the next chapters we analyse the neutron energy spectra. The study is fulfilled through a simulation taking into account two, and then, three sources in order to upraise the excitation energy sharing between the two residual fragments. The final results of the equal excitation energy sharing is compared to the predictions of a statistical model and a participant-spectator one. This study also underlines an intermediate velocity source which has the main characteristics of a neck emission. In the last chapter the neutron energy spectra analysed in the frame of the projectile-like-fragment (PLF) show the existence of the light particle emission component called pre-thermalization. It means that, in a first step of the collision there is a competition between the deposit of energy in the system and its removal. From this analysis we can say that the temperature of the residual fragments is usually overestimated. The resulting temperature of the PLF is quite low, and is about 3.5 MeV. (author) 47 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of myosin heavy beta chains in human serum for the evaluation of the size of myocardial infarction: correlation with myocardial Tl-201 SPECT and cardiac angioscintigraphy. Le dosage des chaines lourdes beta de la myosine serique dans l'approche de la taille de l'infarctus du myocarde: correlation avec la tomoscintigraphie myocardique au Tl-201 et l'angioscintigraphie cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facello, A.; Gries, P.; Demangeat, C.; Brunot, B.; Roul, G.; Demangeat, J.L.; Moulichon, M.; Bareiss, P.; Sacrez, A.; Constantinesco, A. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hautepierre, 67 - Strasbourg (FR))

    1990-01-01

    To determine the relationship between serum levels of myosin heavy beta chains assessed by an IRMA technique and other radionuclide and enzymatic parameters in the evaluation of the size of myocardial infarction, we studied 22 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Blood samples taken daily between 1st to 13th day of evolution allow the determination of peak and integral of myosine release that showed a good correlation (p<0.01) with myocardial underperfusion score in T1-201 SPECT, left ventricular ejection fractions at 1st day and at the pre-discharge study, just as CPK peak. This new assay is an interesting mean to evaluate the size of myocardial infarction.

  1. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  2. Study of the color effect in a quark-gluon plasma on the production rates of quarkonia in heavy ion collisions in the Phenix experiment; Etude de l'effet d'ecrantage de couleur dans un plasma de quarks et de gluons sur les taux de production des quarkonia dans les collisions d'ions lourds aupres de l'experience Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotozafindrabe, A

    2007-05-15

    This work deals with the measurement of the production of J/{psi} in Cu + Cu collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon pair via their decay channel into 2 muons. The experimental data used is that collected during the 2005 campaign at the RHIC. In the first chapter, we present the theoretical context of the study of quark-gluon plasmas (QGP) and its production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The second chapter deals with the production of J/{psi} in proton-proton collisions and in case of light ion collisions where QGP can not be produced. The experimental setting is presented in the third chapter, particularly the muon spectrometer and the detectors whose purpose is to measure collision centrality. Data analysis concerning the extraction of the signal and the reconstruction of data is described in the fourth chapter. The method that has enabled us to extract the production of the J/{psi} as well as its uncertainties is detailed in the fifth chapter.

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for Heavy Vehicles: Combining the Simulation and Engine-In-the-Loop Techniques to Maximize the Fuel Economy and Emission Benefits Propulsion hybride hydraulique des poids lourds : une approche alliant les techniques de simulation et d’« Engine-In-the-loop » (EIL afin de maximiser les économies de carburant et les avantages en termes d’émissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Z.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for a rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator. This places particular emphasis on development of the supervisory controller. The conventional wisdom is to operate the engine at the “sweet spot”, but the aggressive pursuit of engine efficiency as the sole objective can lead to frequent and rapid diesel engine transients, thus causing an adverse affect on the soot emissions and driver feel. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive methodology for considering a combined hybrid system fuel-economy and emissions objective. The fuel economy is addressed with the simulation-based approach, while investigating the impact of engine transients on particulate emission relies on the Engine-In-the-loop (EIL capability. The EIL study confirms advantages of a modulated state-of-charge control over the thermostatic approach, and demonstrates the ability of the Series Hydraulic Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the medium truck by 72%, while reducing the particulate emission by 74% compared to the conventional baseline over the city driving schedule. La situation énergétique mondiale, la dépendance du secteur des transports vis-à-vis des combustibles d’origine fossile et la nécessité d’une réponse rapide face au défi présenté par le réchauffement climatique fournissent une forte motivation pour le développement de moyens de propulsion véhiculaires économes. Pour les camions, cette tâche est particulièrement difficile à accomplir du fait d’importantes contraintes de taille et de poids. L’hybridation est la seule approche qui puisse déboucher sur des progrès importants à court et moyen termes. En particulier, la configuration “hybride série” découple le moteur thermique des roues et permet une flexibilité complète dans le contrôle des points de fonctionnement moteur. De plus, la conversion et le stockage de l’énergie hydraulique fournissent une densité de puissance et un rendement excellents. Le défi technologique tient à la faible densité d’énergie de l’accumulateur hydraulique, et met en avant l’importance particulière du développement du gestionnaire de l’énergie. Il est communément admis qu’il faut maintenir le moteur au point de rendement maximum mais, si l’objectif ultime en terme énergétique consiste à optimiser drastiquement le rendement du moteur, ceci induit des phases transitoires fréquentes causant pour des moteurs diesels des effets opposés tant sur l’émission de particules que sur l’agrément de conduite. Par conséquent, nous proposons une méthodologie pour le superviseur d’énergie d’un système hybride, qui prend en compte 2 objectifs : la réduction de consommation et la réduction des émissions polluantes. Les économies de carburant sont prises en compte par une approche fondée sur la simulation, alors que l’étude de l’impact des phases transitoires du moteur sur les émissions de particules, est fondée sur un dispositif expérimental combinant modèles temps réel et moteur réel – l’EIL (Engine-In-the-Loop. Le dispositif EIL confirme que le contrôle de la répartition énergétique thermique/hydraulique de l’état de charge des batteries (SOC présente des avantages certains sur celui basé sur l’approche de contrôle type « bang-bang ». De plus, elle démontre la capacité de l’Hybride Hydraulique Série à améliorer de 72 % les économies de carburant d’un camion de taille moyenne tout en réduisant les émissions de particules de 74 % comparée á la référence conventionnelle sur le cycle de conduiteurbain.

  4. Pulsed and Static Neutron Measurements in Light-Water and Heavy-Water Exponentials; Mesures par les Methodes Pulsee et Statique dans les Ensembles Exponentiels a Eau Legere et a Eau Lourde; Izmerenie impul'snykh i staticheskikh nejtronov v ehksponentsial'nykh ustanovkakh s obychnoj i tyazheloj vodoj; Mediciones por los Metodos Pulsados y Estaticos en Conjuntos Exponenciales de Agua Ligera y Agua Pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, T. F.; Perez, R. B.; Fry, D. N.; Hartley, R. H.; Smith, S. P.D.; Diaz, N. J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1964-04-15

    The exponential experiment has long been used to determine the material buckling of a multiplying medium. More recently, the pulsed-neutron technique has been applied to measure the time eigenvalue {lambda} from which k{sub {infinity}} may be deduced. The latter method has the potential advantage of requiring smaller lattice samples than the static exponential method. However, to establish the validity of the pulsed method, intercomparisons between the pulsed and the static techniques are needed. We have performed such measurements with both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O moderators in bare and reflected systems; a tank 1 m in diameter was used for the experiments. To correlate the measured decay constants with pertinent parameters of the system, a modified one-group theoretical model (hereafter called model A) was used. Thus {lambda} is given by a simple relationship involving {lambda}{sub 0}, k{sub {infinity}} {tau}, L{sup 2} and B{sup 2} where B{sup 2} satisfies the two-region critical equation. The fast non-leakage probability was represented by Fermi Age theory. The computational scheme involved first estimating the value of the decay constant {lambda}, and then iterating until a value of B{sup 2} was found which was consistent with the critical equation and the boundary conditions. Two other models were also tested: Model B - a two-region, one-group system is assumed in which B{sup 2}{sub g} in the Fermi kernel is taken as the geometrical buckling of the equivalent bare system with reflector savings. Model C - a two-group bare system with reflector savings is assumed. Comparison of the calculated and experimental decay constants indicates that only Model A gives satisfactory agreement. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The presence of the reflector has a large influence on the physics of the pulsed system. The expedient of assuming a reflector savings is not generally valid. (2) The value of the decay constant {lambda} is very sensitive to the assumed value of the fast non-leakage probability. The experiments indicate that k{sub {infinity}} can be determined for small heterogeneous assemblies using the pulsed- neutron technique. Work is currently in progress on hollow uranium rods which permit simulation of organic coolants. (author). (author) [French] Les experiences exponentielles ont ete longtemps utilisees pour determiner le laplacien matiere d'un milieu multiplicateur. A une date plus recente, on a fait appel a la methode des neutrons puises pour mesurer la valeur propre de temps {lambda} dont on peut deduire k{sub {infinity}}. L'avantage de cette derniere methode, par rapport a la methode exponentielle statique, est de permettre l'emploi de cellules plus petites. Cependant, pour determiner sa validite, il faut comparer ses resultats a ceux des methodes statiques. Les auteurs ont fait les mesures correspondantes en employant comme ralentisseur H{sub 2}O et D{sub 2}0 dans des systemes avec et sans reflecteur; les experiences ont eu lieu dans une cuve de 1 m de diametre. Pour etablir une correlation entre les constantes de decroissance mesurees et les parametres pertinents du systeme, les auteurs ont fait appel a un modele theorique a un groupe modifie (appele ci-apres modele A). Ils ont ainsi obtenu par une formule simple ou entrent {lambda}{sub 0}, k{sub {infinity}} {tau}, L{sup 2} et B{sup 2}, et dans laquelle B{sup 2} satisfait a l'equation critique a deux regions. La probabilite d'absence de fuite de neutrons rapides etait exprimee par la theorie de l'age de Fermi. La methode de calcul a consiste a evaluer d'abord la valeur de la constante de decroissance {lambda} et ensuite a operer par iteration jusqu'a ce que l'on ait trouve pour B{sup 2} une valeur compatible avec l'equation critique et les conditions aux limites. Les auteurs ont egalement essaye deux autres modeles, a savoir: Modele B: On imagine un systeme a un groupe et deux regions, ou le facteur B{sup 2}{sub g} du noyau de Fermi est considere comme etant le laplacien geometrique du systeme equivalent sans reflecteur avec gain reflecteur. Modele C: On imagine un systeme sans reflecteur a deux groupes avec gain reflecteur. En comparant les constantes de decroissance obtenues par calcul et par voie experimentale, on constate que seul le modele A assure une concordance satisfaisante. On peut en tirer les conclusions ci-apres: 1. La presence du reflecteur a una grande influence sur la physique du systeme puise. L'hypothese selon laquelle on admet un gain reflecteur n'est pas toujours valable. 2. La valeur de la constante de decroissance {lambda} depend etroitement de la valeur admise pour la probabilite d'absence de fuite de neutrons rapides. Les experiences indiquent que la methode des neutrons puises permet de determiner k{sub {infinity}} pour des ensembles heterogenes de petites dimensions. Des travaux sont en cours sur des barres d'uranium creuses qui permettent de simuler l'emploi de fluides de refroidissement organiques. (author) [Spanish] Desde hace tiempo se recurre a experimentos exponenciales para determinar el laplaciano material de un medio multiplicador. En fecha mas reciente se ha comenzado a utilizar la tecnica de los neutrones pulsados para medir los valores propios del tiempo, {lambda}, de los que puede deducirse k{sub {infinity}}. Este ultimo metodo presenta la ventaja de que permite el empleo de reticulados mas pequefios que el metodo exponencial estatico. Sin embargo, para establecer la validez del metodo pulsado, es preciso comparar sus resultados con los obtenidos mediante los metodo estaticos. Los autores han efectuado estas mediciones en sistemas con y sin reflector, utilizando H{sub 2}O y D{sub 2}O en calidad de moderador; en los experimentos emplearon un tanque de 1 m de diametro. La correlacion entre las constantes de decrecimiento medidas y los parametros pertinentes del sistema se efectuo empleando un modelo teorico modificado de un solo grupo (denominado modelo A). El valor de {lambda} se deduce mediante una formula sencilla en la que intervienen {lambda}{sub 0}, k{sub {infinity}} {tau}, L{sup 2} y B{sup 2} en la cual B{sup 2} satisface la ecuacion critica de dos zonas. La probabilidad de ausencia de escape de los neutrones rapidos se expreso por la teoria de la edad de Fermi. El metodo de calculo consistio en asignar un valor aproximado a la constante de desintegracion {lambda}, y en operar luego por iteracion hasta encontrar un valor de B{sup 2} compatible con la ecuacion critica y las condiciones limite. Tambien se ensayaron dos otroe modelos, a saber: Modelo B: Se imagina un sistema de dos zonas y un solo grupo en el que el factor B{sup 2}{sub g} del nucleo de Fermi se toma como laplaciano geometrico del sistema desnudo equivalente, teniendo en cuenta la economia del reflector. Modelo C: Se imagina un sistema desnudo de dos grupos en el que se tiene en cuenta la economia del reflector. Al comparar las constantes de desintegracion calculadas y obtenidas experimentalmente, se comprueba que solo asegura una concordancia satisfactoria el modelo A. Esto permite llegar a las siguientes conclusiones: 1. La presencia del reflector ejerce una influencia considerable sobre la fisica del sistema pulsado. La hipotesis segun la cual se admite una economia debida al reflector no es valida en todos los casos. 2. El valor de la constante de decrecimiento {lambda} depende en gran medida del valor atribuido a la probabilidad de ausencia de escape de los neutrones rapidos. Los experimentos indican que la tecnica de los neutrones pulsados permite determinar k{sub {infinity}} en conjuntos heterogeneos de pequeflas dimensiones. Los autores estan llevando a cabo trabajos con barras huecas de uranio que permiten simular el empleo de refrigerantes organicos. (author) [Russian] Dolgoe vremja dlja opredelenija material'nogo laplasiana razmnozhajushhej sredy ispol'zovalsja jeksponencial'nyj jeksperiment. Sovsem nedavno dlja izmerenija sobstvennogo znachenija vremeni {lambda}, iz kotorogo mozhno vyvesti k' , primenjalsja metod impul'snyh nejtronov. Odnako dlja ustanovlenija pravomernosti impul'snogo metoda neobhodimo proizvesti sravnenie mezhdu impul'snym i staticheskim metodami. My vypolnili takie izmerenija s zamedliteljami iz H{sub 2}O i D{sub 2}O v sistemah s otrazhatelem i bez takovogo. Dlja jeksperimentov ispol'zovalsja bak diametrom 1 m. Dlja korreljacii izmerennyh postojannyh raspada s sootvetstvujushhimi-parametrami sistemy, ispol'zovalas' modificirovannaja odnogruppovaja teoreticheskaja model' (imenuemaja v dal'nejshem model'ju A). Tak, {lambda} vyrazhaetsja prostym otnosheniem {lambda}{sub 0}, k{sub {infinity}} {tau}, L{sup 2} i B{sup 2}, gde B{sup 2} udovletvorjaet kriticheskomu ravneniju dvuh zon. Vychislitel'naja shema vkljuchaet opredelenie snachala znachenija postojannoj raspada {lambda} s posledujushhej interaciej do teh por, poka ne budet najdeno znachenie V', sootvetstvujushhee kriticheskomu uravneniju i granichnym uslovijam . Byli oprobovany takzhe dve drugie modeli: Model' V-dvuhzonnaja odnogruppovaja sistema, v kotoroj B{sup 2}{sub g} v funkcii vlijanija Fermi prinimaetsja kak geometricheskij laplasian jekvivalentnoj sistemy bez otrazhatelja s otrazhatel'noj dobavkoj. Model' C -dvuhgruppovaja sistema bez otrazhatelja s otrazhatel'noj dobavkoj. Sravnenie raschetnyh i jeksperimental'nyh postojannyh raspada pokazyvaet, chto tol'ko model' A daet udovletvoritel'noe sovpadenie. Mozhno sdelat' sledujushhie vyvody: 1. Prisutstvie otrazhatelja sil'no vlijaet na fiziku impul'snoj sistemy Metod predpolozhenija otrazhatel'noj dobavki ne vsegda cenen. 2. Znachenie postojannoj raspada {lambda} ochen' chuvstvitel'no k predpolagaemomu znacheniju verojatnosti izoezhanija utechki oystryh nejtronov. Jeksperimenty pokazali, chto dlja nebol'shih geterogennyh sborok k mozhno opredelit' metodom impul'snyh nejtronov. V nastojashhee vremja provodjatsja raboty po pustotelym uranovym sterzhnjam, kotorye pozvoljajut imitirovat' organicheskie teplonositeli. (author)

  5. Effect of temperature on the valency bands of HDO in water in the liquid and solid states. Effects on the analysis of heavy water using infra-red absorption; Effet de temperature sur les bandes de valence de HDO dans l'eau a l'etat liquide et a l'etat solide - consequences pour l'analyse de l'eau lourde par absorption infra-rouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    After, a description of the technique used, a qualitative examination is made of the influence of the temperature on the {nu}{sub OH}(3,400 cm{sup -1}) and {nu}{sub OD} (2,500 cm{sup -1}) valence bands of HDO in the liquid state and then during the passage to the solid state. Quantitative examination with two cells of different thickness makes it possible to define the influence of temperature on the residual absorption of the pure liquid (D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O and on the valency bands ({nu}{sub OH} and {nu}{sub OD} respectively). It is found that a similar change occurs in the two bands but that the changes in the background are very different. During the passage from the liquid to the solid state the shape of the bands varies considerably but little change occurs in the total intensity. It has been possible to express these results in a simple form which is directly applicable to analytical problems. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel de la technique utilisee, on examine qualitativement l'influence de la temperature sur les bandes de valence {nu}{sub OH} (3400 cm{sup -1}) et {nu}{sub OD} (2500 cm{sup -1}) de HDO a l'etat liquide puis le passage a l'etat solide. L'examen quantitatif, avec deux cuves d'epaisseurs differentes, permet de preciser l'influence de la temperature sur l'absorption residuelle du liquide pur (D{sub 2}O ou H{sub 2}O) et sur les bandes de valence ( {nu}{sub OH} et {nu}{sub OD} respectivement). On constate une evolution parallele de ces bandes mais un comportement tres different du fond continu. Lors du passage de l'etat liquide a l'etat solide, la forme des bandes varie considerablement mais non l'intensite totale. On a pu formuler ces resultats sous une forme simple applicable directement aux problemes analytiques. (auteurs)

  6. india : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'initiative Casablanca rassemble des militantes et des universitaires du Sud, afin d'intégrer les connaissances des femmes à la question de la pauvreté mondiale, dont le fardeau de plus en plus lourd afflige surtout les femmes. Date de début ...

  7. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\PDF 26(2)\\SENOU.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    cadmium (Cd) des lixisols et vertisols a été évaluée en station. Les sols ... camara (Tea of Gambia) to accumulate heavy metals such as the Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and. Cadmium ... métaux lourds, un procédé de phytoremédiation.

  8. 1886-IJBCS-Article-Barnabas Kayalto

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    espèces de poissons, des sédiments et des eaux du Lac Tchad. Barnabas .... Des poissons. L'échantillonnage était fait au bord du ..... craindre. Tableau 1 : Teneur en métaux lourds des eaux, en ppm (mg/L), moyenne ± écart-type par.

  9. 724-IJBCS-Article-Aleodjrodo Patrick Edorh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Pesticides et métaux lourds dans l'eau de boisson, les sols et les sédiments de la ceinture ... 1Ministère de l'Agriculture, de l'Elevage et de la Pêche (MAEP), Bénin. 2Département de ..... biologique et du coton conventionnel. 65p. GESAMP.

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    7 sept. 2015 ... 1Service de Chirurgie Viscérale I, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc ... hystérectomie coelioscopique serait probablement du à la formation ... vie plus longtemps, continue à ovuler, demeure lourd et peut.

  11. Preparation of butadiene D{sub 6} -1-1-2-3-4-4; Preparation du butadiene D{sub 6} -1-1-2-3-4-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Chatelain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A description of the preparation of butadiene D{sub 6} by dehalogenation of perchlorobutadiene by zinc and heavy water in dioxane. (author) [French] Description de la preparation du butadiene D{sub 6} par reduction deshalogenante du perchlorobutadiene par le zinc et l'eau lourde dans le dioxane. (auteur)

  12. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation Belkacem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étudié la séparation de quelques métaux lourds tels que le fer, le nickel, ... the separation of some heavy metals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and ... généralement basées sur l'adsorption (par ... Différents essais de concentration en.

  13. 61 Contamination du lait caillé et de l'œuf consommé en Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Environnement,. Université ... Résumé. La présente étude vise à évaluer l'aspect sanitaire de l'alimentation humaine à travers deux produits à ... un lourd fardeau social et économique sur les communautés et sur leurs systèmes de santé [7].

  14. Pain in Osteoarthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    2. Imarengiaye CO. 1Department of Anaesthesiology, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital ... related joint pain experienced on most days in any given month, for which no other cause is ... and loss/limitation of function in the affected joint. ... 1.75 million people have symptomatic OA .... cord and transmission of the nerve impulse to.

  15. Simple models for usual media of thermalization; Modeles simples pour les thermaliseurs usuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soule, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    One determines 'secondary models' of graphite, light water, heavy water and beryllium at different temperatures. (author) [French] On determine des 'modeles secondaires' du graphite, de l'eau legere, de l'eau lourde et du beryllium a differentes temperatures. (auteur)

  16. : tous les projets | Page 251 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La maladie de Chagas, une maladie grave à transmission vectorielle, impose une lourde charge de morbidité aux populations pauvres de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (région ALC). Date de début : 31 mars 2011. End Date: 31 mars 2014. Sujet: TRYPANOSOMIASIS, ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, ...

  17. MAQUETTE ORL Décembre 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le bilan d'extension doit donc comporter systématiquement une radiographie du thorax, une échographie abdominale et une scintigraphie osseuse. Le pronostic du carcinome adénoïde kystique, tumeur plus agressive, est grevé d'une lourde mortalité à court terme. (10). Notre patiente est toujours en vie au terme de deux.

  18. 1441-IJBCS-Article- Senou Issaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La phytorémediation est une technique alternative d'extraction des métaux lourds dans les sols contaminés. ...... 2010. Phytoaccumulation of lead by selected wetland plant species. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 41: .... of arsenic, chromium and zinc by.

  19. MEGNANOU RMmdi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Tableau 1). Ce dernier est cependant plus riche en minéraux que les beurres beige et gris (Tableau 3). Tous les types de beurres de karité commercia- lisés sur les marchés locaux et étudiés, contiennent des métaux lourds (plomb et nickel).

  20. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Julann

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.

  1. Gestion des risques pour la santé présents dans les petites fermes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La prévention et la gestion de la cryptosporidiose sont lourdes pour les hôpitaux et ... des régions urbaines pauvres du Kenya qu'il est plus dangereux de manger des légumes ... ÉTUDE DE CAS – Kenya : Paludisme et agriculture au Kenya.

  2. Euroopa filmiakadeemia staar jättis Tallinnasse jälje / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia poolt antava elutööauhinna saanud šveitsi näitleja Bruno Ganzi kohtumisest Solarise kinos vaatajatega. Nimekiri: Euroopa filmiauhinnad 2010. Euroopa film 2010 - "Variautor", režissöör - Roman Polanski ("Variautor"), naisnäitleja - Sylvie Testud ("Lourdes"), meesnäitleja - Ewan McGregor ("Variautor")

  3. Publications | Page 334 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3331 - 3340 of 6381 ... Raising the Bar for Microbiologists. Dr Ana Sanchez was educated in Sweden and now lives and works in Canada, but she has never forgotten Honduras, where she was born. Today a Community Health Sciences professor at Brock University, she works with Dr Lourdes.

  4. Publications | Page 335 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3341 - 3350 of 6384 ... Raising the Bar for Microbiologists. Dr Ana Sanchez was educated in Sweden and now lives and works in Canada, but she has never forgotten Honduras, where she was born. Today a Community Health Sciences professor at Brock University, she works with Dr Lourdes.

  5. Etude de la performance des radars hautes-frequences CODAR et WERA pour la mesure des courants marins en presence partielle de glace de mer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamli, Emna

    Les radars hautes-frequences (RHF) mesurent les courants marins de surface avec une portee pouvant atteindre 200 kilometres et une resolution de l'ordre du kilometre. Cette etude a pour but de caracteriser la performance des RHF, en terme de couverture spatiale, pour la mesure des courants de surface en presence partielle de glace de mer. Pour ce faire, les mesures des courants de deux radars de type CODAR sur la rive sud de l'estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent, et d'un radar de type WERA sur la rive nord, prises pendant l'hiver 2013, ont ete utilisees. Dans un premier temps, l'aire moyenne journaliere de la zone ou les courants sont mesures par chaque radar a ete comparee a l'energie des vagues de Bragg calculee a partir des donnees brutes d'acceleration fournies par une bouee mouillee dans la zone couverte par les radars. La couverture des CODARs est dependante de la densite d'energie de Bragg, alors que la couverture du WERA y est pratiquement insensible. Un modele de fetch appele GENER a ete force par la vitesse du vent predite par le modele GEM d'Environnement Canada pour estimer la hauteur significative ainsi que la periode modale des vagues. A partir de ces parametres, la densite d'energie des vagues de Bragg a ete evaluee pendant l'hiver a l'aide du spectre theorique de Bretschneider. Ces resultats permettent d'etablir la couverture normale de chaque radar en absence de glace de mer. La concentration de glace de mer, predite par le systeme canadien operationnel de prevision glace-ocean, a ete moyennee sur les differents fetchs du vent selon la direction moyenne journaliere des vagues predites par GENER. Dans un deuxieme temps, la relation entre le ratio des couvertures journalieres obtenues pendant l'hiver 2013 et des couvertures normales de chaque radar d'une part, et la concentration moyenne journaliere de glace de mer d'autre part, a ete etablie. Le ratio des couvertures decroit avec l'augmentation de la concentration de glace de mer pour les deux types

  6. La bioremédiation, ange ou démon ? Décryptage des risques émanant de la dépollution d’un environnement contaminé, illustré par la remédiation biologique de l’arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Karlen, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    La dégradation et la pollution de notre environnement ont de multiples origines et se déclinent en un phénomène complexe qu’il est difficile de disséquer. Les métaux lourds forment une catégorie particulière de polluants. Aujourd’hui, les métaux lourds libérés dans l’environnement proviennent d’émissions non contrôlées de fonderies et d’autres activités industrielles (surtout les mines), de l’évacuation de déchets industriels et du plomb que renferment les conduites d’eau, la peinture et l’es...

  7. Développement urbain fractal sous contraintes d'accessibilités - Modèles et outils d'aide à la décision pour l'aménagement urbain

    OpenAIRE

    Frankhauser , Pierre; Tannier , Cécile; Houot , Hélène; Vuidel , Gilles

    2010-01-01

    77; Ce projet fait suite à une recherche financée par le PREDIT intitulée " Vers des déplacements périurbains plus durables - Proposition de modèles fractals opérationnels d'urbanisation " (Dir. P. Frankhauser - Participants : H. Houot, C. Tannier et G. Vuidel)1. Ce premier projet, réalisé entre juillet 2005 et juin 2007, a posé les bases du présent projet, à savoir la définition de ses fondements conceptuels et de ses principes méthodologiques. Le présent projet a pour but de compléter la mé...

  8. Structural analysis technology for high-temperature design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Results from an ongoing program devoted to the development of verified high-temperature structural design technology applicable to nuclear reactor systems are described. The major aspects addressed by the program are (1) deformation behavior; (2) failure associated with creep rupture, brittle fracture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interactions, and crack propagation; and (3) the establishment of appropriate design criteria. This paper discusses information developed in the deformation behavior category. The material considered is type 304 stainless steel, and the temperatures range to 1100 0 F (593 0 C). In essence, the paper considers the ingredients necessary for predicting relatively high-temperature inelastic deformation behavior of engineering structures under time-varying temperature and load conditions and gives some examples. These examples illustrate the utility and acceptability of the computational methods identified and developed for prediting essential features of complex inelastic behaviors. Conditions and responses that can be encountered under nuclear reactor service conditions and invoked in the examples. (Auth.)

  9. Indicateurs de mobilité durable : de l'état de l'art à la définition des indicateurs dans le projet Simbad. Rapport intermédiaire n°2

    OpenAIRE

    Verry , Damien; Nicolas , Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Rapport pour le compte de la DRAST (Ministère de l'Équipement) et de l'ADEME dans le cadre du groupe 11 du PREDIT. 96 p.Voir aussi :- le Rapport intermédiaire n°1"Modèles d'interaction entre transport et urbanisme : état de l'art et choix du modèle pour le projet SIMBAD". http://halshs.ccsd.cnrs.fr/halshs-00101342- le Rapport intermédiaire n°4"L'architecture du modèle au sein du projet SIMBAD."http://halshs.ccsd.cnrs.fr/halshs-00101399; Rapport de recherche; Le projet SIMBAD (SImuler les MoBi...

  10. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  11. Fatores pessoais, desportivos e psicológicos no comportamento de exercício físico

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Carneiro; António Rui Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: os benefícios do exercício físico (EF) são bem conhecidos. Contudo, mais de 60% da população mundial é fisicamente inativa ou ativa de forma insuficiente para atingir tais vantagens. Neste sentido, torna-se importante compreender os fatores envolvidos na prática de EF, de modo a promover a participação desportiva e a prevenir o abandono do exercício. Objetivo: analisar as diferenças num conjunto de variáveis psicológicas em função da tendência para efetuar EF e as variáveis predit...

  12. [Study on method of tracking the active cells in image sequences based on EKF-PF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunming; Liu, Ying

    2013-02-01

    In cell image sequences, due to the nonlinear and nonGaussian motion characteristics of active cells, the accurate prediction and tracking is still an unsolved problem. We applied extended Kalman particle filter (EKF-PF) here in our study, attempting to solve the problem. Firstly we confirmed the existence and positions of the active cells. Then we established a motion model and improved it via adding motion angle estimation. Next we predicted motion parameters, such as displacement, velocity, accelerated velocity and motion angle, in region centers of the cells being tracked. Finally we obtained the motion traces of active cells. There were fourteen active cells in three image sequences which have been tracked. The errors were less than 2.5 pixels when the prediction values were compared with actual values. It showed that the presented algorithm may basically reach the solution of accurate predition and tracking of the active cells.

  13. ¿Por qué enseñar Filosofía Hoy?.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    INDICE Presentación La Enseñanza de la Historia Consideraciones Generales Angel Lombardi "Tras su manto de neblina,..." Las Islas Malvinas como creación escolar Marí, Cristina; Saab, Jorge; Suárez, Carlos, Giufra, Lidia; Gerszenszteig, Marina; Stülgemayer, Sabrina; Avila, Andrea; Osuna Gutiérrez, Patricia; Suárez, Lourdes La...

  14. Complejidad, Educación y Poder.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilera de Girón, Aliria

    2006-01-01

    INDICE Presentación La Enseñanza de la Historia Consideraciones Generales Angel Lombardi "Tras su manto de neblina,..." Las Islas Malvinas como creación escolar Marí, Cristina; Saab, Jorge; Suárez, Carlos, Giufra, Lidia; Gerszenszteig, Marina; Stülgemayer, Sabrina; Avila, Andrea; Osuna Gutiérrez, Patricia; Suárez, Lourdes La...

  15. La Formación de Profesores de Historia.

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Rubio, Arístides

    2003-01-01

    INDICE Presentación La Enseñanza de la Historia Consideraciones Generales Angel Lombardi "Tras su manto de neblina,..." Las Islas Malvinas como creación escolar Marí, Cristina; Saab, Jorge; Suárez, Carlos, Giufra, Lidia; Gerszenszteig, Marina; Stülgemayer, Sabrina; Avila, Andrea; Osuna Gutiérrez, Patricia; Suárez, Lourdes La...

  16. La Enseñanza de la Historia Consideraciones Generales.

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Angel

    2003-01-01

    INDICE Presentación La Enseñanza de la Historia Consideraciones Generales Angel Lombardi "Tras su manto de neblina,..." Las Islas Malvinas como creación escolar Marí, Cristina; Saab, Jorge; Suárez, Carlos, Giufra, Lidia; Gerszenszteig, Marina; Stülgemayer, Sabrina; Avila, Andrea; Osuna Gutiérrez, Patricia; Suárez, Lourdes La...

  17. Looking up to the Victims: Land Scarcity and Women's Role in Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pourtant, se sont elles qui en tant qu'épouses ou chefs de ménage, prennent en charge la lourde responsabilité d'insécurité alimentaire du foyer provoquée par le transfert de la terre. Par conséquent, la communication propose que le gouvernement ghanéen, en collaboration avec ses partenaires dans le développement, ...

  18. 2185-IJBCS-Article-Aduayi-Akue Adote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    différentes parties de l'organisme humain en entraînant des effets chroniques ou aigus sur la santé de l'homme (Were et al., 2008). La pollution par les métaux ... de certaines maladies liées à la contamination aux métaux lourds telles que les affections du foie et des reins, les maladies cardio- vasculaires, les cancers, la ...

  19. Flux des polluants liés aux activités anthropiques, risques sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les activités anthropiques interfèrent sur les eaux de surface en créant des problèmes environnementaux et sanitaires. Les activités domestiques, agricoles, industrielles, hospitalières, et les activités de pêche artisanale et de tourisme, sont les plus incriminées. La pollution des eaux de surface par les métaux lourds, les ...

  20. 1167-IJBCS-Article-Mohammed El Kory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    bicarbonates, les nitrites, les nitrates, l'ammonium, les sulfates, le fluorure et les métaux lourds (fer, zinc, chrome, cadmium, plomb et le cuivre). Les résultats des analyses physico-chimiques montrent que le pH est proche de la neutralité, il varie entre 7,1 et 7,6 ; la conductivité est élevée au niveau du forage d'El Arghoub.

