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Sample records for saturated long-chain fatty

  1. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are required for the production of infectious human cytomegalovirus progeny.

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    Emre Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with ¹³C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.

  2. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  3. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

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    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  5. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

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    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  6. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  7. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  8. Significance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárate, R.; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Tejera, N.; Pérez, J.A.; Rodrígues, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUL 27 (2017), s. 1-19, č. článku 25. ISSN 2001-1326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lipidomics * Lipids * Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  9. CONTENT OF LONG CHAIN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOME IRANIAN CANNED FISH

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    Bahar Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Ecological studies have found a negative correlation between the risk of developing heart disease and fish consumption because of their long chain omega-3 fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine the amounts of the common fatty acid content of several commercial canned fish marketing in Iran, with particular attention to long chain omega-3 fatty acids.    METHODS: The most consumed available brands of canned fish were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets. Total lipids were extracted by using the Folch method and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Individual fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography (GC with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector.    RESULTS: The most common saturated fatty acids (SFA in Iranian canned fish was palmitic acid (C16:0 followed by stearic acid (C18:0. The amount of all trans fatty acids (TFAs except elaidic acid (C18:1 9t was 0%. The highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs related to long chain omega-3 fatty acids include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs were oleic acid (C18:1 9c.     CONCLUSION: This study showed higher contents of EPA and DHA in Iranian commercially available canned fish compared to the canned fish in other countries.      Keywords: Iranian canned fish, fatty acids, long chain omega-3 fatty acids, gas chromatography.  

  10. Analysis of long-chain fatty acid binding activity in vesicles of the outer membrane generated from Escherchia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli transports long-chain fatty acids across the dual membrane by a high affinity, saturable, energy-dependent process. The fadL gene codes for an outer membrane protein which appears to act specifically as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein when fatty acid utilization is blocked by mutation. In an effort to understand the function of the fadL gene product, FLP, membranes have been isolated from fadL + and fadL - strains following osmotic lysis. Following isolation, total membranes were separated into inner and outer membrane fractions and assayed for long-chain fatty acid binding activity. Outer membrane vesicles were incubated 2-5 min at 37 0 C with 3 H oleate (C/sub 18:1/), cooled to 0 0 C, and centrifuged through a Lipidex 100 column for 3 min to remove the unbound fatty acid. The level of fatty acid binding was quantitated by scintillation counting of the eluate. Outer membrane vesicles generated from a fadL + strain bind 325 pmol fatty acid/mg protein whereas vesicles generated for a mutant strain bind 175 pmol fatty acid/mg protein. These data suggest that FLP acts at least as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein on the surface of the cell

  11. Zinc absorption in experimental osmotic diarrhea: effect of long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Wapnir, R A

    1993-03-01

    The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced zinc absorption in rats with or without diarrhea, from 207 +/- 22 and 353 +/- 13 pmol/min x cm to 676 +/- 34 and 610 +/- 26 pmol/min x cm, respectively. Palmitate was only effective in normal rats. Zinc absorption inversely correlated with mucosal zinc content in the perfused intestinal segments, in both type of rats. Hepatic metallothionein was enhanced by zinc and even more by oleate plus zinc in both groups; kidney metallothionein in animals with diarrhea was normalized by either oleate or zinc. The data support previous reports on the effect of long-chain fatty acids on the enhancement of zinc absorption: saturation and a longer chain appear to be positive factors. A membrane modification role of long-chain fatty acids could have nutritional implications in the formulation of special diets.

  12. Rom2-dependent phosphorylation of Elo2 controls the abundance of very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Daniel K; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA...

  13. Long Chain Saturated and Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids: Filling a Large Gap of Knowledge in Their Enthalpies of Formation.

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    Rogers, Donald W; Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2017-01-06

    Despite their abundance in nature and their importance in biology, medicine, nutrition, and in industry, gas phase enthalpies of formation of many long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and of dicarboxylic acids are either unavailable or have been estimated with large uncertainties. Available experimental values for stearic acid show a spread of 68 kJ mol -1 . This work fills the knowledge gap by obtaining reliable values by quantum theoretical calculations using G4 model chemistry. Compounds with up to 20 carbon atoms are treated. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with well established experimental values when such values exist, and they provide a large number of previously unavailable values.

  14. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Horibe, Ryoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phytanic acid, and plasmalogens are usually measured individually. A novel method for the screening of peroxisomal disorders, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  15. Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.

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    Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  17. PTH1 receptor is involved in mediating cellular response to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Jose Candelario

    Full Text Available The molecular pathways by which long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA influence skeletal health remain elusive. Both LCPUFA and parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R are known to be involved in bone metabolism while any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Here we report that LCPUFA are capable of direct, PTH1R dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK. From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic fatty acids (DHA caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, EPA potentiated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-34 in a superagonistic manner. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PTH1R antagonist and by knockdown of PTH1R. Inhibition of PTH1R downstream signaling molecules, protein kinases A (PKA and C (PKC, reduced EPA and DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation indicating that fatty acids predominantly activate G-protein pathway and not the β-arrestin pathway. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered PTH1R sensor (PTH-CC, we detected conformational responses to EPA similar to those caused by PTH(1-34. PTH1R antagonist blocked the EPA induced conformational response of the PTH-CC. Competitive binding studies using fluorescence anisotropy technique showed that EPA and DHA competitively bind to and alter the affinity of PTH1 receptor to PTH(1-34 leading to a superagonistic response. Finally, we showed that EPA stimulates protein kinase B (Akt phosphorylation in a PTH1R-dependent manner and affects the osteoblast survival pathway, by inhibiting glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that LCPUFAs, EPA and DHA, can activate PTH1R receptor at nanomolar concentrations and consequently provide a putative molecular mechanism for the action of fatty acids in bone.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Yoshihiro Inoue

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of long-chain fatty alcohols was investigated, with a focus on normal alcohols. The antibacterial activity varied with the length of the aliphatic carbon chain and not with the water/octanol partition coefficient. 1-Nonanol, 1-decanol and 1-undecanol had bactericidal activity and membrane-damaging activity. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol had the highest antibacterial activity among the long-chain fatty alcohols tested, but had no membrane-damaging activity. Consequently, it appears that not only the antibacterial activity but also the mode of action of long-chain fatty alcohols might be determined by the length of the aliphatic carbon chain.

  19. Orphan drugs in development for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders: challenges and progress

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt II, J Lawrence; Sun,Angela

    2015-01-01

    Angela Sun, J Lawrence Merritt II Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting in failure of ß-oxidation within or transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are characterized by variable presentations ranging from newborn cardiomyopathy, to infantile hypoketotic hypoglycemia resulting from liver involvement, to skeletal myopa...

  20. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  1. Molecular assessment of complex microbial communities degrading long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in methanogenic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial diversity of anaerobic sludge after extended contact with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) was studied using molecular approaches. Samples containing high amounts of accumulated LCFA were obtained after continuous loading of two bioreactors with oleate or with palmitate. These sludge samples

  2. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  3. Yeast sphingolipids do not need to contain very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerantola, Vanessa; Vionnet, Christine; Aebischer, Olivier F

    2007-01-01

    , the very long chain fatty acids (C26 and C24) account for 97%. Notwithstanding, IPCs incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of 4Delta.Lass5 show normal mobility on TLC and the ceramide- and raft-dependent traffic of Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface...

  4. Identification and Characterization of Phospholipids with Very Long Chain Fatty Acids in Brewer's Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kolouchová, I.; Gharwalová, L.; Palyzová, Andrea; Sigler, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2017), s. 1007-1017 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00027S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Yeast * Very long chain fatty acids * Negative electrospray ionization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.934, year: 2016

  5. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal and infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van Goor, Saskia A.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Smit, Ella N.; Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Homo sapiens has evolved on a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). We have, however, gradually changed our diet from about 10,000 years ago and accelerated this change from about 100 to 200 years ago. The many dietary changes, including lower intake of

  6. Metabolism of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acids: Genes and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, suc...

  7. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  8. Orphan drugs in development for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders: challenges and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Sun, J Lawrence Merritt II Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting in failure of ß-oxidation within or transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are characterized by variable presentations ranging from newborn cardiomyopathy, to infantile hypoketotic hypoglycemia resulting from liver involvement, to skeletal myopathy often resulting in rhabdomyolysis in adolescents and adults. Treatments for these long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders have typically focused upon avoidance of fasting with dietary fat restriction and medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. These treatments have resulted in only a partial response with improvements in hypoglycemia, reduction in frequency of rhabdomyolysis, and improvement in cardiomyopathy with early therapy, but significant risk remains. Recent advances in therapies for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are reviewed in this article. These include sodium D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, triheptanoin, gene therapy, and bezafibrates. Sodium D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate has shown clinical effect, with improvements in muscle tone, neurological abnormalities, and some cases of cardiomyopathy and leukodystrophy. Triheptanoin has been used as an alternative medium-chain triglyceride in a number of fatty acid oxidation disorders and has shown promising findings in the treatment of cardiomyopathy and hypoglycemia. However, it does not significantly reduce episodes of rhabdomyolysis. Gene therapy has been shown to improve acylcarnitine levels in very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency mouse models, with preservation of glucose levels. Bezafibrates have shown improvements in acylcarnitine concentrations in fibroblast studies, but clinical observations have not demonstrated consistent effects. Together, these treatments have shown some

  9. Prenatal and early postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : do they affect neurodevelopmental outcome in healthy term infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Hylco

    2007-01-01

    Long-chain metabolites of the parent essential fatty acids called long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are major membrane components in the central nervous system. Dictary intake partly determines the availability of LCPUFAs as building btocks for neuronal structures. Fifty till sixty

  10. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  11. Dose- and type-dependent effects of long-chain fatty acids on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanting, Chen; Yang, Q Y; Ma, G L; Du, M; Harrison, J H; Block, E

    2018-02-01

    Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid. When concentrations of myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in adipogenic mediums were 150 and 200 μM, the induced mature adipocytes had greater lipid content compared with other concentrations of FA. In addition, mature adipocytes induced at 100 μM stearic acid and 300 μM linoleic acid had the greatest content of lipid than at other concentrations. High concentrations of saturated FA were more toxic for cells than the same concentration of unsaturated FA during the induction. When commitment stage was solely treated with FA, the number of differentiated mature adipocytes was greater for oleic and linoleic acids than other FA. When the maturation stage was treated with FA, the number of mature adipocytes was not affected, but the lipid content in adipocytes was affected and ranked oleic > linoleic > myristic > stearic > palmitic. In summary, this study showed that adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes were differentially affected by long-chain FA, with unsaturated FA more effective than saturated FA. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative for myocardial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Takayoshi; Ukon, Misa; Yamamura, Norio; Uehara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kazuma; Arano, Yasushi; Temma, Takashi; Mukai, Takahiro; Tadamura, Eiji; Saji, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    C-11- and I-123-labeled long chain fatty acid derivatives have been reported as useful radiopharmaceuticals for the estimation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. We have reported that Tc-99m-labeled N-[[[(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid ([(99m)Tc]MAMA-HA), a medium chain fatty acid derivative, is metabolized by beta-oxidation in the liver and that the MAMA ligand is useful for attaching to the omega-position of fatty acid derivatives as a chelating group for Tc-99m. On the basis of these findings, we focused on developing a Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative that reflected fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium. In this study, we synthesized a dodecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-DA, and a hexadecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-HDA, and performed radiolabeling and biodistribution studies. [(99m)Tc]MAMA-DA and [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA were prepared using a ligand-exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal mice and rats. Then, a high initial uptake of Tc-99m was observed, followed by a rapid clearance from the heart. The maximum heart/blood ratio was 3.6 at 2 min postinjection of [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA. These kinetics were similar to those with postinjection of p-[(125)I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid. Metabolite analysis showed [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA was metabolized by beta-oxidation in the body. In conclusion, [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA is a promising compound as a long chain fatty acid analogue for estimating beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the heart.

  13. Mechanism of long chain monoenoic fatty acids acting on the energy metabolism of heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddecke, E; Filipovic, I; Wortberg, B; Seher, A

    1975-01-01

    The oxidation of 1-/sup 14/C-erucic (Csub(22:1)) and 1-/sup 14/C-nervonic (Csub(24:1)) acid was studied compared to 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic and -oleic acid in isolated rat and pig heart mitochondria. After mitochondrial incubation with the albumin-bound fatty acids only small amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ developed from the oxidation of the long chain monoenoic acids as compared to palmitic or oleic acid. The slow down of the oxidation rate was more pronounced in rat than in pig heart mitochondria. The oxidation of palmitic or oleic acid was not found to be inhibited by the C/sub 20/-C/sub 24/-monoeneic acids, whereas palmitic or oleic acid inhibited the oxidation of erucic acid competitively. From present findings an idea may be developed of the interference on fatty acid metabolism in heart muscle by erucic and other long chain monenoic acids.