  1. 2410-IJBCS-Article-Aduayi Akue Adoté A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    un impact négatif sur l'environnement. (DP/MERF, 2010). En effet, des études antérieures ont montré la présence de métaux lourds toxiques dans le minerai de phosphates du Sud Togo, ce qui constitue un danger pour l'environnement et la santé humaine. Les organismes vivants s'intoxiquent par l'alimentation, la.

  2. Étude de la calcination du phosphate clair de youssoufia (Maroc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    [6] - B. R. Stanmore, P. Gilot, Fuel Processing Technology(2005). [7] - M. Ashraf, Z. I. Zafar, T. M. Ansari, J. of research (Science), Pakistan, Vol. 18, N°2,. (2007) 145-157. [8] - K. Souhila, « Décomposition des matières organiques et stabilisation des métaux lourds dans les sédiments de dragage », Institut National des ...

  3. Políticas culturales en la frontera norte : el caso de la Ciudad de Tijuana, Baja California, 1980-2000 /

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Tinoco, Cuauhtémoc

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, presenta Cuauhtémoc Ochoa Tinoco ; asesor Gilberto Giménez Montiel, Gilda Waldman Mirnik, Lourdes Arizpe Schlosser. 278, [8] páginas : diagramas, fotografías. Doctorado en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, 2011

  4. Spanish translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Wilson; Flores-Fortty,; Feraud,Lourdes; Tettamanti,

    2013-01-01

    Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Adolfo Flores-Fortty, Lourdes Feraud, Daniel TettamantiSchool of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo – Ecuador, Samborondón, Guayas, EcuadorPurpose: To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD), originally created and validated in Australia, for its use in Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus.Patients and methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation...

  5. Heavy Ion Microbeam- and Broadbeam-Induced Transients in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, Robert A.; McMorrow, Dale; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Baggio, Jacques; Duhamel, Olivier; Moen, Kurt A.; Phillips, Stanley D.; Diestelhorst, Ryan M.; hide

    2009-01-01

    SiGe HBT heavy ion-induced current transients are measured using Sandia National Laboratories microbeam and high- and low-energy broadbeam sources at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds and the University of Jyvaskyla. The data were captured using a custom broadband IC package and real-time digital phosphor oscilloscopes with at least 16 GHz of analog bandwidth. These data provide detailed insight into the effects of ion strike location, range, and LET.

  6. Étude de la compétitivité de complexation des métaux issus des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les analyses chimiques effectuées sur le phosphate naturel révèlent la présence des métaux lourds. Pour étudier les risques de rétrogradation de ces engrais phosphatés, notre étude s'est portée sur la complexation des substances humiques naturelles extraites des sols sur des ions métalliques tels que le calcium, ...

  7. 1398-IJBCS-Article-Joseph Kouassi+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    3Université d'Abobo-Adjamé, Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Organique et de Substances Naturelles,. 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d'Ivoire. 4INRA Science du Sol, BP 20619, 45166 Olivet cedex, ...... Mobilité relative des métaux lourds issus de la décharge d'Akouédo et risque de contamination de la nappe du Continental.

  8. 54 La Terrasse Ebebda (centre du Cameroun) : preuve d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Mais nous relevons la présence de certains minéraux lourds dans le Mbam ce sont des minéraux tels que l'augite, l'olivine qui sont d'origine volcanique et se retrouvent également sur la terrasse. Pourtant ces minéraux ne se voient pas dans les sables de la sanaga. Dans le Mbam la fréquence de l'augite est de 5% alors ...

  9. 2090 IJBCS -Article--Defang Henri Fualefac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Leucaena. A la fin de l'essai, les animaux recevant 20% de L. leucocephala ont été les plus lourds (2237,50 g), suivis respectivement de ceux nourris avec 10 .... Concentrât minéraux azote et vitaminiques (10%). Tableau 2 : Coût de production d'un kilogramme de chaque ration et de production du kilogramme vif de lapin.

  10. Valorisation agricole des déchets comme alternative à leur gestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quant à la présence des métaux lourds, les concentrations enregistrées sont normales par rapport aux normes standards. ... La valorisation des déchets de la ville de Lubumbashi par compostage est une bonne option dans un contexte de cherté des engrais minéraux et de la quasi-inexistence, au niveau de la municipalité ...

  11. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    pollution. L'objectif du présent travail est l'étude de la qualité des eaux superficielles et souterraines pour évaluer le degré de pollution provenant des lixiviats de la décharge et des cours d'eaux dans lesquels les ..... Les métaux lourds dosés ont montré une pollution métallique des eaux souterraine par rapport à la norme.

  12. AS_599_A4 OK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Résumé. L'Algérie a mis en place un réseau industriel dense, concentrant des secteurs polluants et gros ... Mots-clés : métaux lourds, rejet liquide, déchets industriels, pollution, environnement, oued Meboudja, ... Pour évaluer les concentrations en éléments traces métalliques (ETM) dans les eaux de l'oued Meboudja.

  13. Avantages possibles de la téléphonie mobile pour la surveillance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avantages possibles de la téléphonie mobile pour la surveillance épidémiologique au Mali. La charge de morbidité au Mali est l'une des plus lourdes au monde. L'utilisation de téléphones mobiles pour surveiller les flambées de maladies pourrait contribuer à réduire cette charge. La surveillance de la santé publique pour ...

  14. 1. contribution of the dynamics on the reactions mechanisms in the heavy ions collisions at the intermediary energies (20-100 MeV/A) for the light systems. 2. management of radioactive wastes by new options: nuclear data measurement programme between 20 and 150 MeV; 1. role de la dynamique sur les mecanismes de reactions dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires (20-100 MeV/A) pour des systemes legers. 2. gestion des dechets radioactifs par des options nouvelles: programme de mesures de donnees nucleaires entre 20 et 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Ph

    2000-09-22

    The first part concerns the features of emitted charged particles in heavy ions reactions that have been studied in the framework of the semi classical Landau-Vlasov approach for the light system Ar + Al at 65 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The second part is devoted to the radioactive waste management (transmutation), but it was necessary to increase the data banks evaluated in neutrons up to 150-200 MeV and to create a data bank in protons. In the European framework it was decide to focus on three representative elements: lead (spallation target), iron (structure material) and uranium (actinide). (N.C.)

  15. 1. contribution of the dynamics on the reactions mechanisms in the heavy ions collisions at the intermediary energies (20-100 MeV/A) for the light systems. 2. management of radioactive wastes by new options: nuclear data measurement programme between 20 and 150 MeV; 1. role de la dynamique sur les mecanismes de reactions dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires (20-100 MeV/A) pour des systemes legers. 2. gestion des dechets radioactifs par des options nouvelles: programme de mesures de donnees nucleaires entre 20 et 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Ph

    2000-09-22

    The first part concerns the features of emitted charged particles in heavy ions reactions that have been studied in the framework of the semi classical Landau-Vlasov approach for the light system Ar + Al at 65 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The second part is devoted to the radioactive waste management (transmutation), but it was necessary to increase the data banks evaluated in neutrons up to 150-200 MeV and to create a data bank in protons. In the European framework it was decide to focus on three representative elements: lead (spallation target), iron (structure material) and uranium (actinide). (N.C.)

  16. The Cook and the Writer: Maryse Condé's Journey of Self-Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In her 2006 memoir, Victoire, les saveurs et les mots, (translated into English as Victoire: My Mother’s Mother, celebrated Guadeloupean writer Maryse Condé makes an explicit comparison between herself and her maternal grandmother Victoire. A work of literary invention as much as of personal reflection, this book represents an example of Condé’s quest to know herself as a woman and a writer. It also enables her to fill in some of the gaps left by her mother Jeanne who was always reluctant to share details of her childhood with her daughter and died when Condé was only twenty. One of the few facts Jeanne gives to her about Victoire is that she was a cook and that the results of her labour helped open the doors to greater autonomy for her daughter and, consequently, her granddaughter. This paper will examine the way in which food and cooking are linked to Condé’s journey of self-discovery as well as to the historical trajectory of the French Caribbean islands of Marie-Galante and Guadeloupe.

  17. La prématurité et le phénomène de multi exposition

    OpenAIRE

    Mauny , Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    National audience; La prématurité a de lourdes conséquences sur le devenir et le développement physique et intellectuel des enfants. En 1995 elle représentait 5,9% des naissances en France et cette proportion semble progresser depuis. Elle est associée à de nombreux facteurs mais la moitié des naissances prématurées demeure à ce jour inexpliquée. Au-delà des facteurs de risque connus, d’autres, d’origine « environnementale », comme la pollution atmosphérique ou le bruit, semblent pouvoir être...

  18. An Evaluation of Mexico’s Declining Oil Production and Waning Petroleum Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    en México: Pozo de Pasiones . El Debate sobre la Propuesta de Reforma Energética” (paper presented at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for...87 Graefe, “The Policy Implications of Peak Oil,” 9. 88 Rossana Fuentes Berain, “Petreóleo en México: Pozo de Pasiones ...Petreóleo en México: Pozo de Pasiones . El Debate sobre la Propuesta de Reforma Energética,” 19. 112 Ibid., 14. 113 Lourdes Melgar, “Energy Transition

  19. Inkaklių ir Kretingos lurdai kaip solidarumo skatinimo forma

    OpenAIRE

    Lileikienė, Veronika

    2006-01-01

    The Catholic Church was greatly concerned with communal unity of the Žemaitians, engagement of children, the youth and elderly people in various public activities before the war and during the post-war years. The religious idea of the Lourdes brought from France to Lithuania in 1900 was an important form of encouraging Catholic solidarity in Žemaitija. At the present time, during the great festivals of the Church or on weekdays in Lithuania, especially in Žemaitija, people gather near the Lou...

  20. RF link for Implanted Medical Devices (IMDs) and Sub-GHz Inductive Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Diet , Antoine; Koulouridis , Satvros; Le Bihan , Yann; Luu , Quang-Trung; Meyer , Olivier; Pichon , Lionel; Biancheri-Astier , Marc

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Ce travail s'inscrit dan sune etude exploratoire sur les possibilités de télé-alimentation RF des implants médicaux et/ou de communication entre eux. En effet, la durée de fonctionnement de certains implants avec batterie rend leur utilisation critique car il ne faut pas privilégier une intervention chirurgicale lourde s'il est possible d'agir de manière non-invasive. La transmission d'énergie sans fil ou WPT (Wireless Power Transfer) est au cœur de nombreuses autres t...

  1. diversité botanique dans le sud du parc national de taï, côte d

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko Mathieu

    Résumé. Le but de cette étude est de connaître les mécanismes géochimiques qui gouvernent la migration verticale des métaux lourds et évaluer le risque de contamination de la nappe du Continental Terminal par ces métaux issus de la décharge d'Akouédo. Les analyses chimiques de 56 échantillons de sol ont montré ...

  2. Dangers du tabac et des narguilés pour la santé | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2010 ... Résumant les travaux d'Alan Shihadeh, Rima Afifi, chercheure à l'AUB, rappelle que la fumée des pipes à eau a une forte teneur en goudron et contient en outre de la nicotine et des métaux lourds. Rima Afifi précise que le fait d'avoir réuni des données probantes sur les dangers du narguilé a ouvert la ...

  3. Influence du traitement thermique sur quatre éléments métalliques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de notre étude est de suivre l\\'effet de la température de combustion sur quatre éléments métalliques (Cd, Cu, Pb et Zn). Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que la température de combustion a un effet sur la volatilisation des métaux lourds dans l'air. Pour déterminer le taux de vaporisation de ces métaux, des ...

  4. Innovations en apprentissage numérique pour les réfugiés syriens ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les répercussions du conflit syrien et de la conséquente crise des réfugiés syriens sur les systèmes scolaires en Jordanie et au Liban sont très lourdes. Selon les estimations, quelque 714 000 enfants syriens déplacés ne fréquentent pas l'école et environ la moitié de ce nombre est en Jordanie et au Liban. Plus de 100 ...

  5. CMS brochure (English version)

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which has started up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.CMS est la plus lourde des expériences du LHC, l'accélérateur de particules le plus puissant au monde qui a été mis en service en 2008. Les détecteurs de cette expérience polyvalente sont placés autour d'un puissant aimant supraconducteur.

  6. CMS brochure (French version)

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which has started up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.CMS est la plus lourde des expériences du LHC, l'accélérateur de particules le plus puissant au monde qui a été mis en service en 2008. Les détecteurs de cette expérience polyvalente sont placés autour d'un puissant aimant supraconducteur.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la quantité des métaux lourds dans la décharge d'Agoè (Lomé- Togo): Cas du plomb, cadmium, cuivre, nickel et zinc. Abstract PDF · Vol 6, ... Effets de composts de déchets sur les propriétés chimiques du sol et la solubilité d'éléments minéraux sous deux régimes hydriques en conditions contrôlées au Togo

  8. 2377-IJBCS-Article-Alexandre Dansi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    gros et lourds, rendements supérieurs à 2 tonnes à l'hectare) comme Catché godonou, Ewaoloy, Gbolékpomin,. Kaki et Yanbodo qu'on peut utiliser dans les programmes de sélection. ... 1051. En raison de sa forte teneur en protéines (19 à 25%), en carbohydrates et en éléments minéraux, le niébé joue un rôle important ...

  9. 126 La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    richesses en protéines, glucides, lipides, sels minéraux, etc. C'est pour cela que ces plantes sont utilisées dans plusieurs domaines tels que l'agriculture ..... spécimens les plus lourds sont rencontrés à la fin de la saison printanière. Au début de l'été, ce sont les thalles les plus longs qui prédominent. Ceci peut être expliqué.

  10. 229-IJBCS-Article-Dr D L GONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    les phénomènes d'absorption des métaux lourds et limiter leur migration vers les nappes d'eau souterraine. Le biogaz émanant de la décharge est composé essentiellement de CH4 (70%) et de CO2 (29%). Le rapport. CH4/CO2 est élevé, supérieur à 2, ce qui traduit l'anoxicité du milieu et sa grande capacité à produire le.

  11. Retos de la comunicación educativa en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    VV.AA,

    2012-01-01

    Lourdes LATAPÍ RUIZ, El aislamiento originado por las TICS. Irene FERNÁNDEZ MONFERRER ; Pedro ARENAS WILSON, Escuela, medios y aprendizaje : perspectiva crítica para la aplicación de habilidades educomunicativas en el aula. Almudena ESTEBAN ; Andrés ROSENBERG, La importancia de despertar inquietudes. Myriam CATRILEO ; María Alejandra HERNÁNDEZ, Escuela virtual, una alternativa para el cambio de saberes. Lorena CAIMANQUE ; Luis RIVERA, Enseñanza : una de las más altas poesías. Cheng Cheng TANG...

  12. Préférence et sensibilité aux aliments apportant les goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer et état pondéral [Preference and sensitivity to food providing fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes, and weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila ALLAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Introduction. Le goût est une modalité sensorielle chimique qui permet d'apprécier les saveurs d'une substance ingérée. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la sélection des aliments. Objectif. Déterminer le niveau de sensibilité gustative aux goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer, à travers les préférences alimentaires et étudier le lien possible avec l’état pondéral. Matériel et méthodes. L’étude a porté sur 210 jeunes adultes (F/H, 157/53 âgés de 18 à 30 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques concernent le poids et la taille. Le questionnaire utilisé a permis l'évaluation des préférences alimentaires en relation avec différentes saveurs. Le niveau de sensibilité est estimé à partir des scores moyens de préférence attribués à chaque groupe d’aliments apportant le goût étudié. L’analyse statistique est réalisée avec le logiciel StatView. Résultats. Notre population compte 45,7% de sujets en surpoids dont 20% d’obèses. Le pourcentage du surpoids est plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes (p=0,04. Une relation significative est trouvée entre la préférence au gras rajouté et l’état pondéral des adultes (p=0,0003. Aucune différence significative n’est trouvée entre le niveau de préférence ou de sensibilité pour les aliments sucrés, salés ou amers et l’état pondéral des adultes. Conclusion. Les adultes en surpoids présentent le niveau de préférence le plus faible et sont les moins sensibles par rapport au gras rajouté, ce qui peut influencer l’état pondéral par une consommation excessive d’aliments riches en gras. [ Abstract Introduction. Taste is a chemical sensory modality allowing to appreciate the flavors of an ingested substance. It plays an essential role in food choice. Objective. To define the level of taste sensitivity to fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes through food preferences and to study the possible link with weight status. Material and

  13. Uma avaliação do rastreômetro, um novo equipamento para triagem populacional da pressão arterial elevada, em países em desenvolvimento An evaluation of the rastreometro, a new device for populational screening for high blood pressure in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Forsvall

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar um novo dispositivo simplificado de medição chamado rastreômetro, que poderia ser usado pelos Agentes de Saúde. MÉTODOS: O rastreômetro foi desenvolvido a partir de um esfigmomanômetro aneróide convencional, no qual se cobriu o visor do aneróide com um adesivo, cujo desenho tem uma faixa vermelha, indicativa de pressões > 140 mmHg e uma faixa amarela, indicativa de pressões OBJECTIVE: To test a simplified blood pressure device called Rastreometro that could be used by the Health Agents. METHODS: The Rastreometro has been developed from an ordinary aneroid sphygmomanometer, in which the numeric display is covered by an adhesive with a red zone, indicating pressures equal or above 140 mmHg and a yellow zone indicating pressures below 140 mmHg. The onset of oscillations of the aneroid needle is taken as an indication of the systolic pressure value. The measurements made by the Rastreometro were compared with those made by the auscultatory method, and were carried out in 268 patients, by two operators. The influence on the results of confounding variables such as age, gender, BMI, arm length, upper arm circunference, skin colour and antihypertensive treatment were taken into consideration, as well as intra and interobserver variation. RESULTS: In the whole group, sensitivity was 95.1%, specificity was 63.1%, positive preditive value was 62.4% and negative preditive value was 95.3%. Hypertensive treatment significantly affected specificity, 32.7% as compared to 77.8% for the non-treated group. Both operators improved their results over time. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Rastreometro technique, as a screener for hypertension, has good sensitivity. Concerning specificity, it is acceptable, provided the patient is not on regular antihypertensive treatment. In this latter situation, it can be improved by a proper standardization of the method to read the systolic pressure by needle oscillations. Furthermore, the

  14. Physical activity practice as health promotion help: report of a successful experience of Pró Saúde and Pet Saúde UNIFOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda Maria Goersch Fontenele Lamboglia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience of one year of physical activity program with users of Family Health Unit (FHU Maria de Lourdes Jereissati in Fortaleza-CE. Data Synthesis: Some very important points were highlighted and reported as: target public, location, inclusion and exclusion criteria, implementation of the project, description of lessons, integration between undergraduate and graduate studies, interdisciplinarity, reports of the fellows and students, profile of participants, program evaluation and challenges. The program is developed within the Viva Vida, located in Region VI, whose target public was middle-aged people and elderly assisted by FHU Maria de Lourdes Jereissati. The activities started in 2009 and were performed twice a week, lasting 60 minutes, with theoretical approach (related to various topics relevant to health promotion and practice (aerobic exercise, strength exercises, flexibility, balance and conscience of the body. Besides the teacher in charge, were included in the program Fellows PRO-SAÚDE, PET-SAÚDE and students of some practical disciplines of Physical Education course. Interdisciplinarity was being developed effectively across fields of Physical Education and Nutrition. Conclusions: During a year of the program, it was possible to develop the work into two parts significantly, working in the development and implementation of a program of health promotion for the local population, providing rich academic experience for undergraduate students.

  15. Results and interpretation of spectral indices measurements made with AQUILON; Resultats et interpretation de mesures d'indices de spectre dans aquilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frichet, J P; Mougey, J N; Naudet, R; Taste, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This report deals with a set of spectral indices measurements made in the heavy water reactor Aquilon on lattices constituted by massive fuel elements of dia. 29,2 mm. The fuel elements were made either of natural uranium or of slightly depleted or slightly enriched uranium, or of an uranium-plutonium alloy. The measurements were carried out for various lattice pitches (square pitch from 110 to 210 mm) and in certain cases for various temperatures (from 20 to 80 deg. C). The results are compared to calculated values obtained by using the latest advances of the thermalization theory developed at Saclay applied to the moderation by heavy water. (authors) [French] Ce rapport est consacre a un ensemble de mesures d'indices de spectre realisees dans la pile a eau lourde Aquilon sur des reseaux d'elements combustibles pleins, de 29,2 mm de diametre. Ces combustibles se composaient ou bien d'uranium naturel, ou bien d'uranium tres legerement appauvri ou enrichi, ou bien d'un alliage uranium plutonium. Les mesures ont ete effectuees pour toute une serie de pas de reseaux (pas carre 110 a 210 mm), certaines d'entre elles a plusieurs temperatures (20 a 80 deg. C). Les resultats des mesures sont compares a des valeurs calculees obtenues en utilisant les plus recents developpements de la theorie de la thermalisation mise au point a Saclay, appliques au cas de la moderation par l'eau lourde. (auteurs)

  16. Le détecteur VZERO, la physique muons présente et la préparation de son futur dans l'expérience ALICE au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphaël

    La physique des ions lourds a pour objectif ultime d'étendre le domaine d'application du Modèle Standard de la physique des particules à des systèmes de taille finie, complexes et dynamiques. En particulier, elle vise à comprendre comment apparaissent, à partir des lois microscopiques de la physique des particules élémentaires, des phénomènes collectifs et des propriétés macroscopiques mettant en jeu un grand nombre de degrés de liberté. La réalisation de ce programme scientifique passe par une caractérisation du plasma de quarks et de gluons (QGP), l'état déconfiné de la matière nucléaire qui peut être formé à l'aide de collisions d'ions lourds accélérés à des énergies ultra relativistes. L'expérience ALICE exploite les collisions Pb-Pb, proton-Pb et proton-proton du LHC pour mesurer les propriétés fondamentales du QGP comme, par exemple, la température critique du déconfinement ou les coefficients de transport de la matière déconfinée. L'état QGP de la matière aurait �...

  17. Essais préliminaires d'utilisation de Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacée dans la prophylaxie et le traitement de la coccidiose aviaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbédé, G.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on the utilization of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea in the prophylaxis and treatment of avian coccidiosis. In an experiment aiming at evaluating the efficiency of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea leaves in preventing avian coccidiosis as compared to "Amprolsol" (Amprolium, MSD, 90 "Hybro lourd" breed of broiler chickens were divided into 3 equal groups : A (control, B (treated with infusions of K. crenata leaves, and C (treated with "Amprolsol". Based on the number of oocysts per gram of feces (opg noted until the 7th week of the experiment, it was shown that K. crenata limited oocyst excretion (73.9 % reduction compared to the control treatment, but this occured to a lesser extend than "Amprolsol" (95.7 % reduction compared to the control. In a second experiment designed to compare the effects of the plant in reducing oocyst output to those of the commercial drug, 60 "Hybro lourd" chickens were divided into 2 equal groups D (treated with plant infusions and E (treated with "Amprolsol". The commercial drug reduced the opg by 96.3 % against a 73.4 % reduction for the plant. Given the encouraging results this experiment produced, more advanced studies have to be undertaken to more efficiently use and find the active anticoccidial principles in K. crenata leaves.

  18. Control of pile power by measurement of the activity of the cooling fluid. The particular case of EL3; Controle de la puissance d'une pile par la mesure de l'activite du fluide de refroidissement. Cas particulier de EL 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalere, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In a high flux pile the presence of local absorbers makes the power difficult to measure. In any case thermodynamic measurements are sometimes not very accurate. Another possible method could be the measurement of the cooling fluid activity. This has been tried on the heavy water circuit of EL3. In the first part of this report we give some qualitative indications of the various activities present in the heavy water in circulation. After this, the activity of the element chosen has been calculated. Finally, the results obtained from EL3 are given. (author) [French] Dans une pile a haut flux, la presence d'absorbeurs localises rend la mesure de la puissance difficile. Les mesures thermodynamiques sont par ailleurs parfois peu precises. Un autre moyen pourrait etre la mesure de l'activite du fluide de refroidissement. C'est ce qui a ete essaye sur le circuit eau lourde de EL3. Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons quelques indications qualitatives sur les diverses activites presentes dans l'eau lourde en circulation. Ensuite, nous avons fait le calcul de l'activite de l'element choisi. Enfin, nous avons mentionne les resultats qui ont ete obtenus EL3. (auteur)

  19. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  20. Validation of the assert subchannel code: Prediction of CHF in standard and non-standard Candu bundle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Kiteley, J.C.; Zhou, R.Q.N.; Junop, S.V.; Rowe, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The ASSERT code has been developed to address the three-dimensional computation of flow and phase distribution and fuel element surface temperatures within the horizontal subchannels of CANDU PHWR fuel channels, and to provide a detailed prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) distribution throughout the bundle. The ASSERT subchannel code has been validated extensively against a wide repertoire of experiments; its combination of three-dimensional prediction of local flow conditions with a comprehensive method of prediting CHF at these local conditions, makes it a unique tool for predicting CHF for situations outside the existing experimental data base. In particular, ASSERT is an appropriate tool to systematically investigate CHF under conditions of local geometric variations, such as pressure tube creep and fuel element strain. This paper discusses the numerical methodology used in ASSERT, the constitutive relationships incorporated, and the CHF assessment methodology. The evolutionary validation plan is discussed, and early validation exercises are summarized. The paper concentrates, however, on more recent validation exercises in standard and non-standard geometries

  1. What's inside the black box: a case study of allocative politics in the Hill-Burton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the political and bureaucratic determinants of grant allocations within the Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946 (the Hill-Burton Act), which established the major hospital construction subsidy program in the United States. Resource allocation within the Hill-Burton Program was neither purely a function of external political forces impinging on the state nor purely a result of internal organizational factors. Instead, as shown in the analysis which follows, external political forces shaped program structure, operating routines, and rules and regulations at the time of the Program's formation. Rules and regulations depoliticized the grant allocation process while institutionalizing the interests of hospitals and other producers into the program structure. Consumer interests and influence are excluded from program decision making. Once established, the rules and regulations and a set of bureaucratic behaviors play a critical role in determining resource allocation. Rules and regulations facilitate distributing divisible benefits to producer interests in a politically predi-table way. Yet rules and regulations must also regulate the supply of hospital beds in accordance with local and national market conditions. The mode of operations required for distributing benefits in a politically predictable way limited the Program's ability to regulate hospital bed supply. This was a critical factor which led the Hill-Burton Program to subsidize excess capacity in the U.S. hospital system and is a useful way of explaning many similar dysfunctions within allocative programs such as Hill-Burton.

  2. First measurement of isolated-photon plus jet production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Callea, Giuseppe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV were studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using a dataset with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$. The photons were reconstructed for photon transverse energies larger than 125 GeV. The jets were identified using the anti-k$_{t}$ algorithm with radius parameter R=0.4 and selected in the rapidity range $|y| $ 100 GeV. Measurements of isolated-photon plus jet cross sections are presented as functions of the photon transverse energy, the jet transverse momentum, the azimuthal separation between the selected photon and the jet, the photon-jet invariant mass and the scattering angle in the photon-jet centre-of-mass system. The leading-logarithm parton-shower preditions from SHERPA and PYTHIA as well as the next-to-leading order QCD calculations from JETPHOX and multi-leg plus parton shower NLO SHERPA are compared to the measurements.

  3. A comparison of LOD and UT1-UTC forecasts by different combined prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Kalarus, M.; Johnson, T. J.; Wooden, W. H.; McCarthy, D. D.; Popiński, W.

    Stochastic prediction techniques including autocovariance, autoregressive, autoregressive moving average, and neural networks were applied to the UT1-UTC and Length of Day (LOD) International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Servive (IERS) EOPC04 time series to evaluate the capabilities of each method. All known effects such as leap seconds and solid Earth zonal tides were first removed from the observed values of UT1-UTC and LOD. Two combination procedures were applied to predict the resulting LODR time series: 1) the combination of the least-squares (LS) extrapolation with a stochastic predition method, and 2) the combination of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filtering and a stochastic prediction method. The results of the combination of the LS extrapolation with different stochastic prediction techniques were compared with the results of the UT1-UTC prediction method currently used by the IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Centre (RS/PC). It was found that the prediction accuracy depends on the starting prediction epochs, and for the combined forecast methods, the mean prediction errors for 1 to about 70 days in the future are of the same order as those of the method used by the IERS RS/PC.

  4. Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra (DITS): 2nd post-mortem analysis campaign and fuel retention in the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Cadez, I.; Pelicon, P.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Likonen, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Markelj, S.; Martin, C.; Mayer, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pardanaud, C.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Roubin, P.; Vavpetic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated study on fuel retention has been launched in Tore Supra, which includes a D wall-loading campaign and the dismantling of the main limiter (Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra, DITS project). This paper presents new results from a second post-mortem analysis campaign on 40 tiles with special emphasis on the D retention in the gaps. SIMS analysis reveals that only 1/3 of the thickness of deposits in the plasma shadowed zones are due to the DITS wall-loading campaign. As pre-DITS deposits contain less D than DITS deposits, the contribution of DITS to the D inventory is about 30-50%. The new estimate for the total amount of D retained in the Tore Supra limiter is 1.7 x 10 24 atoms, close to the previous estimate, with the gap surfaces contributing about 33%. NRA measurements show a stepped decrease of D along the gap with strong asymmetries between different gap orientations.

  5. Ademe's scientific policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Ademe, the French agency of environment and energy mastery, is a public institution with industrial and commercial purposes. Its missions are multiple: fighting against climatic change (implementation of the French policy of energy efficiency, energy mastery and development of renewable energy sources); abatement of waste production and rehabilitation of polluted sites; monitoring of air quality and abatement of pollution sources (including noise); implementation of a sustainable development policy. The agency acts as a link between private and public research and follows a four steps strategy: contributing to the improvement of knowledge, technical progress and practices, valorizing the socio-economic aspects of the sustained researches, developing partnerships between public and private actors, and collaborating to the building up of a European research space. Today, in the energy domain, the Ademe is defending 5 technological priorities: hydrogen and fuel cells, CO 2 capture and sequestration, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic and biomass), clean and low energy transportation systems (PREDIT), and buildings without greenhouse effect (PREBAT). (J.S.)

  6. Five years of researches for the improvement of air quality: status and perspectives; Cinq ans de recherches pour ameliorer la qualite de l'air: bilan et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    After five years of sustain to the researches on atmospheric pollution and on its impacts on public health, the Primequal-Predit program (program of researches and innovations in terrestrial transportation systems) has organized a colloquium-seminar devoted to the presentation of the results gained during these 5 years of works. The different topics presented concern: the progresses made in pollutant emissions characterization; the improvement of the knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of pollutants; the development of meteorological, chemical, diagnostic and predictive models; the present day socio-political and economical stakes of the air pollution abatement; the measurement of aero-contaminants for a better evaluation of human, ecosystems and building exposures; the evaluation of sanitary risks; the tools for the evaluation and abatement of the atmospheric pollution risks: air quality goals, alert thresholds and limit values, introduction of risks assessment in regional air quality plans, atmospheric protection plans and urban transportation plans, integrating the effects on health in the impact studies, improving the air quality and exposures monitoring, sustaining the emergency measures with scientific arguments, reducing the stationary and mobile pollution sources, identifying the inter-sectorial action means (urbanism, national development, transport, accommodation, fiscality etc..). (J.S.)

  7. Surface morphology and preferential orientation growth of TaC crystals formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xiang, E-mail: Xiong228@sina.co [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Zhaoke; Huang Baiyun; Li Guodong [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zheng Feng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao Peng; Zhang Hongbo [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-04-02

    TaC film was deposited on (002) graphite sheet by isothermal chemical vapor deposition using TaCl{sub 5}-Ar-C{sub 3}H{sub 6} mixtures, with deposition temperature 1200 {sup o}C and pressure about 200 Pa. The influence of deposition position (or deposition rate) on preferential orientation and surface morphology of TaC crystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The deposits are TaC plus trace of C. The crystals are large individual columns with pyramidal-shape at deposition rate of 32.4-37.3 {mu}m/h, complex columnar at 37.3-45.6 {mu}m/h, lenticular-like at 45.6-54.6 {mu}m/h and cauliflower-like at 54.6-77.3 {mu}m/h, with <001>, near <001>, <110> and no clear preferential orientation, respectively. These results agree in part with the preditions of the Pangarov's model of the relationship between deposition rate and preferential growth orientation. The growth mechanism of TaC crystals in <001>, near <001>, <111> and no clear preferential orientation can be fairly explained by the growth parameter {alpha} with Van der Drift's model, deterioration model and Meakin model. Furthermore, a nucleation and coalescence model is also proposed to explain the formation mechanism of <110> lenticular-like crystals.

  8. Contribution to the study of a method for measuring continuously the isotopic effect. The search for an isotopic effect during the reduction of cuprous oxide by a {sup 12}CO - {sup 14}CO mixture (1962); Contribution a l'etude d'une methode de mesure continue de l'effet isotopique. Recherche d'un effet isotopique dans la reduction de l'oxyde cuivreux par le melange {sup 12}CO - {sup 14}CO (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-15

    The determination of an isotopic effect between the two reactions: {sup 12}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 12}CO{sub 2} + 2 Cu 'light' reaction {sup 14}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 14}C{sub O}2 + 2 Cu 'heavy' reaction is possible if the respective kinetics are known. The condensation, during the reaction, of the carbon dioxide formed, and the measurement as a function of time of the residual carbon monoxide pressure, makes it possible to deduce, uninterruptedly, the 'light' reaction kinetics. The 'heavy' reaction kinetics are obtained by measuring continuously, in situ, the radioactivity of the residual reactant gas as a function of the time. The apparatus used for this is a plastic scintillator counter. A calibration curve of the measured radioactivity as a function of the reactant gas pressure in the absence of reaction makes it possible to compare the kinetics of the 'light' and 'heavy' reactions. The reaction temperature is chosen such that the reaction rate is sufficiently slow, so that the variation of the radioactivity during unit counting time is negligible. (author) [French] La determination d'un effet isotopique entre les deux reactions: {sup 12}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 12}CO{sub 2} + 2 Cu reaction 'legere' {sup 14}CO + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} {sup 14}C{sub O}2 + 2 Cu reaction 'lourde' est rendue possible par la connaissance de leurs cinetiques respectives. La condensation, au cours de la reaction, du gaz carbonique forme et la mesure en fonction du temps de la pression de l'oxyde de carbone residuel, permet d'obtenir, de facon continue, la cinetique de la reaction 'legere'. La cinetique de la reaction lourde est determinee par la mesure continue, in situ, du taux de radioactivite du reactif gazeux residuel en fonction du temps. Le dispositif employe dans ce but est un compteur a scintillateur plastique. Une courbe d'etalonnage, du taux mesure de radioactivite en fonction de la pression du gaz reactif, en l'absence de reaction, permet de comparer les

  9. L'eau et les liquides de dialyse dans le traitement de l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale

    OpenAIRE

    Kunegel , Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Seules trois méthodes de traitement, aujourd'hui, s'offrent au patient insuffisant rénal chronique (IRC) en phase terminale : la dialyse péritonéale, l'hémodialyse, et la transplantation rénale. L'esquisse de ces techniques sera dessinée au fil de ce travail, avec un focus particulier sur l'hémodialyse, méthode à ce jour encore la plus utilisée. À ses débuts, les résultats proposés par cette procédure, assortis d'une lourde mortalité, étaient peu concluants.Jus...

  10. Les conséquences financières de l'épisode pluvieux dans le bassin-versant du Buëch, 1993-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre PECH

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les épisodes pluvio-orageux d’octobre 1993 et de janvier 1994 sont à l’origine de nombreux dommages dans les communes du bassin-versant du Buëch (Hautes-Alpes. La cartographie des phénomènes naturels et de leurs coûts permet de définir une typologie de communes en fonction de l’ampleur de ces dégâts et ces coûts. Les villes et les petites communes rurales montagnardes subissent des charges financières lourdes pour des raisons totalement différentes: dans un cas l’urbanisation est responsable des coûts, dans l’autre c’est la morphologie des versants.

  11. Your World in Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Perrier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En association avec le groupe Time Inc., propriétaire de Life Magazine, dont la version papier a disparu des kiosques en 2007 du fait de son coût d’impression devenu trop lourd, le géant américain Google a mis en ligne une partie de la collection du magazine. Photographies, gravures, plaques de verre et diapositives (dont la grande majorité n’a jamais été publiée sont archivées sur un site qui leur sont dédiées: Google Images. Elles sont disponibles gratuitement pour un usage personnel ou po...

  12. 2. Familles et baisse de la fécondité en Afrique sub-saharienne : entre contraintes et innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Locoh, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    L’Afrique défraie régulièrement l’actualité, mais c’est essentiellement pour les catastrophes qui s’abattent sur elle que l’opinion internationale en entend parler Le sida, au-delà des drames individuels, compromet les progrès effectués en matière de mortalité et fait régresser l’espérance de vie des pays les plus touchés. La croissance très rapide de la population (environ 3 % par an entre 1960 et 1980) a imposé de lourdes charges aux États (charges qui n’ont été que rarement assumées). Dans...

  13. The causes, consequences, and treatment of left or right heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peteiro J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Pazos-López, Jesús Peteiro-Vázquez, Ana Carcía-Campos, Lourdes García-Bueno, Juan Pablo Abugattas de Torres, Alfonso Castro-BeirasDepartment of Cardiology, Complejo hospitalario Universitario A Coruña, A Coruña, SpainAbstract: Chronic heart failure (HF is a cardiovascular disease of cardinal importance because of several factors: a an increasing occurrence due to the aging of the population, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, and modern advances in therapy, b a bad prognosis: around 65% of patients are dead within 5 years of diagnosis, c a high economic cost: HF accounts for 1% to 2% of total health care expenditure. This review focuses on the main causes, consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs and treatment of HF.Keywords: heart failure, cause, consequence, treatment

  14. L’eau convoitée de la Guyane vénézuélienne1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Pene-Annette

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Guyane vénézuélienne, région dont la planification est contrôlée par l’Etat, joue un rôle majeur dans le développement économique du pays. Le potentiel hydrologique du fleuve Caroni est convoité pour les usages hydroélectriques, industriels et urbains qui se concentrent dans le pôle d’industrie lourde de Ciudad Guayana. La planification dirigiste, qui se reflète aussi dans la gestion du « pétrole bleu », est en concurrence avec la politique de décentralisation.

  15. Non disponible / Not available

    OpenAIRE

    Edouard , Kunegel

    2013-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Seules trois méthodes de traitement, aujourd'hui, s'offrent au patient insuffisant rénal chronique (IRC) en phase terminale : la dialyse péritonéale, l'hémodialyse, et la transplantation rénale. L'esquisse de ces techniques sera dessinée au fil de ce travail, avec un focus particulier sur l'hémodialyse, méthode à ce jour encore la plus utilisée. À ses débuts, les résultats proposés par cette procédure, assortis d'une lourde mortalité, étaient peu concluants.Jus...

  16. Problems raised by radioactive ion acceleration in the SPIRAL project. Accelerator tuning and stabilisation; Problemes poses par l`acceleration d`ions radioactifs dans le project SPIRAL. Reglage et stabilisation de l`accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, L. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This study is related to the SPIRAL project. This facility uses a cyclotron to accelerate radioactive ion beams produced in a thick target by the Grant Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds primary beam. The low intensity of radioactive beams and the mixing of several species imply special tuning methods and associated diagnostics. Also, a cyclotron and the beam line will be used to switch from this tuning beam to the radioactive one. We present a theoretical study and a numerical simulation of the tuning of five radioactive beams using three different methods. the beam dynamic is performed through the injection beam line and the cyclotron up to the electrostatic deflector. Within the frame of these methods we have described all the SPIRAL beam diagnostics. Construction and test of a new low intensity diagnosis based on a plastic scintillator for phase measurement inside the cyclotron is described in details. (author). 63 refs.

  17. Transfrontera Crimes: Representations of the Juárez Femicides in Recent Fictional and Non-Fictional Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Messmer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In her article, Marrietta Messmer discusses the representation of the Juárez femicides and their traumatizing effects on the Juárez/El Paso community in four recently published accounts: Teresa Rodriguez's journalistic account The Daughters of Juarez (2007, the documentary Señorita Extraviada (2001 directed by Lourdes Portillo, the feature film Bordertown (2006, directed by Gregory Nava, and Alicia Gaspar de Alba's mystery novel Desert Blood: The Juárez Murders (2005. More specifically, she analyzes the degree to which these sources regard the femicides not merely as a Mexican problem but as a structural and highly significant transborder issue that has its roots in the region's current political and economic developments, as well as its pervasive social and cultural changes.

  18. Depaule Jean-Charles (avec la collaboration de Jean-Luc Arnaud, À travers le mur, Marseille, éditions Parenthèses, collection Eupalinos, 2014, 219 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Madoeuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saluons la réédition, aux éditions Parenthèses, dans la collection Eupalinos, d’À travers le mur, de Jean-Charles Depaule, ouvrage qui est tant une contribution rare et originale aux études urbaines, qu’un opus d’anthropologie sur l’espace habité, de même qu’une source de références multiples, notamment littéraires. « Rêver des lourdes portes, des passages en chicane et plus encore, peut-être des moucharabiehs perdus […] ». Cette sollicitation onirique et énigmatique, quatrième de couverture ...

  19. 2016 Accelerators meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel; Revol, Jean-Luc; Biarrotte, Jean-Luc; Napoly, Olivier; Jardin, Pascal; Chautard, Frederic; Thomas, Jean Charles; Petit, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Ganil - Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds/Big national heavy-ion accelerator, Caen (Jardin, Pascal); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Forward-looking and Prospective view (Napoly, Olivier); 4 - Accelerators at the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics, situation, Forward-looking and Prospective view (Biarrotte, Jean-Luc); 5 - GANIL-SPIRAL2, missions and goals (Thomas, Jean Charles); 6 - The SPIRAL2 project (Petit, Eric)

  20. Radiation hazards in the neighbourhood of uranium reactors; Dangers des rayonnements aupres des piles a uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Radiation hazards near uranium reactors may be divided in two groups. Hazards when the reactor is normally operating: {gamma} radiation from hot uranium or air contamination by fission gases, {gamma} radiation or contamination by the coolant (air, nitrogen, heavy-water), {gamma} radiation from radioisotopes. Hazards in the case of an accident: presence of hot uranium in the atmosphere, soil contamination. (author) [French] Les dangers d'irradiation aupres des piles a uranium sont a classer essentiellement en deux groupes. Les dangers existant aupres d'une pile exploitee normalement: irradiation {gamma} par l'uranium irradie ou contamination de l'air par des gaz de fission, irradiation {gamma} ou contamination par les fluides de refroidissement (air, azote, eau lourde), irradiation {gamma} par les radioelements fabriques. Les dangers en cas d'accident survenant a un reacteur en fonctionnement, ayant pour consequence : la presence dans l'air d'uranium irradie, la contamination du sol. (auteur)

  1. 17. Espace méditerranéen et acteurs économiques : la solitude du privé ou les débris du futur

    OpenAIRE

    Akalay, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Qu’est-ce qu’un entrepreneur privé dans un pays en développement ? C’est un homme pauvre en capitaux, pauvre en savoir-faire et qui se lance à la conquête du monde parce qu’on ne peut pas gagner sa vie autrement. A court ou à long terme, l’entrepreneur privé n’a qu’un objectif : la rentabilité. Elle est la condition de sa survie. Dans cette tendance lourde, le privé n’a pas de stratégie. Il exploite des opportunités. Je vais en donner des exemples. J’ai recueilli des faits comme on ramasse de...

  2. Quantitative dosing by nuclear magnetic resonance; Dosages quantitatifs par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute concentration of a heavy water reference containing approximately 99.8 per cent of D{sub 2}O has been performed, by an original magnetic resonance method ('Adiabatic fast passage method') with a precision of 5.10{sup -5} on the D{sub 2}O concentration. (author) [French] La determination du titre absolu d'une eau lourde etalon de teneur approximative de 99,8 pour cent de D{sub 2}O a pu etre effectuee par une methode originale de resonance magnetique ('Methode de passage rapide adiabatique') a une precision de 5.10{sup -5} sur le titre de D{sub 2}O. (auteur)

  3. Characterization and performances of DOSION, a dosimetry equipment dedicated to radiobiology experiments taking place at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume, E-mail: boissonnat@lpccaen.in2p3.fr [LPC (Normandie Univ-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN-CNRS/IN2P3), 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Fontbonne, Jean-Marc [LPC (Normandie Univ-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN-CNRS/IN2P3), 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Balanzat, Emmanuel [CIMAP (CEA/DSM-CNRS/INP-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), Bd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Boumard, Frederic; Carniol, Benjamin [LPC (Normandie Univ-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN-CNRS/IN2P3), 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Cassimi, Amine [CIMAP (CEA/DSM-CNRS/INP-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), Bd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Colin, Jean; Cussol, Daniel; Etasse, David; Fontbonne, Cathy [LPC (Normandie Univ-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN-CNRS/IN2P3), 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Frelin, Anne-Marie [GANIL (CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3), Bd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Hommet, Jean; Salvador, Samuel [LPC (Normandie Univ-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN-CNRS/IN2P3), 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, radiobiology experiments using heavy ions at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d′Ions Lourds) are conducted under the supervision of the CIMAP (Center for research on Ions, MAterials and Photonics). In this context, a new beam monitoring equipment named DOSION has been developed. It allows to perform measurements of accurate fluence and dose maps in near real time for each biological sample irradiated. In this paper, we present the detection system, its design, performances, calibration protocol and measurements performed during radiobiology experiments. This setup is currently available for any radiobiology experiments if one wishes to correlate one's own sample analysis to state-of-the-art dosimetric references.

  4. Regards croisés sur l’éducation en Chine

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Kechao; Gauthier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    La Chine est confrontée aux difficultés d’évolution d’un système éducatif lourd. Les objectifs principaux en sont : développer la décentralisation et l’autonomie tout en limitant les disparités régionales ; améliorer le recrutement, le statut et la formation des enseignants ; moderniser un enseignement supérieur, inspiré du modèle soviétique et relativement obsolète aujourd’hui ; enfin, faire évoluer l’enseignement général dominé par le poids des examens.

  5. Behind the scenes of GS: preventing and curing - the GS-SE group (VERSION FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, GS-SE

    2013-01-01

    Avec, chaque jour, plus de 3000 Cernois sur le site et plus de 300 visiteurs, le CERN et ses infrastructures en voient des vertes et des pas mûres. Heureusement, le groupe GS-SE veille au grain… Ici comme partout ailleurs, rien ne reste jamais neuf bien longtemps. D’où l’importance d’entretenir régulièrement, pour ne pas dire « quotidiennement », les bâtiments, équipements, canalisations, routes, qui voient passer, jour après jour, des milliers de Cernois et de visiteurs. Au CERN, l’équipe en charge de cette lourde tâche fait partie du groupe GS-SE.

  6. Rollover avoidance of Heavy Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Observer-Controller

    OpenAIRE

    IMINE, Hocine; MADANI, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    Le but du travail présenté ici consiste à mettre au point un système actif d'assistance à la conduite du chauffeur pour éviter le renversement du poids lourd. Un estimateur basé sur l'observateur à modes glissants est développé pour estimer les dynamiques du véhicule. L'accélération latérale limite est alors estimée et la position et la vitesse latérales sont contrôlées afin d'éviter le renversement du véhicule. Quelques résultats de simulations sont donnés pour montrer la robustesse et la...

  7. Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité)

  8. Géochimie des résines et asphaltènes Geochernistry of Resins and Asphaltenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits lourds des huiles brutes (résines et asphaltènes jouent un rôle important dans la genèse et l'accumulation du pétrole, ainsi que dans la mise en production par des méthodes conventionnelles ou par récupération assistée. Les asphaltènes et résines sont considérés ici comme des fragments de kérogène, avec une structure d'ensemble comparable : ils peuvent constituer des intermédiaires dans la genèse de l'huile brute par dégradation thermique du kérogène. De plus, la pyrolyse des asphaltènes séparés à partir d'un pétrole biodégradé peut produire de nouveaux hydrocarbures saturés qui reproduisent la fraction saturée primitive, détruite par la dégradation ; on peut ainsi disposer d'un nouvel outil pour corréler ce type d'huiles brutes. Les produits lourds semblent défavorisés par rapport aux hydrocarbures, dans la migration de la roche-mère vers le réservoir, où les résines et asphaltènes sont proportionnellement moins abondants. La structure physique des asphaltènes et résines dans les pétroles, et en particulier l'existence d'une macrostructure du type micelles ou agrégats, est probablement responsable de la viscosité élevée des huiles lourdes. Une meilleure connaissance de cette macrostructure pourrait suggérer de nouvelles méthodes pour diminuer la viscosité et améliorer la récupération des huiles lourdes. The heavy constituents of crude oil (resins and asphaltenes play an important role in generation and accumulation of petroleum, and also in production by conventional and enhanced oil recovery processes. Asphaltenes and resins are considered here as small fragments of kerogen, with a comparable overall structure: they may act as intermediate compounds in oil generation by thermal breakdown of kerogen. Furthermore, pyrolysis of asphaltenes separated from a degraded crude oil is able to generate a new saturated hydrocarbon fraction which duplicates the original one, now degraded

  9. A Quality Improvement Approach to Reducing the Caesarean section Surgical Site Infection Rate in a Regional Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’ Hanlon, M

    2016-09-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are used extensively by hospitals as a basis for quality improvement. A 30-day post-discharge SSI programme for Caesarean section operations has been implemented in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital since 2011. It has been shown that skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis are key factors in the prevention of SSI. Using quality improvement methodology, an infection prevention bundle was introduced to address these two factors. Skin antisepsis was changed from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine-alcohol. Compliance with choice of antibiotic prophylaxis increased from 89.6% in 2014 to 98.5% in 2015. Compliance with timing also improved. The SSI rate of 7.5% was the lowest recorded to date, with the majority of SSIs (64%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. The level of variation was also reduced. However, the continued presence of variation and possibility of lower infection rates from the literature imply that further improvements are required.

  10. Mécanisme pour un développement propre (MDP) du protocole de Kyoto: barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d'Afrique :cas du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  11. Mécanisme pour un Développement Propre (MDP) du Protocole de Kyoto :barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d’Afrique. Cas du Burundi/Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol: barriers and opportunities for the least developed countries in Africa. Case study of Burundi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  12. Quantitative dosing by nuclear magnetic resonance; Dosages quantitatifs par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute concentration of a heavy water reference containing approximately 99.8 per cent of D{sub 2}O has been performed, by an original magnetic resonance method ('Adiabatic fast passage method') with a precision of 5.10{sup -5} on the D{sub 2}O concentration. (author) [French] La determination du titre absolu d'une eau lourde etalon de teneur approximative de 99,8 pour cent de D{sub 2}O a pu etre effectuee par une methode originale de resonance magnetique ('Methode de passage rapide adiabatique') a une precision de 5.10{sup -5} sur le titre de D{sub 2}O. (auteur)

  13. Operation and machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report describes the GANIL (Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds, Caen, France) operation and the machine studies realized in 1992. Metallic ions have been accelerated during 36 pc of the time; some were produced for the first time at GANIL: 125 Te, 52 Cr with ECR3, 181 Ta with ECR4. The various machine studies are: comparison of lifetimes of carbon sheets, charge exchange of very heavy ions in carbon foils and in the residual gas of the Ganil cyclotrons, commissioning of the new high intensity axial injection system for Ganil, tantalum acceleration with the new injector, a cyclotron as a mass spectrometer; other studies concerned: implementing the new control system, gettering flux measurement, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma rays in the cryogenic system of SISSI; latest developments on multicharged ECR ion sources, and an on-line isotopic separator test bench at Ganil

  14. A phenomenon of direct conversion of ionizing energy resulting from the formation of negative droplets by electron capture during condensation of a vapour even without electronic affinity; Sur un phenomene de conversion directe d'energie ionisante resultant de la formation de gouttelettes negatives par capture d'electrons, lors de la condensation d'une vapeur, meme sans affinite electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    An electromotive force is produced between a cold and a hot electrode immersed in an ionized vapour. It is shown that the dissymmetry thus created consists in the formation of heavy, negative charge carriers following the condensation of the vapour in the volume close to the cold electrode. The electromotive forces produced are explained on the basis of a decrease in the floating potential of the cold electrode. (author) [French] Une force electromotrice apparaissant entre une electrode chaude et une electrode froide plongees dans une vapeur ionisee, on etablit que la disymetrie ainsi causee consiste en la formation de porteurs de charge negatifs lourds consecutive a la condensation de la vapeur en volume pres de l'electrode froide. On justifie les forces electromotrices observees par la diminution du potentiel flottant de l'electrode froide. (auteur)

  15. Turismo Religioso: Fátima no Contexto dos Santuários Marianos Europeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Prazeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to assess the extent to which the motivations of visitors to the shrine city of Fatima and the reception conditions that the city offers correspond to their expectations and are at the level of other three European Marian shrine cities (Lourdes, Loreto and Banneux. The comparison is based on a survey conducted in the four shrine cities to a total of 310 people. The overwhelming majority of respondents are Catholic, have high academic qualifications, are from many countries around the world and visit the shrine cities primarily for religious motives. Fatima is a reference on issues such as religious services, quality of information, transport and access, traffic and parking, cleaning and organization of space, but has some weaknesses at other levels. The larger shrine cities are regarded as the most unique and irreplaceable. The overwhelming majority of visitors intend to return and / or recommend a visit.

  16. Il sorriso del conte zio. Manzoni, Sade e l’omaggio alla Vergine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Camilletti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio esamina la figura della Lucia di Manzoni alla luce del ‘tipo’ letterario della ‘fanciulla perseguitata’, al crocevia fra agiografia, letteratura libertina, romanzo sentimentale, narrativa gotica e letteratura romantica. In particolare si sofferma, anche attraverso un’analisi comparata dei frontespizi de I promessi sposi e dell’edizione del 1791 di Justine, sulle affinità e le divergenze fra la Lucia di Manzoni e l’eroina di Sade, sostenendone la parentela intertestuale e la specularità, nell’essere entrambe risposte (solo apparentemente antitetiche al problema metafisico del male. In questo senso si sottolinea l’influenza, su Manzoni e Sade, del modello mariano, nei decenni in cui si assiste, per reazione al laicismo illuminista e rivoluzionario, a un rinnovato culto per la Vergine, che culminerà con il dogma dell’Immacolata Concezione (1854 e le apparizioni di Lourdes (1858.   The essay examines the figure of Manzoni’s Lucia in the light of the literary ‘type’ of the ‘persecuted maiden’, at the intersection between hagiography, libertine literature, sentimental novel, Gothic narrative, and Romantic literature. In particular, through a comparative analysis of the frontispieces of I promessi sposi and of the 1791 edition of Justine, it focuses on the similarities and differences between Manzoni’s Lucia and Sade’s eponymous heroine, arguing for an intertextual relationship between the two and suggesting their reciprocal specularity, in being both answers (only apparently antithetical to the metaphysical problem of evil. From this angle, the essay analyzes the influence, on both Manzoni and Sade, of the figure of Mary, in the years witnessing – as a reaction against the secularization promoted by the Enlightenment and the French revolution – to a renewed worship for the Holy Virgin, later culminating in the promulgation of the Immaculate Conception dogma (1854 and the apparitions at Lourdes (1858.

  17. Prospective territoriale en terre de développement durable : une application à la région Guadeloupe Territorial prospective in land of sustainable development : an application to the region Guadeloupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Lazzeri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La région durable doit se positionner dans un contexte d'ouverture et de concurrence territoriale. À défaut de pouvoir influencer notablement les paramètres du changement global, les acteurs sont appelés à les anticiper et à les prendre en compte dans leurs stratégies. Ils sont invités à élaborer une vision prospective qui renouvelle leurs rapports au territoire dans la perspective du développement durable. C’est dans cet esprit que l’exercice de prospective a été développé. La méthode, présentée ici pour la région Guadeloupe, intègre à la fois les tendances lourdes liées à l’environnement contextuel et les tendances lourdes spécifiques au territoire. Au-delà d’un scénario au fil de l’eau qui peut conduire à une marginalisation de la région, deux visions du devenir guadeloupéen sont analysées vers une inacceptable et une souhaitable.Sustainable Region should position itself in a context of openness and territorial competition. Without the ability to significantly influence the parameters of global change, the actors are called upon to anticipate and take them into account in their strategies. They are encouraged to develop a future vision that renews their relationship to the territory in the context of sustainable development. It is in this spirit that Territorial Prospective exercise was developed. The method presented here for the Guadeloupe region, integrates both trends related to the contextual environment and trends specific to the territory. Beyond a scenario over water which can lead to a marginalization of the region, two visions of the future are analyzed Guadeloupe ... towards one unacceptable and one desirable.

  18. International dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Boris Kidric Institute at Vinca (Yugoslavia) (1961); Experience internationale de dosimetrie sur la pile de puissance nulle de l'Institut Boris Kidric de Vinca (Yougoslavie) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J; Furet, J; Baillet, J; Donvez, G; Duchene, J; Gras, R; Mercier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Section Autonome d' Electronique des Reacteurs, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Chenouard, J; Lecomte, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. de Physico - Chimie, Service des Isotopes Stables, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of the international dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Yugoslavian Atomic Energy Centre at Vinca, the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique had agreed to prepare the measurement and security equipment and see to the manipulation of the heavy water, and in addition was responsible for the operation and the starting up of the pile during the experiment. The measurement and security apparatus, developed at Saclay and installed on the pile for low and high pressure runs, is listed, together with the safety equipment added near the control room. The various operations and manipulations carried out on the pile are described: filling with heavy water, starting up, determination of the critical level, testing the efficiency of the rods, operating the pile during the experiments. By operating to a carefully planned schedule, the experiments were, finished before the date fixed by the International Atomic Agency. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre de l'experience internationale de dosimetrie sur la pile de puissance nulle du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires Yougoslave de Vinca, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique avait accepte de preparer l'equipement de controle et de securite, de pourvoir a la manipulation de l'eau lourde de la pile et avait la responsabilite de son fonctionnement et de sa mise en marche pendant l'experience. On enumere ici l'appareillage de controle et de securite installe sur la pile pour les marches a basse et haute puissances, appareillage mis au point a Saclay, ainsi que les protections ajoutees a proximite de la salle de controle. On decrit les differentes manipulations et operations effectuees sur la pile: remplissage d'eau lourde, demarrage, recherche du niveau critique, verification de l'efficacite des barres, conduite de la pile pendant les experiences. Grace a un planning tres serre qui a pu etre tenu, les experiences ont pu etre terminees avant la date prevue par l'Agence Atomique Internationale. (auteurs)

  19. Estudio de Caso: Efecto de un Programa de Ejercicio Físico y Consejería Nutricional sobre Variables Físicas y Psicológicas en una Persona con Fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alberto Chaves León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de un programa de ejercicio físico, flexibilidad y consejería nutricional sobre las variables físicas (la capacidad aeróbica, la fuerza, la flexibilidad y el perfil lipídico y las variables psicológicas (el autoconcepto físico, la imagen corporal y la catastrofización del dolor en una persona con fibromialgia. En este estudio de caso se contó con la participación de una mujer de 53 años de edad. La intervención se aplicó durante ocho semanas, tres veces por semana y con supervisión constante de personal profesional. Antes de la aplicación de la intervención, Lourdes (seudónimo señala llevar una vida de intensos dolores articulares y musculares que la limitan en el desarrollo de sus actividades cotidianas. Las variables de investigación se midieron al inicio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados demostraron diferencias en el porcentaje de cambio en todas las variables medidas. Además, se evidenció una mejoría en su estado anímico, de acuerdo al testimonio dado por doña Lourdes. Por lo tanto, se concluye que una intervención de ejercicio físico y consejería nutricional es una estrategia efectiva para mejorar la calidad de vida de una persona con fibromialgia.

  20. Remodelación, Transformación y Rehabilitación. Tres formas de intervenir en la Vivienda Social del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervero Sánchez, N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social housing built in Spain between 1939 and 1976 constitutes a widespread urban pattern in contemporary cities. Its initial conditions, along with the effects of time, have led to obsolescence, requiring refurbishment for revitalisation. Programs developed over the last few years not only have provided the buildings with the appropriate standards of living conditions, but also have articulated them as a whole, integrating them into the socio-economic configuration of their urban area. The evolution of these intervention models will be reviewed analyzing the Urban Remodeling of Orcasitas (Madrid and Viviendas del Gobernador housing (Barcelona, the Urban Transformation of La Mina (Barcelona and the Integral Renovation of Barrio de Lourdes (Tudela.La vivienda social construida en España entre 1939 y 1976 supone un patrón urbano extendido en la ciudad contemporánea. Sus condiciones de partida y el efecto del tiempo la han llevado a desarrollar una serie de obsolescencias, que hacen necesario intervenir para conseguir su revitalización. Los programas desarrollados en los últimos años se ocupan de dotar a las edificaciones de unos niveles de habitabilidad adecuados, pero también de su articulación como grupo, y de su integración en la distribución socioeconómica del núcleo urbano. Mediante el análisis de la Remodelación Urbana de Orcasitas (Madrid y de las Viviendas del Gobernador (Barcelona, la Transformación Urbana de La Mina (Barcelona y la Rehabilitación Integral del Barrio de Lourdes (Tudela se estudiará la evolución de estos modelos de actuación.

  1. Use of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy for the prediction of the response to {beta}-blocker therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yuji; Hamada, Mareomi; Ohtsuka, Tomoaki; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Saeki, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Matsunaka, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Yuji [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Tl-201) and iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy could predit the usefulness of {beta}-blocker therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Tl-201 and MIBG were performed in 47 patients before {beta}-blocker therapy. Patients were classified into group A, if their cardiac function improved, and group B, whose function remained unchanged Two types of extent score (ES) by Tl-201 were proposed to quantitate myocardial damage, mean-2SD (ES-2) and mean -3SD (ES-3). The ES difference between ES-2 and ES-3 was calculated, and according to ES and ES difference, DCM cases were classified into 3 groups: mild-defect type (mild-type), moderate-defect type (moderate-type) and severe-defect type (severe-type). The heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) MIBG uptake ratio was evaluated, and the percent washout ratio of myocardial MIBG was obtained from these data. Group A comprised 18 mild-type, 14 moderate-type and 1 severe-type cases, and group B comprised 5 mild-type, 4 moderate-type and 5 severe-type cases. A significant relation was observed between the defect type on Tl-201 and the response to {beta}-blocker therapy (p=0.0090). Both H/M MIBG uptake ratios and washout ratio were not significantly different in the 2 groups. Tl-201 may be useful for predicting the response to {beta}-blocker therapy in patients with DCM. (author)

  2. Probabilistic approach to the prediction of radioactive contamination of agricultural production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.F.; Chernyaeva, L.G.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The organization of agricultural production on the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl reactor disaster involves prediction of the content of radionuclides in agro-industrial products. Traditional methods of prediting the contamination in the products does not give sufficient agreement with actual data and as a result it is difficult to make the necessary decisions about eliminating the consequences of the disaster in the agro-industrial complex. In many ways this is because the available methods are based on data on the radionuclide content in soils, plants, and plant and animal products. The parameters of the models used in the prediction are also evaluated on the basis of these results. Even if obtained from a single field or herd of livestock, however, such indicators have substantial variation coefficients due to various factors such as the spatial structure of the fallouts, the variability of the soil properties, the sampling error, the errors of processing and measuring the samples, and well as the data-averaging error. Consequently the parameters of the radionuclide transfer along the agricultural chains are very variable, thus considerably reducing the reliability of predicted values. The reliability of the prediction of radioactive contamination of agricultural products can be increased substantially by taking a probabilistic approach involving information about the random laws of contamination of farming land and the statistical features of the parameters of radionuclie migration along food chains. Considering the above, comparative analysis is made of the results obtained on the basis of the traditional treatment (deterministic in the simplest form) and its probabilistic analog

  3. Irradiated fuel behavior during reactivity initiated accidents in LWR's: Status of research and development studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, J.; Merle, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    There is much interest in the nuclear industry concerning the ability of training simulators to adequately model severe accident conditions, specifically Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) events. The Pennsylvania Power and Light Co. has recently installed a new simulator which was provided by S3 Technologies. As part of the licensed operator training program, PP ampersand L provides training on Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs). Since the ATWS event is challenging from both a computational and operational point of view, the Engineering Department was asked to benchmark the new simulator performance. The purpose of this benchmark was to ensure simulator fidelity with EOP basis calculations which are numerically more rigorous. Once acceptable simulator fidelity had been demonstrated, EOPs were evaluated to ensure they could be implemented by the operators. This paper examines the details of the new simulator response for ATWS events, and exposes the PP ampersand L ATWS procedures to further examination. The simulator benchmark was carried out using the PP ampersand L-developed SABRE code which has been benchmarked against plant data and industry accepted codes. For many ATWS scenarios, the new simulator, which is based upon first principles, provides preditions consistent with SABRE. Reactor power levels, consistent with SABRE results, are significantly higher than predicted by the old simulator, and containment pressurization occurs much more rapidly than previously simulated. Additionally, the new simulated reactor water level, pressure and power are far more responsive to perturbations than predicted by the old simulator. This responsiveness is consistent with SABRE predictions and has helped to define modifications to the ATWS emergency operating procedures. The modified procedures enhance the operators ability to respond to ATWS given the much more realistic reactor model

  4. Comportement en vapocraquage de molécules modèles et de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. Première partie : potentialité de craquage, réacteur à profil de température rectangulaire et à court temps de séjour Steam-Cracking Behavior of Model Molecules and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthelin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la valorisation des coupes lourdes par vapocraquage, des distillats sous vide plus ou moins hydrotraités et des molécules modèles ont été pyrolysés. Cette étude a été réalisée sur un micropilote dont la partie réactionnelle est chauffée entre 680 et 860°C, par induction électromagnétique haute fréquence; le débit total peut varier de 60 à 800 g/h avec une perte de charge inférieure à 0,3 bar. Deux réacteurs tubulaires spiralés de rapport surface/volume allant jusqu'à 2000 m-1 permettent d'atteindre des temps de séjour de 10 à 400 millisecondes. Un indice quantifiant l'aptitude de chaque molécule à produire de l'éthylène, du propylène et des composés lourds, a permis l'établissement d'une échelle de potentialité de craquage, permettant d'orienter les performances d'un catalyseur de prétraitement : optimisation de la consommation d'hydrogène, meilleure valorisation des charges lourdes lors du vapocraquage. Grâce au profil de température rectangulaire du micropilote, des gains très importants de rendements d'éthylène et une production très faible d'asphaltènes ont été mis en évidence par pyrolyse de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. L'importance primordiale de la température dans le couple température-temps de séjour a été confirmée. Within the framework of the upgrading of heavy cuts for steam cracking, more or less hydrotreated vacuum distillates and model molecules were pyrolyzed. This research was done in a micropilot plant in which the reaction section was heated to between 680 and 860°C by high-frequency electromagnetic induction. The total flow rate can vary from 60 to 800 g/h with a pressure drop of less than 0. 3 bar. Two spiral tubular reactors with a high surface/volume ratio of up to 2000 m-1 enable residence times of 10 to 400 milliseconds to be obtained. An index quantifying the capacity of each molecule to produce ethylene, propylene and heavy compounds was used