  14. CD36 mediates both cellular uptake of very long chain fatty acids and their intestinal absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Victor A; Nguyen, David V; Bastie, Claire C; Darlington, Yolanda F; Abumrad, Nada A; Pessin, Jeffrey E; London, Erwin; Sahoo, Daisy; Phillips, Michael C

    2008-05-09

    The intestine has an extraordinary capacity for fatty acid (FA) absorption. Numerous candidates for a protein-mediated mechanism of dietary FA absorption have been proposed, but firm evidence for this process has remained elusive. Here we show that the scavenger receptor CD36 is required both for the uptake of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs) in cultured cells and the absorption of dietary VLCFAs in mice. We found that the fraction of CD36-dependent saturated fatty acid association/absorption in these model systems is proportional to the FA chain length and specific for fatty acids and fatty alcohols containing very long saturated acyl chains. Moreover, intestinal VLCFA absorption is completely abolished in CD36-null mice fed a high fat diet, illustrating that the predominant mechanism for VLCFA absorption is CD36-dependent. Together, these findings represent the first direct evidence for protein-facilitated FA absorption in the intestine and identify a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases characterized by elevated VLCFA levels.

  15. Determination of long-chain fatty acids in serum by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuevas Paz, Lauro; Camayd Viera, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of long-chain fatty acids is fundamental for the diagnosis of several peroxisome disorders, particularly those in which the β-oxidation peroxisome of fatty acids is affected. In this work the implementation of an analytical method for the determination of these markers in serum by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is described. Besides, samples from patients with a diagnostic impression of adrenoleukodystrophy linked to the X chromosome were analyzed. The necessary experimental conditions were achieved for the separation and quantification of C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acids in serum, which are biochemical markers of various peroxisome diseases. The application of this method allowed confirming the diagnosis of three patients with a diagnostic impression of adrenoleukodystrophy linked to the X chromosome. The application of the method in daily practice will allow the Cuban medical system to count on a new laboratory parameter for the diagnosis of peroxisome disorders

  16. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  17. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Catalina Adarme-Vega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4, but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt.

  18. Metabolism of very long-chain Fatty acids: genes and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, such as ichthyosis, macular degeneration, myopathy, mental retardation, and demyelination, are caused by mutations in the genes encoding VLCFA metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we describe mammalian VLCFAs by highlighting their tissue distribution and metabolic pathways, and we discuss responsible genes and enzymes with reference to their roles in pathophysiology.

  19. Microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured mesh films with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties induced by long-chain fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shutao; Song Yanlin; Jiang Lei

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the lotus effect, we fabricate new microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured copper mesh films by a simple electrochemical deposition. After modification of the long-chain fatty acid monolayer, these films show superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, which could be used for the effective separation of oil and water. The length of the fatty acid chain strongly influences the surface wettability of as-prepared films. It is confirmed that the cooperative effect of the hierarchical structure of the copper film and the nature of the long-chain fatty acid contribute to this unique surface wettability

  20. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  1. Muscle MRI in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van der Pol, W Ludo; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Houten, Sander M; Wijburg, Frits A; Visser, Gepke

    2014-05-01

    Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for visualizing abnormalities in neuromuscular disorders. The value of muscle MRI has not been studied in long-chain fatty acid oxidation (lcFAO) disorders. LcFAO disorders may present with metabolic myopathy including episodic rhabdomyolysis. To investigate whether lcFAO disorders are associated with muscle MRI abnormalities. Lower body MRI was performed in 20 patients with lcFAO disorders, i.e. three carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency (CPT2D), 12 very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), three mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTPD) and two isolated long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). At the time of MRI, four patients had muscle weakness, 14 had muscle pain and 13 were exercise intolerant. Median creatine kinase (CK) level of patients at the day of MRI was 398 U/L (range 35-12,483). T1W and STIR signal intensity (SI) were markedly increased in MTPD patients from girdle to lower leg. VLCADD patients showed predominantly proximal T1W SI changes, whereas LCHADD patients mostly showed distal T1W SI changes. Prominent STIR weighted signal intensity increases of almost all muscle groups were observed in patients with VLCADD and LCHADD with very high CK (>11.000) levels. lcFAO disorders are associated with specific patterns of increased T1W and STIR signal intensity. These patterns may reflect lipid accumulation and inflammation secondary to lcFAO defects and progressive muscle damage. Future studies are needed to investigate whether muscle MRI might be a useful tool to monitor disease course and to study pathogenesis of lcFAO related myopathy.

  2. Metagenomic analysis on thermophilic biogas reactors fed with high load of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura

    In anaerobic digestion systems, the accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) leads to process instability and decrease of the methane production. This detrimental condition is known to be reversible depending on the concentration of the accumulated LCFAs and mainly on the microbial consortium...... due to LCFA increase in the feedstock composition. The result shows that the addition of sodium oleate caused a reversible inhibition of reactor. The correlation between the microbial community’s profile and the reactors performance indicated that Syntrophomonas was the genus most likely involved...... in sodium oleate degradation. Other genera that were found abundant are Pseudomonas, Clostridium XI and Clostridium III. The relative abundance of these genera was not significantly affected by the addition of sodium oleate, and this indicates that they are probably involved in later steps of degradation...

  3. Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACSL) and Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Allan M.; Zhang, Man; Blakeman, Nina; Datta, Palika; Pham, Hung; Young, Lindon H.; Weis, Margaret T.; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various triacsin C analogs, containing different alkenyl chains and carboxylic acid bioisoteres including 4-aminobenzoic acid, isothiazolidine dioxide, hydroxylamine, hydroxytriazene, and oxadiazolidine dione, were synthesized and their inhibitions of long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) were examined. Two methods, a cell-based assay of ACSL activity and an in situ [14C]-palmitate incorporation into extractable lipids were used to study the inhibition. Using an in vivo leukocyte recruitment inhibition protocol, the translocation of one or more cell adhesion molecules from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane on either the endothelium or leukocyte or both was inhibited by inhibitors 1, 9, and triacsin C. The results suggest that inhibition of ACSL may attenuate the vascular inflammatory component associated with ischemia reperfusion injury and lead to a decrease of infarct expansion. PMID:24480468

  4. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M [Labelled Compounds Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of {omega} - (Br) or (I) fatty acids ({omega}) - Br or I-(C H{sub 2}){sub n} Co{sub 2} H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na{sup 13I} for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na{sup 131} I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs.

  5. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of ω - (Br) or (I) fatty acids (ω) - Br or I-(C H 2 ) n Co 2 H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na 13I for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na 131 I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs

  6. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  8. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  9. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  10. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described.

  11. Association between neurotrophin 4 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in mid-trimester amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Kiesha; Passos, Mariana; Jayaram, Aswathi; Harris, Mary; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-11-01

    The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial for fetal brain development. The DHA supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested to enhance neural development. We evaluated whether amniotic fluid DHA and AA concentrations correlated with intra-amniotic neurotrophin levels. Amniotic fluid, obtained at 15 to 19 weeks gestation from 62 women, was tested for BDNF, NGF, NT3, and NT4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of DHA and AA, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, were determined by gas chromatography. Associations were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation test. Median levels of AA and DHA were 2.3% and 1.3% of the total intra-amniotic fatty acids, respectively. Median neurotrophin levels (pg/mL) were 36.7 for NT3, 26.8 for BDNF, 5.2 for NT4, and 0.8 for NGF. Intra-amniotic NT4 and BDNF levels were correlated (P = .0016), while NT3 and NGF levels were unrelated to each other or to BDNF or NT4. Only NT4 was positively correlated with amniotic fluid DHA (P neurotrophin and maternal age, gestational age at time of amniocentesis, amniocentesis indication, parity, or gestational age at delivery. Elevations in intra-amniotic NT4 with increasing levels of DHA and AA suggest that these LCPUFAs may specifically influence the extent of NT4-mediated fetal brain neurogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. APOE e4 and the associations of seafood and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de Ondine; Wang, Yamin; Barnes, Lisa L.; Tangney, Christine; Bennett, David A.; Morris, Martha Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between consumption of seafood and long-chain n-3 fatty acids with change in 5 cognitive domains over an average of 4.9 years. Methods: From an ongoing longitudinal, community-based epidemiologic study of aging and dementia (the Rush Memory and Aging

  13. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF AN ANALYTICAL GC/MS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-depth evaluation of an analytical method to detect and quantify long chain fatty acids (C8 - C16) at trace level concentrations (25-1000 µg/l) is presented. The method requires derivatization of the acids with methanolic boron trifluoride, separation, and...

  14. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and neurological developmental outcome at 18 months in healthy term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, H; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Boehm, G; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ; Hadders-Algra, M

    Aim: Previously, we found a beneficial effect of 2 mo supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on neurological condition at 3 mo in healthy term infants. The aim of the present follow-up study was to evaluate whether the effect on neurological condition

  15. The Impact of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Respiratory Illness in Infants and Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.H.J.; Hooyenga, P.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Scalabrin, D.M.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Birch, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during

  16. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus123

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Manas; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Spiegelman, Donna; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (LCFAs) in the development of T2DM remains unresolved.

  17. Establishment and Characterization of an Anaerobic Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Enrichment Culture Degrading Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    A thermophilic, long-chain fatty acid-oxidizing culture was enriched. Stearate was used as the substrate, and methane and carbon dioxide were the sole end products. Cultivation was possible only when a fed-batch system was used or with addition of activated carbon or bentonite. The enrichment...

  18. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...

  19. Excess portal venous long-chain fatty acids induce syndrome X via HPA axis and sympathetic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, L; Keizer, Klaas-Jan; Wiegman, CH; De Boer, SF; Strubbe, JH; Steffens, AB; Kuipers, F; Scheurink, AJW

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that excessive portal venous supply of long-chain fatty acids to the liver contributes to the development of insulin resistance via activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and sympathetic system. Rats received an intraportal infusion of the

  20. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  1. LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED ω-3 AND ω-6 FATTY ACIDS AS ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present modern data on the issue of rational nutrition of children in different periods of childhood. The most frequent types of disorders are listed; insufficient consumption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is among them. The authors show that this issue is topical not only in Russia, but also in a range of the developed countries. The authors give special attention to classification and biological role of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in the development of nervous and immune systems. The authors demonstrated importance of sufficient consumption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the period of fetal development for antenatal prevention of atopic disease. The authors list methods of recovery from deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids in antenatal and neonatal periods and after the first year of life.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in children, adolescents and adults with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Haege, Gisela; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Schuhmann, Vera; Burgard, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2016-06-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria have been reported to be deficient in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). It has been postulated that good compliance with the dietary regimen negatively influences LCPUFA status. In 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy control subjects LCPUFA-levels in plasma phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were evaluated. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels did not differ significantly between patients and control subjects in plasma and erythrocyte fractions. There was a significant negative correlation between SDS (standard deviation) scores of DHA-levels in erythrocyte parameters from the respective age-matched control group and patients' concurrent and long-term phenylalanine levels for erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine and erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine. Patients with lower (higher) phenylalanine levels had positive (negative) DHA-SDS. In contrast to previous reports we did not find lower LCPUFA-levels in patients with phenylketonuria compared to age-matched healthy control subjects. Good dietary control was associated with better LCPUFA status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize [U- 14 C]acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of [ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test

  4. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  5. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Clinical Outcomes of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Moltu, Sissel J

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play specific roles during the perinatal period and are very important nutrients to consider. The possible effects of LCPUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on various clinical outcomes of preterm infants are discussed in this paper. Since DHA accumulates in the central nervous system during development, a lot of attention has focused on the effects of DHA on neurodevelopment. Experimental studies as well as recent clinical trials show that providing larger amounts of DHA than currently and routinely provided is associated with better neurological outcomes at 18 months to 2 years. This early advantage, however, does not seem to translate into detectable change in visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes or behavior when assessed in childhood. There is growing evidence that, in addition to effects on development, omega-3 LCPUFAs may reduce the incidence or severity of neonatal morbidities by affecting different steps of the immune and anti-inflammatory response. Studies in preterm infants suggest that the omega-3 LCPUFAs may play a significant role by reducing the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and possibly retinopathy of prematurity and sepsis. Overall, evidence is increasing to support the benefits of high-dose DHA for various health outcomes of preterm infants. These findings are of major clinical relevance mainly because infants born preterm are at particularly high risk for a nutritional deficit in omega-3 fatty acids, predisposing to adverse neonatal outcomes. Further studies are warranted to address these issues as well as to more precisely determine the LCPUFA requirement in order to favor the best possible outcomes of preterm infants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Impaired maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is associated with low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. A 'relative', rather than 'absolute' EFA deficiency might explain this finding. A relative EFA deficiency may derive from

  8. Intestinal digestibility of long-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Firkins, J L; St-Pierre, N R; Lock, A L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine the intestinal digestibility of individual long-chain fatty acids (FA) in lactating dairy cows. Available data were collated from 15 publications containing 61 treatments, which reported total and individual FA duodenal flows and calculations of intestinal digestibility. All studies involved lactating dairy cows, and estimates of digestibility were based on measurements either between the duodenum and ileum (18 treatments) or between the duodenum and feces (43 treatments). Fatty acid digestibility was calculated for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 (cis and trans isomers), C18:2, and C18:3. Digestibility of C18:0 was lower than for C18:1 and C18:3, with no difference in digestibility between saturated FA (C16:0 and C18:0). We weighted the studies by the reciprocal of the variance to generate best-fit equations to predict individual FA digestibility based on duodenal flow of FA and dietary independent variables. The flow of C18:0 negatively affected the digestibility of C18:0 and was also included in the best-fit equations for all other 18-carbon FA using duodenal flow characteristics. The type of fat supplemented had an effect on digestibility of individual FA, with whole seeds having reduced digestibility. Our meta-analysis results showed minimal differences in the digestibility of individual FA. However, C18:0 flow through the duodenum had a negative effect on the digestibility of several individual FA, with the largest negative effect on C18:0 digestibility. The mechanisms that reduce C18:0 absorption at high concentrations are unknown and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Gepke; Houten, Sander M

    2014-07-01

    Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Patients with VLCAD deficiency may present with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, and myopathy. Although several mouse models have been developed to aid in the study of the pathogenesis of long-chain FAO defects, the muscular phenotype is underexposed. To address the muscular phenotype, we used a newly developed mouse model on a mixed genetic background with a more severe defect in FAO (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/-)) in addition to a validated mouse model (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+)) and compared them with wild-type (WT) mice. We found that both mouse models show a 20% reduction in energy expenditure (EE) and a 3-fold decrease in locomotor activity in the unfed state. In addition, we found a 1.7°C drop in body temperature in unfed LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+) mice compared with WT body temperature. We conclude that food withdrawal-induced inactivity, hypothermia, and reduction in EE are novel phenotypes associated with FAO deficiency in mice. Unexpectedly, inactivity was not explained by rhabdomyolysis, but rather reflected the overall reduced capacity of these mice to generate heat. We suggest that mice are partly protected against the negative consequence of an FAO defect.-Diekman, E. F., van Weeghel, M., Wanders, R. J. A., Visser, G., Houten, S. M. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models. © FASEB.

  10. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Mendez, Michelle A; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Julvez, Jordi; García-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Ferrer, Muriel; Vrijheid, Martine; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with improved neurodevelopment in children. However, it remains unknown to what extent nutritional advantages of breast milk may explain this relationship. We assessed the role of parental psychosocial factors and colostrum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in the relationship between breastfeeding and children's neurodevelopment. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project. A total of 657 women were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained by using a questionnaire, and trained psychologists assessed mental and psychomotor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 504 children at 14 months of age. A high percentage of breastfeeds among all milk feeds accumulated during the first 14 months was positively related with child mental development (0.37 points per month of full breastfeeding [95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.67]). Maternal education, social class, and intelligence quotient only partly explained this association. Children with a longer duration of breastfeeding also exposed to higher ratios between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in colostrum had significantly higher mental scores than children with low breastfeeding duration exposed to low levels. Greater levels of accumulated breastfeeding during the first year of life were related to higher mental development at 14 months, largely independently from a wide range of parental psychosocial factors. LC-PUFA levels seem to play a beneficial role in children's mental development when breastfeeding levels are high.

  11. Drug discovery opportunities and challenges at G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids (FFAs, FFA1 (GPR40 and GPR120, has expanded our understanding of these nutrients as signalling molecules. These receptors have emerged as important sensors for FFA levels in the circulation or the gut lumen, based on evidence from in vitro and rodent models, and an increasing number of human studies. Here we consider their promise as therapeutic targets for metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. FFA1 directly mediates acute FFA-induced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells, while GPR120 and FFA1 trigger release of incretins from intestinal endocrine cells, and so indirectly enhance insulin secretion and promote satiety. GPR120 signalling in adipocytes and macrophages also results in insulin sensitizing and beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Drug discovery has focussed on agonists to replicate acute benefits of FFA receptor signalling, with promising early results for FFA1 agonists in man. Controversy surrounding chronic effects of FFA1 on beta-cells illustrates that long term benefits of antagonists also need exploring. It has proved challenging to generate highly selective potent ligands for FFA1 or GPR120 subtypes, given that both receptors have hydrophobic orthosteric binding sites, which are not completely defined and have modest ligand affinity. Structure activity relationships are also reliant on functional read outs, in the absence of robust binding assays to provide direct affinity estimates. Nevertheless synthetic ligands have already helped dissect specific contributions of FFA1 and GPR120 signalling from the many possible cellular effects of FFAs. Approaches including use of fluorescent ligand binding assays, and targeting allosteric receptor sites, may improve further preclinical ligand development at these receptors, to exploit their unique potential to target multiple facets of diabetes.

  12. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  13. Obesity interferes with the orosensory detection of long-chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, Michael; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Ancel, Déborah; Bernard, Arnaud; Enderli, Géraldine; Gomes, Marlène; Robin, Isabelle; Issanchou, Sylvie; Vergès, Bruno; Nicklaus, Sophie; Besnard, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The association between the orosensory detection of lipids, preference for fatty foods, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is controversial in humans. We explored the oral lipid-sensing system and the orosensory-induced autonomic reflex system in lean and obese subjects. Lean (BMI: 19 to obese (BMI >30; n = 29) age-matched men were enrolled. Their oral threshold sensitivity to linoleic acid (LA) was determined by using a 3-alternative forced-choice ascending procedure, and their eating habits were established by the analysis of 4 consecutive 24-h food-consumption diaries. The effect of brief oral lipid stimulations on plasma triglyceride [(TG)pl] concentrations was analyzed in overnight-fasted lean and obese individuals subjected to a whole-mouth stimulation (sip-and-spit procedure) with a control or 1% LA emulsions for 5 min according to a within-subject randomized design. A large distribution of LA detection was shown in both groups. Mean detection thresholds were 0.053% (wt:wt) and 0.071% (wt:wt) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. No relation between the LA detection threshold and BMI was observed. The 5 subjects who detected only the higher concentration of LA (5% wt:wt) or were unable to distinguish properly between control and LA emulsions were obese. An analysis of dietary habits showed that these obese LA nontasters consumed more lipids and energy than did all other subjects. Brief whole-mouth stimulations (sip-and-spit procedure) with a control or 1% LA emulsion revealed an LA-mediated rise in (TG)pl concentrations in overnight-fasted, lean subjects. The origin of this change seemed to be hepatic. This (TG)pl upregulation was not shown in obese subjects, which suggested that obesity led to disturbances in the oral-brainstem-periphery loop. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that obesity may interfere with the orosensory system responsible for the detection of free long-chain fatty acids in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  14. Hypothalamic GPR40 Signaling Activated by Free Long Chain Fatty Acids Suppresses CFA-Induced Inflammatory Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently inc...

  15. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitshnyi, V; Rainey, F; Wiegel, J

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-265T; DSM 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth determined at 25 degrees C [pH25 degrees C] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH60 degrees C of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH25 degrees C of 8.5 the temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum between 60 and 66 degrees C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture could not utilize olive oil, triacylglycerols, short- and long-chain fatty acids, and glycerol for growth. In syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  16. [Overexpression of four fatty acid synthase genes elevated the efficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Wang, Kunfu; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Didi; Ge, Tangdong; Sun, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Three long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body. They are important in developing and maintaining the brain function, and in preventing and treating many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer. Although mammals can biosynthesize these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency is very low and dietary intake is needed to meet the requirement. In this study, a multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian A6/A5 fatty acid desaturases and multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases coding genes was used to transfect HEK293T cells, then the overexpression of the target genes was detected. GC-MS analysis shows that the biosynthesis efficiency and level of DHA, EPA and ARA were significantly increased in cells transfected with the multiple-genes expression vector. Particularly, DHA level in these cells was 2.5 times higher than in the control cells. This study indicates mammal possess a certain mechanism for suppression of high level of biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases broke this suppression mechanism so that the level of DHA, EPA and ARA was significantly increased. This study also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene construct in transgenic animal to produce high level of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  17. Probe-Dependent Negative Allosteric Modulators of the Long-Chain Free Fatty Acid Receptor FFA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watterson, Kenneth R; Hansen, Steffen V F; Hudson, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    High-affinity and selective antagonists that are able to block the actions of both endogenous and synthetic agonists of G protein-coupled receptors are integral to analysis of receptor function and to support suggestions of therapeutic potential. Although there is great interest in the potential...... of endogenous and synthetic agonists, clear agonist probe dependence in the nature of allosteric modulation was apparent. Although AH-7614 did not antagonize the second long-chain free fatty acid receptor, free fatty acid receptor 1, the simple chemical structure of AH-7614 containing features found in many...

  18. Thirteen-year prospective study between fish consumption, long-chain n-3 fatty acids intakes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, E; Péneau, S; Ferry, M; Jeandel, C; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

    2011-02-01

    Because of their structural, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic properties, long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be key factors in the aging process. We sought to elucidate the association between intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and/or fish and cognitive function evaluated 13 years after dietary assessment. Prospective population-based study. 3,294 adults from the SU.VI.MAX study (Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals study). MEASUREMENTS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent a standardized clinical examination which included cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive difficulties scale (2007-2009). Poor scores were defined using percentiles as cut-off. Dietary data were assessed through repeated 24-h dietary records. Odd ratio (OR), comparing the fourth (Q4) to the first quartile (Q1), of having a poor score were calculated using adjusted logistic regression. Self-reported cognitive difficulties were less frequent among subjects with higher intakes of total n-3 long chain fatty acids (OR = 0.72, CI 95%=0.56-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.74, CI 95%=0.58-0.95), even after adjustment for depressive symptoms. A borderline significant association was also found with high fish consumption (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.80, CI 95%=0.63-1.01). Cognitive complaints, which may be an early indicator of cognitive decline, are less frequent among the elderly who have a high long-chain n-3 acids intake, as assessed 13 years earlier.

  19. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Disruption of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue to the murine fatty acid transport protein impairs uptake and growth on long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C; Elberger, A

    1997-01-01

    decrease in the uptake of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue boron dipyrromethene difluoride dodecanoic acid (BODIPY-3823); 3) a reduced rate of exogenous oleate incorporation into phospholipids; and 4) a 2-3-fold decrease in the rates of oleate uptake. These data support the hypothesis...

  1. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  3. Single-Step Access to Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Isomerizing Hydroxycarbonylation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldbach, Verena

    2016-11-09

    Dicarboxylic acids are compounds of high value, but to date long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids have been difficult to access in a direct way. Unsaturated fatty acids are ideal starting materials with their molecular structure of long methylene sequences and a carboxylate functionality, in addition to a double bond that offers itself for functionalization. Within this paper, we established a direct access to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids by combining isomerization and selective terminal carbonylation of the internal double bond with water as a nucleophile on unsaturated fatty acids. We identified the key elements of this reaction: a homogeneous reaction mixture ensuring sufficient contact between all reactants and a catalyst system allowing for activation of the Pd precursor under aqueous conditions. Experiments under pressure reactor conditions with [(dtbpx)Pd(OTf)(2)] as catalyst precursor revealed the importance of nucleophile and reactant concentrations and the addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand (dtbpxH(2))(OTf)(2) to achieve turnover numbers >120. A variety of unsaturated fatty acids, including a triglyceride, were converted to valuable long-chain dicarboxylic acids with high turnover numbers and selectivities for the linear product of >90%. We unraveled the activation pathway of the Pd-II precursor, which proceeds via a reductive elimination step forming a Pd species and oxidative addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand, resulting in the formation of the catalytically active Pd hydride species. Theoretical calculations identified the hydrolysis as the rate-determining step. A low nucleophile concentration in the reaction mixture in combination with this high energetic barrier limits the potential of this reaction. In conclusion, water can be utilized as a nucleophile in isomerizing functionalization reactions and gives access to long-chain dicarboxylic acids from a variety of unsaturated substrates. The activity of the catalytic

  4. Cryochromatography: a method for the separation of phosphoglycerides according to the number and length of saturated fatty acid components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Clayton, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    A thin layer chromatographic method utilizing ultracold temperatures has been developed to separate phosphoglycerides containing only long-chain saturated fatty acids from phosphoglycerides containing fatty acids with any degree of unsaturation. The method is direct, nondiluting, and nondestructive. Since the surfactant lipids found in lung contain only long-chain, saturated fatty acids, the method should be particularly useful to those in lung lipid research. Studies on the uptake of labeled precursors into the lung surfactant lipids as well as work on quantitation of surfactant lecithins in the lung can be facilitated by this method. (U.S.)

  5. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  6. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  7. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  8. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  9. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  10. The Role of GPR84 in Medium-chain Saturated Fatty Acid Taste Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown the gustatory recognition of the long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, I showed for the first time that medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs) are effective taste stimuli at both the cellular and behavioral levels. The mechanisms of gustatory recognition of MCFAs in mice were also partially elucidated using pharmaceutical approaches. The inward currents induced by capric acid in mouse taste cells were significantly inhibited by the antagonists of G...