  5. Initial Operating Experience with the ''NPD'' Reactor; Experience recueillie pendant les premiers mois de fonctionnement du reacteur NPD; Pervyj opyt po ehkspluatatsii reaktora NPD; Experiencia inicial de funcionamiento del reactor NPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, L. G. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    Canada's first nuclear power station, the Nuclear Power Demonstration station (NPD), is intended to serve as a means of proof-testing the performance of the Canadian type of station using natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. It reached full power on 28 June 1962. Although designed for base-load operation it will, during the early stages, be operated part of the time on high-capacity.runs and part of the time on improvement periods. Progress has been favourable so far; the first high-capacity run of six weeks'duration yielded a capacity factor of 70%. Improvements already made have increased safety, improved performance and demonstrated potential methods of capital-cost reduction for future stations. For example, shaft seals on primary coolant pumps have been modified for better performance, freezer-type vapour recovery equipment has been replaced in favour of absorption columns to reduce heavy-water vapour loss, and flow limiters are being installed in sample lines to reduce losses of heavy water in the event of joint failures. During December 1962 two simultaneous leaks from the on-power refuelling machine led to an unusual sequence of events in which a considerable amount of hot high-pressure heavy water was spilled into the reactor vault where it suffered a slight downgrading in isotopic purity. It was upgraded and the reactor returned to operation by the end of the month. All safety devices operated correctly during the incident as did the provisions for containment of heavy water. (author) [French] La premiere centrale nucleaire du Canada, NPD, est une centrale de demonstration, qui doit servir a verifier les performances des reacteurs fonctionnant a l'uranium naturel et utilisant de l'eau lourde comme ralentisseur et comme fluide de refroidissement. Elle a atteint sa pleine puissance le 28 juin 1962 bien que concue pour etre exploitee comme centrale de base, elle fonctionnera au debut comme centrale d'appoint, ce qui permettra d

  6. Influence of the Crude Oil Characterization on Mmp Calculation Influence de la caractérisation d'un pétrole brut sur le calcul de la pression minimale de miscibilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the influence of the crude oil characterization on minimum miscibility pressure (MMP calculation. It is shown what kind of compounds may be lumped together in order to calculate the MMP with a good accuracy. In a first step, a selected crude oil is modeled with 37 pure compounds using the characterization procedure developed by Avaullée et al. (1997a in which two parameters of the distillation residue are fitted on the experimental bubble points. In this context, all the experimental data (PVT, swelling test, slim tube test are calculated with a very good accuracy. In a second step, the heavy intermediate, the middle intermediate and the light compounds are successively lumped. The influence of such lumping procedure on the calculated MMP is discussed. Dans cet article, nous étudions l'influence de la modélisation des coupes d'un pétrole brut sur la valeur calculée de la pression minimale de miscibilité (MMP. En particulier, il est expliqué quels types de constituants peuvent être regroupés sous forme d'un pseudo-constituant sans pour autant dégrader la valeur de la MMP. La procédure suivie dans cet article est simple : à partir d'un pétrole brut donné, nous utilisons dans un premier temps une représentation par 37 composants, exploitant l'information analytique standard disponible sur ce fluide. La modélisation des fractions lourdes utilisée est celle développée par Avaullée et al. (1997a , dans laquelle nous avons ajusté deux paramètres du résidu de distillation C(20+ sur les pressions de saturation expérimentales. Sur le fluide étudié, nous mettons en évidence le bon niveau de restitution des grandeurs volumétriques, des données expérimentales de gonflement ainsi que de la MMP mesurée lors d'une expérience de déplacement en tube mince. Dans un deuxième temps, les composés intermédiaires lourds, les intermédiaires moyens et les composants légers font successivement l'objet de

  7. Entrepreneurship development in destinations of religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are

  8. Starting up a programme of atomic piles using compressed gas; Le demarrage d'un programme de piles atomiques a gaz comprime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, J; Yvon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    1) An examination of the intellectual and material resources which have directed the French programme towards: a) the natural uranium and plutonium system, b) the use of compressed gas as heat transfer fluid (primary fluid). 2) The parts played in exploring the field by the pile EL2 and G1, EL2 a natural uranium, heavy water and compressed gas pile, G1 a natural uranium, graphite and atmospheric air pile. 3) Development of the neutronics of graphite piles: physical study of G1. 4) The examination of certain problem posed by centres equipped with natural uranium, graphite and compressed carbon dioxide piles: structure, special materials, fluid circuits, maximum efficiency. Economic aspects. 5) Aids to progress: a) piles for testing materials and for tests on canned fuel elements, b) laboratory and calculation facilities. 6) Possible new orientations of compressed gas piles: a) raising of the pressure, b) enriched fuel, c) higher temperatures, d) use of heavy water. (author) [French] 1) Examen des ressources - intellectuelles et materielles - qui ont oriente le programme fran is vers: a) la voie de l'uranium naturel et du plutonium; b) l'emploi comme fluide pour le transfert de la chaleur (fluide primaire) d'un gaz comprime. 2) Le role d'exploration des piles EL2 et G1, EL2 pile a uranium naturel, eau lourde et gaz comprime, G1 pile a uranium naturel, graphite et air atmospherique. 3) Developpement de la neutronique des piles a graphite: l'etude physique de G1. 4) Examen de certains problemes poses par les centrales equipees de piles a uranium naturel, graphite et gaz carbonique comprime: structure, materiaux speciaux, circuits de fluides, optimisation. Aspects economiques. 5) Les auxiliaires du progres: a) piles pour essai de materiaux et pour essais de cartouches, b) moyens de laboratoire et moyens de calcul. 6) Orientations nouvelles possibles des piles a gaz comprime: a) elevation de la pression, b) combustible enrichi, c) temperatures elevees, d) emploi de l

  9. Projeto "construindo um futuro saudável através da prática da atividade física diária" Project "building a healthy future through the daily practice of physical activity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Pozena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O sedentarismo representa um dos principais fatores de risco à saúde, causando um grande impacto na saúde publica, ocasionando o aparecimento de doenças degenerativas não transmissíveis e em um número crescente de pessoas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a importância da atividade física diária como proposta para auxiliar o controle do sedentarismo e das doenças degenerativas crônicas não transmissíveis na Estratégia Saúde da Família do município de Lourdes (São Paulo. Conclui-se, dessa forma, a uma necessidade urgente de aplicação de programas que visem a um estilo de vida mais ativo e mudanças comportamentais. Pôde-se verificar, através da coleta de dados, a eficácia da atividade física diária na redução e/ou controle das doenças degenerativas não transmissíveis nas pessoas que aderiram ao projeto e a grande importância de um preparo preventivo.Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor at the national and international level. It produces a strong impact on public health, causing the onset of non-transmissible degenerative diseases in a growing number of people. The objective of this study was to verify the importance of daily physical activity as a proposal to help control physical inactivity and chronic non-transmissible degenerative diseases in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Lourdes (state of São Paulo. It is concluded that there is an urgent need of programs aimed at a more active lifestyle and behavioral changes. It was verified, through the data collection, the effectiveness of daily physical activity in the reduction and / or control of non-transmissible degenerative diseases in the people who joined the project and the great importance of prevention for this population.

  10. Intervenir contre le harcèlement au travail : soigner et sévir ne suffisent pas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Leclerc

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quelles sont les voies d’intervention privilégiées et à promouvoir en matière de lutte contre le harcèlement psychologique au travail ? La tendance actuelle des entreprises est de se doter de politiques et de prévoir le recours à des services de médiation ou à des procédures d’enquête. L’article analyse d’abord les avantages et les limites de ces formes d’intervention à saveur fortement psychologique ou juridique. La mise au jour des éléments organisationnels en présence dans plusieurs situations de harcèlement permet ensuite de comprendre qu’une lutte efficace contre le harcèlement ne peut se réduire à des interventions individuelles faites en marge des lieux concrets du travail. Les interventions à promouvoir doivent contribuer à retisser les liens de solidarité fragilisés par des formes d’organisation du travail et de gestion qui placent les personnes en situation constante d’insécurité, de surcharge et de compétition. Elles doivent permettre la parole et l’action collectives.Which ways and means should we encourage and promote to combat psychological harassment in the workplace? The current trend in companies is to adopt policies and to plan for mediation services or official inquiry procedures. The present paper analyses first the advantages and limitations of these interventions, which are of a highly psychological or legal nature. Next, by bringing to light the managerial processes involved in numerous harassment situations, we understand that an effective fight against harassment cannot be reduced to individual interventions on the margins of the actual workplace. The interventions to be promoted should therefore help strengthen the bonds of solidarity weakened by forms of work organization and management that put people in constant situations of insecurity, overwork and competition. These interventions must allow collective action and expression.Cúales son las vías de intervenci

  11. Parametrisation D'effets Non-Standard EN Phenomenologie Electrofaible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymyk, Ivan

    Cette these pat articles porte sur la parametrisation d'effets non standard en physique electrofaible. Dans chaque analyse, nous avons ajoute plusieurs operateurs non standard au lagrangien du modele standard electrofaible. Les operateurs non standard decrivent les nouveaux effets decoulant d'un modele sous-jacent non-specefie. D'emblee, le nombre d'operateurs non standard que l'on peut inclure dans une telle analyse est illimite. Mais pour une classe specifique de modeles sous-jacents, les effets non standard peuvent etre decrits par un nombre raisonnable d'operateurs. Dans chaque analyse nous avons developpe des expressions pour des observables electrofaibles, en fonction des coefficients des operateurs nouveaux. En effectuant un "fit" statistique sur un ensemble de donnees experimentales precises, nous avons obtenu des contraintes phenomenologiques sur ces coefficients. Dans "Model-Independent Global Constraints on New Physics", nous avons adopte des hypotheses tres peu contraignantes relatives aux modeles sous-jacents. Nous avons tronque le lagrangien effectif a la dimension cinq (inclusivement). Visant la plus grande generalite possible, nous avons admis des interactions qui ne respectent pas les symetries discretes (soit C, P et CP) ainsi que des interactions qui ne conservent pas la saveur. Le lagrangien effectif contient une quarantaine d'operateurs nouveaux. Nous avons determine que, pour la plupart des coefficients des nouveaux operateurs, les contraintes sont assez serrees (2 ou 3%), mais il y a des exceptions interessantes. Dans "Bounding Anomalous Three-Gauge-Boson Couplings", nous avons determine des contraintes phenomenologiques sur les deviations des couplages a trois bosons de jauge par rapport aux interactions prescrites par le modele standard. Pour ce faire, nous avons calcule les contributions indirectes des CTBJ non standard aux observables de basse energie. Puisque le lagrangien effectif est non-renormalisable, certaines difficultes techniques

  12. Impedance de surface dans les supraconducteurs quasi-bidimensionnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkir, Driss Brice

    Ce travail a caractere experimental et theorique vise l'etude de l'etat supraconducteur de trois familles de composes: les supraconducteurs conventionnels, les organiques et les cuprates YBCO. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilise une technique hyperfrequence, a savoir la mesure d'impedance de surface en fonction de la temperature et du champ magnetique. Dans les supraconducteurs conventionnels, nous avons mesure pour la premiere fois le pic de "coherence" dans la partie reelle de la conductivite. Bien que predit par la theorie BCS, ce pic n'avait pas ete clairement observe en raison de difficultes techniques liees a ce type d'experience. D'autre part, la theorie d'Eliashberg appliquee a la partie reelle de la conductivite du niobium nous a revele l'importance des mesures hyperfrequences pour mieux extraire la partie basse frequence de la densite spectrale alphasp2F(omega). Cette possibilite est attrayante puisque c'est precisement la region de frequences de alphasp2F(omega) ou les donnees d'effet tunnel sont imprecises. Les resultats obtenus sur la longueur de penetration dans les organiques et les cuprates ont permis de montrer que le gap presente des lignes de zeros au niveau de Fermi ou qu'il est, a tout le moins, fortement anisotrope. En effet, la dependance en temperature de la longueur de penetration dans les cristaux purs est lineaire a basse temperature et elle devient quadratique dans les cristaux dopes. Pour le cas des supraconducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels (Et)sb2X, nous avons aussi observe un maximum sur la partie reelle de la conductivite qui n'a rien a voir avec un pic de coherence. Pour ces composes, nous avons effectue une des toutes premieres etudes des fluctuations supraconductrices en temperature et en champ magnetique. Nous montrons que la paraconductivite sigmasp' due aux fluctuations presente un comportement de type Aslamazov-Larkin de nature tridimensionnelle. Ces mesures sont appuyees par les resultats theoriques d'un modele Ginzburg

  13. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  14. Exploitation réseau électrique Bilan 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Cumer, G

    2001-01-01

    Ce document présente le bilan annuel d'exploitation du réseau électrique pour l'année 2000. Après une présentation succincte des nouvelles sous-stations et équipements mis en service cette année, ce bilan est proposé au travers des statistiques des pannes et des demandes d'interventions des salles de contrôles PCR, MCR et PCR. Cette année 2000 aura été marquée par quelques pannes majeures ayant affecté le LEP et le SPS. L'analyse de ces incidents en fait apparaître les causes d'origines techniques, humaines ou extérieures au CERN, détaille les catégories d'équipements concernés. Ces données permettent de souligner l'impact et les conséquences lourdes de la moindre coupure électrique sur le fonctionnement des accélérateurs. Elles permettent d'autre part de mettre en lumière les points faibles actuels que sont les contrôleurs Micène, les câbles et les protections 18 kV SPS. Dans ce contexte et au vu des incidents de ces dernières années, un historique des pannes survenues sur les...

  15. Du Style pour dire non, ou l’artillerie d’une poétique de combat dans Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal d’Aimé Césaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotaire Saah Nengou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Malgré les divers thèmes étudiés par des générations d’écrivains d’Afrique et de la diaspora noire francophone, la plupart de leurs œuvres ne reflète souvent que très timidement une forme esthétique hardie; serait-ce par peur de faire la différence? Par contre le poète Aimé Césaire ose. Dans son poème Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal, Césaire fait du signe une arme stylistique et insurrectionnelle pour combattre la norme culturelle tyrannique imposée à sa conscience, combattre les oppresseurs d’hommes et les larbins de la révolte. Soit le “style pour dire non!” La présente étude voudrait montrer que l’expressivité chez Césaire dans cet inusable, long et délirant texte poétique, c’est de l’artillerie lourde qui se caractérise par l’usage quantitatif, qualitatif et volumique d’éléments linguistiques, sortes d’obus donnant vitalité aux idées et violence aux signifiants.

  16. Encephalitis treatment – a case report with long-term follow-up of EBV PCR in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarlasht F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fnu Zarlasht,1 Mashal Salehi,2 Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh,3 Muzammil Khan2 1Department of Medicine, Lourdes Hospital, Binghamton, NY, USA, 2Department of Medicine, NYC Health + Hospital/Harlem, Columbia University, NY, USA, 3Department of Medicine, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Centre, Bronx NY, USA Background: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV has been found to cause infectious mononucleosis multiple times, but has been associated rarely with EBV encephalitis. Also, whenever it is diagnosed, it is always treated symptomatically.Case report: A case of confirmed EBV encephalitis is presented, which was treated with antiviral therapy resulting in complete clearance of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid and minimal neurologic symptoms after hospital discharge.Conclusion: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines state that intravenous acyclovir is not recommended for EBV-related encephalitis. But we reviewed the literature and found similar cases, and we believe that antiviral therapy should be recommended for EBV encephalitis because it is a potentially fatal disease and if left untreated, can lead to raised intracranial pressure, craniotomy and even death. Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, intravenous, human immune deficiency virus, HIV

  17. RESENHA: FREDEL, Karla Maria. Arqueologia de Gênero nas cidades de Pelotas - RS - Brasil e Habana Vieja - Habana - Cuba / século XIX. Erechim, RS: Habilis Press, 2015, 214 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cano Sanchiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arqueologia de Gênero nas cidades de Pelotas - RS - Brasil e Habana Vieja - Habana - Cuba / século XIX es la publicación de la Tesis Doctoral homónima de Karla Ma Fredel, defendida en el Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas de la Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, en octubre de 2012. La tesis se desarrolló bajo la orientación del profesor Dr. Pedro Paulo A. Funari (Laboratório de Arqueologia Pública, NEPAM/UNICAMP y la co-orientación de los profesores Dra. Lourdes Domínguez (Oficina del Historiador de La Habana; Academia de la Historia de Cuba y Dr. Lúcio Menezes Ferreira (Laboratório Multidisciplinar de Pesquisa Arqueológica, UFPel. Todos ellos han contribuido a esta nueva obra con sendos prólogo (Domínguez, prefacio (Funari y presentación (Ferreira.

  18. Div a zázrak v mayských poutích do Esquipulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kapusta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with pilgrimages to Esquipulas, Guatemala, and patterns of miracle in terms of their perception by the pilgrims reaching this prominent religious hub of Central America. Two key pilgrimage discourses are distinguished: traditional Maya pilgrimage, based on regular, calendar customs, and conventional Catholic pilgrimage, founded on occasional journeys to fulfil a vow. The Western understanding of miracle as a transgression of "natural laws" or "common course of nature" is relativized and contested arguing that the ethnographic evidence of Esquipulas shows not only different, but also opposite conceptions. Then, the study presents a spectrum of miracle ideas drawing from the Maya as well as European - the case of Lourdes is exemplary here - traditions in terms of the degree of their uncommonness. It is concluded that anthropology has to comprehend miracles as marvels in its cultural context; nevertheless, there is a widespread idea among many cultures that miracle is something wonderful, related to the awareness of non-obviousness of certain things and phenomena. Miracles find its content and meaning within particular cosmology, but, anchored in the psychological characteristics of the astonishment and the difference between usual and unusual or ordinary and extraordinary, they refer to features of human mind in a more general way.

  19. Div a zázrak v mayských poutích do Esquipulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kapusta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with pilgrimages to Esquipulas, Guatemala, and patterns of miracle in terms of their perception by the pilgrims reaching this prominent religious hub of Central America. Two key pilgrimage discourses are distinguished: traditional Maya pilgrimage, based on regular, calendar customs, and conventional Catholic pilgrimage, founded on occasional journeys to fulfil a vow. The Western understanding of miracle as a transgression of “natural laws” or “common course of nature” is relativized and contested arguing that the ethnographic evidence of Esquipulas shows not only different, but also opposite conceptions. Then, the study presents a spectrum of miracle ideas drawing from the Maya as well as European – the case of Lourdes is exemplary here – traditions in terms of the degree of their uncommonness. It is concluded that anthropology has to comprehend miracles as marvels in its cultural context; nevertheless, there is a widespread idea among many cultures that miracle is something wonderful, related to the awareness of non-obviousness of certain things and phenomena. Miracles find its content and meaning within particular cosmology, but, anchored in the psychological characteristics of the astonishment and the difference between usual and unusual or ordinary and extraordinary, they refer to features of human mind in a more general way.

  20. Editoriale/Editorial/Éditorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Balloni

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Future criminology not only has to become more and more independent of past heavy influence, but must also be able to interact with people working for public and private social control agencies. That means dealing with organizations facing crime every day, using adequate means for preventing and fighting it in order to give support to victims. In this way, the University should have a very important role in the education of people working for social control agencies giving the right support to victims.La criminologie pour l'avenir doit s'affranchir des lourds conditionnements du passé, mais surtout elle doit tisser des liens avec les professionnels qui travaillent dans les services publiques et privés du contrôle social, c'est à dire avec ceux qui tous les jours doivent faire face à la criminalité et qui doivent employer les outils pour la prévention de la délinquance et la répression du crime et pour l'aide aux victimes.Par conséquent, l'Université a la responsabilité de jouer un rôle très important dans le domaine de la formation de ces professionnels.

  1. Dynamic problems of power reactors and analogic devices; Les problemes dynamiques du reacteur de puissance et les machines analogiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braffort, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The raise of the nuclear physics came with heavy mathematical developments. The analogical installations became especially useful for precise calculations of parameters which depend the running of a reactor. They permit between other to study of kinetic problems and especially ''cybernetics'' of nuclear reactors. It doesn't make a doubt that their use will become widespread, not only in the calculations laboratories, in services for servo-mechanisms study, but also in the control panels of the reactors themselves. (M.B.) [French] L'essor de la physique nucleaire s'est accompagne de lourds developpements mathematiques. Les montages analogiques sont devenus particulierement utiles pour les calculs precis des parametres dont depend le fonctionnement d'un reacteur. Elles permettent entre autre l'etude des problemes cinetiques et surtout ''cybernetiques'' des reacteurs nucleaires. Il ne fait pas de doute que leur usage se generalisera, non seulement dans les laboratoires de calculs, les services d'etudes de servomecanismes, mais aussi pres des tableaux de commande des reacteurs eux-memes. (M.B.)

  2. Spiral 2 cryogenic system overview: Design, construction and performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschildre, C.; Bernhardt, J.; Flavien, G.; Crispel, S. [Air Liquide Advanced Technologies, Sassenage (France); Souli, M. [GANIL, Caen (France); Commeaux, C. [IPN, Orsay (France)

    2014-01-29

    The new particle accelerator project Spiral 2 at GANIL (“Grand Accélérateur d’Ions Lourds, i.e. National Large Heavy Ion Accelerator) in Caen (France) is a very large installation, intended to serve fundamental research in nuclear physics. The heart of the future machine features a superconductor linear accelerator, delivering a beam until 20Mev/A, which are then used to bombard a matter target. The resulting reactions, such as fission, transfer, fusion, etc. will generate billions of exotic nuclei. To achieve acceleration of the beam, 26 cavities which are placed inside cryomodules at helium cryogenic temperature will be used. AL-AT (Air Liquide Advanced Technologies) takes part to the project by supplying cryogenic plant. The plant includes the liquefier associated to its compressor station, a large dewar, a storage tank for helium gas and transfer lines. In addition, a helium recovery system composed of recovery compressor, high pressure storage and external purifier has been supplied. Customized HELIAL LF has been designed, manufactured and tested by AL-AT to match the refrigeration power need for the Spiral 2 project which is around 1300 W equivalent at 4.5 K.

  3. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.W.; VanStaal, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  4. L'utilisation des eaux usées organiques en pisciculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMIDT G.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des eaux usées en pisciculture nécessite un traitement minimum indispensable (lagunage, épuration classique, prédilution, dilution simultanée. Une deuxième condition, non moins importante, est la sélection exclusive des eaux usées domestiques et rurales afin d'éviter la présence de métaux lourds et autres substances toxiques des rejets industriels. Dans un tel milieu enrichi, la production piscicole peut être doublée et même triplée sans nourriture additionnelle. Cependant, même si on arrive à de bons résultats, certains dangers subsistent : possibilité d'anoxie due à la dégradation des matières organiques, présence d'ammoniac, de nitrites, de détergents, risques d'infections virales et bactériennes. Des études ultérieures devraient préciser ces problèmes et tenter de les résoudre.

  5. Neutron distribution in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile; Repartition des neutrons dans la cellule centrale et une cellule peripherique de la pile de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The distribution of the neutron density has been determined in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the pile at Fontenay-aux-Roses. This measurement was carried out by the autoradiographic method with manganese detectors. The neutron density distribution in the uranium rod has already been studied. The measurement was completed by the study of the neutron density in the complete cell by means of detectors placed in the uranium and in the heavy water. (author) [French] La repartition de la densite des neutrons a ete determinee dans la cellule centrale et une cellule peripherique de la pile de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Cette mesure a ete effectuee par la methode d'autoradiographie avec des detecteurs de manganese. La repartition de la densite des neutrons dans la barre d'uranium a deja ete etudiee. La mesure a ete completee par l'etude de la densite des neutrons dans la cellule complete a l'aide de detecteurs places dans l'uranium et dans l'eau lourde. (auteur)

  6. Éthiques & mythes de la création : du mystère des pierres à la pêche errante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Dallet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lourd comme une pierre, fluide comme l’eau, chatoyant comme la vie, le mythe a une vie concrète et spirituelle protéiforme. On peut le « regarder de tous côtés sans déception », selon la définition du peintre chinois Liu Dan donne à propos des rochers qu’il aime à dessiner. Les êtres humains, lancés par un pertuis de chair dans le chaos du monde, acceptent leurs destins collectifs par ces formes en résonnance. Naître au monde, c’est refuser et accepter tout à la fois des contractions et des contradictions mythiques, qui vont nourrir aléatoirement une substance intime. Le nu, le naître et la force des choses sont extraordinairement liés aux lieux de vie et au pouvoir des transformations. Répondre à la question “qui invente les mythes?” est donc un exercice difficile : la vérité est la seule chose que l’on peut inventer, sera ma première réponse. Le mythe répond à une nécessité explicative du monde et sa forme concrète participe d’une énigme pérenne du vivant.

  7. L’excellence : impossible sans un personnel stable et expérimenté

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    Le monde entier avait les yeux fixés sur le CERN ce 4 juillet 2012, quand ATLAS et CMS ont annoncé leur découverte d’une particule « compatible avec le Higgs ». Début 2013 il n’a fallu que quelques jours pour régler le LHC et faire tourner des protons et des ions lourds. Toutes ces découvertes et prouesses techniques n’ont été possibles que grâce à l’expérience et la poursuite de l’excellence d’équipes soudées de techniciens et ingénieurs qui ont conçu, construit, mis en marche, et finalement font fonctionner ce complexe d’accélérateurs unique au monde. Un service d’excellence avec un encadrement adéquat Entre 2002 et 2012 (voir Fig. 1), le nombre d’utilisateurs est passé de 5912 à...

  8. Study of the multiplication factor in the core of Saclay; Etude du facteur de multiplication dans la pile de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacrot, B; Netter, F; Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    Several methods were studied for the measure of the multiplication factor strength in a core, by experiences in subcritical regime. These methods are applied to the determination of the effect on the reactivity of such different parameters of the battery that: heavy water level, position of the regulating plates. These results are used to establish an experimental relation between the time of the rise of the divergent core and the factor of effective multiplication. It is also given the application of these methods to the assessment of the power of the core. (author) [French] Des methodes ont ete etudie pour la mesure du facteur de multiplication effectif dans une pile, par des experiences en regime sous-critique. Ces methodes sont appliquees a la determination de l'effet sur la reactivite de differents parametres de la pile tels que: niveau d'eau lourde, position des plaques de reglage. Ces resultats sont utilises pour etablir une relation experimentale entre le temps de la montee de la pile divergente et le facteur de multiplication effectif. On donne egalement l'application de ces methodes a l'evaluation de la puissance de la pile. (auteur)

  9. The Battle for Heavy Water Three physicists' heroic exploits

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Up until the end of the 1970s you could still catch a glimpse of his massive silhouette in the corridors of CERN. Lew Kowarksi, one of the pioneers of the Laboratory, was not only a great physicist; he was also a genuine hero of World War II. In 1940, along with Frédéric Joliot and Hans von Halban, Lew Kowarski managed to get the entire world supply of heavy water away to safety from the Nazis after a fantastic escape from occupied France. At the end of the war, the three physicists played themselves in a film about their adventures entitled 'la Bataille de l'eau lourde'. This film, which has been loaned to us by the French National Film Library, will be shown at CERN for the first time next Thursday. At the beginning of the war, heavy water (D20, two atoms of deuterium and one oxygen atom) was of strategic importance. In 1939 Frédéric Joliot, aided by Hans von Halban and Lew Kowarski, demonstrated the nuclear chain reaction and the moderator role that heavy water plays in it. A few weeks before the inv...

  10. Design of a new 10 GHz ECRIS with a hexapole of continuous easy axis orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.; Kutner, V.; Zao Hongwei

    1993-01-01

    A new 10 GHz ECR ion source for the ion production of high intensity and high charge state is being planned to build at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. The main point about the design of this source is that we try to get a very simple and cheap ECR source with a flexible structure which could be variable during operation according to different purposes. This source will be equipped with a new hexapole with continuous easy axis orientation. Because of such new hexapole, this source is very compact with a simple structure, lower electric power consumption (less than 40 kw), lower cooling pressure and relatively low price. In addition, a very compact and cheap UHF (ultra high frequency) generator with an output power 800 W will be used in this source. An intense axial magnetic field up to 1.2 T and a sufficient field distribution are obtained by a fine optimization. Two different field configurations with and without iron puller will be tested. The designed structure makes it easy to change field configuration from one to another. The comparison with CAPRICE and GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National a Ions Lourds) ECR4 (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) are described. The detailed calculations of cooling water pressure for the solenoids and the double wall chamber are presented, and at last the features and prospects for the application of this source are reviewed. (author.). 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. New experimental method to study the collective modes in exotic nuclei; influence of the superfluidity on the cooling time of a neutron star; Nouvelle methode experimentale dediee a l'etude des modes collectifs dans les noyaux exotiques; influence de la superfluidite sur le temps de refroidissement d'une etoile a neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrozeau, Ch

    2007-07-15

    Giant monopole (GMR) and quadrupole (GQR) resonances have been measured in the {sup 56}Ni using inelastic scattering of 50 A.MeV deuteron at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds facility. This is the first experimental observation of isoscalar collective modes in a short-lived nucleus. The secondary beam was impinged on the active target Maya filled with a pure deuterium gas. Recoiling deuterons were detected in Maya and in a wall of nine silicon detectors. The GMR and GQR are centered at 19.3(0.5) and 16.2(0.5) MeV, respectively. Corresponding angular distributions were extracted from 3 to 7 degrees in the centre of mass frame. DWBA analysis based on RPA transition densities yields the percentage of the energy weighted sum rule exhausted: 136(27) % for the GMR et 76(13) % for the GQR. A finite temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model was implemented to describe the 10 Wigner-Seitz cells which compose the inner crust of neutron stars and to microscopically calculate their specific heat. Calculations are performed with two contact pairing forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding to the BCS approximation and to polarisation effects. Under the assumption of a rapid cooling of the core and an initial temperature of 100 keV in the inner crust, the cooling time of the star was estimated at 9 and 34 years, respectively. (author)

  12. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  13. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  14. Introduction à la thermodynamique cours et problèmes résolus

    CERN Document Server

    Lhuillier, Claire

    1994-01-01

    Si la thermodynamique fait appel à des concepts comme l'entropie, son étude renvoie souvent à des phénomènes courants (les changements d'état) ou encore à des technologies lourdes (les centrales thermiques). De ce fait, on la considère parfois comme une discipline difficile d'accès. Dans le cadre de leur enseignement de première année de premier cycle, Claire LHUILLIER et Jean ROUS ont rédigé un cours - appuyé de très nombreux exemples - dans lesquels ils introduisent avec clarté et rigueur toutes les notions de base : pression, température, énergie interne, premier principe, travail des forces de pression, chaleurs, etc. L'introduction de l'entropie est dissociée de celle du second principe : c'est une fonction d'état qui mesure l'information microscopique manquante. Le second principe est alors formulé comme un principe d'évolution, adapté à l'étude des phénomènes irréversibles. Les potentiels thermodynamiques ont été plus longuement traités dans cette nouvelle édition. Une f...

  15. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R W; VanStaal, C R [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  16. Electronic device for measuring the polarization parameter in the {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange reaction on a polarized proton target; Un appareillage electronique destine a la mesure du parametre de polarisation dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n sur cible de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehin, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-15

    An electronic apparatus has been constructed to measure the polarization parameter P{sub 0}(t) in {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange scattering at 5.9 GeV/c and 11,2 GeV/c on polarized proton target. This device insures triggering of a heavy plate spark chamber, allowing visualisation of {gamma} rays from the {pi}{sup 0} decays when the associated neutron offers suitable characteristics in direction and energy. The neutron is detected by an array of 32 counters and his energy is measured by a time of flight method. Electronic circuits of this apparatus are described as test and calibration methods used. (author) [French] Un appareillage electronique a ete realise pour mesurer le parametre de polarisation P{sub 0}(t) dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n a 5,9 GeV/c et 11,2 GeV/c sur une cible de protons polarises. Ce dispositif assure le declenchement d'une chambre a etincelles a plaques lourdes, permettant de visualiser les {gamma} de desitegration du {pi}{sup 0}, lorsque le neutron associe presente les caracteristiques convenables en direction et en energie. Le neutron est detecte par un ensemble de 32 compteurs et son energie est mesuree par une methode de temps de vol. Les circuits composant cet appareillage sont decrits ainsi que les methodes d'etalonnage et de verification utilisees. (auteur)

  17. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  18. Decay properties of exotic N ≅ 28 S and Cl nuclei and the 48Ca/46Ca abundance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorlin, O.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Mueller, A.C.; Borrel, V.; Dogny, S.; Pougheon, F.; Anne, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Borcea, C.; Fifield, L.K.; Bazin, D.; Thielemann, F.K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1992-01-01

    Beta-decay half-lives and β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities of the very neutron-rich nuclei 44 S and 45-47 Cl have been measured. These isotopes, which lie at or close to the N=28 magic shell were produced in interactions of a 60 MeV/u 48 Ca beam from GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) with a 64 Ni target and were separated by the doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE (Ligne d'Ions Super Epluches). Their decay was studied by a β-n time correlation measurement. The results are compared to recent model predictions and indicate a rapid weakening of the N=28 shell effect below 48 20 Ca 28 . The nuclear structure effects reflected in the decay properties of the exotic S and Cl isotopes may be the clue for the astrophysical understanding of the unusual 48 Ca/ 46 Ca abundance ratio measured in the solar system as well as the Ca-Ti-Cr anomalies observed in EK-inclusions of the Allende meteorite

  19. New experimental method to study the collective modes in exotic nuclei; influence of the superfluidity on the cooling time of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrozeau, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    Giant monopole (GMR) and quadrupole (GQR) resonances have been measured in the 56 Ni using inelastic scattering of 50 A.MeV deuteron at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds facility. This is the first experimental observation of isoscalar collective modes in a short-lived nucleus. The secondary beam was impinged on the active target Maya filled with a pure deuterium gas. Recoiling deuterons were detected in Maya and in a wall of nine silicon detectors. The GMR and GQR are centered at 19.3(0.5) and 16.2(0.5) MeV, respectively. Corresponding angular distributions were extracted from 3 to 7 degrees in the centre of mass frame. DWBA analysis based on RPA transition densities yields the percentage of the energy weighted sum rule exhausted: 136(27) % for the GMR et 76(13) % for the GQR. A finite temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model was implemented to describe the 10 Wigner-Seitz cells which compose the inner crust of neutron stars and to microscopically calculate their specific heat. Calculations are performed with two contact pairing forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding to the BCS approximation and to polarisation effects. Under the assumption of a rapid cooling of the core and an initial temperature of 100 keV in the inner crust, the cooling time of the star was estimated at 9 and 34 years, respectively. (author)

  20. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.; Raievski, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  1. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 sa...