  11. Visual functions in phenylketonuria-evaluating the dopamine and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Förl, Birgit; Springer, Christina; Weimer, Petra; Haege, Gisela; Mackensen, Friederike; Müller, Edith; Völcker, Hans Eberhard; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Lindner, Martin; Krastel, Hermann; Burgard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In phenylketonuria presymptomatic treatment following newborn screening prevents severe mental and physical impairment. The reasons for subtle impairments of cerebral functions despite early treatment remain unclear. We assessed a broad spectrum of visual functions in early-treated patients with phenylketonuria and evaluated two hypotheses-the dopamine and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) depletion hypotheses. Contrast sensitivity, colour vision, electroretinography, frequency doubling technology campimetry (FDT), and their relation with blood phenylalanine and docosahexaenoic acid levels were assessed in 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Contrast sensitivity was significantly lower and total error scores in colour vision significantly higher in patients than controls. Electroretinography results differed significantly between patients and controls. We found a trend for the effect of phenylalanine-levels on contrast sensitivity and a significant effect on colour vision/FDT results. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in erythrocytes were not associated with visual functions. This is the first evaluation of visual functions in phenylketonuria using a comprehensive ophthalmological test battery. We found no evidence supporting the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypothesis. However, the effect of phenylalanine-levels on visual functions suggests that imbalance between phenylalanine and tyrosine may affect retinal dopamine levels in phenylketonuria. This is supported by the similar patterns of visual functions in patients with phenylketonuria observed in our study and patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of anaerobic degradation of solid slaughterhouse waste: inhibition effects of long-chain fatty acids or ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshina, L Y; Vavilin, V A; Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of solid poultry slaughterhouse wastes was kinetically investigated. The modified version of simulation model was applied for description of experimental data in mesophilic laboratory digester and assays. Additionally, stages of formation and consumption of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were included in the model. Batch data on volatile solids, ammonium, acetate, butyrate, propionate, LCFA concentrations, pH level, cumulative volume, and methane partial pressure were used for model calibration. As a reference, the model was used to describe digestion of solid sorted household waste. Simulation results showed that an inhibition of polymer hydrolysis by volatile fatty acids and acetogenesis by NH3 or LCFA could be responsible for the complex system dynamics during degradation of lipid- and protein-rich wastes.

  13. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Scafidi, Susanna; Riddle, Ryan C; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2017-07-18

    The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2 L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2 L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD, we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L−/− mice. Paradoxically, Cpt2L−/− mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

  15. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli.

  16. A critical role for very long-chain fatty acid elongases in oleic acid-mediated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Du, Xiuxiu; Ma, Ke; Shi, Ping; Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Jing; Peng, Min; Huang, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Elongases FEN1/ELO2 and SUR4/ELO3 are important enzymes involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanism of the involvement of these elongases in lipotoxicity is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of VLCFA elongases in oleic acid-mediated yeast cytotoxicity. The spot test showed that yeast strains with the deletion of ELO2 or ELO3 were strikingly sensitive to oleic acid, while there was no change on the growth of strain with deleted ELO1 which was involved in the elongation of C 14 fatty acid (FA) to C 16 FA. By using GC-MS, the unsaturation index was increased in elo2△ and elo3△ mutants after treatment with oleic acid (OLA). However, the proportion of VLCFAs was increased in response to OLA in the wild-type strain. The growth inhibition of elo2△ and elo3△ could be partially rescued by two commonly used antioxidant agents N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Ascorbic acid (VC). The further study showed that exposure to excess OLA led to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and a decline in the quantity of reduced glutathione (GSH) in both the wild type and mutant strains. However, the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased in the wild type and elo1△ strains, while they were significantly decreased in the mutants of elo2△ and elo3△ after treated with excess OLA. Thus, oxidative damage mainly contributed to the cell death induced by OLA in ole2△ and ole3△. Taken together, although disruption of ELO2 or ELO3 did not affect the cellular lipid unsaturation, they altered the distribution and propotion of cellular VLCFAs, leading to the cell membrane impairment, which augmented the ability of OLA to permeabilize the plasma membrane. The data suggest that the very long-chain fatty acids elongases ELO2 and ELO3

  17. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 of Mortierella alpina with specificity on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A potential tool for reconstituting lipids with nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Veerana, Mayura; Anantayanon, Jutamas; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-12-10

    Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation. Substrate specificity study of the fungal enzyme by fatty acid supplementation in the transformant cultures showed that it had a broad specificity on saturated and unsaturated fatty acid substrates for esterification into triacylglycerol (TAG). The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with 18 and 20 carbon atoms, including linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, dihomo γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid could be incorporated into TAG fraction in the yeast cells. Interestingly, among n-3 PUFAs tested, the MaDGAT2 enzyme preferred eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) substrate as its highly proportional constituent found in TAG fraction. This study provides a potential genetic tool for reconstituting oils rich in long-chain PUFAs with nutritional value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  19. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  20. Metabolic and endocrine effects of long-chain versus essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M Luisa; Almario, Rogelio U; Buchan, Wendy; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the effects of essential vs long-chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in polycystic ovary syndrome. In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil)-controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA per day (essential PUFA from flaxseed oil or long-chain PUFA from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (IVGTT) were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks. Between-group comparisons showed significant differences in serum triglyceride response (P = .0368), whereas the changes in disposition index also tended to differ (P = .0621). When within-group changes (after vs before intervention) were considered, fish oil and flaxseed oil lowered serum triglyceride (P = .0154 and P = .0176, respectively). Fish oil increased glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (P = .0355), decreased the Matsuda index (P = .0378), and tended to decrease acute insulin response during IVGTT (P = .0871). Soybean oil increased glucose at 30 (P = .0030) and 60 minutes (P = .0121) and AUC for glucose (P = .0122) during OGTT, tended to decrease acute insulin response during IVGTT (P = .0848), reduced testosterone (P = .0216), and tended to reduce sex hormone-binding globulin (P = .0858). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not change with any intervention. Long-chain vs essential n-3 PUFA-rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in polycystic ovary syndrome; and therefore, they should not be used interchangeably. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Metabolic and Endocrine Effects of Long Chain vs. Essential Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M. Luisa; Almario, Rogelio U.; Buchan, Wendy; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of essential vs. long chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials/Methods In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil) controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA/day (essential from flaxseed oil or long chain from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FSIVGTT) were conducted at the baseline and 6 wks. Results Between group comparisons showed significant differences in serum triglyceride response (p = 0.0368), while the changes in disposition index (DI) also tended to differ (p = 0.0621). When within group changes (after vs. before intervention) were considered, fish oil and flaxseed oil lowered serum triglyceride (p = 0.0154 and p = 0.0176, respectively). Fish oil increased glucose at 120 min of OGTT (p = 0.0355); decreased Matsuda index (p= 0.0378); and tended to decrease early insulin response during IVGTT (AIRg; p = 0.0871). Soybean oil increased glucose at 30 min (p = 0.0030) and 60 min (p = 0.0121) and AUC for glucose (p = 0.0122) during OGTT; tended to decrease AIRg during IVGTT (p= 0.0848); reduced testosterone (p = 0.0216) and tended to reduce SHBG (p = 0.0858). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin or hs-CRP did not change with any intervention. Conclusions Long chain vs. essential n-3 PUFA rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in PCOS, and therefore they should not be used inter-changeably. PMID:21640360

  2. Molecular characterization of elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (elovl6) genes in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and their potential roles in adaptation to cold temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Cui, Yun; Yan, Jie; Jiang, Jimin; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2018-08-05

    Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined. We also functionally characterized the three elovl6 isoforms using heterologous expression in baker's yeast. Results obtained here showed the three elovl6 proteins in loach can elongate C16:0 and C16:1 to C18:0 and C18:1, respectively. At last, to confirm the role of three loach elovl6 isoforms for elongation of fatty acids in adaption to cold stress, differences in skin histological structures, body fatty acid compositions, expressions of four hepatic lipogenesis or lipolysis related genes, and expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms and their related gene uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in different tissues were investigated in the loach reared in two different water temperatures (28 °C and 4 °C) for ten days. Cold stress increased ratios of C18/C16 and C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 in loach body, and induced expressions of hepatic acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase 1 (scd1), sterol-regulator element-binding protein 1 (srebp1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and fatty acid synthase (fas). Meanwhile, significant differences were found in expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms in different tissues between 28 °C and 4 °C groups. Overall, this study suggests that the three elovl6 isoforms in loach have ability to elongate C16 to C18, and elovl6 proteins in loach may play a role in adaptation to cold stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  4. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury.

  5. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Expression of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gonadotropes of the mouse anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Ryutaro; Deura, Chikaya; Imoto, Shingo; Nose, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been known to be a receptor of long-chain fatty acids. Here, we investigated GPR120 expression in the mouse pituitary gland via real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GPR120 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of ad-lib fed animals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed GPR120 expression in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland, but not in thyrotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, melanotropes, and the posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, 24 h of fasting induced an increase in GPR120 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. These results demonstrate that GPR120 in mouse pituitary gonadotropes is upregulated by fasting and that it may play a role in controlling gonadotropin secretion.

  7. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated...... with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...

  8. Self-assembly of long chain fatty acids: Effect of a methyl branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F. D.; Tyrode, Eric; Thormann, Esben

    2014-01-01

    chains of the straight chain fatty acids appear to be oriented perpendicular to the sample surface, based on an orientational analysis of VSFS data and the odd/even effect. In addition, the selection of the subphase (neat water or CdCl2 containing water buffered to pH 6.0) used for the LB-deposition has...

  9. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  10. Characterising pharmacological ligands to study the long chain fatty acid receptors GPR40/FFA1 and GPR120/FFA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, G; Alvarez-Curto, E; Watterson, K R

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors FFA1 (previously designated GPR40) and FFA4 (previously GPR120) are both activated by saturated and unsaturated longer-chain free fatty acids. With expression patterns and functions anticipated to directly or indirectly promote insulin secretion, provide homeostati...

  11. Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kamath

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR and lean insulin sensitive (IS baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver and peripheral (mainly muscle insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA was greater than saturated (LC-SFA fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.

  12. Mixtures of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Long-chain Fatty Acids as Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, F. C.; Eisman, P. C.; Sylwestrowicz, H. D.; Mayer, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    The influence of undecylenic acid on the fungistatic effect of phenoxyethyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide (Domiphen bromide) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was investigated. The unsaturated fatty acid was found to enhance the fungistatic activity of Domiphen bromide against this organism. The ratio of concentrations of these agents has a marked influence on the results of in vitro tests for antifungal action resulting in a completely different effect than heretofore noted in combination experiments against bacteria. The enhancing phenomenon is not particular to T. mentagrophytes, it was observed also with Candida albicans. PMID:14460466

  13. Radioiodinated 5-iodothienyl-2-substituted long chain fatty acids for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kirsch, G.; Owen, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thienyl-2-alkyl derivatives undergo facile iodination regiospecifically at the 5-position of the thiophene ring and are alternatives to iodophenyl agents. /sup 125/I-labeled 2-(17-oxoheptadecanoly)-5-iodothiophene (VIIIa) and /sup 125/I-labeled 2-(13-oxotridecanoyl)-5-iodothiophene (VIIIb) were prepared as model agents. The substrate was 2-(17-oxoheptadecanoyl)thiophene (VIa), in which the thiophene ring was attached to the terminal position of heptadecanoic acid. (VIa) was prepared by Friedel-Crafts condensation of 16-iodohexadecanoyl chloride, with thiophene followed by -I + CN/sup -/ → -CN; Wolff-Kishner reduction; -CN + OH/sup -/ → -COOH (VI). Regiospecific rho-[bis-(trifluoroacety 1)] thallation of (VIa), followed by treatment with KI gave 2-(17-oxoheptadecanoyl)-5-iodothiophene (VIIIa). Compound VIIIb was prepared in the same manner. Compounds Ia, b-VIIIa,b, were analyzed by TLC, IR, MS, NMR, and CandH. I-125-labeled (VIIIa) and (VIIIb) were prepared in the same manner. I-125 (VIIIb) showed high myocardial uptake in rats (4/group). Iodothienyl fatty acids may represent alternatives to iodophenyl substituted fatty acids for myocardial imaging

  14. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PHOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  15. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P ... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P

  16. A critical assessment of transmethylation procedures for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid quantification of lipid classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Anthony; Couëdelo, Leslie; Fonseca, Laurence; Vaysse, Carole; Cansell, Maud

    2018-06-15

    Lipid transmethylation methods described in the literature are not always evaluated with care so to insure that the methods are effective, especially on food matrix or biological samples containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The aim of the present study was to select a method suitable for all lipid species rich in long chain n-3 PUFA. Three published methods were adapted and applied on individual lipid classes. Lipid (trans)methylation efficiency was characterized in terms of reaction yield and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The acid-catalyzed method was unable to convert triglycerides and sterol esters, while the method using an incubation at a moderate temperature was ineffective on phospholipids and sterol esters. On the whole only the method using sodium methoxide and sulfuric acid was effective on lipid classes taken individually or in a complex medium. This study highlighted the use of an appropriate (trans)methylation method for insuring an accurate fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Homozygous Expression of Mutant ELOVL4 Leads to Seizures and Death in a Novel Animal Model of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopiavuori, Blake R; Deák, Ferenc; Wilkerson, Joseph L; Brush, Richard S; Rocha-Hopiavuori, Nicole A; Hopiavuori, Austin R; Ozan, Kathryn G; Sullivan, Michael T; Wren, Jonathan D; Georgescu, Constantin; Szweda, Luke; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Towner, Rheal; Sherry, David M; Anderson, Robert E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2018-02-01

    Lipids are essential components of the nervous system. However, the functions of very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FA; ≥ 28 carbons) in the brain are unknown. The enzyme ELOngation of Very Long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of VLC-FA (Agbaga et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 12843-12848, 2008; Logan et al., J Lipid Res 55(4): 698-708, 2014), which we identified in the brain as saturated fatty acids (VLC-SFA). Homozygous mutations in ELOVL4 cause severe neuropathology in humans (Ozaki et al., JAMA Neurol 72(7): 797-805, 2015; Mir et al., BMC Med Genet 15: 25, 2014; Cadieux-Dion et al., JAMA Neurol 71(4): 470-475, 2014; Bourassa et al., JAMA Neurol 72(8): 942-943, 2015; Aldahmesh et al., Am J Hum Genet 89(6): 745-750, 2011) and are post-natal lethal in mice (Cameron et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 111-119, 2007; Li et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 120-128, 2007; McMahon et al., Molecular Vision 13: 258-272, 2007; Vasireddy et al., Hum Mol Genet 16(5): 471-482, 2007) from dehydration due to loss of VLC-SFA that comprise the skin permeability barrier. Double transgenic mice with homozygous knock-in of the Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STDG3; 797-801_AACTT) mutation of Elovl4 with skin-specific rescue of wild-type Elovl4 expression (S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice) develop seizures by P19 and die by P21. Electrophysiological analyses of hippocampal slices showed aberrant epileptogenic activity in S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice. FM1-43 dye release studies showed that synapses made by cultured hippocampal neurons from S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice exhibited accelerated synaptic release kinetics. Supplementation of VLC-SFA to cultured hippocampal neurons from mutant mice rescued defective synaptic release to wild-type rates. Together, these studies establish a critical, novel role for ELOVL4 and its VLC-SFA products in regulating synaptic release kinetics and epileptogenesis. Future studies aimed at understanding the molecular

  18. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  19. Development of low birthweight infants at 19 months of age correlates with early intake and status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Okken-Beukens, M; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of early nutrition with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) on later development of less than or equal to 2500 g newborns receiving preterm formula without LCP (n=75), preterm formula with 18:3 omega 6 and LCP omega 3 (at two doses; n=26) or their

  20. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  1. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of long chain free fatty acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DW...

  2. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may mutually benefit both obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Kim, Youjin; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2013-07-01

    The overconsumption of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), resulting in a high ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA, may contribute to the increased pathogenesis of obesity and osteoporosis by promoting low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). As evidence suggests, both obesity and osteoporosis are linked on a cellular and systemic basis. This review will analyze if a relationship exists between LGCI, fat, bone, and n-3 PUFA. During the life cycle, inflammation increases, fat mass accumulates, and bone mass declines, thus suggesting that a connection exists. This review will begin by examining how the current American diet and dietary guidelines may fall short of providing an anti-inflammatory dose of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It will then define LGCI and outline the evidence for a relationship between fat and bone. Inflammation as it pertains to obesity and osteoporosis and how EPA and DHA can alleviate the associated inflammation will be discussed, followed by some preliminary evidence to show how mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage commitment may be altered by inflammation to favor adipogenesis. Our hypothesis is that n-3 PUFA positively influence obesity and osteoporosis by reducing LGCI, ultimately leading to a beneficial shift in MSC lineage commitment. This hypothesis essentially relates the need for more focused research in several areas such as determining age and lifestyle factors that promote the shift in MSC commitment and if current intakes of EPA and DHA are optimal for fat and bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Nakamoto

    Full Text Available GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg and GW9508 (1.0 µg, a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg, a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of β-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long

  5. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg) and GW9508 (1.0 µg), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of β-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty

  6. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  7. Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Mercury, and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Men: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Laukkanen, Jari A.; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. Methods A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984–1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. Results During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend  = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93), whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction  = 0.01). Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. Conclusion High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD. PMID:22815906

  8. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  9. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kolahi

    Full Text Available While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5 and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3. We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

  10. Long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder impairs male fertility: a study using adipose triglyceride lipase deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hidetake; Kim, Namhyo; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Kamata, Eriko; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long-chain triglyceride (TG) diet. ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid TG to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown. To investigate the effect of deletion of Atgl gene on male fertility, cauda epididymides and testes were collected from wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous Atgl-deficient mice at 10 weeks of age and epididymal sperm analysis and histological analysis of the testes were performed. To investigate whether a medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) replacement diet mitigated the impaired male fertility by deletion of Atgl gene, homozygous Atgl-deficient mice were fed a MCT replacement diet, or a standard diet including long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) in a control group, for 6 weeks from 5 weeks of age (n = 22). The systematic and local effects of the MCT replacement diet on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the epididymis were analyzed at 10 weeks of age. Hematoxylin and eosin staining in paraffin-embedded sections of testes and Oil Red O staining in frozen sections of testes were performed. The epididymal sperm concentrations were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test with Shapiro-Wilk Normality test. Although heterozygous mice were fertile and showed a similar number of epididymal total and motile sperm concentrations to wild-type mice, the deletion of Atgl gene in homozygous mice led to accumulation of TG deposits in testes and impaired spermatogenesis. The deletion of Atgl gene also impaired the sperm maturation process required for sperm to acquire the ability to move forward in the epididymis. The MCT replacement diet for 6 weeks increased the plasma level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1

  11. Achieving definitive results in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation trials of term infants: factors for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Smith, Michael A; Prescott, Susan L; Hird, Kathryn; Simmer, Karen

    2011-04-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken to determine whether supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in infancy would improve the developmental outcomes of term infants. The results of such trials have been thoroughly reviewed with no definitive conclusion as to the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation. A number of reasons for the lack of conclusive findings in this area have been proposed. This review examines such factors with the aim of determining whether an optimal method of investigation for RCTs of LCPUFA supplementation in term infants can be ascertained from previous research. While more research is required to completely inform a method that is likely to achieve definitive results, the findings of this literature review indicate future trials should investigate the effects of sex, genetic polymorphisms, the specific effects of LCPUFAs, and the optimal tests for neurodevelopmental assessment. The current literature indicates a docosahexaenoic acid dose of 0.32%, supplementation from birth to 12 months, and a total sample size of at least 286 (143 per group) should be included in the methodology of future trials. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Structural and solubility parameter correlations of gelation abilities for dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain, naturally occurring fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Zhang, Xinran; Sibi, Mukund P; Weiss, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Creating structure-property correlations at different distance scales is one of the important challenges to the rational design of molecular gelators. Here, a series of dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain fatty acids, derived from three naturally occurring molecules-oleic, erucic and ricinoleic acids-are investigated as gelators of a wide variety of liquids. Conclusions about what constitutes a more (or less!) efficient gelator are based upon analyses of a variety of thermal, structural, molecular modeling, and rheological results. Correlations between the manner of molecular packing in the neat solid or gel states of the gelators and Hansen solubility data from the liquids leads to the conclusion that diol stereochemistry, the number of carbon atoms separating the two hydroxyl groups, and the length of the alkanoic chains are the most important structural parameters controlling efficiency of gel formation for these gelators. Some of the diol gelators are as efficient or even more efficient than the well-known, excellent gelator, (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid; others are much worse. The ability to form extensive intermolecular H-bonding networks along the alkyl chains appears to play a key role in promoting fiber growth and, thus, gelation. In toto, the results demonstrate how the efficiency of gelation can be modulated by very small structural changes and also suggest how other structural modifications may be exploited to create efficient gelators. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  14. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  15. Predictors of Australian consumers' intentions to consume conventional and novel sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Evans, G; Lease, H J

    2008-01-01

    To elicit predictors of variation in likelihood to purchase foods rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Responses from a community sample (n = 220) were elicited using a computer-administered questionnaire based on an adaptation of Protection Motivation Theory including measures of perceived risk and vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD). Other measures included health status, body mass index (BMI), perceived risk/benefits of novel technologies and sociodemographics. Descriptions of model products were presented, including farmed fish fed fishmeal (FFFF); farmed fish fed genetically modified (GM) oilseed (FFFGM); bread, milk and supplements containing fish oil (SFO) or GM oilseed. It was hypothesised that perceived vulnerability to CHD would enhance acceptance of GM products (H1). Furthermore, information describing the benefits of LCO3FA, limitations to fish supply and potential alternatives was given to a treatment group (50%) and hypothesised to have a positive effect on the acceptance of GM products (H2). No evidence was found to support H1 or H2. FFFF was most likely to be purchased (P consume) was the most important predictor of likelihood to purchase all products.

  16. Glucose Regulates Hypothalamic Long-chain Fatty Acid Metabolism via AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK) in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance. PMID:24240094

  17. Glucose regulates hypothalamic long-chain fatty acid metabolism via AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-12-27

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance.

  18. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    of long-chain n-3 FA to arachidonic acid (the (3/6) ratio) was used as the most relevant single measure of exposure. In 18 women with certain gestational age and with spontaneous onset of delivery, gestational age was significantly associated with the (3/6) ratio quantified in PC (correlation coefficient......Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) may prolong gestation by inhibiting formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. FA were quantified in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and total lipids (TL) of red cells sampled during pregnancy from 29 Faroese women. The ratio...

  19. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Seifert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate.Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition. Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 microM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates and 9 microM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria.This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules linking muscle fat metabolism and insulin signaling. Our results suggest that

  20. Macular xanthophylls and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christin; Winter, Lisa; Fröhlich, Kati; Jentsch, Susanne; Dawczynski, Jens; Jahreis, Gerhard; Böhm, Volker

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that the functionality of the macula lutea depends on the nutritional uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin and that it is inversely associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may also be protective. To investigate the effect of a 12-month intervention with macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs on xanthophylls and fatty acids in plasma, antioxidant capacity, and optical density of the macular pigment of patients with nonexudative AMD. The LUTEGA study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial that was conducted for 12 months. University Eye Hospital and Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. A total of 172 individuals with nonexudative AMD. Individuals were enrolled and randomly divided as follows: placebo group, group 1 (a capsule containing 10 mg of lutein, 1 mg of zeaxanthin, 100 mg of docosahexaenoic acid, and 30 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid administered each day), and group 2 (same substances but twice the dose used in group 1). One hundred forty-five participants completed the study successfully. Plasma xanthophyll concentrations and fatty acid profiles, optical density of the macular pigment, and antioxidant capacity in plasma (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [Trolox] equivalent antioxidant capacity and photochemiluminescence). The concentrations of the administered carotenoids in plasma as well as the optical density of the macular pigment increased significantly in the groups randomized to receive supplementary macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs after 1 month of intervention and remained at this level through the end of the study. Use of the double dose resulted in a beneficial alteration of the fatty acid profile in the plasma of patients with AMD in comparison with the dose in group 1. The lipophilic antioxidant capacity in plasma was significantly elevated

  1. Complete deficiency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein due to a novel mutation within the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene leads to failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation with fatal outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, Karl Otfried; Ensenauer, Regina; Matern, Dietrich; Uyanik, Gökhan; Schnieders, Birgit; Wanders, Ronald A.; Lehnert, Willy

    2003-01-01

    The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a multienzyme complex which catalyses three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Clinically, failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to hypoketotic hypoglycaemia associated with coma,

  2. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  3. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  4. The ABC transporter Rv1272c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances the import of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Daniel, Jaiyanth

    2018-02-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which causes tuberculosis, is capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG) by utilizing fatty acids from host cells. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in transport processes in all organisms. Among the classical ABC transporters in Mtb none have been implicated in fatty acid import. Since the transport of fatty acids from the host cell is important for dormancy-associated TAG synthesis in the pathogen, mycobacterial ABC transporter(s) could potentially be involved in this process. Based on sequence identities with a bacterial ABC transporter that mediates fatty acid import for TAG synthesis, we identified Rv1272c, a hitherto uncharacterized ABC-transporter in Mtb that also shows sequence identities with a plant ABC transporter involved in fatty acid transport. We expressed Rv1272c in E. coli and show that it enhances the import of radiolabeled fatty acids. We also show that Rv1272c causes a significant increase in the metabolic incorporation of radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids into cardiolipin, a tetra-acylated phospholipid, and phosphatidylglycerol in E. coli. This is the first report on the function of Rv1272c showing that it displays a long-chain fatty acid transport function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane Restructuring Events during the Enzymatic Generation of Ceramides with Very Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, Daniel A; Antollini, Silvia S; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Aveldaño, Marta I; Fanani, María L

    2018-04-10

    In rat sperm heads, sphingomyelin (SM) species that contain very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (V-SM) become ceramides (V-Cer) after inducing in vitro the acrosomal reaction. The reason for such a specific location of this conversion, catalyzed by a sphingomyelinase (SMase), has received little investigation so far. Here, the effects of SMase were compared in unilamellar vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)) containing phosphatidylcholine, and either V-SM or a palmitate-rich SM (P-SM). In uniformly sized LUVs at 37 °C, more V-Cer was generated and more rapidly than P-Cer. Nephelometry and dynamic light scattering showed that LUVs tended to form large lipid particles more intensely, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) increases suggested that lateral lipid mixing was more marked when V-Cer rather than P-Cer was produced. As reported by 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminopnaphthalene (Laurdan) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5,-hexatriene (DPH), the production of V-Cer resulted in higher and faster restriction in lipid mobility than that of P-Cer, implying a stronger increase in membrane dehydration and microviscosity. Moreover, DPH anisotropy suggested a higher solubility of V-Cer than that of P-Cer in the liquid-disordered phase. At room temperature, liquid-condensed lateral domains appeared in P-SM- but not in V-SM-containing GUVs. The former maintained their size while losing their contents gradually during SMase action, whereas the latter became permeable earlier and reduced their size in few minutes until suddenly collapsing. The fast and potent generation of V-Cer may contribute to the membrane restructuring events that occur on the acrosome-reacted sperm head.