  2. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'&e...

  3. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    >Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 s...

  4. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations...

  5. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  6. Purification by molecular sieve of helium used as inert cover gas in nuclear reactors; Epuration de l'helium de couverture des reacteurs nucleaires par adsorption sur tamis moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenberg, J; Kahan, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A method carried out at fairly low temperatures (between -50 and -80 deg. C) has been studied for the purification of the helium used as cover gas for heavy water in reactors. The use of the 5A molecular sieve has been adopted because of its superiority over other adsorbents in this temperature range. The particular problems connected with adsorption under dynamic conditions have been dealt with separately. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been plotted and the heat of adsorption calculated. (authors) [French] Une methode d'epuration, a temperature moderement basse (comprise entre -50 et -80 deg. C) de l'helium servant de couverture inerte a l'eau lourde des reacteurs a ete etudiee. L'emploi au tamis moleculaire 5A a ete retenu pour la superiorite de celui-ci sur d'autres adsorbants dans ce domaine de temperatures. Les problemes particuliers a l'adsorption en regime dynamique ont ete separement traites. Les isothermes d'adsorption d'azote ont ete tracees et la chaleur d'adsorp. tion calculee. (auteurs)

  7. Production of an intense source of micro-second proton pulses; Recherche d'une intense source de protons pulsee a la micro-seconde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmont, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-02-01

    In order to obtain micro-second proton pulses of 100 mA, we have built a duoplasmatron ion source and beam focusing equipment. The pulses of the ion-source were produced by a load discharge. The source operates as a hydrogen-thyratron. The particular geometry of the duoplasmatron was chosen in order that the ion emission be stable with a 10 A arc and with a gas-flow lower than 10 cm{sup 3}/h T.P.N. Studies of the beam showed preponderance of protons and the presence of heavy ions. The beam density is higher on the optic axis. (author) [French] Pour obtenir des impulsions d'une microseconde de 100 mA de protons, on a ete amene a construire une source 'duoplasmatron' et son optique de focalisation. La pulsation de la source a ete faite par decharge d'une ligne, la source fonctionnant elle-meme comme un thyratron a hydrogene. La geometrie de la source a ete etudiee pour que l'emission d'ions soit stable avec un arc de 10 amperes de crete et un debit de gaz de 10 cm{sup 3}/h T.P.N. Une analyse du faisceau a revele la preponderance des protons et l'existence d'ions lourds. La densite du faisceau est plus grande sur l'axe de l'optique.

  8. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J; Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  9. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landre-Pellemoine, Frederique

    2001-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author) [fr

  10. Building of a facility for the handling of kilo-curie amounts of gamma emitters; Construction d'une enceinte pour la manipulation d'un kilocurie d'emetteurs gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germond, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A hot cell designed to handle up to 1000 curies of cobalt-60 has been built in a preexisting shielded room, in order to make optimum use of available space. Heavy containers can be rolled in or out of the cell. Handling performed with two manipulators designed and made by French manufacturers, one of them is pneumatically operated and the other one is mechanical. The general shape of the facility is that of an L. (author) [French] Une cellule chaude, concue pour manipuler jusqu'a 1000 curies de cobalt-60, a ete construite dans un local blinde deja existant, de facon a employer au mieux l'espace disponible. On peut introduire et sortir de lourds containers, dans cette cellule. Ces manipulations sont faites a l'aide de deux manipulateurs concus et realises en France; l'un d'eux est pneumatique et l'autre mecanique. L'ensemble de la cellule a la forme d'un L. (auteur)

  11. Survey alerts hospital to needs of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeldt, R C; Seale, W B; Hale, A W

    1987-09-01

    Because of rapidly changing developments in the healthcare field, more emphasis is being placed on marketing of hospital services. A hospital's success will depend more and more on strategic planning based on timely and accurate information. In light of this, Lourdes Hospital, Paducah, KY, undertook a survey to evaluate its current performance and to determine a path for the future. The survey found, among other discoveries, that patients want more voice in determining their own treatment; they prefer outpatient treatment when possible, even if it is not covered by insurance; and stress management and health assessment clinics are the most popular extra services a hospital could offer. Physicians surveyed said they wanted more input into the evaluation of new services and equipment at the hospital. The survey also found that most patients either select a hospital in conjunction with their physician or have their physician choose the hospital. The findings led to some major changes at the hospital, including a restructuring of the planning process to get physicians more involved, a new marketing strategy to enhance communication with consumers, and increased outpatient services. The results have given direction to the hospital administration, helped shape advertising, and provided support for certificate-of-need requests.

  12. Measurement of the absolute values of cross-sections in neutron photoproduction (1962); Mesure de sections efficaces de photoproduction de neutrons en valeur absolue (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhl, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The absolute values of photoneutrons production cross-sections for the case of intermediate and heavy nuclei (lanthanium, cerium, tantalum, gold, lead and bismuth) are determined with an error of 15 per cent. The results obtained agree with theories in which the giant resonance is explained by the collective motion of the protons against the neutrons. The effect of the nuclear deformation on the shape of the giant resonance is seen in the case of Ta{sup 181}, it will be possible to determine the quadrupole momenta of deformed nuclei with a good accuracy when we shall increase the statistics of measurements. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces de production de photoneutrons par divers noyaux moyens et lourds (lanthane, cerium, tantale, or, plomb et bismuth) sont determinees en valeur absolue avec une erreur relative de 15 pour cent. Les resultats obtenus s'accordent avec les theories qui interpretent la resonance geante par un mouvement collectif des protons par rapport aux neutrons. L'influence de la deformation du noyau sur la forme de la resonance geante est soulignee dans le cas de {sup 181}Ta pour lequel elle se decompose en deux pics. Une amelioration de la statistique des mesures permettra de determiner les moments quadrupolaires des noyaux deformes avec une meilleure precision. (auteur)

  13. Maternal post natal hospital readmission-trends and association with mode of delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ade-Conde, J A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the trend in maternal postnatal readmission within six weeks of discharge from childbirth hospitalisation. It is a retrospective review of the maternity computer records system, patient\\'s clinical notes and HIPE data base. All women who delivered babies weighing > 500 g and\\/ > or = 24 weeks gestational age at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda, Ireland from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2008 who were re-hospitalised within six weeks of discharge from hospital following child birth were included in the study. A total of 15782 women were delivered over the four year study period. Of these, 236 were readmitted. A series of chi-square analysis were conducted to assess the difference in readmission rates between the year 2008 86 (2.03%) and the years 2005-51(1.46%), 2006-39 (1.01%) and 2007-60 (1.42%). The readmission rate was found to be significantly higher in 2008 compared with the three preceding years. Complications of Caesarean section and secondary postpartum haemorrhage following spontaneous vaginal delivery constitute the major indications for readmission.

  14. Study and realisation of a digital TDC in the framework of the GANIL trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujrad, Abderrahman

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear physics, the interaction between the ion beam and the target produces a large amount of events. Some of these events have no interest for the studied physical phenomenon; the useful events are sorted using a trigger. We have studied and realized a new trigger suitable for the GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) experiments. After an overview of the triggers used up to now at GANIL, we give the main features of the new trigger (GANIL Master Trigger, GMT) such as modularity, universality and versatility. After a description of the trigger operating modes, we depict the trigger realization steps. The trigger informs about fired detectors in a beam to target collision but gives no information about timing, nevertheless the timing is a very important piece of information if the trigger analysis duration is several times greater than the beam period. We suggest a timing measurement structure (Time to Digital Converter, TDC) able to eliminate this imprecision. The dead time, the low level integration and the consumption constraints lead us to prefer a digital architecture based on a digital counter associated with delay lines. Simple equations are given in order to define the operating area of the TDC. This area depends on the clock duty cycle and on the delay line taps. Measures of Differential Non Linearity (DNL) for different time resolutions (1, 2, 5 and 10 ns) allow us to establish the limits of this System and to underline some solutions to improve these features. (author) [fr

  15. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  16. Absorption spectra between 0.8 {mu} and 30 {mu} of mixtures of H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O in the liquid state; Le spectre d'absorption des melanges H{sub 2}O-D{sub 2}O a l'etat liquide entre 0,8 et 30 {mu}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M; Goldman, M; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    There has been very little work carried out recently on the absorption bands of H{sub 2}O, HDO and D{sub 2}O in the liquid state. We have established the spectra of these molecules in between 0.8 and 30 p. The table of absorption bands of the molecules HDO and D{sub 2}O for which all the bands corresponding to those for H{sub 2}O had not been established has been completed. We have sought a convenient method of representing the variations in optical density of certain HDO bands as a function of the concentration of heavy water in the mixtures studied. (author) [French] Il y a peu de travaux recents sur les bandes d'absorption de H{sub 2}O, HDO et D{sub 2}O a l'etat liquide. Nous avons releve les spectres de ces molecules entre 0,8 et 30 p. Le tableau des bandes d'absorption des molecules HDO et D{sub 2}O, pour lesquelles le releve de toutes les bandes correspondantes a celles de H{sub 2}O n'etait pas encore effectue, a ete complete. Nous avons cherche des modes de representation commodes des variations de densite optique de certaines bandes de HDO en fonction de la teneur en eau lourde des melanges etudies. (auteur)

  17. Histoire, mémoire et identité nationale History, memory and national identity. A German triptych confronted by present-day social evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Rambour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilité morale et politique à l’égard du passé est toujours sous-jacente dans la culture politique allemande. Toute tentative destinée à penser l’identité nationale, à mettre à jour ses principales caractéristiques, se trouve confrontée à la prégnance d’une mémoire collective particulièrement lourde de sens et de conséquences. De récentes polémiques sur l’attitude à adopter face à l’histoire et à l’idée nationale montrent combien cet héritage est structurant dans la réflexion sur la problématique identitaire. Si l’histoire, la mémoire et l’identité semblent indissociables dans ce contexte spécifique, des aspirations à une certaine « normalité » se manifestent quant à la manière de vivre ce passé et de s’exprimer au présent. La chute du Mur de Berlin et la réunification ont replacé le thème de l’identité nationale au centre des débats, réactivant ainsi une forme de dilemme entre un sentiment de culpabilité devant l’histoire et le désir d’un rapport « normalisé » à la nation allemande. Les transformations dont l’Allemagne est le théâtre depuis la dernière décennie rendent toutefois nécessaire le maintien d’une vigilante attention. Une situation d’insécurité économique et sociale, associée au temps qui risque d’atténuer la vivacité de souvenirs pourtant lourds, rappellent que la mémoire conditionne aussi la manière dont une nation réunifiée se projette dans l’avenir et y vit son identité.The moral and political responsibility regarding the past always underlies German political culture. Any attempt to conceive national identity, to update its main features, is faced with the vividness of a meaningful, collective memory, fraught with consequences. Recent controversies about the way to deal with history and the national idea show the extent to which this heritage structures the reflection on identity problems. Though history, memory and

  18. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide; Suspension de graphite dans le gaz carbonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Moussez, C; Rouvillois, X; Brevet, R [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation (SNECMA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    compresseur, une pompe 'phase lourde', un rechauffeur, un refroidisseur a eau, un tube en U, une section d'essais transparente et un separateur. Le fluide circule tres aisement dans un large domaine de variation de la masse volumique (30 a 170 kg/m{sup 3}) et de la vitesse (2 a 24 m/s). La mise en circulation et la stabilite de l'ecoulement sont assurees sans difficulte, meme avec la pompe 'phase lourde' seule. On n'observe aucune tendance a l'agglomeration ni aucun depot de graphite sur les parois. Un essai d'endurance (250 heures) a permis de suivre l'evolution des particules. La surface specifique de la poudre voisine de 20 m{sup 2}/g au depart (dimension des particules de l'ordre du micron ) atteint une valeur asymptotique de 300 m{sup 2}/g (dimension des particules inferieure a 0,3 micron). On a aussi examine l'effet de l'humidite sur la stabilite de l'ecoulement, la distribution du debit entre des canaux paralleles, les pertes de pression dans un tube rectiligne ainsi que le rapport de recompression dans un divergent. (auteur)

  19. L'évolution des combustibles pour moteurs thermiques Evolution of Fuels for Thermal Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la crise pétrolière, l'accroissement des prix et les craintes de pénurie ont conduit à adapter les moteurs aux combustibles disponibles. Si la situation apparaît comme moins tendue, l'industrie des machines thermiques, qui pendant longtemps a eu comme partenaire une industrie du pétrole très sûre, se trouve cependant confrontée à un marché des combustibles incertain dans son ravitaillement et surtout dans ses prix. Les progrès des moteurs diesel et des turbines à gaz, dûs à une meilleure adaptation à leur usage et aussi à l'évolution de la technologie, supposent que les combustibles n'apporteront aucune contrainte majeure en quantité ou en qualité. La modification des usages dévolus désormais au pétrole entraînera une réduction de la coupe lourde et un raffinage plus profond des bruts avec en particulier un développement du craquage catalytique et de la viscoréduction. Or, ces différentes opérations de conversion peuvent conduire à une détérioration de la qualité des combustibles moins grave pour le gazole que pour le fuel lourd. Dans les différents domaines impliqués, les parades technologiques sont en cours de développement. L'industrie des machines thermiques, qui poursuit l'amélioration des engins, et l'industrie du pétrole, qui recherche une réduction des prix des combustibles, sont donc conduites à un compromis optimal auquel elles ne peuvent accéder efficacement qu'en définissant les règles du jeu c'est-à-dire des spécifications internationales rigoureuses des combustibles. Since the oil crisis, the increase in prices and fears of a shortage have led to the adapting of engines to what fuels are available. Whereas the situation now seems somewhat less tense, the thermal machinery industry, which for a long time had a very reliable petroleum industry as its partner, nonetheless finds itself confronted with an uncertain fuel market with regard to supplies and especially to prices. Progress

  20. Consideraciones para una evaluación docente en la Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Porras, Alicia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un proyecto de investigación realizado en el 2002- 2003 por Alicia E. Vargas, Carolina Bolaños, José Miguel Gutiérrez, Lorena Kikut, María Lourdes Calderón y Miguel Ángel González, docentes investigadores del Centro de Evaluación Académica de la Universidad de Costa Rica. El objetivo principal fue identificar características del profesorado universitario y de su trabajo, como insumos para mejorar la evaluación docente que se realiza en esta Universidad. La investigación se centró en construir un concepto de docencia, en términos de las competencias y desempeños que se consideran como excelentes. Para ello, además de la obligada revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, se llevó a cabo un estudio, mediante talleres y encuestas, para construir el concepto de docente excelente, según lo plantea el mismo profesorado, el alumnado y las directivas universitarias. En una segunda etapa del estudio, se abordó el tema de las especificidades didácticas, según tipos de curso, mediante consulta a la comunidad docente y talleres con amplia participación. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación aportan una conceptualización de lo que significa ser docente en la UCR y, así mismo, se logra diferenciar los requerimientos del desempeño docente, según tipo de curso. La información generada aporta criterios para la construcción de evaluaciones docentes en el ámbito universitario. This article presents the results of a research carried out during the period 2002-2003 by Alicia E. Vargas, Carolina Bolaños, José Miguel Gutiérrez, Lorena Kikut, María Lourdes Calderón and Miguel Ángel González, researches of the Centre for Academic Evaluation of the University of Costa Rica. Its main objective was to identify teaching qualities in higher education as inputs for the improvement of the evaluation of teachers that is carried out at the University of Costa Rica. The study aimed, in

  1. Radiolysis of some aqueous solutions of neutron absorbers; Etude des effets de certains absorbeurs de neutrons en solution sur la radiolyse de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenberg, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-12-15

    The initial yield of molecular hydrogen formed by radiolytic decomposition of water in reactor and {sup 60}Co gamma radiation is decreased by the presence of salts of polyvalent elements possessing only one stable valence, i.e cadmium, zinc, magnesium, gadolinium. This effect is favourable for the use of cadmium and gadolinium as soluble neutron absorber in heavy water reactors. Cations of these salts are not inert toward the primary products of water radiolysis. They have a high degree of reactivity toward the hydrated electron, which is the precursor of molecular hydrogen in neutral or alkaline aqueous media. The value of the rate constant for the reaction between cadmium ion and hydrated electron was shown to be (6.1 {+-} 1.8) 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Boric acid at low concentration has no effect on the radiation chemistry of water. An isotope effect has been found in the radiolysis of heavy water, corresponding to a lowering of initial yield [G{sub 0}(D{sub 2}) < G{sub 0}(H{sub 2})]. additionally it was necessary to determine the influence of organic impurities, remaining after the purification of water, on the mechanism of its radiolytic decomposition. (author) [French] Le rendement initial de la formation d'hydrogene moleculaire dans la decomposition radiolytique de l'eau, sous l'effet du rayonnement des reacteurs nucleaires ou du cobalt 60, est diminue si le solute est un sel d'element polyvalent ne possedant qu'un seul etat stable de valence (cadmium, zinc, magnesium, gadolinium). Cet effet est favorable au choix des elements cadmium et gadolinium pour servir d'absorbeur soluble de neutrons dans un reacteur a eau lourde. Les cations de ces sels ne sont pas inertes vis-a-vis des produits primaires de la radiolyse. Ils ont une affinite notable pour l'electron solvate, precurseur de l'hydrogene moleculaire en milieu neutre ou alcalin. En particulier, la constante de vitesse de la reaction du cadmium ionise avec l'electron solvate a pu etre calculee. Sa

  2. EL3 reactor description and safety analysis report; Pile EL3, rapport descriptif et de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-02-01

    The EL-3 reactor is an experimental pile. Heterogenous type reactor, water moderated and cooled it uses slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel (4.5 percent) distributed in vertical cells that constitute the core (the maximum number of cells is 99). It is conceived to function at a maximal thermal power of 20 MW. It supplies a maximum thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec. It has several experimental devices. The EL-3 reactor is surrounded by auxiliary circuits of fluids, in a sealed containment, slightly depressed. The primary heavy water coolant circuit is completely included in this containment. Its cooling is made by the intermediary of a light water secondary circuit by atmospheric refrigerants. The ventilation circuits of the sealed containment and the reactor block do not release air outside, under nornal functioning, by a particularly studied chimney only after filtering and eventually dilution. The eventual contamination of the light water or air by active products is permanently monitored to allow the reactor shutdown and avoid the release in atmosphere of dangerous products. The EL-3 reactor, laying down in may 1955, has diverged in july 1957, made its first ascending in power in december 1957 and reached its complete power in april 1958. The positioning of actual fuel (snow crystal) was made during summer 1964. Reactor with an experimental aim, it is used for theoretical and technological studies by material irradiation in the experimental channels and the core cells, with possibilities to constitute independent loops (relative to the cooling fluids). Thirty vertical channels are devoted to the fabrication of artificial radioelements. [French] La pile EL-3 est une pile experimentale. Du type heterogene, moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde elle utilise comme combustible de l'oxygene d'uranium faiblement enrichi (4,5 p.cent) reparti en cellules verticales qui constituent le coeur (le nombre maximal de cellules est de, 99

  3. EL3 reactor description and safety analysis report; Pile EL3, rapport descriptif et de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-02-01

    The EL-3 reactor is an experimental pile. Heterogenous type reactor, water moderated and cooled it uses slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel (4.5 percent) distributed in vertical cells that constitute the core (the maximum number of cells is 99). It is conceived to function at a maximal thermal power of 20 MW. It supplies a maximum thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec. It has several experimental devices. The EL-3 reactor is surrounded by auxiliary circuits of fluids, in a sealed containment, slightly depressed. The primary heavy water coolant circuit is completely included in this containment. Its cooling is made by the intermediary of a light water secondary circuit by atmospheric refrigerants. The ventilation circuits of the sealed containment and the reactor block do not release air outside, under nornal functioning, by a particularly studied chimney only after filtering and eventually dilution. The eventual contamination of the light water or air by active products is permanently monitored to allow the reactor shutdown and avoid the release in atmosphere of dangerous products. The EL-3 reactor, laying down in may 1955, has diverged in july 1957, made its first ascending in power in december 1957 and reached its complete power in april 1958. The positioning of actual fuel (snow crystal) was made during summer 1964. Reactor with an experimental aim, it is used for theoretical and technological studies by material irradiation in the experimental channels and the core cells, with possibilities to constitute independent loops (relative to the cooling fluids). Thirty vertical channels are devoted to the fabrication of artificial radioelements. [French] La pile EL-3 est une pile experimentale. Du type heterogene, moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde elle utilise comme combustible de l'oxygene d'uranium faiblement enrichi (4,5 p.cent) reparti en cellules verticales qui constituent le coeur (le nombre maximal de cellules est de, 99). Elle est

  4. Recherche de marqueurs lipidiques aptes à montrer l’absence de tissus nerveux dans les matières premières des gélatines d’os

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La gélatine est fabriquée à partir de deux catégories de matières premières, dénommées « os lourds » et « os légers », obtenues après dégraissage, séchage, broyage, puis tamisage d’os frais de bœuf, à l’exclusion de matériaux à risques vis-à-vis de l’encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine (cerveaux, yeux, amygdales et moelle épinière. L’objectif de cette étude était d’identifier un ou plusieurs constituants lipidiques spécifiques des tissus nerveux, et principalement de la moelle épinière, permettant de vérifier l’absence de tissus nerveux dans les matières premières utilisées pour la fabrication de gélatine. Pour cela, la composition lipidique de la moelle épinière a été comparée à celle des matières premières de gélatine. La pertinence d’un paramètre (p, vis-à-vis d’une source donnée, a été évaluée par la valeur du facteur : F (p = [p]moelle épinière/[p] OS, qui est le rapport entre sa concentration dans les lipides de moelle épinière et celle dans la source osseuse considérée. Plus la valeur de F est élevée, plus le paramètre est pertinent. Trois paramètres ont été ciblés sur la base de leur caractère spécifique des tissus nerveux par rapport aux graisses d’os : (1 les phospholipides (PL; (2 les acides gras à très longues chaînes (AGTLC = 20:0 + 20:1 + 22:0 + 22:1 n-9 + 23:0 + 24:0 + 24:1 n-9 ; (3 les alcools gras, analysés sous la forme de dérivés diméthyl acétals (DMA. Eu égard aux matières premières servant à la fabrication de gélatine, la valeur de FPL varie de 8 à 15, celle de FAGTLC de 25 à 41. La valeur de FDMA est égale à 26 vis-à-vis des « os légers », elle est infiniment grande vis-à-vis des « os lourds » puisque, dans cette matière première, les DMA sont indétectables. Ainsi pour cette catégorie de matière première, le paramètre DMA s’avère le plus adapté pour détecter du matériel d’origine nerveuse (moelle épinière.

  5. Sainte-Bernardette du Banlay, Nevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Joly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Construite par Claude Parent et Paul Virilio en 1964-1965, l’église Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay témoigne de leurs travaux sur la fonction oblique. L’édifice fut édifié à l’issue d’un concours d’architecture lancé en 1963 par Mgr Vial et l’Abbé Bourgoin, curé de la paroisse. L’église est inspirée de l’architecture des bunkers. Deux coques de béton s’imbriquent l’une dans l’autre en se décalant par rapport à l’axe longitudinal. L’apparence générale est un édifice monolithique, qui évoque un rocher. Á l’intérieur, deux grands plans obliques paraissent exhumés pour constituer la nef et le chœur. En relation étroite avec la grotte des apparitions de Lourdes, l’église est construite comme une crypte suspendue dont la coupe adopte la forme d’un cœur. Par le choix de matériaux bruts et d’un éclairage zénithal, les architectes confèrent à l’ensemble une étonnante intimité. C’est par l’opposition entre le volume extérieur austère et fermé et l’espace intérieur accueillant et protecteur que les concepteurs expriment la nouvelle fonction d’une église conçue dans une période d’incertitude et de tensions.The Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay church at Nevers was built from 1964 to 1965 to the designs of the architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, working on their theme of the oblique function. It was the fruit of an architectural competition organised in 1963 by Monseigneur Vial and the Abbé Bourgoin, the parish priest. The church’s architecture is inspired by that of defensive bunkers. Two reinforced concrete shells are joined the one into the other but out of true on a longitudinal axis. The overall appearance of the church is that of a monolithic block, something like a rock. Inside, two large oblique planes seem to emerge to create the nave and the chancel. Closely related to the Lourdes grotto of the Virgin’s appearances, the church is designed as a suspended crypt

  6. Neutron spin echo spectroscopy. Its application to the study of the dynamics of polymers in solution; La spectrometrie par echos de spins de neutrons. Application a l'etude de la dynamique des polymeres en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papoular, Robert

    1992-06-15

    : ses caracteristiques et ses performances, ainsi que les premiers resultats physiques que nous avons obtenus a l'aide de MESS. En particulier, ce memoire inclut deux articles montrant comment la depolarisation des neutrons, la rotation des spins et les echos de spins peuvent etre utilises pour etudier les supraconducteurs de haut-Tc. La derniere partie traite de la dynamique des systemes ternaires Polymere-Polymere-Solvant et montre comment l'utilisation conjointe des echos de spins de neutrons et des methodes de variation de contraste font des Echos de Spins de Neutrons un outil privilegie pour de telles etudes physico-chimiques, et cela grace aux gammes de temps et de vecteurs de diffusion accessibles par cette technique. Enfin, le cas specifique du polydimethylsiloxane partiellement deuterie en solution semi-diluee dans le toluene est decrit. Nous avons mis en evidence experimentalement et separement les modes diffusifs cooperatif et interdiffusif predits par la theorie de Akcasu, Benoit Benmouna et al. Ces resultats, obtenus au L.L.B. (Saclay), font l'objet du dernier article de cette these. (auteur)

  7. Mesure et retroaction sur un qubit multi-niveaux en electrodynamique quantique en circuit non lineair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonneault, Maxime

    L'electrodynamique quantique en circuit est une architecture prometteuse pour le calcul quantique ainsi que pour etudier l'optique quantique. Dans cette architecture, on couple un ou plusieurs qubits supraconducteurs jouant le role d'atomes a un ou plusieurs resonateurs jouant le role de cavites optiques. Dans cette these, j'etudie l'interaction entre un seul qubit supraconducteur et un seul resonateur, en permettant cependant au qubit d'avoir plus de deux niveaux et au resonateur d'avoir une non-linearite Kerr. Je m'interesse particulierement a la lecture de l'etat du qubit et a son amelioration, a la retroaction du processus de mesure sur le qubit de meme qu'a l'etude des proprietes quantiques du resonateur a l'aide du qubit. J'utilise pour ce faire un modele analytique reduit que je developpe a partir de la description complete du systeme en utilisant principalement des transfprmations unitaires et une elimination adiabatique. J'utilise aussi une librairie de calcul numerique maison permettant de simuler efficacement l'evolution du systeme complet. Je compare les predictions du modele analytique reduit et les resultats de simulations numeriques a des resultats experimentaux obtenus par l'equipe de quantronique du CEASaclay. Ces resultats sont ceux d'une spectroscopie d'un qubit supraconducteur couple a un resonateur non lineaire excite. Dans un regime de faible puissance de spectroscopie le modele reduit predit correctement la position et la largeur de la raie. La position de la raie subit les decalages de Lamb et de Stark, et sa largeur est dominee par un dephasage induit par le processus de mesure. Je montre que, pour les parametres typiques de l'electrodynamique quantique en circuit, un accord quantitatif requiert un modele en reponse non lineaire du champ intra-resonateur, tel que celui developpe. Dans un regime de forte puissance de spectroscopie, des bandes laterales apparaissent et sont causees par les fluctuations quantiques du champ electromagnetique

  8. Relações alométricas para estimativa da fitomassa aérea em pupunheira Peach palm biomass estimates based on allometric relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio A. Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da fitomassa aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth por meio de relações alométricas tem aplicação teórica e prática, sendo essencial em estudos de fisiologia de crescimento, bem como para identificar respostas e predizer a produção. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas diferentes equações buscando o melhor ajuste alométrico representativo da fitomassa da pupunheira cultivada para a produção de palmito. Foram utilizadas palmeiras inermes, da raça Putumayo, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, cultivadas em Ubatuba (SP no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m. Selecionaram-se 117 plantas, com alturas entre 0,22 e 5,04 m e diâmetros entre 2,23 e 27,06 cm. Medidas diretas, relacionadas ao crescimento, foram realizadas antes do corte. Em seguida as plantas foram separadas em diferentes partes estruturais, sendo medidas, pesadas e secas, obtendo-se a massa da matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajuste de equações, tendo como variáveis independentes os caracteres facilmente mensuráveis e não destrutivos. A fitomassa da pupunheira pode ser estimada de forma precisa a partir de equações simples, valendo-se de relações alométricas. A altura da haste principal, medida do solo até a inserção da folha +1, foi o caráter preditório indireto ideal para estimar a fitomassa de pupunheiras em cultivo comercial. Identificou-se também que, do estádio de implantação ao início de colheita de palmito, a contribuição dos perfilhos para a fitomassa aérea total é pequena e pode ser desprezada.Biomass estimates based on allometric relationships have theoretical and practical application. These data are useful tools in growth analysis experiments and yield prediction. Several equations were studied to define the best allometric fit to peach palm grown for heart-of-palm purpose. Spineless peach palms (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, from Putumayo landrace, were utilized. The experiment, in a 2 x 1

  9. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metiche, Slimane

    entre ces proprietes est due au nombre de couches utilisees dans chaque zone ainsi qu'a l'orientation des fibres de chaque couche. Un total de vingt-trois prototypes de dimensions differentes; ont ete testes en flexion jusqu'a la rupture. Deux types de fibres de verre de masses lineaires differentes, ont ete utilisees afin d'evaluer l'effet du type de fibres sur le comportement a la flexion. Un nouveau montage experimental permettant de tester tous les types de poteaux en PRF a ete dimensionne et fabrique selon les recommandations decrites dans les normes ASTM D 4923-01 et ANSI C 136.20-2005. Un modele analytique base sur la theorie des poutres en elasticite lineaire est propose dans cette these. Ce modele predit avec une bonne precision le comportement experimental charge---deflexion ainsi que la deflexion maximale au sommet des poteaux en PRF; constitues de plusieurs zones de caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques differentes. Une procedure de dimensionnement des poteaux en PRF, basee sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le cadre de la presente these, est egalement proposee. Les resultats obtenus dans le cadre de la presente these permettront le developpement et l'amelioration des regles de conception utiles et pratiques a l'usage des concepteurs et des industriels du domaine des poteaux en PRF. Les retombees de cette recherche sont a la fois economiques et technologiques, car les resultats obtenus constitueront une banque de donnees qui contribueront au developpement des normes de calcul, et par consequent a l'optimisation des materiaux utilises, et serviront a valider de futurs resultats et modeles theoriques.

  10. Axonal degeneration in association with carpal tunnel syndrome Degeneração axonal na síndrome do túnel do carpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Caetano

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Median nerve entrapment in the palm to wrist segment is known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Electromyography is the best evaluation test to confirm the disease, as it shows a median reduced conduction velocity and/or conduction block; however, the usual CTS electrodiagnostic tests do not separate segmental demyelination alone from segmental demyelination plus secondary axonal degeneration. We studied 100 hands from CTS patients (classified as mild, moderate, and severe, and 50 hands from normal subjects. The median palmar sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitude was measured and compared between the two groups. It would be expected that SNAP was normal if no axonal degeneration had occurred. The results showed that in mild CTS group and part of moderate CTS group SNAP amplitude was normal, whereas in severe CTS group, and part of moderate group SNAP amplitude was reduced, proving that axonal degeneration was involved. As it is well stated that axonal lesions have worse prognosis than segmental demyelinating ones, this simple test may help to preditic the CTS outcome and treatment.A compressão do nervo mediano no segmento punho-palma produz uma entidade clínica conhecida como síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC. A eletroneuromiografia é o exame de escolha para o diagnóstico da STC, através da identificação de diminuição de velocidade e/ou bloqueio de condução quando estudamos a neurocondução do nervo mediano, no trecho do punho. Entretanto, as técnicas comumente usadas não conseguem separar a lesão em mielínica focal com ou sem degeneração axonal secundária. Avaliamos 100 mãos de pacientes com STC e comparamos com 50 mãos de um grupo controle. Medimos a amplitude do potencial de ação do nervo sensitivo do mediano, com estímulo na palma e captação no dedo, e comparamos entre os grupos controle e de pacientes (o grupo de STC foi subdividido em leve, moderado e grave. Era esperado que a amplitude do potencial

  11. Characteristics of Land Resources as Foundation of Watershed Management in Sub Watershed Merawu, Serayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Harjadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the area of DAS critical land in Indonesia is approximately 23,242,881 ha which consists of forest area 8,136,646 ha (35% and non forest area 15,106,234 ha (65%. In the contrary, the fact shows that in 1989/ 1990 (the beginning of ‘Pelita’/ the five years development planning owned by the government, the area of DAS critical land in Indonesia was 13,180,000 ha only that consists of forest area 5,910,000 ha and non forest area 7,270,000 ha. The cause and its location of negative improvement of the above DAS has not been predited yet. The one of the causes is the weakness of information system on very DAS management system in the aspect of biophysical, soial, eonomical, and cultural. Therefore, it needs the improvement of DAS management which is supported by the result of research and development. The purpose of this research is to get the potency information and the possibility of sensitivity of the land resources in the frame of DAS management with biophisical land as the parameter. Sub DAS of Merawu (21,860 Ha isas one of the parts of ‘bulu’ DAS Serayu with stream flow minimum 0,81 m3/second and maximum 108 m3/second. The sub DAS of Merawu as the part of ‘bulu’ Serayu has the type of climate A and B with annual rainfall approximatelly >2,000 mm and it can support everything in the stream flow of in order to prevent the flood. This ondition is caused by the permanent vegetation such as forest, underbrsuh or srub, tea garden, as well as multi – plantgarden that has around 40% happen in the ineptisol land, although precipitous slope and very precipitous (>25%. The technique of land conversation is good enough in its development, mainly in the dry section of the field by using ‘teras gundul’ and ‘teras bangku’ the society near Sub DAS of Merawu is densely populated, its is around 517 up to 827 persons/ square with their main profession as farmer and their income is around Rp 2.000.000 per year. Bya analysing the above

  12. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    . Il est ensuite demontre que le modele a trois bandes predit les memes resultats pour la position des structures du facteur de structure magnetique que le modele a une bande, dans la limite ou l'hybridation des orbitales des atomes d'oxygene des plans Cu-O_2 et l'amplitude de sauts vers les seconds voisins sont nulles. Il est de plus constate que l'effet de l'hybridation des orbitales des atomes d'oxygene est bien modelise par le terme de saut vers les seconds voisins. Meme si ils decrivent correctement le comportement qualitatif des maximums du facteur de structure magnetique, les modeles a trois bandes et a une bande ne permettent pas d'obtenir une position de ces structures conforme avec les mesures experimentales, si on suppose que la bande est rigide, c'est-a-dire que les parametres du Hamiltonien sont independants de la concentration de strontium. Ceci peut etre cause par la dependance des parametres du Hamiltonien sur la concentration de strontium. Finalement, les resultats sont compares avec les experiences de diffusion de neutrons et les autres theories, en particulier celles de Littlewood et al. (1993) et de Q. Si et al. (1993). La comparaison avec les resultats experimentaux pour le compose de lanthane suggere que le liquide de Fermi possede une surface de Fermi disjointe, et qu'il est situe pres d'une instabilite magnetique incommensurable.