  6. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Hamilton

    Full Text Available The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO, supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1 on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in

  7. Potential therapeutic impact of omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation markers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A double-blind, controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana Del Rocío; Almeida-Becerril, Tomás; Solís-Serna, Alan Donovan; Atilano-Miguel, Salvador; Sánchez-González, Juan Raúl; Barbosa-Cortés, Lourdes; Ruíz-Cruz, Eugenia Dolores; Huicochea, Juan Carlos; Cárdenas-Conejo, Alan; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Yam-Ontiveros, Carlos Alberto; Ricárdez-Marcial, Edgar F

    2017-09-23

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent dystrophy in childhood generated by a deficiency in dystrophin. DMD is a neuromuscular disease and its clinical course comprises chronic inflammation and gradual muscle weakness. Supplementation of omega-3 long chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 long chain-PUFA) reduces inflammatory markers in various disorders. The goal of this research was to analyze the influence of ω-3 long chain-PUFA intake on gene expression and blood inflammatory markers in boys with DMD. In a placebo-controlled, double. Blind, randomized trial, boys with DMD (n = 36) consumed 2.9 g/day of ω-3 long chain-PUFA or sunflower oil as control, in capsules, for a period of 6 months. Blood was analyzed at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 of supplementation for expression of inflammatory markers in leukocytes and serum. There was high adherence to capsule intake (control: 95.3% ± 7.2%, and ω-3 long chain-PUFA: 97.4% ± 3.7% at month 6). Enrichment of EicosaPentaenoic Acid (EPA) and DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA) in erythrocytes increased significantly in patients supplemented with ω-3 long chain-PUFA compared with the placebo group during the 6 months of supplementation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) of the Nuclear Factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and its target genes InterLeukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 was downregulated significantly (p Omega-3 long chain-PUFA intake decreased the serum IL-1β (-59.5%; p = 0.011) and IL-6 (-54.8%; p = 0.041), and increased the serum IL-10 (99.9%, p < 0.005), in relation to those with placebo treatment. Supplementation with ω-3 long chain-PUFA 2.9 g/day is well-tolerated, has a beneficial reductive effect on proinflammatory markers, and increases an anti-inflammatory marker, indicating that ω-3 long chain-PUFA could have a potential therapeutic impact on chronic inflammation in DMD. This research is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT018264229). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society

  8. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained...... high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...

  9. Purification and characterization of an amidohydrolase for N4-long-chain fatty acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine from mouse liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, K; Tsuruo, T; Tsukagoshi, S; Sakurai, Y

    1984-03-01

    N4-Long-chain fatty acyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine amidohydrolase, a metabolizing enzyme for N4-acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine with long-chain fatty acids, was purified from mouse liver microsomes. The purification was accomplished by solubilization of liver microsomes with Triton X-100, diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography, gel filtrations, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and concanavalin A:Sepharose chromatography. On sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme preparation produced a single protein band with a molecular weight of 54,000. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 9.0, and the Michaelis constant for N4-palmitoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine was 67 microM. The thiols such as dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol stabilized the enzyme and stimulated its activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, diisopropylfluorophosphate, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride strongly inhibited the reaction. Bovine serum albumin markedly stimulated the enzyme activity, whereas detergents such as Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate had little effect. The enzyme did not require monovalent or divalent cations. Among the series of N4-acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine with different chain lengths of acyl residues, the purified enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the derivatives with long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C18), and N4-palmitoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine was the most susceptible. The purified enzyme was inactive on various N-acylamino acids, amides, oligopeptides, proteins, N-acylsphingosines (ceramides), triglyceride, lecithin, and lysolecithin. These results suggest that N4-long-chain fatty acyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine amidohydrolase may be a new type of linear amidase.

  10. Chemical Characterization and Oxidative Stability of Medium- and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles in Tree-Borne Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Som Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils. A total of 15 different fatty acids were identified in six tree-borne seed oils, which included seven types of saturated fatty acids, four types of monounsaturated fatty acids, and four types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Japanese camphor tree (JCT had a high content of medium-chain fatty acids (97.94 ± 0.04%, in which fatty acid composition was distinct from those of the other five plant seed oils. Overall, contents of tocopherols, a type of fat-soluble vitamin, ranged between 3.82 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 101.98 ± 1.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Phytosterol contents ranged from 117.77 ± 1.32 mg/100 g to 479.45 ± 4.27 mg/100 g, respectively. Of all tree-borne seed oils, β-sitosterol was the phytosterol at the highest concentration. Contents of unsaponifiables were between 0.13 ± 0.08 and 2.01 ± 0.02, and values of acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine were between 0.79 ± 0.01 and 38.94 ± 0.24 mg KOH/g, 3.53 ± 0.21 and 127.67 ± 1.79 meq/kg, and 2.07 ± 0.51 and 9.67 ± 0.25, respectively. Oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils was assessed through measurement of oxidation-induction periods. These results should serve as a foundation to identify the potential of tree-borne seed oils in industrial application as well as in providing fundamental data.

  11. Resting state electroencephalographic correlates with red cell long-chain fatty acids, memory performance and age in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumich, Alexander; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were positively associated with fast frequency activity: alpha during eyes-open and beta during eyes-closed conditions. Frontal theta activity during both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was inversely associated with age and positively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels. Alpha activity correlated positively with performance on fluency for categories (semantic memory). Theta activity correlated inversely with performance on delayed (25 min) verbal memory (recall + recognition/2). No associations were observed between long-chain omega-6 and EEG measures. Results support differential associations for DHA and EPA with fast and slow EEG activity respectively. Results support EEG activity as an objective biomarker of neural function associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD.

  12. The effect of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on intelligence in low birth weight infant during lactation: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Ya; Pan, Yun; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Chang, Pengyu; Tian, Yuan; Cui, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    Background Low birth weight infant (LBWIs) are prone to mental and behavioural problems. As an important constituent of the brain and retina, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for foetal infant mental and visual development. The effect of lactation supplemented with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on the improvement of intelligence in low birth weight children requires further validation. Methods In this study, a comprehensive search of multiple databases was performed to identify studies focused the association between intelligence and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in LBWIs. Studies that compared the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) or the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence for Children (WISC) scores between LBWIs who were supplemented and controls that were not supplemented with LCPUFA during lactation were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results The main outcome was the mean difference in the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the BSID and the full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) of the WISC between LBWIs and controls. Our findings indicated that the mean BSID or WISC scores in LBWIs did not differ between the supplemented groups and controls. Conclusion This meta-analysis does not reveal that LCPUFA supplementation has a significant impact on the level of intelligence in LBWIs. PMID:29634752

  13. Human tear film and meibum. Very long chain wax esters and (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids of meibum

    OpenAIRE

    Butovich, Igor A.; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Molai, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Human meibum was targetly analyzed for the presence of intact wax esters (WEs) and related compounds by means of reverse-phase HPLC in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry. The major detected WEs were based on C18:n (n = 1–4) unsaturated FAs ranking in the following order of abundance: C18:1>C18:2>C18:3>C18:4. The major fatty alcohols (FAls) found in WE were of saturated nature and varied from C18:0 to C28:0. The three most abundant species were C18:1-FA esters of C24:0, C25:0, and C26...

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y

    2005-01-01

    In this work we advance the hypothesis that omega-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) exhibit cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. omega-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes and attenuate effects of environmental exposures that activate molecules implicated in pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases. These processes and exposures include ischemia, chronic light exposure, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular signaling mechanisms, and aging. A number of bioactive molecules within the retina affect, and are effected by such conditions. These molecules operate within complex systems and include compounds classified as eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, and inflammatory phospholipids. We discuss the relationship of LCPUFAs with these bioactivators and bioactive compounds in the context of three blinding retinal diseases of public health significance that exhibit both vascular and neural pathology. How is omega-3 LCPUFA status related to retinal structure and function? Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 LCPUFA, is also a major structural lipid of retinal photoreceptor outer segment membranes. Biophysical and biochemical properties of DHA may affect photoreceptor membrane function by altering permeability, fluidity, thickness, and lipid phase properties. Tissue DHA status affects retinal cell signaling mechanisms involved in phototransduction. DHA may operate in signaling cascades to enhance activation of membrane-bound retinal proteins and may also be involved in rhodopsin regeneration. Tissue DHA insufficiency is associated with alterations in retinal function. Visual processing deficits have been ameliorated with DHA supplementation

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and the Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villarroya, J.; Flachs, Pavel; Redondo-Angulo, I.; Giralt, M.; Medříková, Daša; Villarroya, F.; Kopecký, Jan; Planavila, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2014), s. 1081-1089 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor-21 * long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat ty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  17. Cardiomyocyte Triglyceride Accumulation and Reduced Ventricular Function in Mice with Obesity Reflect Increased Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all obesity groups had increased body and heart weights and fatty livers. By echocardiography, ejection fraction (EF and fractional shortening (FS of left ventricular diameter during systole were significantly reduced. The Vmax for saturable fatty acid uptake was increased and significantly correlated with cardiac triglycerides and insulin concentrations. Vmax also correlated with expression of genes for the cardiac fatty acid transporters Cd36 and Slc27a1. Genes for de novo fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Scd1 were also upregulated. Ten oxidative phosphorylation pathway genes were downregulated, suggesting that a decrease in cardiomyocyte ATP synthesis might explain the decreased contractile function in obese hearts.

  18. In ovo exposure to omega-3 fatty acids does not enhance omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakri, K; Carragher, J; Muhlhausler, B; Hughes, R; Gibson, R

    2017-10-01

    The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n-3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n-3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days' post-hatch. The n-3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n-3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n-3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n-3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.

  19. Differences in elongation of very long chain fatty acids and fatty acid metabolism between triple-negative and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuji; Nishiumi, Shin; Kono, Seishi; Takao, Shintaro; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-08-29

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TN) is more aggressive than other subtypes of breast cancer and has a lower survival rate. Furthermore, detailed biological information about the disease is lacking. This study investigated characteristics of metabolic pathways in TN. We performed the metabolome analysis of 74 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues using LC/MS. Furthermore, we classified the breast cancer tissues into ER-positive, PgR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (EP+H-) and TN, and then the differences in their metabolic pathways were investigated. The RT-PCR and immunostaining were carried out to examine the expression of ELOVL1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. We identified 142 of hydrophilic metabolites and 278 of hydrophobic lipid metabolites in breast tissues. We found the differences between breast cancer and normal breast tissues in choline metabolism, glutamine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and so on. Most characteristic of comparison between EP+H- and TN were differences in fatty acid metabolism was which were related to the elongation of very long chain fatty acids were detected between TN and EP+H-. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were significantly upregulated by 8.5-, 4.6- and 7.0-fold, respectively, in the TN tumors compared with their levels in the corresponding normal breast tissue samples. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were also significantly higher in the EP+H- tissues than in the corresponding normal breast tissues (by 4.9-, 3.4-, and 2.1-fold, respectively). The mRNA expression level of ELOVL6 was 2.6-fold higher in the TN tumors than in the EP+H- tumors. During immunostaining, the TN and EP+H- tumors demonstrated stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the corresponding normal breast tissues, but ELOVL5 was not stained strongly in the TN or EP+H- tumors. Furthermore, the TN tumors exhibited stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the EP+H- tumors. Marked

  20. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Noguera, Mario F; Calvache, Jose Andres; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier; Kotanidou, Eleni P; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2015-07-14

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and are necessary for growth and maturation of an infant's brain and retina. LCPUFAs are named "essential" because they cannot be synthesised efficiently by the human body and come from maternal diet. It remains controversial whether LCPUFA supplementation to breastfeeding mothers is beneficial for the development of their infants. To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementation with LCPUFA in breastfeeding mothers in the cognitive and physical development of their infants as well as safety for the mother and infant. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 8), PubMed (1966 to August 2014), EMBASE (1974 to August 2014), LILACS (1982 to August 2014), Google Scholar (August 2014) and reference lists of published narrative and systematic reviews. Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of LCPUFA supplementation on breastfeeding mothers (including the pregnancy period) and their infants. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, performed data extraction and evaluated data accuracy. We included eight randomised controlled trials involving 1567 women. All the studies were performed in high-income countries. The longest follow-up was seven years.We report the results from the longest follow-up time point from included studies. Overall, there was moderate quality evidence as assessed using the GRADE approach from these studies for the following outcomes measured beyond 24 months age of children: language development and child weight. There was low-quality evidence for the outcomes: Intelligence or solving problems ability, psychomotor development, child attention, and child visual acuity.We found no significant difference in children's neurodevelopment at long

  1. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast-milk and erythrocytes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in Danish late-preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Brøndum; Hellgren, Lars I; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2015-01-01

    found that breast-milk content of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was similar to reported fatty acid compositions of term human milk. Infant RBC-AA decreased from 1 week to 1 month of age and the size of the decrease was associated with better NNNS-scores at 1 month, specifically......Background: The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy and early lactation has been shown to affect cognitive development in preterm infants, but the effect on early neurodevelopment of late-preterm infants has not yet been examined. Aim: To examine the fatty...... acid composition of late-preterm human milk and identify possible associations between infant LC-PUFA status and perinatal as well as 1-year neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Mother’s milk and erythrocytes (RBC) were sampled from 53 Danish late-preterm infants (33-36 weeks of gestation) 1 week and 1...

  3. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates and niacin as therapeutic options in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Matthew K

    2015-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia affects approximately 33% of the US population. Elevated triglyceride levels are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Guidelines for the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥5.6 mmol/L [≥500 mg/dL]) recommend immediate use of triglyceride-lowering agents; however, statins remain the first line of therapy for the management of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7-5.6 mmol/L [150-499 mg/dL]). Statins primarily target elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but have also been shown to reduce mean triglyceride levels by up to 18% (or 43% in patients with triglyceride levels≥3.1 mmol/L [≥273 mg/dL]). However, individuals with hypertriglyceridemia may need additional reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant particles to further reduce residual CVD risk. A number of guidelines recommend the addition of fibrates, niacin, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids if elevated triglyceride or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels persist despite the use of high-intensity statin therapy. This review evaluates the impact of fibrates, niacin, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. It also assesses the adverse effects and drug-drug interactions associated with these triglyceride-lowering agents, because although they have all been shown to effectively reduce triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, they differ with regard to their associated benefit-risk profiles. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be a well-tolerated and effective alternative to fibrates and niacin, yet further large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes and CVD risk reduction in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke; Færgeman, Nils J; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment. In the gastrointestinal phase of infection, the bacterium encounters a variety of antimicrobial agents, including medium- and long-chain free fatty acids that are commonly found in our diet and as active components of bile. Here we show that subinhibitory concentrations of specific antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, or 2-monododecanoin on fatty acid composition in the portal vein, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Qian Nancy; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine.

  6. Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Long-Chain Triglycerides, or 2-Monododecanoin on Fatty Acid Composition in the Portal Vein, Intestinal Lymph, and Systemic Circulation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy You, Yi-Qian; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. Methods The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. Results MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. Conclusions The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine. PMID:18407910

  7. Long chain fatty acids and related pro-inflammatory, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their intermediates in preterm human milk during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D T; Palac, H L; Baillif, V; Van Goethem, E; Dubourdeau, M; Van Horn, L; Martin, C R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure longitudinal quantities of the long chain fatty acids, their biologically active terminal metabolites and related intermediates (also called oxylipins) in preterm human milk expressed during the first month of lactation. In a prospective cohort, breast milk was collected throughout the first month of lactation in 30 women who delivered preterm infants. Eighteen bioactive lipids and their intermediates were quantified via solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. Analysis by GC-FID quantified the fatty acid precursors. Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) milk concentrations significantly declined throughout the first month. Oxylipin concentrations did not change during lactation. Positive associations existed between ARA and thromboxane B2, eicosapentaenoic acid and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, and between DHA and PDX and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids. DHA concentrations were 1.5 times higher and 14-HDHA was 1.7 times higher in milk from women taking DHA supplements. This investigation showed conditionally essential fatty acids, ARA and DHA, decreased in preterm milk, suggesting a need to supplement their intake for the breast milk-fed preterm infant. Positive associations between parent fatty acids, bioactive lipids and intermediates, as well as sensitivity of milk to maternal fatty acid intake, support consideration of a comprehensive approach to providing fatty acids for preterm infants through both maternal and infant supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression...... antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act...... as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract....

  9. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric ...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  10. Effect Of Intraruminal Infussion Of Saturated And Unsaturated Fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of diferent proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid) on rumen degradability of organic matter fraction of Pennisetium purpureum, total volatile fatty acid and total methane productions in West African Dwarf sheep. Five combination ...

  11. Nitrogen sparing effect of structured triglycerides containing both medium-and long-chain fatty acids in critically ill patients; a double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, B F; Ruokonen, E; Magnusson-Borg, K; Takala, J

    2001-02-01

    Patients with sepsis and trauma are characterised by hypermetabolism, insulin resistance and protein catabolism. Fat emulsions containing medium chain triglycerides have been suggested to be beneficial for these patients since medium chain fatty acids are a more readily available source of energy when compared to long chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to compare a medium and long chain triglyceride emulsion consisting of structured triglycerides (ST) with a long chain triglyceride (LCT) emulsion in terms of effects on nitrogen balance, energy metabolism and safety. 30 ICU patients with sepsis or multiple injury received a fat emulsion with ST or 20% LCT (1.5 g triglycerides/kg body weight/day) as a component of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), for 5 days in a double blind randomised parallel group design. The main analysis was made on the 3 day per protocol population due to lack of patients at day 5. There were no differences in baseline characteristics of the two groups receiving either the LCT or the ST emulsion. The efficacy analysis was performed on the per protocol population (n=9 ST, n=11 LCT). There was a significant difference between the two treatments regarding daily nitrogen balances when the first 3 days were analysed P=0.0038). This resulted in an amelioration of the nitrogen balance on day 3 in the group on ST as compared to those on LCT (0.1+/-2.4 g vs -9.9+/-2.1 g P=0.01). The 3 day cumulative nitrogen balance was significantly better in the group receiving ST compared to those on LCT (-0.7+/-6.0 vs -16.7+/-3.9 P=0.03). This better cumulative nitrogen balance on day 3 was also preserved as a tendency (P=0.061) in the analysis of the intention to treat population, but on day 5 there was no significant difference (P=0.08). The ST emulsion was well tolerated and no difference was found compared to the LCT emulsion regarding respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, glucose or triglyceride levels during infusion. Administration of a

  12. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  13. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  14. Lipidomic analysis of Botryococcus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) - Identification of lipid classes containing very long chain fatty acids by offline two-dimensional LC-tandem MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Vítová, Milada; Nedbalová, Linda; Sigler, Karel

    2018-04-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) were identified in four strains of the green alga Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae). The algae contained a series of monoenoic fatty acids up to triacontenoic acid and further VLCFAs in amounts around 1% of total fatty acids. The separation of lipid classes using hydrophilic interaction chromatography revealed that the most abundant VLCFAs (28:2, 28:1 and 28:0) were contained in neutral lipids (triacylglycerols and/or diacylglycerols) and in phospholipids (phosphatidic acid and/or phosphatidylcholine). Using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (NARP-LC/MS 2 ) of the appropriate collected fractions, molecular species of triacylglycerols containing one or two VLCFAs were described and phosphatidylcholines containing VLCFAs were separated for the first time. Because the presence of Botryosphaerella sudetica (Chlorophyceae) as contaminant of Botryococcus braunii strain Droop 1950/807-1 placed some doubts on the results of previous studies, a strain of this green alga of was also analyzed. In contrast to Botryococcus, C16, a substantially lower proportion of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids and no VLCFAs were detected in Botryosphaerella. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika

    2005-01-01

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  16. The relevance of serum levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E.; Sio, Maria Christina D.; Sorongon, Mishell C.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically analyze the evidence for an association between serum level long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and prostate cancer risk from human epidemiological studies. Study Procedures: We searched biomedical literature databases up to November 2011 and included epidemiological studies with description of long chain n-3 PUFA and incidence of prostate cancer in humans. Critical appraisal was done by two independent reviewers. Data were pooled using the general variance-based method with random-effects model; effect estimates were expressed as risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by Chi2 and quantified by I2, publication bias was also determined. Results: In total, 12 studies were included. Significant negative association was noted between high serum level of n-3 PUFA doc-osapentaenoic acid (DPA) and total prostate cancer risk (RR:0.756; 95% CI 0.599, 0.955; p = 0.019). Likewise, a positive association between high blood level of fish oil contents, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and high-grade prostate tumour incidence (RR:1.381; 95% CI 1.050, 1.817; p = 0.021) was noted; however, this finding was evident only after adjustment was done on interstudy variability through the removal of a lower quality study from the pool. Conclusions: High serum levels of long chain n-3 PUFA DPA is associated with reduced total prostate cancer risk. While high blood level of EPA and DHA is possibly associated with increased high-grade prostate tumour risk. PMID:23766835

  17. The associations between serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin, and serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in Labrador Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streeter RM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renee M Streeter,1 Angela M Struble,1 Sabine Mann,2 Daryl V Nydam,2 John E Bauer,3 Marta G Castelhano,1 Rory J Todhunter,1 Bethany P Cummings,4 Joseph J Wakshlag11Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity has been associated with an increased inflammatory response and insulin resistance due to adipose tissue–derived adipokines and increases in C-reactive protein (CRP. Dogs appear to be similar to other species with the exception of adiponectin, which might not be affected by obesity status. Serum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations have been positively and negatively associated with serum adipokines. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin to body condition score (BCS and to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in serum lipoproteins, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentanenoic acid (DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as a reflection of dietary omega-3 status in the Labrador Retriever. Seventy-seven Labrador Retrievers were evaluated for BCS, percent fasting serum lipoprotein fatty acid concentrations, as well as serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and CRP. A multivariable general linear regression model was constructed to examine the association between the dependent variables leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin and the predictor variables of BCS, age, and sex, as well as concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and DPA. Adiponectin concentration was positively associated with age (P<0.0008, EPA (P=0.027 and negatively associated with DHA (P=0.008. Leptin concentration was positively associated with an increased DHA (P=0.009, BCS (P

  18. Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades long-chain fatty acids in co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Diana Z; Smidt, Hauke; Alves, M Madalena; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-03-01

    An anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain OL-4(T), was isolated as a co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535(NT) from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed reactor used to treat an oleate-based effluent. Strain OL-4(T) degraded oleate, a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and straight-chain fatty acids C(4 : 0)-C(18 : 0) in syntrophic association with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535(NT). Even-numbered fatty acids were degraded to acetate and methane whereas odd-numbered fatty acids were degraded to acetate, propionate and methane. Branched-chain fatty acids were not degraded. The bacterium could not grow axenically with any other substrate tested and therefore is considered to be obligately syntrophic. Fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur and nitrate could not serve as electron acceptors for strain OL-4(T) to degrade oleate or butyrate. Cells of strain OL-4(T) were curved rods, formed spores and showed a variable response to Gram staining. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain OL-4(T) was most closely related to the fatty-acid-oxidizing, syntrophic bacterium Syntrophomonas sp. TB-6 (95 % similarity), Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei DSM 2245(T) (94 % similarity) and Syntrophomonas erecta DSM 16215(T) (93 % similarity). In addition to this moderate similarity, phenotypic and physiological characteristics, such as obligate syntrophy, spore formation and utilization of a broader substrate range, differentiated strain OL-4(T) from these Syntrophomonas species. Therefore strain OL-4(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OL-4(T) (=DSM 17840(T)=JCM 13948(T)).

  19. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2017-11-01

    The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.

  20. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mothers may be reluctant to receive medical treatment of postpartum depression (PPD), despite the detrimental consequences the disorder can impose on mother and child. Research on alternative methods of prevention and treatment of PPD is warranted. Previous studies have suggested...... that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...

  1. Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis I. Burchakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA. In recent decades, researchers studied LCPUFA supplementation as a measure to prevent preeclampsia. Most of these trials and later systematic reviews yielded negative results. However, these trials had several important limitations associated with heterogeneity and other issues. Recent research suggests that preeclampsia trials should take into consideration the gender of the fetus (and thus sexual dimorphism of placenta, the positive effect of smoking on preeclampsia prevalence, and the possibility that high doses of LCPUFA mid-term or later may promote the disorder instead of keeping it at bay. In this review, we discuss these issues and future prospects for LCPUFA in preeclampsia research.

  2. Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) evolution for inhibition forecasting during anaerobic treatment of lipid-rich wastes: Case of milk-fed veal slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Méndez, R; Le Bihan, Y; Béline, F; Lessard, P

    2017-09-01

    A detailed study of a solid slaughterhouse waste (SHW) anaerobic treatment is presented. The waste used in this study is rich in lipids and proteins residue. Long chain fatty acids (LCFA), coming from the hydrolysis of lipids were inhibitory to anaerobic processes at different degrees. Acetogenesis and methanogenesis processes were mainly affected by inhibition whereas disintegration and hydrolysis processes did not seem to be affected by high LCFA concentrations. Nevertheless, because of the high energy content, this kind of waste is very suitable for anaerobic digestion but strict control of operating conditions is required to prevent inhibition. For that, two inhibition indicators were identified in this study. Those two indicators, LCFA dynamics and LCFA/VS biomass ratio proved to be useful to predict and to estimate the process inhibition degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial community....... Population profiles of eubacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA genes revealed that no significant shift on microbial community composition took place upon biomass exposure to LCFA. DNA sequencing of predominant DGGE bands showed close phylogenetic affinity to ribotypes characteristic from specific beta...... kinetics considering the relation between LCFA inhibitory substrate concentration and specific biomass content, as an approximation to the adsorption process, improved the model fitting and provided a better insight on the physical nature of the LCFA inhibition process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  4. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever, the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome.