  13. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice. Cosmic ray amorphisation cross-section and sputtering yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, E.; Augé, B.; Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Chabot, M.; Domaracka, A.; Ding, J. J.; Kamalou, O.; Lv, X. Y.; Rothard, H.; da Silveira, E. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. Aims: We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. Methods: We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). Results: The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic stopping power. Conclusions: The final state of cosmic ray irradiation for porous amorphous and crystalline ice, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy, is the same, but with a large difference in cross-section, hence in time scale in an astrophysical context. The cosmic ray water-ice sputtering rates compete with the UV photodesorption yields reported in the literature. The prevalence of direct cosmic ray sputtering over cosmic-ray induced photons photodesorption may be particularly true for ices strongly bonded to the ice mantles surfaces, such as hydrogen-bonded ice structures or more generally the so-called polar ices. Experiments performed at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) Caen, France. Part of this work has been financed by the French INSU-CNRS programme "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire" (PCMI) and the ANR IGLIAS.

  14. Influence de l'introduction de défauts colonnaires amorphes sur les propriétés de transport d'un monocristal supraconducteur à haute Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmont, Franck; Hébert, Sylvie; Hardy, Vincent; Martin, Christine; Simon, Charles; Provost, Jackie

    1997-12-01

    Columnar defects can be introduced in high T_c superconductors by irradiation with high energy heavy ions. The concentration of these artificial pinning centers with a well characterized morphology is easily controlled. The pinning efficiency of these defects has been often demonstrated, mainly from magnetization measurements. In the present work, measurements of the electrical resistance along the c axis, R_c(T), in the presence of columnar defects are presented. They show the ability of these defects to prevent the thermal fluctuations effects. The measurements have been performed on the same crystal before and after the heavy ion irradiation. L'irradiation aux ions lourds de haute énergie permet d'introduire des défauts colonnaires amorphes dans les supraconducteurs à haute T_c. Ces centres de pinning artificiel, de morphologie connue, sont introduits en concentration facile à maîtriser. L'efficacité de ces défauts a été très souvent démontrée à partir de mesures d'aimantation. L'étude présentée ici : mesure de la résistance selon l'axe c, R_c(T), en présence de défauts colonnaires parallèles à l'axe c, montre que ces défauts sont capables de s'opposer efficacement à l'effet des fluctuations thermiques. Les mesures ont été faites sur le même monocristal avant et après l'irradiation.

  15. High-precision half-life measurements of the T =1 /2 mirror β decays 17F and 33Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Babo, M.; Bouzomita, H.; Chauveau, P.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Frigot, R.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Maunoury, L.; Seiffert, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Measurements of the f t values for T =1 /2 mirror β+ decays offer a method to test the conserved vector current hypothesis and to determine Vud, the up-down matrix element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. In most mirror decays used for these tests, uncertainties in the f t values are dominated by the uncertainties in the half-lives. Purpose: Two precision half-life measurements were performed for the T =1 /2 β+ emitters, 17F and 33Cl, in order to eliminate the half-life as the leading source of uncertainty in their f t values. Method: Half-lives of 17F and 33Cl were determined using β counting of implanted radioactive ion beam samples on a moving tape transport system at the Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne low-energy identification station at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds. Results: The 17F half-life result, 64.347 (35) s, precise to ±0.05 % , is a factor of 5 times more precise than the previous world average. The half-life of 33Cl was determined to be 2.5038 (22) s. The current precision of ±0.09 % is nearly 2 times more precise compared to the previous world average. Conclusions: The precision achieved during the present measurements implies that the half-life no longer dominates the uncertainty of the f t values for both T =1 /2 mirror decays 17F and 33Cl.

  16. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium analysis of the 48 bp VNTR in the III exon of the DRD4 gene in a sample of parents of ADHD cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvador Trejo, José J Toscano-Flores, Esmeralda Matute, María de Lourdes Ramírez-Dueñas Laboratorio de Neuropsicología y Neurolingüística, Instituto de Neurociencias CUCBA, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico Abstract: The aim of this study was to obtain the genotype and gene frequency from parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and then assess the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of genotype frequency of the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR III exon of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 gene. The genotypes of the III exon of 48 bp VNTR repeats of the DRD4 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction in a sample of 30 parents of ADHD cases. In the 60 chromosomes analyzed, the following frequencies of DRD4 gene polymorphisms were observed: six chromosomes (c with two repeat alleles (r (10%; 1c with 3r (1.5%; 36c with 4r (60%; 1c with 5r (1.5%; and 16c with 7r (27%. The genotypic distribution of the 30 parents was two parents (p with 2r/2r (6.67%; 1p with 2r/4r (3.33%; 1p with 2r/5r (3.33%; 1p with 3r/4r (3.33%; 15p with 4r/4r (50%; 4p with 4r/7r (13.33; and 6p with 7r/7r (20%. A Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium (χ2=13.03, P<0.01 was found due to an over-representation of the 7r/7r genotype. These results suggest that the 7r polymorphism of the DRD4 gene is associated with the ADHD condition in a Mexican population. Keywords: ADHD, parents, DRD4, HWE

  17. Study of axial injection of polarized protons into the grenoble cyclotron; Contribution a l'etude de l'injection axiale pour protons polarises sur le cyclotron de Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    By injecting ions axially into a cyclotron, it is possible to accelerate particles (polarized particles, heavy ions, etc...) obtainable only with difficulty when an internal ion source is used. In this work, after justifying the choice of an axial injection device equipped with a 'pseudo-cylindrical' deflector for the Grenoble cyclotron, we study theoretically the principle of such a detector, the choice of its parameters, and the effect of this choice on the conditions of acceleration of the beam by the cyclotron. From the experimental point of view, this report describes two operations which made it possible to check that the chosen injection device operated satisfactorily, qualitatively initially (electron model), then quantitatively (proton model). In conclusion, we believe that the Grenoble cyclotron thus equipped will be able to provide a relatively dense beam of polarized protons. (author) [French] L'injection axiale d'ions dans un cyclotron permet d'accelerer des particules (particules polarisees, ions lourds... ) difficiles a obtenir avec une source interne d'ions. Dans ce travail, apres avoir justifie le choix d'un dispositif d'injection axiale equipe d'un deflecteur 'pseudo-cylindrique' pour le cyclotron de Grenoble, nous avons etudie, du point de vue theorique, le principe d'un tel deflecteur, le choix de ses parametres, et l'incidence de ce choix sur les conditions d'acceleration du faisceau par le cyclotron. Du point de vue experimental, ce rapport decrit deux manipulations qui ont permis de verifier le bon fonctionnement du dispositif d'injection retenu, qualitativement d'abord (modele a electrons), quantitativement ensuite (maquette a protons). En conclusion, nous estimons que le cyclotron de Grenoble ainsi equipe, peut fournir un faisceau relativement intense de protons polarises. (auteur)

  18. Fabrication of the 4. set of fuel elements for the experimental pile EL2; Fabrication du 4. jeu de barreaux de la pile d'essai EL2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The reactor EL2 is the second atomic reactor built in France. It is a laboratory reactor using heavy water and natural uranium. Its cooling circuit operates with compressed CO{sub 2} gas at 8 kg/cm{sup 2} pressure. The subject of this lecture is the manufacturing of the fourth set of rods. The principle of uranium-can connection is exposed: that is the principle of a pre-pressed bound can. The EL2 reactor has been a prototype with respect to this aspect of the question, and a prototype which has been quite satisfactory. The main steps of the fabrication are exposed: the {gamma} phase extension of uranium, the machining, the three canning (die canning, hydraulic canning, compressed air treatment), the automatic argon arc welding of cups and the different manufacturing controls. (author) [French] Le reacteur EL2 est le deuxieme reacteur construit en France. C'est un reacteur de recherches qui utilise de l'eau lourde et de l'uranium naturel. Il est refroidi par du gaz carbonique sous 8 kg/cm{sup 2} de pression. On etudie dans cet expose la fabrication du quatrieme jeu d'elements combustibles. Le principe de la liaison uranium-gaine est expose: c'est celui d'une gaine precontrainte. La pile EL2 a constitue un prototype a ce point de vue, prototype qui a donne entiere satisfaction. Les principales etapes de la fabrication sont ensuite expliquees: le filage {gamma} de l'uranium, l'usinage des barreaux, les trois operations de gainages (gainage par filiere, gainage hydraulique, gainage a chaud), la soudure automatique des bouchons a l'argon-arc et les differents controles de fabrication. (auteur)

  19. Carbon ion irradiation of the human prostate cancer cell line PC3: A whole genome microarray study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUETENS, ANNELIES; MOREELS, MARJAN; QUINTENS, ROEL; CHIRIOTTI, SABINA; TABURY, KEVIN; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; GRÉGOIRE, VINCENT; BAATOUT, SARAH

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a form of external radiation therapy, which uses beams of charged particles such as carbon ions. Compared to conventional radiotherapy with photons, the main advantage of carbon ion therapy is the precise dose localization along with an increased biological effectiveness. The first results obtained from prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion therapy showed good local tumor control and survival rates. In view of this advanced treatment modality we investigated the effects of irradiation with different beam qualities on gene expression changes in the PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. For this purpose, PC3 cells were irradiated with various doses (0.0, 0.5 and 2.0 Gy) of carbon ions (LET=33.7 keV/μm) at the beam of the Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (Caen, France). Comparative experiments with X-rays were performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. Genome-wide gene expression was analyzed using microarrays. Our results show a downregulation in many genes involved in cell cycle and cell organization processes after 2.0 Gy irradiation. This effect was more pronounced after carbon ion irradiation compared with X-rays. Furthermore, we found a significant downregulation of many genes related to cell motility. Several of these changes were confirmed using qPCR. In addition, recurrence-free survival analysis of prostate cancer patients based on one of these motility genes (FN1) revealed that patients with low expression levels had a prolonged recurrence-free survival time, indicating that this gene may be a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer. Understanding how different radiation qualities affect the cellular behavior of prostate cancer cells is important to improve the clinical outcome of cancer radiation therapy. PMID:24504141

  20. The inelastic scattering of medium energy {alpha} particles; Sur la diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha} a moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crut, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z {<=} 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV {alpha} particles, and correlation data between inelastic {alpha} particles and deexcitation {gamma} rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de determiner les proprietes des niveaux dits 'anormalement excites' lors de la diffusion inelastique des particules chargees de moyenne energie sur des noyaux de masse moyenne et lourde. L'energie de ces niveaux est de l'ordre de 4 MeV pour les noyaux avec Z {<=} 29 et de 2 a 3 MeV pour les noyaux de Z plus eleve. De l'examen des courbes de distribution angulaire des particules {alpha} de 30 MeV diffusees elastiquement et inelastiquement, et de la correlation angulaire entre {alpha} excitant ces niveaux 'anormaux' et {gamma} de desexcitation, on deduit que, dans le cas des pair-pair, on peut attribuer a ces niveaux spin 3 et parite moins. Ceci renforce l'hypothese emise par Lane qui attribue ces niveaux a des oscillations octupolaires de la surface du noyau. On donne un apercu des theories utilisees dans l'analyse des resultats et une description des dispositifs experimentaux. (auteur)

  1. Radiolysis of astrophysical ice analogs by energetic ions: the effect of projectile mass and ice temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Sergio; Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe; da Silveira, Enio F

    2011-09-21

    An experimental study of the interaction of highly charged, energetic ions (52 MeV (58)Ni(13+) and 15.7 MeV (16)O(5+)) with mixed H(2)O : C(18)O(2) astrophysical ice analogs at two different temperatures is presented. This analysis aims to simulate the chemical and the physicochemical interactions induced by cosmic rays inside dense, cold astrophysical environments, such as molecular clouds or protostellar clouds as well at the surface of outer solar system bodies. The measurements were performed at the heavy ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited onto a CsI substrate at 13 K and 80 K. In situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at different fluences. Radiolysis yields of the produced species were quantified. The dissociation cross section at 13 K of both H(2)O and CO(2) is about 3-4 times smaller when O ions are employed. The ice temperature seems to affect differently each species when the same projectile was employed. The formation cross section at 13 K of molecules such as C(18)O, CO (with oxygen from water), and H(2)O(2) increases when Ni ions are employed. The formation of organic compounds seems to be enhanced by the oxygen projectiles and at lower temperatures. In addition, because the organic production at 13 K is at least 4 times higher than the value at 80 K, we also expect that interstellar ices are more organic-rich than the surfaces of outer solar system bodies.

  2. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  3. Integrarea europeană și tranziția țărilor din est. Noua Europă Centrală și interesul României pentru cooperarea regională în bazinul Marea Neagră - Dunăre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore POP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce bref article reprend, à l.aide des concepts fondamentaux, les grandes lignes de l.évolution de l.Europe centrale et orientale dans la seconde moitié du XXème siècle, marquée - au debut - par l.installation et finalement, depuis 1989, par la chute du communisme dans tous les pays de la région. On constate ainsi que les pays de l.Europe centrale et de l.-est ont subi plusieurs transitions économiques et politiques, et quant à la Roumanie elle-même - le lourd héritage de la politique économique d.austérité menée durant des années, risque de porter ombrage pendant longtemps encore au développement du pays. La transition vers l.économie libre fait suite à la décision d.adhésion politique de la Roumanie au principe de l.économie de marché. La relance du processus d.intégration régionale a poussé les pays du bassin Mer Noire - Danube a passer des accords de coopération économique et politique, donc de nouveaux regroupements économiques sont apparus sur la carte de l.Europe et de l.Asie suite au démantèlement du C.A.E.M., qui laissent s.entrevoir des implications juridiques et économiques d.importance quant à la coopération des pays riverains et surtout en ce qui concerne l.environnement, ce qui apporte une nouvelle dimension au processus global d.intégration européenne et d.insertion dans l.économie mondiale des économies de la région.

  4. MOVILIDAD ESPACIAL Y HORTICULTURA EN EL VALLE MEDIO DE RÍO NEGRO: LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN TERRITORIO MIGRATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio D. Abarzúa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the Middle Valley of Río Negro like a horticultural land and show the processes of spatial mobility that allow considered as an migratory territory. This will present the description of two producer’s trajectories Bolivian who work in horticultural production in this productive space. The study area has developed in the last decades a considerable expansion of horticultural production, currently concentrating 48% of the province's surface devoted for this type of production. The cultivation of tomato for industry, onion for the domestic market and for export, and the vegetables for fresh consumption aimed at regional markets and local fairs are the main options in this type of production. In this dynamic activity, migrant families, mainly of Bolivian, have been a central component since they are the ones that mostly involved in the cultivation and marketing of horticultural products. In the life experiences of these migrants the "migratory habitus” intersect, is the habit of "leaves" their homes to different places, and the possibility of building their migratory territory. In this sense, migratory, work and productive trajectories of Lourdes and David presented here allows us to approach the analysis of these processes. This work is addressed from an interdisciplinary approach in which the contributions of anthropology and sociology add to geography, and allow closer to understanding the complexity that characterizes migration. Thus, the concepts of territory, migratory territory, spatial mobility and trajectories are very important elements in the organization or this paper. This work is mainly based on a qualitative design, in which the case studies and biographical accounts are established as key pieces of research. In this sense, observations, records and interviews while within the study area, combined with secondary data coming from the systematization of population censuses, agricultural censuses and

  5. Measurement of the production of K{sup +} mesons by protons in nuclei (1960); Mesure de la production des mesons K{sup +} par des protons dans les noyaux (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teiger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    K{sup +} mesons produced by the internal proton beam of Saturne have been identified by means of scintillation and Cerenkov counters. The production cross sections are given per target nucleus measured at a laboratory angle of 35 deg. as well as the cross section relative to {pi}{sup +} mesons of the same momentum for: - incident protons of kinetic energy between 1.3 and 2.8 GeV, - targets of C, Cu and Pb, - K{sup +} produced with kinetic energies between 0.45 and 0.65 GeV. From these results we have tried to deduce the importance of indirect production by intermediate {pi} mesons with respect to direct production by proton-nucleon collisions. (author) [French] Au moyen de detecteurs a scintillations et a rayonnement Cerenkov, on a identifie les mesons lourds K{sup +} produits par les protons du faisceau interne de 'Saturne'. On donne les sections efficaces de production, par noyau cible, mesurees a 35 deg. dans le laboratoire, ainsi que les sections efficaces relatives par rapport aux mesons {pi}{sup +} de meme impulsion pour: - des protons incidents d'energie cinetique entre 1,3 GeV et 2,8 GeV, - des cibles de C, de Cu et de Pb, - des K{sup +} produits avec des energies cinetiques entre 0,45 et 0,65 GeV. De ces resultats, on a essaye de deduire l'importance de la production indirecte, par mesons {pi} intermediaires, par rapport a la production directe dans un choc proton-nucleon. (auteur)

  6. Commissioning Experience from the Agesta Nuclear Power Plant; Experience acquise lors des essais de mise en service de la centrale nucleaire d'Agesta; Opyt po vvedeniyu v ehkspluatatsiyu yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj ustanovki Agesta; Experiencia adquirida con la puesta en marcha de la central nucleoelectrica de Agesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydell, N. [Aagesta Kraftvarmewerk, Farsta (Sweden)

    1963-10-15

    The Agesta Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized heavy water reactor of the pressure vessel type, fuelled with natural uranium. It was commissioned with light water from December 1962 to May 1963. Observations of a more general interest were made during this commissioning essentially on the following topics; (a) cleanliness of primary circuit (b) valve operation (c) pressurization of the primary circuit (d) water leakage (e) refuelling machinery (f) containment testing. (author) [French] Il s'agit d'un reacteur a uranium naturel et a eau lourde pressurisee, du type a caisson sous pression. Les essais de mise en service ont ete faits avec de l'eau ordinaire, de decembre 1962 a mai 1963. La mise en service a permis de faire des observations d'interet general sur les sujets suivants: a) non-contamination du circuit primaire; b) fonctionnement des vannes; c) maintien sous pression du circuit primaire; d) fuites d'eau; e) appareils de chargement du combustible; f) essais d'isolement. (author) [Spanish] La central nucleoelectrica de Agesta posee un reactor de agua pesada del tipo de recipiente de presion, con combustible de uranio natural. Se mantuvo en funcionamiento con agua ligera entre diciembre de 1962 y mayo de 1963. Durante esta prueba, se efectuaron observaciones de interes mas general, relacionadas esencialmente con las siguientes cuestiones: a) limpieza del circuito primario; b) funcionamiento de las valvulas; c) presion del circuito primario; d) perdidas de agua; e) dosposiciones de reposicion del Combustible; f) ensayos de confinamiento. (author) [Russian] Yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka Agesta predstavlyaet soboj tyazhelovodnyj reaktor pod davleniem, ispol'zuyushchij prirodnyj uran v kachestve topliva. Reaktor byl vveden v ehkspluatatsiyu na obychnoj vode v period s dekabrya 1962 goda po maj 1963 goda. Zamechaniya bolee obshchego kharaktera byli sdelany vo vremya ehkspluatatsii v osnovnom po sledukhshchim temam: a) chistota pervichnogo kontura; b

  7. Neutron thermalization in absorbing infinite homogeneous media: theoretical methods; Methodes theoriques pour l'etude de la thermalisation des neutrons dans les milieux absorbants infinis et homogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadilhac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    After a general survey of the theory of neutron thermalization in homogeneous media, one introduces, through a proper formulation, a simplified model generalizing both the Horowitz model (generalized heavy free gas approximation) and the proton gas model. When this model is used, the calculation of spectra is reduced to the solution of linear second order differential equations. Since it depends on two arbitrary functions, the model gives a good approximation of any usual moderator for reactor physics purposes. The choice of these functions is discussed from a theoretical point of view; a method based on the consideration of the first two moments of the scattering law is investigated. Finally, the possibility of discriminating models by using experimental informations is considered. (author) [French] Apres un passage en revue de generalites sur la thermalisation des neutrons dans les milieux homogenes, on developpe un formalisme permettant de definir et d'etudier un modele simplifie de thermaliseur. Ce modele generalise l'approximation proposee par J. HOROWITZ (''gaz lourd generalise'') et comporte comme cas particulier le modele ''hydrogene gazeux monoatomique''. Il ramene le calcul des spectres a la resolution d'equations differentielles lineaires du second ordre. Il fait intervenir deux fonctions arbitraires, ce qui lui permet de representer les thermaliseurs usuels de facon satisfaisante pour les besoins de la physique des reacteurs. L'ajustement theorique de ces fonctions est discute; on etudie une methode basee sur la consideration des deux premiers moments de la loi de diffusion. On envisage enfin la possibilite de discriminer les modeles d'apres des renseignements d'origine experimentale. (auteur)

  8. Contribution to the study of rare earth separation by ion exchange, using ammonium lactate; Contribution a l'etude de la separation des terres rares par echange d'ions a l'aide de lactate d'ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratot, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Using the technique of chromatography on a column of Dowex 50 resin, heated to 87 deg. C, we have studied the separation of rare earths (from holmium to praseodymium) which may be produced with the cyclotron by heavy ions, {alpha} or protons. From an ammonium lactate solution M at pH 5, separations are carried out by varying the dilution as a function of the quantity of the target rare earth and of its position during elution. When weighable quantities of the rare earth (more than 5 mg) appear towards the end of the elution, the separation is little affected this case approaches that of a tracer mixture of rare earths; if on the other hand weighable quantities of the rare earth are washed through at the beginning of the chromatogram, the dilution must be adjusted in order to obtain a good separation. (author) [French] Par chromatographie sur colonne de resine Dowex 50, chauffee a 87 deg. C, nous avons examine la separation des terres rares (de l'holmium au praseodyme) susceptibles d'etre produites au cyclotron par ions lourds, {alpha} ou protons. A partir d'une solution de lactate d'ammonium M a pH 5, nous effectuons les separations en agissant sur la dilution en fonction de la quantite de terre rare cible et de sa position au cours de l'elution. Lorsque la terre rare en quantite ponderale (superieure a 5 mg) passe en fin d'elution, la separation est peu affectee; nous sommes ramenes au cas d'un melange de terres rares traceur; par contre, si la terre rare en quantite ponderale s'elue en tete du chromatogramme, nous devons agir sur la dilution pour obtenir une bonne separation. (auteur)

  9. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors; Conception de la surete en france et influence des imperatifs de surete sur la conception des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vathaire, F de; Vernier, Ph; Pascouet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience acquired in France on the question, of reactor safety. Since a special paper is being presented on reactors of the graphite gas type, the safety of the other types studied in France is discussed here: - heavy water-gas reactors, - fast neutron reactors, - water research reactors of the swimming-pool and tank types. The safety rules peculiar to the different types are explained, with emphasis on their influence on the reactor designs and on the power limits they impose. The corresponding safety studies are presented, particular stress being placed on the original work developed in these fields. Special mention is made of the experimental systems constructed for these studies: the reactor CABRI, pile loop for depressurization tests, loops outside the pile, mock-ups etc. (authors) [French] La presente communication propose une synthese de l'experience acquise en France en matiere de surete des reacteurs. Les reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz faisant l'objet d'une communication particuliere, on examine ici la surete des autres types de reacteurs etudies en France: - reacteurs eau lourde-gaz, - reacteurs a neutrons rapides, - reacteurs de recherche a eau des types piscines et tank. Les imperatifs de surete propres aux differentes filieres sont developpes, en mettant l'accent sur leur influence sur la conception des reacteurs et sur les limitations de puissance qu'ils entrainent. Les etudes de surete correspondantes sont presentees, en insistant plus particulierement sur les travaux originaux developpes dans ces domaines. On indique notamment les moyens d'essais qui ont ete construits pour ces etudes: le reacteur CABRI, boucle en pile pour essais de depressurisation, boucles hors pile, maquettes, etc. (auteurs)

  10. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  11. RMN du deutérium sur des suspensions. Application à une boue de forage. Etude en température et en fréquence d'une argile à grands feuillets Deuterium Nmr on Suspensions Applied to Drilling Mud. a Temperature and Frequency Study of Large Stratum Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letellier M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La mesure du temps de relaxation transversal T1 en fonction de la concentration permet de déterminer la surface hydrophile mouillée d'une suspension, à condition de connaître le T1 de surface. De même, la mesure de T1 en fonction du temps permet de déterminer les variations de surface lors d'une réaction lente telle que la prise d'une boue de forage, simulée par un mélange bentonite/ciment/eau lourde. L'avantage d'utiliser la résonance du deutérium est que sa relaxation dépend peu de la présence d'impuretés paramagnétiques ou de l'existence de mouvements moléculaires dans des espaces confinés, comme il est montré sur une argile à grands feuillets, la montmorillonite. Celle-ci est étudiée en fonction de la température, ce qui permet de mesurer, sans modifier la suspension, le T1 de surface. Measuring transverse T1 relaxation times as a function of concentration provides a determination of the hydrophilic surface, wetted with a suspension, as long as the surface relaxation T1 is known. Likewise, measuring T1 over time provides a determination of the surface variations during a slow reaction such as when drilling mud sets, which is simulated by a mixture of bentonite, cement and heavy water. Deuterium resonance measurements have the advantage that the relaxation depends little on the presence of paramagnetic impurities or molecular motion in a confined space, which has been demonstrated using a large stratum shale, montmorillonite. This shale has been studied as a function of temperature, which makes it possible to measure the surface relaxation T1 without modifying the suspension.

  12. La production des oléfines. Etat de la technique et développement dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques et des procédés Olefin Production. State of Technology and Developement in the Field of Chemical Reactors and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouyal R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La production des oléfines légères : éthylène, propylène et butadiène est actuellement entièrement basée sur le vapocraquage d'hydrocarbures dans des fours tubulaires. L'industrie doit faire face à un problème de coûts de production croissants, en grande partie dû au renchérissement des hydrocarbures et de l'énergie. D'autres procédés que le vapocraquage ont été proposés pour favoriser la diversification sur le plan des matières premières ; certains ont même été exploités industriellement. Le présent article fait le point sur l'état des développements en cours concernant plus particulièrement les procédés suivants : - craquage autothermique ; - craquage par caloporteur solide ; - craquage cyclique ; - craquage catalytique ; - prétraitement de charges lourdes ; - oléfines à partir de gaz de synthèse ; - oléfines à partir de biomasse. The production of light olefins (ethylene, propylene and butadien is now based entirely on hydrocarbon steam cracking in pipe stills. The industry must face the problem of increasing production costs, largely due to the higher costs of hydrocarbons and energy. Processes other than steam cracking have been proposed to promote diversification with regard to raw materials, and some such processes have even operated industrially. This article sums up the state of ongoing developments concerning in particular the following processes: a autothermal cracking; b cracking by a solid heat carrier; c cyclic cracking; d catalytic cracking ; e preprocessing of heavy feeds; f olefins from synthetic gas; g olefins from biomass.

  13. Résonance magnétique nucléaire 1H basse résolution. Le meilleur outil pour une détermination précise de la teneur en hydrogène des produits pétroliers Low Resolution 1h Nmr. The Ultimate Tool for Accurate Determination of Hydrogen Content in Petroleum Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un spectromètre RMN basse résolution à impulsions a été utilisé pour déterminer la teneur totale en hydrogène d'une large gamme de fractions pétrolières. On a constaté une excellente cohérence avec la teneur théorique en hydrogène de plusieurs composés purs; la répétabilité de la méthode est de 0,03%. La validation de cette méthode a été effectuée sur une vaste gamme de produits pétroliers comprenant notamment : distillats moyens de distillation directe, de craquage, d'hydrotraitement ou d'hydrocraquage, gazoles sous vide, bruts lourds, résidus atmosphériques de distillation directe ou d'hydrotraitement, soit au total 121 échantillons. Cette méthode s'est avérée la plus précise pour le calcul de la consommation d'hydrogène sur unités d'hydrotraitement, pour un domaine allant de 0,1 à 2,5 % pds. A low resolution pulsed NMR spectrometer has been used to determine total hydrogen content for a wide range of petroleum cuts. Excellent agreement has been found with the theoritical amount of hydrogen on pure compounds and the repeatability of the method is 0. 03%. The validation of the method has been done on a very large range of petroleum products, including straight run, cracked, hydrotreated and hydrocracked mid-distillates, vacuum gasoils, heavy crudes, straight run and hydrotreated atmospheric residues, representing 121 samples and a hydrogen consumption range during processing from 0,1 to 2. 5 wt.

  14. Uchronies et nostalgies dans le livre de guerre pour enfants en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guibert-Lassalle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Résumé :La théorie des cadres de l’expérience du sociologue Erving Goffman permet de saisir le rythme des temporalités dans le livre de guerre pour enfants. L’inscription littéraire à l’attention des plus jeunes d’une actualité horrifiante ou déconcertante incite l’auteur à céder à trois formes possibles de nostalgies. La nostalgie de l’enfance le pousse à recourir aux cadres de sa propre expérience enfantine. Le refus d’une actualité trop lourde l’encourage à se réfugier dans une nostalgie par procuration, volontiers familiale. Cette dernière prend volontiers la forme d’une uchronie qui prive le fait guerrier de repères temporels. Mais surtout, l’auteur et l’illustrateur pour enfants sont sujets, lorsqu’ils traitent de la guerre, à une “nostalgie du conteur » qui coule leur production dans les schémas de récits hérités. Les acteurs du livre pour enfants en France à la fin du XXe siècle se sont montrés incapables de rendre compte de la guerre froide et des conflits de décolonisation. Les trois formes de nostalgie ont convergé pour faire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale le modèle mental de toute représentation de la guerre dans l’édition pour la jeunesse. Cette situation semble vouloir évoluer avec les auteurs nés après 1980.

  15. Electronic device for measuring the polarization parameter in the {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange reaction on a polarized proton target; Un appareillage electronique destine a la mesure du parametre de polarisation dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n sur cible de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehin, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-15

    An electronic apparatus has been constructed to measure the polarization parameter P{sub 0}(t) in {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange scattering at 5.9 GeV/c and 11,2 GeV/c on polarized proton target. This device insures triggering of a heavy plate spark chamber, allowing visualisation of {gamma} rays from the {pi}{sup 0} decays when the associated neutron offers suitable characteristics in direction and energy. The neutron is detected by an array of 32 counters and his energy is measured by a time of flight method. Electronic circuits of this apparatus are described as test and calibration methods used. (author) [French] Un appareillage electronique a ete realise pour mesurer le parametre de polarisation P{sub 0}(t) dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n a 5,9 GeV/c et 11,2 GeV/c sur une cible de protons polarises. Ce dispositif assure le declenchement d'une chambre a etincelles a plaques lourdes, permettant de visualiser les {gamma} de desitegration du {pi}{sup 0}, lorsque le neutron associe presente les caracteristiques convenables en direction et en energie. Le neutron est detecte par un ensemble de 32 compteurs et son energie est mesuree par une methode de temps de vol. Les circuits composant cet appareillage sont decrits ainsi que les methodes d'etalonnage et de verification utilisees. (auteur)

  16. Arthrite septique à Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    L'arthrite septique aigue est une pathologie peu fréquente mais grevée d'un pronostic lourd en termes de mortalité et morbidité. Nous rapportons un cas d'arthrite septique à Proteus mirabilis survenue de façon spontanée chez un patient de 61 ansprésentant un diabète compliqué,associée à des hémoculturespositives et des cultures positives du liquide articulaire. L'évolution était favorable grâce au diagnostic précoce et à l'institution d'une antibiothérapie adéquate. L'arthrite septique à Proteus Mirabilis est rare, ce qui nous a incité à revoir dans la littérature des séries d'arthrites à pyogènes incluant Proteus mirabilis portant sur les facteurs de risque, la pathogénie, le traitement et l'évolution de ces pathologies. Le diagnostic est avant tout microbiologique, la ponction articulaire précoce est réalisée avant toute antibiothérapie, l'examen direct, la culture et l'antibiogramme qui va guider le choix d'une antibiothérapie. L'arthrite septique est une urgence diagnostique et thérapeutique, la prise en charge précoce de cette pathologie permet une guérison sans séquelles. PMID:28674590

  17. Mesure de la section efficace de production des quarks beaux et charmés à partir de leur désintegration semileptonique en électrons avec l'experience ATLAS dans les collisions protons-protons a sqrt(s) = 7 TeV au LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, Stefania

    Le thème central de la thèse est la mesure de la section efficace de production des électrons venant de la désintégration des quarks lourds (b et c) avec l'expérience ATLAS dans les collisions proton-proton à sqrt(s)=7 TeV au LHC. La calibration du calorimètre électromagnétique et la reconstruction des électrons jouent un rôle cardinal dans l'analyse développée dans cette thèse. Ces thématiques sont traitées dans la première partie du manuscrit. L'étude des systématiques liées à la variation des constantes de calibration paramètrant la chaîne de lecture du calorimètre et qui affectent la reconstruction de l'énergie des cellules est presentée. La description des procédures de reconstruction des événements dans le détecteur ATLAS est ensuite traitée. Les cas de mauvaise reconstruction sont abordés et une étude de l'estimation du taux des faux leptons dans des événements multi-jets est présentée. La deuxième partie de la thèse est dédiée à la mesure de la section ef...

  18. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1,* Matilde Alique,2,* Estefanía Navalmoral,2 Maria-Victoria Noci,3 Lourdes Bohorquez-Magro,2 Julia Carracedo,1 Rafael Ramírez2 1Nephrology Unit, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain; 2Department of Systems Biology, Physiology Unit, Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Spain; 3Anesthesia Unit, Reina sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects.Keywords: elderly, oxidative stress, microparticles, vascular damage

  19. The compatibility of chromium-aluminium steels with high pressure carbon dioxid at intermediate- temperatures; Compatibilite des aciers au chrome-aluminium avec le gaz carbonique sous pression aux temperatures moyennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, D; Loriers, H; David, R; Darras, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    With a view to their use in the exchangers of nuclear reactors of the graphite-gas or heavy water-gas types, the behaviour of chromium-aluminium steels containing up to 7 per cent chromium and 1.5 per cent aluminium has been studied in the presence of high-pressure carbon dioxide at temperatures of between 400 and 700 deg. C. The two most interesting grades of steel (2 per cent Cr - 0.35 per cent Al - 0.35 per cent Mo and 7 per cent Cr - 1.5 per cent Al - 0.6 per cent Si) are still compatible with carbon dioxide up to 550 and 600 deg. C respectively. A hot dip aluminised coating considerably increases resistance to oxidation of the first grade and should make possible its use up to temperatures of at least 600 deg. C. (authors) [French] Dans l'optique de leur emploi dans les echangeurs de reacteurs nucleaires des filieres graphite-gaz ou eau lourde-gaz, le comportement en presence de gaz carbonique sous pression d'aciers au chrome-aluminium, contenant jusqu'a 7 pour cent de chrome et 1,5 pour cent d'aluminium a ete etudie entre 400 et 700 deg. C. Les deux nuances les plus interessantes (2 pour cent Cr - 0,35 pour cent Al - 0,35 pour cent Mo et 7 pour cent Cr - 1,5 pour cent Al - 0,6 pour cent Si) restent compatibles avec le gaz carbonique jusqu'a 550 et 600 deg. C respectivement. Un revetement d'aluminium, effectue par immersion dans un bain fondu, ameliore notablement la resistance a l'oxydation de la premiere et doit permettre son empioi jusqu'a 600 deg. C au moins. (auteurs)

  20. Nouvelles techniques de mise en valeur des ressources d'hydrocarbures New Techniques for Valorising Hydrocarbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy De la Tour X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir montré l'importance des réserves de pétrole non conventionnel et l'enjeu que représente pour l'humanité la mise en exploitation de ces ressources, cette étude examine les axes actuels de recherches et l'état de la technologie pour chacune des sources de nouveau pétrole retenues : mers profondes, récupération assistée, huiles lourdes et sables asphaltiques, schistes bitumineux et conversion du charbon. Il en ressort que si les ressources de nouveau pétrole sont considérables, leur mise en valeur nécessitera des investissements très lourds, et le coût du pétrole ainsi produit restera élevé, comparé au coût actuel du pétrole conventionnel. Compte tenu des délais de mise en oeuvre, des problèmes technologiques restant à résoudre et de la nécessité de réaliser des pilotes semi-industriels très coûteux pour expérimenter les nouvelles techniques, il convient de consentir sans attendre un effort important de recherche technologique, impliquant un accroissement sensible des budgets de R&D, mais aussi des incitations financières appropriées. Cet effort de mise au point de technologies adaptées à ces sources d'hydrocarbures sera favorisé par les nouvelles conditions économiques créées par la rareté relative des réserves d'hydrocarbures classiques, à condition que les Etats, par leur politique, favorisent la production de ressources d'hydrocarbures à coût élevé. A l'heure actuelle, on peut évaluer la production de pétrole difficile à environ 100 Mt, l'essentiel étant réalisé dans le domaine des huiles lourdes et de la récupération assistée ; on estime que la production de nouveau pétrole pourrait représenter 200 à 350 Mt en 1990 et se situer entre 600 et 900 Mt en 2000, soit 5 à 8 % de la production de pétrole en 1990 et 15 à 20 % en 2000. Un tel objectif nécessiterait des investissements de l'ordre de 500 à 750 milliards de dollars 1980. After pointing out the importance of

  1. [Project for] a high-flux extracted neutron beam reactor [for physicists]; Un [projet de] reacteur a haut flux et faisceaux sortis [pour physiciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    tubes and the experimental equipment which can support doses much higher than the ones which are biologically permissible. The final part of the communication describes the studies carried out on the realization of a liquid hydrogen cold sink, one of the most important experimental devices envisaged. (authors) [French] Les besoins francais en canaux pour sortie de neutrons de differentes energies sont brievement indiques. L'interet bien connu des neutrons froids (plus de 4 Angstroem) est souligne. Les grandes lignes d'un reacteur permettant de satisfaire les physiciens sont esquissees. Ce sont les suivantes: 1 - Flux dans l'eau lourde du reflecteur de l'ordre de 7. 10{sup 14} thermiques. 2 - Souplesse d'emploi maximum obtenue par: - separation physique du coeur et du reflecteur, - independance des experiences entre elles, - possibilite de modification, sans interruption notable du fonctionnement de la pile, des experiences physiques jusqu'a - et y compris - la nature du reflecteur utilise, - reduction au minimum des protections fixes; emploi largement generalise des protections liquides (eau) et fluidisees (sables). 3 - Continuite technologique aussi grande que possible avec les reacteurs de recherche francais existant ou en construction (SILOE, PEGASE, OSIRIS). 4 - Surete de fonctionnement recherche par la simplicite de conception. 5 - Minimisation des frais de construction. La reduction des frais d'exploitation est recherchee plutot indirectement par la simplicite des solutions et la reduction du personnel d'exploitation, que directement par la minimisation des consommations d'elements combustibles et d'energie. La solution preconisee peut etre decrite comme un reacteur de type piscine a coeur clos, non pressurise, tres sous modere par l'eau legere de refroidissement. Entourant le reacteur, se trouvent un certain nombre de 'canaux boucles' comprenant chacun: - une portion du reflecteur (eau lourde dans l'exemple decrit), - une portion de canal d'extraction de neutrons

  2. La perception d’aliments croquants chez des enfants de 6 à 12 ans : le pain et les pommes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Odile Monneuse

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Les facteurs organoleptiques des aliments conditionnent la prise alimentaire. L’aspect croquant, une de ces qualités sensorielles qui peut être définie comme la sonorité en bouche, est encore peu étudié. Comment ce critère intervient-il dans le choix de variétés de pain et de pomme, couramment consommées en France, leur appréciation et leur consommation ? Une étude a été menée auprès d’enfants de la région parisienne, 162 pour le pain, 132 pour la pomme, garçons et filles de 6 à 12 ans. Ils ont participé à un test de dégustation (perception et appréciation de deux sortes de pain, baguette et pain de seigle, ou de deux variétés de pomme, Granny Smith et Red Chief, et ils ont répondu à un questionnaire portant sur leur consommation de pains ou de pommes et sur diverses attitudes sensorielles. Les réponses obtenues ont été homogènes, ne variant pas en fonction de l’âge et du sexe. Les enfants se reconnaissent sensibles à la sonorité croquante du pain ou des pommes. Ils disent que l’aspect croquant fait partie des critères d’appréciation des pains ou des pommes, au même titre que d’autres critères, la couleur, la forme, la prise en main, le goût et l’odeur mais ils ne le situent pas tout à fait au même rang, ce qui témoigne de la particularité sensorielle de chacun de ces aliments. L’aspect croquant pourrait participer à l’évaluation de l’appréciation globale d’un morceau de pain, lors de cette dégustation au moins, alors qu’il ne semble pas intervenir pour l’appréciation des pommes dont les saveurs légèrement sucré ou acide sont immédiatement reconnues. Pour le pain, particulièrement la baguette, à la différence de la pomme, semble intervenir un aspect « craquant » correspondant à la sonorité obtenue lorsqu’il est touché à la main ou rompu avant d’être mordu et mastiqué.Among the organoleptic factors involved in food intake, "crunchiness" is a sensory

  3. Characteristics and construction problems of EL 4; Caracteristiques et problemes de construction d'EL4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R; Schulhof, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Sevin, Ph [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Buttin, J [Societe INDATOM (France)

    1964-07-01

    detail and the connections to be employed were tested. The whole circuit is made in fairly classical materials (slightly alloyed steels) whose behaviour in the carbon dioxyde at 500 deg. C was proved. The CO{sub 2}, and heavy water circuits construction will begin in October 1964. Aerodynamic tests were carried out for the helico-centrifugal blowers (of unit power 9 MW). The choice of a pressure as high as 60 kg/cm{sup 2} does not seem to induce new problems in connection with leaks on the machine shafts. Finally, the choice of a type of CO{sub 2} - steam heat exchanger with forced circulation led Electricite de France to test the operation and stability of a prototype exchanger in its test plant The reactor will be equipped with a de-pressurizing and de-superheating system which will allow the reactor to operate at 20 p. 100 of its nominal power whether the turbo-alternator is available or not. (authors) [French] EL 4 est le prototype d'une filiere originale de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde et refroidis au gaz carbonique. Son etude a ete menee dans la double optique de: - realiser un reacteur suffisamment important et complet pour y tester l'ensemble des problemes de construction et d'exploitation de la filiere; - menager dans l'installation les possibilites de tenir compte des ameliorations (materiaux nouveaux, elements combustibles ameliores) qui sont etudiees par ailleurs. Le premier objectif n'etait envisageable que sous reserve d'un volume d'etudes preliminaires important. A ce titre, ont ete realises et essayes de 1962 a 1964 plusieurs canaux prototypes, hors pile, mais dans les conditions reelles de temperature et de pression. Ces essais ont montre la bonne tenue des materiaux aux difficiles conditions mecaniques et chimiques du projet. Ces installations seront d'ailleurs disponibles pour eprouver, avant mise en pile, les modifications ulterieures. D'importants essais touchant la securite du reacteur en cas d'explosion du circuit de CO{sub 2}, ont ete realises

  4. Foreword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Claude; Ferrari, Christophe

    2003-05-01

    thank the members of the organising committee and Jerome Nriagu (chairman of the 11th Conference) for helping us to put together the program of this conference. Also, very special thanks are due to Christine Echevet for her continuous and expert efforts to make the Grenoble Conference a success, and to various members of the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, especially Jocelyne Roquemora. Special thanks are also due to the President of Grenoble Alpes Métropole and the Mayor of the City of Grenoble. Finally, we are very grateful to the various co-sponsors of the conference, especially the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the University Joseph Fourier of Grenoble, the Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, the Ministère de l'Écologie et du Développement Durable, the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Énergie (ADEME), Grenoble Alpes Métropole (La Métro), the City of Grenoble, the Region Rhône-Alpes, the Conseil Général de l'Isère, the Association Minéraux, Métaux non ferreux, Santé, Environnement (AMSE), the University of Michigan and the Société Hydrotechnique de France (SHF). Claude BOUTRON and Christophe FERRARI - Conference Co-Chairmen 12th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Grenoble, France, 26-30 May 2003 Préface C'est un grand plaisir pour nous d'accueillir la “12e Conférence Internationale sur les Métaux Lourds dans l'Environnement en France Grenoble, au coeur des Alpes. Cette conférence est la 12e du nom, après celles qui ont eu lieu avec beaucoup de succès à Toronto (1975), Londres (1979), Amsterdam (1981), Heidelberg (1983), Athènes (1985), La Nouvelle Orléans (1987), Genève (1989), Edimbourg (1991), Hambourg (1995) et Ann Arbor (2000). Grenoble est l'une des principales ville d'Europe pour la recherche scientifique avec un très grand nombre de chercheurs dans des domaines trés variés, notamment en Physique et Chimie, Mathématiques et

  5. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: experimental study and models; Diffusion de protons sur les noyaux instables {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: etude experimentale et developpement de modeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Elias [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3, Universite Paris - Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2000-01-28

    Elastic and inelastic proton scattering from the unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar were measured in inverse kinematics at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds. Secondary beams of {sup 20}O at 43 MeV/A, {sup 30}S at 53 MeV/A and {sup 34}Ar at 47 MeV/A impinged on a (CH{sub 2}){sub n} target. Recoiling protons were detected in the silicon strip array MUST. Energies and angular distributions of the first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states were measured. A phenomenological analysis yields values of the deformation parameters {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 3} of 0.55 (6) and 0.35 (5) for {sup 20}O, 0.32 (3) and 0.22 (4) for {sup 30}S, 0.27 (2) and 0.39 (3) for {sup 34}Ar, respectively, and allows the extraction of the ratio of neutron to proton transition matrix elements (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) for 2{sup +} states: 2.35 (37) for {sup 20}O, 0.93 (20) for {sup 30}S and 1.35 (28) for {sup 34}Ar. Therefore the proton rich nuclei {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar show a 2{sup +} excitation of isoscalar character whereas the excitation of {sup 20}O is of isovector character. In order to perform a microscopic analysis of the data, we have developed a QRPA model, using three Skyrme interaction: SIII, SG2, SLy4. This model reproduces measured B(EL) values for the oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopic chains, whereas RPA calculations, which do not take pairing into account, underestimate these values. In the case of the QRPA model the energies of the first 2{sup +} state are overestimated by about 1 MeV, but the evolution along the isotopic chains is well reproduced. (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) ratios for the first 2{sup +} state deduced from the microscopic analysis using QRPA are 1.98 for {sup 20}O, 1.05 for {sup 30}S and 1.00 for {sup 34}Ar, in agreement with the conclusions of the phenomenological analysis. However important discrepancies are observed between the two types of analysis for other isotopes, in particular neutron rich argon and sulfur nuclei. (author)

  6. Época de maduración y calidad del fruto de genotipos de manzana en Cadereyta, Qro

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    S. Mendoza-González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La manzana en Querétaro se produce bajo temporal y en pendientes pronunciadas, lo que aunado al deficiente manejo de los huertos, la presencia de eventos climatológicos y la estacionalidad de producción de las principales variedades cultivadas, propicia que la fruta sea de mala calidad y de difícil comercialización. Una alternativa es la introducción y selección de variedades de mejor calidad, adaptadas a las condiciones locales y de maduración temprana. Se estudió la época de maduración y la calidad del fruto de 20 nuevos híbridos y cultivares de manzano con base en el diámetro ecuatorial, peso, firmeza, sólidos solubles totales (SST y acidez total titulable (ATT. Los genotipos 401 ("Tropical Beauty" x "Princesa", de color rojo y 467 ("Anna" x "Liberty", amarilla resultaron los más tempranos en maduración del fruto (8 de julio; otros seis genotipos ("Rayada", 424, 428, 421, SM4 y SM5 maduraron antes de agosto. El material de mayor tamaño fue 428 ("Anna" x "Gala", chapeada, con 8.5 cm de diámetro y 39 % de frutos en la categoría "Extra" de acuerdo con la norma mexicana. Otros genotipos sobresalientes en cuanto a tamaño fueron 467 (7.0 cm y "Rayada" (6.9 cm. Entre los materiales de maduración intermedia, destacan 436 ("Anna" x "Gala" y 429 ("Anna" x CLR9T10 y superan en diámetro a "Golden Delicious" con 7.8 cm. y 7.5 cm, respectivamente. Además, la primera produjo 27 % de los frutos en la categoría ¿Extra¿ y una concentración de SST (16.3 % superior a "Golden Delicious" (13.4 % y "Red Delicious" (12.7 %. Entre los genotipos tardíos, "Lourdes" mostró una calidad similar a la de los cultivares locales.

  7. Application of the pulsed neutron technique on the reactors ALIZE - AQUILON (1963); Application de la methode des neutrons pulses sur les piles ALIZE et AQUILON (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemart, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    affectes par la sensibilite spectrale des absorbants. Une methode modifiee utilisant la technique des neutrons pulses a ete experimentee. Les experiences sous-critiques ont permis de definir avec une bonne precision des tailles critiques de reseaux uranium-eau lourde. (auteur)

  8. Statistique de la peinture monumentale en Midi-Pyrénées

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    Sylvie Decottignies

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L'élaboration par le service régional de l'Inventaire Midi-Pyrénées d'un corpus de peintures murales couvrant une large période allant de l'époque romane au XVIIIe siècle donne la possibilité de comparer l’ampleur et la qualité de ces œuvres et met en évidence des ensembles importants mal connus, parfois même ignorés, comme par exemple le décor de la chapelle de Castillon-en-Couserans en Ariège, daté de la fin du XIIIe siècle. Un des apports essentiels du travail est aussi de permettre des comparaisons avec d’autres régions, par exemple sur le thème précis du “Dit des trois morts et des trois vifs”. Cette étude s’est accompagnée, sur le terrain, d’une évaluation de l’état de conservation des décors dont il ressort notamment que plus de 50 % des ensembles demandent une intervention urgente ou une dérestauration, car la doctrine a évolué vers des retouches moins lourdes.The Inventory services in the Midi-Pyrénées region has surveyed the mural paintings of the region, establishing a corpus of works dating from the Romanesque period up to the eighteenth century. This corpus allows for comparative studies of these paintings in terms of their importance and their quality. It has also allowed for certain significant but little-known works to be properly identified and understood, for example the painted decor of the chapel of Castillon-en-Couserans, in the Ariège department, dating from the late thirteenth century. Another essential contributions of this survey is to permit comparisons with works in other regions, for example on the precise theme of the ‘Sayings of the three dead and the three living’. In the field, this inventory was accompanied by an evaluation of the state of the decors today. More than half of them require urgent restoration or ‘de-restoration’ work, since doctrines here have evolved towards less heavy-handed interventions.

  9. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10 10 -5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 ). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 ). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO 2 , and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a critical material degradation which

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Vega Deloya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arizpe, Lourdes, Culturas en movimiento: Interactividad cultural y procesos globales. México, Cámara de los diputados LIX Legislatura, UNAM, CRIM, Editorial Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2006, 368 pp.Páginas 203-206Héctor Vega DeloyaCárcel Ortí, Vicente, La Iglesia y la transición española. Valencia, Edicep C. B., 2003, 342 pp.Páginas 206-207Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (éd., De l´anarquisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIe siècles. Régards 9, París, Publidix, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 2006, 460 pp.Páginas 208-210Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezChuse, Loren, Mujer y flamenco. Sevilla, Signatura Ediciones, 2007, 228 pp.Páginas 210-212Gema León RavinaCores Trasmonte, Baldomero; Luis Porteiro Garea, A Coruña, TresCtres, 2005, 260 pp.Páginas 212-213Israel Sanmartín BarrosDíez Torre, Alejandro R., Trabajan para la eternidad. Colectividades de Trabajo y Ayuda Mutua durante la Guerra Civil en Aragón. Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2009, 540 pp.Páginas 213-216José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaGonin, Jean Marc; Guez, Olivier, La caída del Muro de Berlín, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2009, 367 pp.Páginas 216-217Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezHardy, Jane, Poland´s new capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2009, 258 pp.Páginas 217-218Daniel Alcalde GüelfoKaplan, Robert D., Por tierra, mar y aire. Las huellas globales del ejército americano. Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2008, 542 pp.Páginas 218-220David Molina RabadánMartínez, Jesús Manuel, Salvador Allende. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2009, 402 pp.Páginas 220-223Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínTravaglio, Marco, La scomparsa dei fatti. Milano, Collana Pamphlet, Il Sagiatore, 2006, 316 pp.Páginas 223-225Flavia PascarielloZertal, Idith; Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War for Israeli´s Settlements in The Occupied Territories, 1967-2007. Nueva York, Nation Books, 2009, 531 pp.Páginas 225-227Javier Lión Bustillo

  11. Risk Management and Disaster Mitigation: A Case study Applied to Haïti « Gestion du risque et atténuation des désastres : un exemple appliqué à Haïti »

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    Charley G. Granvorka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards do have impacts on development. Of heavy consequences on both the human life and the economic development these impacts are critical in most of the Caribbean islands in general and specifically in Haiti. Thus, there is an urgent need to implement strategies aiming at reducing risk for lessening losses. By implementing well designed risk management strategies vulnerability can be reduced, and as a consequence, investment and employment can be protected. Even so preparedness to sustainable development is at the global Agenda, with regards to the specific case of Haiti, we assume that, at present, the country is not at all involved in such a long run strategy. Government attention is focused on immediate urgencies to be solved. By questioning the particular case of tourism, we show the positive impact of risk management strategies on growth using a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA.Les catastrophes naturelles ont sans conteste des impacts sur le développement. Ces derniers, qui occasionnent de lourdes conséquences à la fois sur la vie humaine et le développement économique, sont préjudiciables dans la plupart des îles des Caraïbes et plus particulièrement en Haïti. Ainsi, il devient urgent de mettre en œuvre des stratégies visant à réduire les risques afin de minimiser les pertes occasionnées. En établissant des stratégies de gestion des risques bien conçues, la vulnérabilité des pays peut être réduite, et, par conséquent, l'investissement et l'emploi protégés. Même si le développement durable est à l'ordre du jour à l’échelle mondiale, il semble que ce ne soit pas le cas d'Haïti à l’heure actuelle, le pays n'étant pas du tout impliqué dans une telle stratégie à long terme. L'action du gouvernement se focalise sur la résolution des urgences immédiates. En s'interrogeant sur le cas particulier du tourisme, nous montrons, en utilisant une analyse coûts-avantages, l'impact positif des stratégies de

  12. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  13. Application of the pulsed neutron technique on the reactors ALIZE - AQUILON (1963); Application de la methode des neutrons pulses sur les piles ALIZE et AQUILON (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemart, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    sensibilite spectrale des absorbants. Une methode modifiee utilisant la technique des neutrons pulses a ete experimentee. Les experiences sous-critiques ont permis de definir avec une bonne precision des tailles critiques de reseaux uranium-eau lourde. (auteur)

  14. Measurement of the quantity of water in organic solvents by infrared absorption an measurement of the dielectric constants; Dosage de l'eau dans les solvants organiques par absorption infra-rouge et mesure des constantes dielectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnoyer, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    Some chemical methods for the analysis of the quantity of water in solvents are first described, their object being the determination of the maximum error for cases where the water content is less than 1 per cent. - The first part of the work consists in describing infrared spectrometry as applied to the analysis of water in carbon tetrachloride, chloroform aniline, acetone and dioxane. A method based on isotopic exchange between heavy and light water is used on the one hand for determining the solubility of water in carbon tetrachloride and on the other hand for establishing standard solutions (sensitivity of the method). - In the second part the dielectric constant of water solvent solutions is measured. A table is presented giving the precision obtained by the two principal methods. These are comparable and further than that the appearance of the spectra suggests an interpretation of the anomalies observed in calibration curves obtained by the dielectric constant method. (author) [French] Quelques methodes chimiques d'analyses de l'eau dissoute dans les solvants sont decrites tout d'abord en vue de determiner l'erreur maxima dans le cas ou la teneur en eau ne depasse pas 1 pour cent. - Une premiere partie du travail expose la technique utilisee en spectrometrie infrarouge pour doser l'eau dans le tetrachlorure de carbone, chloroforme, aniline, acetone et le dioxane. Une methode basee sur l'echange isotopique entre l'eau legere et l'eau lourde permet de determiner d'une part la solubilite de l'eau dans le tetrachlorure de carbone et le chloroforme et d'autre part le titre en valeur absolue des solutions etalons (sensibilite de la methode). - Dans une deuxieme partie, on mesure la constante dielectrique des solutions eau-solvant. On dresse un tableau des precisions obtenues par les deux methodes principales. Celles-ci sont comparables et en outre, l'aspect du spectre suggere une interpretation des anomalies observees dans les courbes d'etalonnage tracees par la

  15. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez LP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leivy Patricia Gonzalez-Ramirez,1,2 Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas,2 Cecilia Colunga-Rodriguez,3,4 Maria de Lourdes Preciado-Serrano,3 Adrian Daneri-Navarro,5 Francisco Javier Pedroza-Cabrera,6 Reyna Jazmin Martinez-Arriaga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University Centre of Tonala, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 2Department of Psychology, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3Department of Public Health, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, 4Paediatric Hospital, Western National Medical Centre, Mexican Social Security Institute, 5Departament of Physiology, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 6Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer.Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ, which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods: Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative. Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used.Results: Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the

  16. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  17. Studies in Petroleum Composition Changes in the Nature of Chemical Constituents During Crude Oil Distillation Études de la composition du pétrole Changements de nature des constituants chimiques au cours de la distillation du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available As one part of a research program investigating the composition of petroleum feedstocks, a detailed investigation has been made of the influence of distillation on the distribution of nitrogen, metals and coke precursors originally in a heavy crude oil. This work also allows an assessment to be made of the influence of thermal effects (i. e. still-pot temperature on functionality distribution. In all senses of the word, the distillation process concentrates nitrogen, metals, coke precursors and, other functionalities in the residuum. Furthermore, the distillation process causes some minor molecular alterations to the feedstock constituents. This information is not only relevant for laboratory studies of process effects but also for laboratory studies of recovery operations that may be greatly influenced by functionality occurrence and distribution in crude oils. Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche sur la composition des charges de pétrole, l'influence de la distillation sur la répartition de l'azote, des métaux et de produits de tête présents au départ dans les huiles brutes lourdes, a été étudiée en détail. Ce travail permet également d'évaluer l'influence des effets thermiques (c'est-à-dire la température de l'évaporateur sur la répartition des groupements fonctionnels. Dans tous les sens du terme, le processus de distillation concentre l'azote, les métaux et les produits de tête ainsi que d'autres groupes fonctionnels du résidu. De plus, le processus de distillation provoque des modifications moléculaires mineures des constituants de la charge. Cette information concerne les études de laboratoire portant sur les effets du processus mais aussi celles qui sont consacrées aux opérations de récupération pouvant être influencées notablement par la présence et la répartition de groupes fonctionnels dans les huiles brutes.

  18. Special concretes for protection in piles (1963); Les betons speciaux dans la protection des piles (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condat, M.J.; Lafore, P.; Rastoin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The report reviews the main concretes used for the protection of reactors. First are examined the general factors affecting the selection of concretes for protection; some of the general aspects of radiation attenuation (fast and thermal neutrons, {gamma}) are then recalled. After an enumeration of the qualities and defects of conventional concretes, desirable or possible improvements are proposed: introduction of heavy elements for increasing the efficiency with respect to fast neutrons and {gamma}; increase in the hydrogen content (as H{sub 2}O), addition of absorbent products (B, Li, rare earths) for thermal neutron capture. A list is given of the principal products used for this purpose. Finally there is a rapid review of the preparation, the stability with time, and the resistance to radiation and to heat. Appendices and tables give details and numerical values. Appendix 1 deals with the question of water in concretes. Appendix 2 gives a classification of concretes based mainly on their density. At the end, ten tables give the compositions and values of the physical and mechanical characteristics of sixteen particularly typical concretes. (authors) [French] Le rapport passe en revue les principaux betons utilisables pour la protection des reacteurs. On examine d'abord les facteurs generaux influencant la selection des betons de protection; on rappelle ensuite brievement les aspects generaux de l'attenuation des rayonnements (neutrons rapides, neutrons thermiques, {gamma}). Apres avoir rappele les qualites et les defauts des betons classiques, on fait ressortir les perfectionnements souhaitables ou necessaires: introduction d'elements lourds pour ameliorer l'efficacite contre les neutrons rapides et les {gamma}; augmentation de la teneur en H (en H{sub 2}O); addition de corps absorbants (B, Li, terres rares) pour capturer les neutrons thermiques. On enumere les principaux corps utilises a cet effet. On termine par un tres rapide apercu sur

  19. Behaviour of trivalent actinides and lanthanide elements in chloride solution; Comportement des lanthanides et transuraniens trivalents en milieu chlorhydrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the complexation in chloride solutions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides. We have first studied the solvatation of these cations without complexation. We found a difference between Am, Cm and Rare Earths (we can separate lanthanides into Light and Heavy Rare Earths). For studying the complexation we choose the technic of electrophoresis on paper after establishing a simple theory of mobilities in complex solutions. The hydrolysis of these cations was studied and compared in chloride solutions. We have then studied the complexation with the Cl{sup -} ligand in some solutions: HCl, NH{sub 4}Cl, CaCl{sub 2}, CeCl{sub 3}, LiCl. We have established that the complexation is the same in dilute HCl solutions but in concentrated solutions the trivalent actinides are more complexed. This difference is sharper in LiCl solutions. We also proposed the different models of complex in these solutions. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de comparer les transuraniens et lanthanides trivalents au point de vue de leur complexation en solution chlorhydrique. Nous avons ete amenes tout d'abord a etudier la solvatation de ces cations non complexes. C'est ainsi que nous pouvons constater une difference entre Am, Cm et les lanthanides. Ces derniers pouvant se separer en lanthanides legers et lanthanides lourds. Pour etudier la complexation nous avons utilise l'electrophorese sur papier apres avoir donne une theorie simple des mobilites en milieu complexant. Apres avoir etudie et compare l'hydrolyse de ces divers cations en solution chlorhydrique, nous avons etudie leur complexation avec l'ion Cl{sup -} dans dans divers milieux: HCl, NH{sub 4}Cl, CaCl{sub 2}, CeCl{sub 3}, LiCl. ous avons note qu'en solution HCl les deux series se comportent de la meme facon pour des concentrations faibles en Cl{sup -} mais que les transuraniens se complexent plus fortement dans les solutions concentrees. Cette difference s'accroit encore dans les milieux

  20. Séroprévalence de Mycoplasma gallisepticum et de Mycoplasma synoviae dans les élevages reproducteurs type poulet de chair au Maroc de 1983 au 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia NASSIK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Les mycoplasmoses aviaires, particulièrement Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG et Mycoplasma synoviae (MS sont des infections insidieuses respiratoires, génitales ou articulaires, entraînant de lourdes pertes économiques dans les différents types d’élevage avicole.L’objectif de cette étude est de tracer l’évolution des infections mycoplasmiques aviaires dues à MG et MS à partir d’une synthèse des enquêtes sérologiques réalisées au Maroc et d’évaluer les retombées de la nouvelle loi sanitaire. Ces enquêtes ont concerné 12, 13 et 15 élevages de poules reproductrices situés dans différentes régions, notamment les principaux axes de productions avicoles réalisées respectivement en 1983, 2002 et 2005. Les sérums recueillis ont été testés par Agglutination Rapide sur Lame (ARL afin d’identifier les élevages positifs. Les résultats sérologiques ont révélé la présence des anticorps contre MG et MS avec des taux d’infection variables en fonction de l’année d’étude et du germe. En effet, Les prévalences obtenues sont très importantes surtout pour MS qui dépassent les 50% ; un pic a été noté en 2002 (MG:30,76% et (MS:76,92%, avec une légère régression en 2005 (MG:26,67% et (MS:66,67 %.Ces taux d’infections non négligeables incitent à l’amélioration des normes d’hygiène et de biosécurité avec un accompagnement vétérinaire rigoureux conformément aux directives de la loi.

  1. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-09-19

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10}-5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a

  2. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces etudes, deux applications pratiques

  3. Ce “sentiment de culpabilité” That “Guilty Feeling” : Emotions and Motivation in Migration and Transnational Caregiving’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Baldassar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore l’expérience de la “culpabilité” en tant qu’émotion jouant un rôle moteur dans les obligations réciproques de soin dans les relations familiales transnationales. Je pose l’hypothèse qu’en créant une séparation physique, une absence et un sentiment de manque, l’acte migratoire pousse les migrants à se sentir coupables de ne pas remplir l’obligation morale de coprésence. Les migrants se sentent souvent coupables de ne pas être présents pour s’occuper de leurs parents âgés ; les parents se sentent souvent coupables de ne pas participer à la vie de leurs enfants et de leurs petits-enfants. Ce “sentiment de culpabilité” les encourage à “rester en contact” aussi souvent et effectivement que possible en créant des occasions leur permettant d’échanger coprésence et don de soi. En renforçant les relations, en exerçant une influence sur autrui, et en allégeant les inégalités relationnelles, la culpabilité peut servir au final à renforcer et maintenir les relations de soin transnationales. Cependant, dans les relations transnationales où les devoirs sont trop lourds pour être remplis, les individus peuvent se désengager du soin afin d’éviter des sentiments de culpabilité accablants et fragilisants.This paper explores the experience of “guilt” as a motivating emotion in reciprocal obligations to care in transnational kinship relations. My hypothesis is that the act of migration, by causing physical separation, absence and longing, causes migrants to feel guilty about their moral obligations to be co-present. For instance, migrants often feel guilty about not being present to look after ageing parents; similarly, parents often feel guilty about not participating in the lives of their children and especially grandchildren. This “guilty feeling” motivates them to “stay in touch” as often and as effectively as they can by creating opportunities in which they can

  4. Experimental methods of reactor physics; Methodes experimentales de physique des reacteurs a neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D; Lafore, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    ) Mesures par neutrons pulses: dispositif utilise et precision, application aux mesures de {lambda}t et aux mesures d'antireactivite, application au graphite, a l'eau ordinaire et au Be0. b) Mesures par oscillation (M. VIDAL): appareillage utilise et precision obtenue, application aux mesures de sections efficaces effectives et aux integrales de resonnance. c) Fluctuation: appareils utilises et techniques de mesures. III - MESURES PAR EMPOISONNEMENT. Description des methodes d'introduction et d'extraction du poison, difficultes rencontrees sur l'eau legere et sur l'eau lourde mesures des coefficients de temperature et antireactivite. IV - MESURES SPECTRALES: Choix et mise au point des detecteurs, difficultes de mesures, application aux mesures spectrales en vue d'etude de thermalisation, application a la dosimetrie. V - MESURES EXPERIMENTALES DE PROTECTION: On presente les techniques et les appareillages recemment mis au point dans ce domaine. (auteurs)

  5. Dose measurement using radiochromic lms and Monte Carlo simulation for hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.

    2010-06-01

    Because of the increase in dose at the end of the range of ions, dose delivery during patient treatment with hadron-therapy should be controlled with high precision. Monte Carlo codes are now considered mandatory for validation of clinical treatment planning and as a new tool for dosimetry of ion beams. In this work, we aimed to calculate the absorbed dose using Monte Carlo simulation Geant4/Gate. The effect on the dose calculation accuracy of different Geant4 parameters has been studied for mono-energetic carbon ion beams of 300 MeV/u in water. The parameters are: the production threshold of secondary particles and the maximum step limiter of the particle track. Tolerated criterion were chosen to meet the precision required in radiotherapy in term of value and dose localisation (2%, 2 mm respectively) and to obtain the best compromise on dose distribution and computational time. We propose here the values of parameters in order to satisfy the precision required. In the second part of this work, we study the response of radiochromic films MD-v2-55 for quality control in proton and carbon ion beams. We have particularly observed and studied the quenching effect of dosimetric films for high LET (≥20 keV/μm) irradiation in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. This effect is due to the high ionization density around the track of the particle. We have developed a method to predict the response of radiochromic films taking into account the saturation effect. This model is called the RADIS model for 'Radiochromic films Dosimetry for Ions using Simulations'. It is based on the response of films under photon irradiations and the saturation of films due to high linear energy deposit calculated by Monte Carlo. Different beams were used in this study and aimed to validate the model for hadron-therapy applications: carbon ions, protons and photons at different energies. Experiments were performed at Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), Proton therapy center of

  6. Continuous infra-red measurement using an interference filter, dosage of H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O mixtures; Doseur continu infra-rouge a filtre interferentiel dosage des melanges H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M; Goujon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report is described original work leading to the construction of an apparatus for the continuous measurement of the isotopic content of H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O mixtures. The measurement is based on an application of the Beer-Lambert law to the {gamma}{sub OH} band of HDO (3400 cm{sup -1}). The conditions of measurement are given. The apparatus is a double-beam device in which the wave length selection is obtained with an interference filter together with a modulator acting as a pass-band filter. The large-surface pneumatic detector using capacity changes has made it possible to obtain a simple optical set-up. Various results are presented. If sufficient precautions are taken to maintain the apparatus and the water at a constant temperature it is possible to carry out measurements with a precision of {+-} 0.002, or else to detect concentration differences of 0.001 per cent in the case of heavy waters containing more than 99.5 per cent of D{sub 2}O. (authors) [French] Dans ce memoire original il est decrit la realisation d'un appareil destine a mesurer en continu la teneur isotopique des melanges H{sub 2}O-D{sub 2}O. La mesure est basee sur l'application de la loi de Beer-Lambert a la bande {gamma}{sub OH} de HDO (3400 cm{sup -1}). Les conditions de mesure sont precisees. L'appareil est un dispositif 'double-faisceau' dans lequel la selection des longueurs d'onde est obtenue par un filtre interferentiel associe a un modulateur travaillant en filtre passe-bande. Le detecteur pneumatique, de grande surface, a variation de capacite, a permis un montage optique simple. Divers resultats sont presentes. En prenant la precaution de maintenir constante la temperature de l'appareil et de l'eau on peut effectuer des mesures a {+-} 0,002 pour cent pres, ou mettre en evidence des ecarts de teneur de 0,001 pour cent pour des eaux lourdes de titre superieur a 99,5 pour cent. (auteurs)

  7. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei 20O, 30S, 34Ar: experimental study and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Elias

    2000-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic proton scattering from the unstable nuclei 20 O, 30 S and 34 Ar were measured in inverse kinematics at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds. Secondary beams of 20 O at 43 MeV/A, 30 S at 53 MeV/A and 34 Ar at 47 MeV/A impinged on a (CH 2 ) n target. Recoiling protons were detected in the silicon strip array MUST. Energies and angular distributions of the first 2 + and 3 - states were measured. A phenomenological analysis yields values of the deformation parameters β 2 and β 3 of 0.55 (6) and 0.35 (5) for 20 O, 0.32 (3) and 0.22 (4) for 30 S, 0.27 (2) and 0.39 (3) for 34 Ar, respectively, and allows the extraction of the ratio of neutron to proton transition matrix elements (M n /M p )/(N/Z) for 2 + states: 2.35 (37) for 20 O, 0.93 (20) for 30 S and 1.35 (28) for 34 Ar. Therefore the proton rich nuclei 30 S and 34 Ar show a 2 + excitation of isoscalar character whereas the excitation of 20 O is of isovector character. In order to perform a microscopic analysis of the data, we have developed a QRPA model, using three Skyrme interaction: SIII, SG2, SLy4. This model reproduces measured B(EL) values for the oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopic chains, whereas RPA calculations, which do not take pairing into account, underestimate these values. In the case of the QRPA model the energies of the first 2 + state are overestimated by about 1 MeV, but the evolution along the isotopic chains is well reproduced. (M n /M p )/(N/Z) ratios for the first 2 + state deduced from the microscopic analysis using QRPA are 1.98 for 20 O, 1.05 for 30 S and 1.00 for 34 Ar, in agreement with the conclusions of the phenomenological analysis. However important discrepancies are observed between the two types of analysis for other isotopes, in particular neutron rich argon and sulfur nuclei. (author)

  8. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces

  9. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  10. L'île d'Anjouan figure de la balkanisation de l'archipel des Comores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taglioni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L'Union des Comores connaît une instabilité politique chronique depuis son indépendance en 1975. De tentatives de coups d'état en coups d'état aboutis, de révisions constitutionnelles en réconciliations nationales, l'Union est fragile et essaye de résister à une balkanisation devenue problématique. Cette tendance s'incarne dans l'appartenance politique de la quatrième île de l'archipel des Comores, Mayotte, à la République française et dans les tentatives séparatistes d'Anjouan et Mohéli. C'est dans ce contexte politique tendu qu'a eu lieu le 25 mars 2008 à Anjouan le débarquement d'une force internationale sous l'égide de l'Union africaine pour renverser le président Mohamed Bacar. L'Union des Comores illustre bien les obstacles de cohésion nationale dans un Etat multi-insulaire en prise avec de lourds problèmes politiques sur fond de mal développement économique et humain persistant.Union of the Comoros is experiencing chronic political instability since its independence in 1975. From coups attempts to coup, from constitutional developments to national reconciliation, the Union is fragile and tries to resist with an endemic balkanization. It is embodied with the political affiliation of the fourth island of the Comoros archipelago, Mayotte, in the French Republic and with the separatist attempts of Anjouan and Moheli.In this tense political context occurred on March 25, 2008 the landing in Anjouan of an international force under the aegis of the African Union to overthrow President Mohamed Bacar. Union of the Comoros illustrates the obstacles of a national cohesion within a multi-insular state wrestling with heavy political difficulties and persistent economic and human development problems.

  11. Conséquences macroéconomiques du vieillissement de la population 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Résumé La baisse de la fécondité et l’allongement de la durée de la vie amènent au vieillissement de la population et au ralentissement ou même à la baisse de la croissance démographique. Tandis que le ralentissement de la croissance démographique réduit la nécessité d’épargner, le vieillissement de la population impose des coûts liés à la dépendance des personnes âgées qui sont particulièrement lourds pour le secteur public. Le taux de fécondité est-il trop faible ? Le projet des Comptes de transferts nationaux (National Transfer Accounts ou NTA) fournit des données permettant de quantifier les coûts liés à la dépendance. Au vu de la répartition par âge actuelle des impôts et prestations dans les pays à revenu élevé et à revenu moyen supérieur, un taux d’environ trois naissances par femme permettrait de maximiser le ratio de soutien public. Les profils d’âge inclusifs de consommation et de revenus du travail sont toutefois plus pertinents en termes de niveau de vie. Les ratios de soutien correspondants sont maximisés par un taux de fécondité légèrement supérieur à deux naissances par femme. En allant un peu plus loin et en prenant en compte la baisse de l’épargne, un taux égal à 1,5 naissance par femme dans les pays à revenu moyen supérieur et à 1,8 naissance par femme dans les pays riches industrialisés permettrait de maximiser le niveau de vie. Au sein d’économies ouvertes, ces résultats seraient légèrement différents. Par ailleurs, la prise en compte du capital humain influerait également quelque peu sur ces résultats. PMID:28804226

  12. Controle optique de qubits lies a des centres isoelectroniques d'azote dans le GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier-Majcher, Gabriel

    Le traitement de l'information quantique est un domaine de recherche actuellement en pleine effervescence car il laisse entrevoir une revolution dans notre facon de traiter et d'echanger de l'information. D'une part, l'ordinateur quantique promet de resoudre des problemes comme la factorisation d'un polynome de facon beaucoup plus efficace qu'un ordinateur classique. D'autre part, les communications quantiques promettent l'echange d'information de facon fondamentalement inviolable. Afin de tirer pleinement profit de ces nouvelles technologies, il sera avantageux de construire des reseaux quantiques. Dans un tel reseau, des processeurs quantiques, les noeuds, seront connectes par des photons voyageant dans des fibres optiques. Les reseaux quantiques permettront de deployer les communications quantiques a grande echelle et de creer des super-ordinateurs quantiques. La realisation de reseaux quantiques necessitera des interfaces optiques pouvant echanger l'information de facon coherente entre un qubit (bit d'information quantique) et un photon. L'implementation de telles interfaces dans un systeme physique s'avere un important defi scientifique et technologique. Or, les systemes actuellement envisages a cette fin souffrent d'un faible couplage avec la lumiere ou encore de grandes inhomogeneites, constituant des obstacles a la realisation de reseaux a grande echelle. Dans cette these, le potentiel des centres isoelectroniques pour realiser des interfaces optiques est evalue. Deux types de qubits lies a des paires d'azote dans le GaAs sont consideres : les qubits excitoniques et les qubits de spin electronique, controlables par l'intermediaire d'excitons charges. Le controle optique complet des qubits excitoniques est demontre, ce qui constitue la premiere realisation du genre dans les centres isoelectroniques. L'observation d'excitons charges dans ce systeme, liant a la fois des trous lourds et des trous legers, laisse entrevoir de nouvelles possibilites afin de

  13. The Grand Quevilly thermal test station - the SMW sodium circuit with a generator of superheated steam at 545 deg; Station d'essais thermiques de grand quevilly - circuit de sodium de 5 MW avec generateur de vapeur surchauffee a 545 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A 5 MW installation is described which is a reduced model of the heat exchange system of a sodium-cooled reactor. This plant, which is situated at Grand Quevilly (near Rouen), consists of: 1 - A primary sodium loop made up of a sodium re-heater running on heavy diesel oil, a mechanical pump and an intermediate exchanger made up of clusters of tubes fitted with baffles. 2 - A NaK(56 per cent of K) secondary loop consisting mainly of a mechanical pump and a double-wall steam generator with forced circulation and complete vaporization. 3 - A tertiary water loop consisting of the inside of the steam generator pipes, a pressure-reducing valve which cools down the super-heated fluid and acts as a turbine, a condenser, a charge-pump and a supply pump for the boiler. The heat is given finally to a water-source flowing into the Seine. Two important points of the installation are: - The water treatment unit - The control and regulation system Apart from the general satisfactory operation of the installation which it is hoped to obtain, a careful study will be made of the heat transmission coefficients of the important equipment such as the intermediate exchanger and the steam generator. The construction was finished on April 28, 1964. (author) [French] On decrit une installation de 5 MW figurant a echelle reduite un systeme de transfert de chaleur d'un reacteur refroidi au sodium. Cette installation, situee a Grand Quevilly (pres de Rouen) comprend: 1 - Une boucle de sodium primaire comportant un rechauffeur de sodium alimente en fuel lourd, une pompe mecanique et un echangeur intermediaire a faisceau tubulaire muni de chicanes, 2 - Une boucle de NaK (56% de K) secondaire dont les appareils principaux sont une pompe mecanique et un generateur de vapeur a double paroi, circulation forcee et vaporisation totale. 3 - une boucle tertiaire a eau comprenant l'interieur des tubes du generateur de vapeur, un detendeur-desurchauffeur simulant une turbine, un condenseur, une pompe de

  14. Applications des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons a l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Troisième partie : caractérisation des microémulsions et des composés solides. Étude de différents systèmes d'intérêt industriel Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Three: Microemulsions, Solid Materials, Liquids and Miscellaneous Systems with Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette troisième partie clôt une revue bibliographique concernant la caractérisation des systèmes colloïdaux par les techniques de diffusion (lumière, rayons X, neutrons (Rev. Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, Vol. 45, No 6, novembre-décembre 1990. Nous poursuivrons cette présentation en nous intéressant aux microémulsions. Après la présentation des informations que l'on peut obtenir sur les systèmes polymériques, les solutions micellaires ou les systèmes fractals, qui ont fait l'objet de multiples travaux, nous reviendrons sur les applications plus restreintes à des systèmes colloïdaux parfois moins bien définis et d'origine industrielle, telles les fractions lourdes des pétroles, les asphaltènes ou encore les additifs de lubrification. Les possibilités de la diffusion des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude de matériaux solides seront présentées à travers la caractérisation des solides poreux et en particulier des catalyseurs. Nous terminerons cette présentation par les liquides purs ou les mélanges; les techniques de diffusion ont contribué fortement à la description des structures des phases liquides. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, November-December 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this article takes up polymer and colloidal solutions. Particular attention is paid to the importance of scattering techniques for characterizing polymers in solution and micellar solutions. A

  15. Spanish translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Tandazo W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Adolfo Flores-Fortty, Lourdes Feraud, Daniel TettamantiSchool of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo – Ecuador, Samborondón, Guayas, EcuadorPurpose: To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD, originally created and validated in Australia, for its use in Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus.Patients and methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on international guidelines. The Spanish version of the survey was applied to a community-based (sample A and a hospital clinic-based sample (samples B and C. Samples A and B were used to determine criterion and construct validity comparing the survey findings with clinical evaluation and medical records, respectively; while sample C was used to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability.Results: After completing the rigorous translation process, only four items were considered problematic and required a new translation. In total, 127 patients were included in the validation study: 76 to determine criterion and construct validity and 41 to establish intra- and inter-rater reliability. For an overall diagnosis of diabetes-related foot disease, a substantial level of agreement was obtained when we compared the Q-DFD with the clinical assessment (kappa 0.77, sensitivity 80.4%, specificity 91.5%, positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 9.46, negative likelihood ratio [LR-] 0.21; while an almost perfect level of agreement was obtained when it was compared with medical records (kappa 0.88, sensitivity 87%, specificity 97%, LR+ 29.0, LR- 0.13. Survey reliability showed substantial levels of agreement, with kappa scores of 0.63 and 0.73 for intra- and inter-rater reliability, respectively.Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted Q-DFD showed good psychometric properties (validity, reproducibility, and reliability that allow its use in Spanish-speaking diabetic populations

  16. Notes on a homogeneous reactor project; Idees sur un projet de reacteur homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, J; Bernot, J; Eidelman, D; Grenon, M; Portes, L; Raspaud, G; Tachon, J; Vendryes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod, L; Cohen de Lara, G; Delachanal, M; Fontanet, P; Halbronn, G [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France)

    1958-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop certain ideas concerning homogeneous reactors. The project under consideration is based on the simultaneous use of a suspension of uranium dispersed in heavy or light water and of boiling in the reactor for heat extraction. However, the studies of suspensions and of boiling are relatively independent and can also be developed for reactors of different types using one or the other. Our aim is a minimum investment in fissile material; for this we propose to extract the steam directly from the core and to make use of a cyclone to accelerate this extraction; a cyclone-type circulation creating a field of increasing tangential velocities of the fluid towards the axis causes the droplets of vapour to accelerate towards the axial vortex in which they are collected; the steam output is then evacuated to the external heat utilisation system, for example an exchanger of the condenser-boiler type. The input speed of water into the reactor being one of the important parameters in the running of the pile, a spiral supply input chamber is used, allowing this speed to be regulated in amount and direction. (author)Fren. [French] Nous nous sommes attaches a developper certaines idees relatives aux piles homogenes. Le projet que nous etudions est base sur l'emploi simultane d'une suspension contenant de l'uranium disperse dans l'eau legere ou lourde et de l'ebullition dans le reacteur pour l'extraction de chaleur. Neanmoins, les etudes de suspensions et d'ebullition sont relativement independantes et peuvent egalement etre developpees pour des reacteurs de type different utilisant l'une ou l'autre. Le but que nous cherchons a atteindre est un investissement minimum en matiere fissile; pour cela, nous proposons d'extraire directement la vapeur dans le coeur et de recourir a un dispositif cyclone pour accelerer cette extraction; une circulation type cyclone creant un champ de vitesses tangentielles du fluide croissantes veraxe a pour effet d

  17. Isolamento e estudo experimental de duas novas culturas de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes de muco nasal de leprosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-03-01

    . concludes that, according to his experience, the slower growing cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated from leprosy material, are the more suitable for experimental work. Aknowledgement. The A. thanks to Miss MARIA DE LOURDES SANTANA for her valuable collaboration in the studies of the described cultures.

  18. Emission of H- fragments from collisions of OH+ ions with atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. Detailed measurement of the kinematics of positive fragment ions from molecular collisions pro-vide useful information about the collision dynamics (see e.g. and references therein). In the present work, we turn our attention to negative fragments. Double differential emission spectra of negative charged particles have been measured in collisions of OH + ions with gas jets of Ar atoms and acetone (CH 3 -CO-CH 3 ) molecules at 7 keV impact energy. Among the emitted electrons, a relatively strong contribution of H - ions has been observed in both collision systems. According to a kinematic analysis, the observed H - ions were produced in close atom-atom collisions. For acetone, these ions originated from both the projectile and the target. The present ion impact energy range falls in the distal region of the Bragg peak. Therefore, a non negligible H - production in biological tissues could be relevant for ion therapy and for radiolysis in general. The present experiments were conducted at the 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source of the ARIBE facility, at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) in Caen, France. The molecular OH + ions were produced by introducing water vapor in the ECR plasma chamber. The extracted ions were collimated to a diameter of 2.5 mm before entering the collision chamber. In its center, the OH + projectiles crossed an effusive gas jet of either argon atoms or acetone molecules. In the collision area, the density of the gas target was typically of 10 13 cm -3 . The electrons and negative ions produced in the collision were detected by means of a single-stage spectrometer consisting of an electrostatic parallel-plate analyzer. Spectra taken at 30 deg observation angle are shown in Figure 1. Contributions from H - appear in clearly visible peaks. Kinematics shows that the peak at 410 eV in both panels is due emission of H - ions moving with nearly the projectile velocity. An H

  19. Special concretes for protection in piles (1963); Les betons speciaux dans la protection des piles (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condat, M J; Lafore, P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The report reviews the main concretes used for the protection of reactors. First are examined the general factors affecting the selection of concretes for protection; some of the general aspects of radiation attenuation (fast and thermal neutrons, {gamma}) are then recalled. After an enumeration of the qualities and defects of conventional concretes, desirable or possible improvements are proposed: introduction of heavy elements for increasing the efficiency with respect to fast neutrons and {gamma}; increase in the hydrogen content (as H{sub 2}O), addition of absorbent products (B, Li, rare earths) for thermal neutron capture. A list is given of the principal products used for this purpose. Finally there is a rapid review of the preparation, the stability with time, and the resistance to radiation and to heat. Appendices and tables give details and numerical values. Appendix 1 deals with the question of water in concretes. Appendix 2 gives a classification of concretes based mainly on their density. At the end, ten tables give the compositions and values of the physical and mechanical characteristics of sixteen particularly typical concretes. (authors) [French] Le rapport passe en revue les principaux betons utilisables pour la protection des reacteurs. On examine d'abord les facteurs generaux influencant la selection des betons de protection; on rappelle ensuite brievement les aspects generaux de l'attenuation des rayonnements (neutrons rapides, neutrons thermiques, {gamma}). Apres avoir rappele les qualites et les defauts des betons classiques, on fait ressortir les perfectionnements souhaitables ou necessaires: introduction d'elements lourds pour ameliorer l'efficacite contre les neutrons rapides et les {gamma}; augmentation de la teneur en H (en H{sub 2}O); addition de corps absorbants (B, Li, terres rares) pour capturer les neutrons thermiques. On enumere les principaux corps utilises a cet effet. On termine par un tres rapide apercu sur la mise en oeuvre, la

  20. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  1. Comportement en vapocraquage de molécules modèles et de distillats sous vide hydrotraités. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse de molécules modèles représentatives des distillats sous vide bruts et hydrotraités Steam-Cracking Behavior of Model Molecules and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates Part Two: Pyrolysis of Model Molecules Representative of Unprocessed and Hydrotreated Vacuum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pyrolyse de molécules modèles a permis sur la base d'écarts de rendements obtenus entre le n -décane et leur mélange à 20 % avec celui-ci, l'établissement d'une échelle de potentialité de craquage présentée précédemment. L'approche des phénomènes de pyrolyse par des schémas réactionnels simplifiés est développée dans le présent article pour des molécules modèles, exemples de chaque grande famille susceptible de constituer le distillat sous vide : le perhydrophénanthrène pour les naphtènes lourds, l'octahydrophénanthrène symétrique pour les naphténoaromatiques, le naphtalène et l'alpha méthylnaphtalène pour les aromatiques méthylés ou non, le dodécylbenzène pour les aromatiques substitués par une longue chaîne aliphatique. Le cas de l'acénaphtylène a été examiné à part. On the basis of differences in yields obtained between n-decane and a 20% mixture of model molecules with n-decane, the pyrolysis of model molecules was used to determine a cracking potentiality scale that was previous described. The present article describes the approach to pyrolysis phenomena by simplified reaction mechanisms for model molecules taken from each major family liable to make up vacuum distillate, i. e. perhydrophenanthrene for heavy naphthenes, symmetrical octahydrophenanthrene for naphthenoaromatics, naphthalene and alpha-methynaphthalene for methylated or nonmethylated aromatics, dodecylbenzene for aromatics substituted for by a long aliphatic chain. The case of acenaphthylene is examined separately.

  2. Development and validation of a specific questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life in patients with home enteral nutrition: NutriQoL® development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuerda MC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cristina Cuerda,1 Antonio Apezetxea,2 Lourdes Carrillo,3 Felipe Casanueva,4 Federico Cuesta,5 Jose Antonio Irles,6 Maria Nuria Virgili,7 Miquel Layola,8 Luis Lizan9 1Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon, Madrid, 2Organización Sanitaria Integrada Bilbao Basurto, Bilbao, 3Centro de Salud Victoria de Acentejo, Santa Cruz, 4Hospital Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago, 5Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 6Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Valme, Seville, 7Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 8Nestlé Health Science, Barcelona, 9Outcomes’10, Universitat Jaume 1, Castellon, Spain Introduction: Home enteral nutrition (HEN is indicated in patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements with normally consumed foodstuffs. HEN allows patients to remain in their social and family environment, thus reducing complications and costs associated with hospital admission, while increasing health-related quality of life (HRQoL. HRQoL in patients with HEN is mainly evaluated by generic instruments, which are not sensitive enough to identify certain specific patient-related outcomes of HEN. Objective: To develop a specific instrument to measure HRQoL in patients receiving HEN whose results allow interpretation regardless of the underlying disease and nutritional support administration route: the NutriQoL® questionnaire. Materials and methods: The development of the NutriQoL entailed a literature review, focus groups with experts, semistructured interviews with patients, an assessment of face validity and feasibility, and Rasch analysis conducted on data from a sample of 141 patients and 24 caregivers. Results: Of the 52 items initially proposed on the basis of the literature review, expert focus group, and semi-structured interviews with patients and caregivers, 17 items were finally selected through the development process to make

  3. Heat transfer with organic fluids; Transferts de chaleur par liquides organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Ricque, R; Villeneuve, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Using a test channel with a circular cross-section of 12 mm internal diameter the following heat transfer correlation, valid to about {+-} 6 p. 100, was determined for the terphenyls OMP and OM2 with 0, 10, 20 or 30 p. 100 of high polymers: Nu{sub b} = 0.00835 Re{sub b}{sup 0.9} Pr{sub L}{sup 0.4}. This correlation was established with fluxes ranging from 50 to 100 W/cm{sup 2}, temperatures from 290 to 420 C and Reynolds number from 30 000 to 350 000. 8 long-term tests were carried out (250 to 1000 hours continuous running) to determine how deposition on the heating surfaces affects the exchange coefficient. The loops is made of stainless steel except for one part in soft steel. No deposits are observed even if the terphenyl contains 30 ppm of chlorure, while on the other hand deposition is appreciable when heavy substances containing combined oxygen are added. (authors) [French] On a determine sur un canal d'essai de section circulaire de 12 mm de diametre interieur, la correlation de transfert de chaleur suivante valable a {+-} 6 p.100 pres pour les terphenyles OMP et OM2 avec 0, 10, 20 ou 30 p. 100 de haute polymeres Nu{sub b} = 0,00835 Re{sub b}{sup 0.9} Pr{sub L}{sup 0.4}. Cette correlation a ete etablie dans une gamme de flux de 50 a 100 W/cm{sup 2}, de temperature de 290 a 420 C, de Reynolds de 30 000 a 350 000. On a effectue 8 essais de longue duree (250 a 1 000 heures en regime continu) pour determiner l'effet sur le coefficient d'echange de l'encrassement des surfaces chauffantes. La boucle est en acier inoxydable sauf une partie en acier doux; on n'observe aucun encrassement meme si le terphenyle contient 30 ppm de chlore; par contre l'encrassement est sensible quand on ajoute des produits lourds contenant de l'oxygene combine. (auteurs)

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrotreatment using a Molecular Reconstruction Approach Modélisation cinétique de l’hydrotraitement de distillats sous vide utilisant une approche de reconstruction moléculaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charon-Revellin N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Gas Oils (VGO are heavy petroleum cuts (boiling points ranging from 350 to 550 ˚C that can be transformed into valuable fuels (gasolines, diesels by fluid catalytic cracking or hydrocracking. Prior to these conversion processes, hydrotreating is required in order to eliminate the impurities in VGOs. The hydrotreatment process enables to meet the environmental specifications (total sulfur contents and to prevent nitrogen poisoning of conversion catalysts. In order to develop a kinetic model based on an accurate VGOs molecular description, innovative analytical tools and molecular reconstruction techniques were used in this work. A lumped model using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood representation was developed for hydrodearomatization, hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation of the VGO. This lumped model was successfully applied to the experimental feed pretreatment data and was able to predict evolution of concentration of the aromatics, nitrogen and sulfur species. Les Distillats Sous Vide (DSV sont des coupes pétrolières lourdes (gamme de températures d'ébullition 350 à 550 °C qui peuvent être valorisées en carburants (essence, gazole par craquage catalytique ou par hydrocraquage. Un hydrotraitement est requis avant ces procédés de conversion afin d'éliminer les impuretés du DSV. De cette manière, le procédé d'hydrotraitement permet d'attendre les spécifications environnementales (teneur en soufre ainsi que de prévenir l'empoisonnement par les composés azotés des catalyseurs de conversion. De manière à pouvoir développer un modèle cinétique basé sur une description moléculaire précise des DSV, des outils analytiques innovant et des techniques de reconstruction moléculaire ont été utilisés dans ce travail. Un modèle cinétique de regroupement utilisant une représentation de type Langmuir-Hinshelwood a été développé pour l'hydrodésaromatisation, l'hydrodésulfuration et l'hydrodésazotation des DSV. Ce

  5. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow in a rat model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Serrano,1 Paula Pierozan,2 Esteban Alberti,1 Lisette Blanco,1 Karelys de la Cuétara Bernal,1 María E González,1 Nancy Pavón,1 Lourdes Lorigados,1 María A Robinson-Agramonte,1 Jorge A Bergado1 1International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN, La Habana, Cuba; 2Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: This article investigates the possible effects of transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMCs to ameliorate or prevent the behavioral impairments and the cellular damage observed in a quinolinic acid (QA model of Huntington’s disease. mBMCs were isolated using a standard procedure and implanted within the QA-lesioned striatum. Behavior was explored using motor (beam test and memory (object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Morphology was evaluated using conventional histology (cresyl violet, bisbenzimide (to evaluate cell vitality, and immunohystochemistry to identify neurons or glia. mBMC-transplanted animals showed improvements in motor coordination (beam test. Regarding memory, object recognition was significantly improved in transplanted animals, while spatial memory (Morris water maze test was not severely affected by QA and, therefore, the results after transplantation were significant only in the probe-trial retention test. In samples taken from the animals that participated in the behavioral tests, a preserved morphology of striatal neurons and a reduced glial reaction indicated a possible neuroprotective effect of the transplanted mBMCs. A parallel study confirmed that the transplanted mBMCs have a long survival period (1 year follow-up. The results presented confirm the possibility that mBMC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic option for Huntington’s disease. Keywords: mononuclear bone marrow cells, Huntington’s disease, quinolinic acid, transplant, Fluoro-Jade C

  6. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations; Alize 3 - premiere experience critique pour le reacteur a haut flux franco-allemand. Calculs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharmer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D{sub 2}O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k{sub eff} was smaller than 0.5 per cent {delta}k/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D{sub 2}O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [French] Les resultats des experiences faites dans la maquette critique ALIZE III, refrigeree a l'eau legere et reflechie par l'eau lourde, ont ete compares aux calculs. On a utilise un modele de la theorie de diffusion a trois groupes rapides et epithermiques et deux groupes thermiques qui se recouvrent. Ce modele a permis de calculer la distribution de puissance dans le coeur en bon accord avec les mesures, meme dans le cas d'une forte variation du spectre des neutrons dans le coeur. L'erreur entre k{sub eff} calcule et mesure etait inferieure a 0,5 pour cent {delta}k/k. Le coefficient de vide et des materiaux de structure, la reactivite des barres 'noires', les variations du spectre (rapport Cd, rapport Pu/U) et la fraction des photo-neutrons retardes sont egalement calcules. Les mesures de reactivite et de perturbation de flux dans le reflecteur, dues aux canaux, ont ete interpretees du point de vue d'un arrangement optimum des canaux pour le Reacteur a Haut Flux Franco-Allemand. (auteur)

  7. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  8. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  9. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors; Nouvelle methode de mesure des flux de neutrons dans les reacteurs atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Labeyrie, J; Tarassenko, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high {gamma} ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their {beta} and {gamma} disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm{sup 2}) for fluxes higher than 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit un appareil permettant la mesure instantanee des flux de neutrons thermiques accompagnes de flux intenses de rayons {gamma} et situes dans des enceintes pouvant etre portees a des temperatures superieures a 500 deg. C. On utilise la radioactivite des atomes resultant de la fission des noyaux lourds; ces atomes sont entraines par un courant gazeux vers un detecteur de radioactivite qui enregistre leurs desintegrations {beta} et {gamma}. On peut mesurer des flux partir de quelques neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2} et par seconde. L'appareil permet de suivre la puissance d'un reacteur atomique, de tracer des cartes de densite de neutrons avec une tres bonne definition (1 mm{sup 2}) dans le cas de flux superieurs a 10{sup 8} cm{sup 2}/s. Le temps de reponse du systeme a une variation du flux de neutrons est limite, poes flux importants, par le temps de transit du gaz entre l'emetteur de produits de fission et le detecteur: soit quelques dizaines de

  10. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerguerras, T.

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of 18 Ne, 17 F and 20 Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a 24 Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a 9 Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and 17 F, 16 O, 15 O, 14 O and 18 Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of 18 Ne, 17 F, 16 F, 15 F et 19 Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of 18 Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From 17 Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of 18 Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from 17 Ne and 18 Ne excited states and the 19 Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and 15 O, 16 O and 17 Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of 17 Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through 16 F is dominant but a 2 He decay channel could not be excluded. No 2 He emission from the 1.288 MeV 17 Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV 18 Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between 17 Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of 20 Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  11. Use of an oscillation technique to measure effective cross-sections of fissionable samples in critical assemblies; Mesure des sections efficaces effectives d'echantillons fissiles par une methode d'oscillation dans les-assemblages critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O; Vidal, R; Carre, J C; Robin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ({sup 235}U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [French] On decrit la methode utilisee pour mesurer les sections efficaces effectives d'absorption et de production de neutrons d'un echantillon fissile. Ces deux grandeurs sont determinees en analysant les signaux dus a la variation de reactivite (signal global) et a la perturbation locale de flux (signal local) produits par l'echantillon oscillant. Ces signaux sont etalonnes a l'aide d'un jeu d'echantillons dont les teneurs en materiau fissile ({sup 235}U) et en absorbeur (bore) sont bien connues. Les mesures sont realisees pour differents spectres de neutrons caracterises par les parametres du reseau constituant la zone centrale a l'interieur de laquelle se deplace l'echantillon. A l'aide de cette methode on etudie les sections efficaces effectives d'alliage uranium-plutonium pour differents reseaux a eau lourde