  5. Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and incidence of atrial fibrillation. The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Heeringa, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through an increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Experimental as well as observational evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have antiarrhythmic

  6. Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades long chain fatty acids in co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Smidt, H.; Alves, M.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    An anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain OL-4T, was isolated as a co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535NT from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed reactor used to treat an oleate-based effluent. Strain OL-4T degraded oleate, a

  7. The impact of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on food allergy and cardiovascular disease. Fish and no chips?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, L.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis creates more insight into the efficacy and mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which act on the interface between pharmacology and nutrition in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease. PUFA are categorized into n-6 and n-3 PUFA. The last decades have

  8. Anti-Biofilm Activity of a Long-Chain Fatty Aldehyde from Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 against Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Papa, Rosanna; Ricciardelli, Annarita; Sannino, Filomena; Ziaco, Marcello; Tilotta, Marco; Selan, Laura; Marino, Gennaro; Corsaro, Maria M; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a harmless human skin colonizer responsible for ~20% of orthopedic device-related infections due to its capability to form biofilm. Nowadays there is an interest in the development of anti-biofilm molecules. Marine bacteria represent a still underexploited source of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. Previous results have demonstrated that the culture supernatant of Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 impairs the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm. Further, evidence supports the hydrophobic nature of the active molecule, which has been suggested to act as a signal molecule. In this paper we describe an efficient activity-guided purification protocol which allowed us to purify this anti-biofilm molecule and structurally characterize it by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Our results demonstrate that the anti-biofilm molecule is pentadecanal, a long-chain fatty aldehyde, whose anti- S. epidermidis biofilm activity has been assessed using both static and dynamic biofilm assays. The specificity of its action on S. epidermidis biofilm has been demonstrated by testing chemical analogs of pentadecanal differing either in the length of the aliphatic chain or in their functional group properties. Further, indications of the mode of action of pentadecanal have been collected by studying the bioluminescence of a Vibrio harveyi reporter strain for the detection of autoinducer AI-2 like activities. The data collected suggest that pentadecanal acts as an AI-2 signal. Moreover, the aldehyde metabolic role and synthesis in the Antarctic source strain has been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of an anti-biofilm molecule form from cold-adapted bacteria and on the action of a long-chain fatty aldehyde acting as an anti-biofilm molecule against S. epidermidis .

  9. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. The antidepressant role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids in two phases in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Anete Curte; Kiss, Agata; Araújo, Renata Lins Fuentes; Salles, Hélidy Maria Rossi; Naliwaiko, Katya; Pamplona, Juliana; Matheussi, Francesca

    2008-03-01

    In this work we investigated the effect from fish oil (FO) supplementation, rich in n-3 fatty acids, on an antidepressant effect on adult rats in Phase A (supplementation during pregnancy and lactation) and phase B (supplementation during post-weaning until adulthood). During Phase A, female rats, used as matrix to obtain male rats, were divided in three groups: FO (daily supplemented), CF (coconut fat daily supplemented) and control (not supplemented). Our results showed that adult rats whose mothers were supplemented with FO during Phase A and rats supplemented during phase B demonstrated a significantly decreased immobility time when compared to control and CF groups. There was no difference in neither motor activity nor anxiety behavior in the three groups excluding false positive results. Our results suggest that n-3 fatty acids supplementation during Phases A and B had a beneficial effect on preventing the development of depression-like behavior in adult rats.

  11. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive 14 C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6. - Highlights: • A novel assay for elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 6 (Elovl6) is proposed. • RapidFire mass spectrometry (RF-MS) assay is useful to select real screening hits. • RF-MS assay is proved to be beneficial because of

  12. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  13. Interaction of dietary short- and long-chain fatty acids influencing differentiation and apoptotic response in colon epithelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Stixová, Lenka; Hýžďalová, Martina; Kočí, Lenka; Netíková, Jaromíra; Cigánek, M.; Slavík, J.; Machala, M.; Kozubík, Alois

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2008), s. 234 ISSN 1107-3756. [The 13th World Congress on Advances in Oncology, and 11th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine . Crete, 09.10.2008-11.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : fatty acids * colon cancer * differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2008

  14. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  15. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McInerney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of L-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs. We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1 produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ~61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively. These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions.

  16. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools.493 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven.Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II. Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms was rated using the revised Conners' rating scales (long parent and teacher versions. Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables.DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042 and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001. Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (-0.175, p = <.0001 and -0.178, p = <.0001.In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with Omega-3 LC-PUFA found for ADHD, Dyspraxia, Dyslexia, and

  17. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xia

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17 and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19 are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high

  18. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Illa, J.; Fernández, B.; Bonmatí, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kg COD m −3 d −1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  20. Locations of the three primary binding sites for long-chain fatty acids on bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Era, S.; Bhamidipati, S.P.; Reed, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Binding of 13 C-enriched oleic acid to bovine serum albumin and to three large proteolytic fragments of albumin - two complementary fragments corresponding to the two halved of albumin and one fragment corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal domain - yielded unique patterns of NMR resonances (chemical shifts and relative intensities) that were used to identify the locations of binding of the first 5 mol of oleic acid to the multidomain albumin molecule. The first 3 mol of oleic acid added to intact albumin generated three distinct NMR resonances as a result of simultaneous binding of oleic acid to three heterogeneous sites (primary sites). This distribution suggests albumin to be a less symmetrical binding molecule than theoretical models predict. This work also demonstrates the power of NMR for the study of microenvironments of individual fatty acid binding sites in specific domain

  1. Extraction of long-chain fatty acids in isolated rat heart during acute low-flow ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W S; Fischer, S; Ernst, N; Munz, D L

    2001-07-01

    Although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is suppressed rapidly during ischemia, the behavior of fatty acid extraction at different flow rates is incompletely understood. This study assessed the relationship between flow and extraction of (123)I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in the isolated heart model, especially at low flow. Isolated hearts from male Wistar rats (n = 15) were subjected to retrograde perfusion with constant flow (Krebs Henseleit solution containing 10 mmol/L glucose). A latex balloon in the left ventricle allowed isovolumetric contractions and ventricular pressure measurements. The extraction of (123)I-IPPA was assessed with the indicator dilution technique and (99m)Tc-albumin as the intravascular reference. The flow was either increased from the control flow (8 mL/min) until 300% or reduced until 10%. (123)I-IPPA extraction was measured three times before and 10 min after flow alteration. The tracer uptake was estimated from the product of net extraction and flow. The mean (123)I-IPPA extraction at the control flow (third measurement) was 51.6% +/- 2.8%. Between flow rates of approximately 25% and 300%, (123)I-IPPA extraction increased exponentially at decreasing flow rates. At flow rates < or =25% of the control flow, (123)I-IPPA extraction was exponentially higher than predicted. (123)I-IPPA uptake and flow changed largely in parallel. During low flow, the rate-pressure product showed the expected decline (perfusion-contraction matching). The extraction of (123)I-IPPA is preserved and slightly increased (relative to flow) during acute low-flow ischemia.

  2. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  3. Application of 123I-labelled long-chained fatty acids for the study of myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, F.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Machulla, H.J.; Stoecklin, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioiodine-labelled fatty acids are useful tracers for myocardial imaging. The present study extends myocardial scintigraphy with ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid to measuring myocardial metabolism. 4 normal individuals and 6 patients with cardiac disease received i.v. 1-2 mCi ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid. Immediately fast serial scintigrams of the myocardium were taken for 30 minutes. Disappearance of the tracer, and appearance of anorganic 123-I, was measured in the peripheral blood. The myocardial images were of high quality later than 5 minutes after injection. By correcting for anorganic 123-I in the peripheral blood and the interstitium, the turnover of tracer in the myocardial cells could be measured. Activity was lost from the myocardium with a half time between 14 and 32 minutes. Within regions of old myocardials infarctions the half time of tracer loss was prolonged. The data clearly indicate the feasibility of using ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid for measuring myocardial metabolism. (author)

  4. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I.

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  5. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of GPR84 deletion on obesity and diabetes development in mice fed long chain or medium chain fatty acid rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Eugene; Browne, Liam; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Massa, Helen M; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R

    2017-04-20

    Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice. Wild type (WT) and GPR84 knockout (KO) mice were fed a control, MCFA or LCFA diet, and body mass, heart, liver and epididymal fat mass was assessed, as well as glucose tolerance and adipocyte size. LCFA diets increased body mass and decreased glucose tolerance in both WT and GPR84 KO animals while MCFA diets had no effect on these parameters. There were no differences in body weight when comparing WT and GPR84 KO mice on the respective diets. Glucose tolerance was also similar in WT and GPR84 KO mice irrespective of diet. Liver mass was increased following LCFA feeding in WT but not GPR84 KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed MCFA, and myocardial triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed LCFA. GPR84 deletion had no effects on body weight or glucose tolerance in mice fed either a high MCFA or LCFA diet. GPR84 may influence lipid metabolism, as GPR84 KO mice had smaller livers and increased myocardial triglyceride accumulation when fed LCFA diets, and increased liver triglyceride accumulation in responses to increased dietary MCFAs.

  7. Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Burgaz, Ann; Håkansson, Niclas; Cederholm, Tommy; Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids). FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14%) did not alter the correlations. These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  8. PCSK9 Induces CD36 Degradation and Affects Long-Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and Triglyceride Metabolism in Adipocytes and in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Annie; Samami, Samaneh; Lauzier, Benjamin; Des Rosiers, Christine; Ngo Sock, Emilienne Tudor; Ong, Huy; Mayer, Gaetan

    2015-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor thereby elevating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, the use of PCSK9 inhibitors holds great promise to prevent heart disease. Previous work found that PCSK9 is involved in triglyceride metabolism, independently of its action on low-density lipoprotein receptor, and that other yet unidentified receptors could mediate this effect. Therefore, we assessed whether PCSK9 enhances the degradation of CD36, a major receptor involved in transport of long-chain fatty acids and triglyceride storage. Overexpressed or recombinant PCSK9 induced CD36 degradation in cell lines and primary adipocytes and reduced the uptake of the palmitate analog Bodipy FL C16 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and hepatic HepG2 cells, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and protein degradation pathway inhibitors revealed that PCSK9 directly interacts with CD36 and targets the receptor to lysosomes through a mechanism involving the proteasome. Importantly, the level of CD36 protein was increased by >3-fold upon small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous PCSK9 in hepatic cells and similarly increased in the liver and visceral adipose tissue of Pcsk9(-/-) mice. In Pcsk9(-/-) mice, increased hepatic CD36 was correlated with an amplified uptake of fatty acid and accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets. Our results demonstrate an important role of PCSK9 in modulating the function of CD36 and triglyceride metabolism. PCSK9-mediated CD36 degradation may serve to limit fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation in tissues, such as the liver. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The Groningen LCPUFA Study : No Effect of Short-Term Postnatal Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Term Infants on Cardiovascular and Anthropometric Development at 9 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Corina; Boehm, Gunther; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists on the effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) formula supplementation on cardiovascular health in term infants. It is known that LCPUFA supplementation does not affect infant growth, but long term outcome data are not available. The current study

  10. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

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    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  11. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large

  12. Curcumin and long-chain Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for Prevention of type 2 Diabetes (COP-D): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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    Thota, Rohith N; Acharya, Shamasunder H; Abbott, Kylie A; Garg, Manohar L

    2016-11-29

    Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D. In the current trial we propose to evaluate the effects of curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on improving glycosylated haemoglobin as a primary outcome, along with secondary outcomes of glycaemic indices, lipid profile and inflammatory parameters. Eighty individuals diagnosed with prediabetes, aged between 30 and 70 years, will be randomly assigned to double placebo, curcumin alone, fish oil alone or double active groups according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention visits participants will be asked to provide blood samples and undergo body composition measurements. A blood sample is used for estimating glycaemic profiles, lipid profiles and inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, whole blood cell count, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6). The interim visit includes review on compliance with supplements based on capsule log and capsule count, adverse events and anthropometric measurements. In addition to these procedures, participants provide self-reported questionnaires on dietary intake (using a 3-day food record), a physical activity questionnaire and medical history. This trial aims to determine whether curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect surrogate markers of glycaemic control which is relevant to delaying T2D. To date 38 participants completed the trial. No changes

  13. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

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    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  14. Saturated fatty acids enhance TLR4 immune pathways in human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohua; Haghiac, Maricela; Glazebrook, Patricia; Minium, Judi; Catalano, Patrick M; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-09-01

    What are the effects of fatty acids on placental inflammatory cytokine with respect to toll-like receptor-4/nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-kB)? Exogenous fatty acids induce a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in human placental cells in vitro via activation of TLR4 signaling pathways. The placenta is exposed to changes in circulating maternal fatty acid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Fatty acids are master regulators of innate immune pathways through recruitment of toll-like receptors and activation of cytokine synthesis. Trophoblast cells isolated from 14 normal term human placentas were incubated with long chain fatty acids (FA) of different carbon length and degree of saturation. The expression and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against TLR4 ligand binding domain, downstream signaling and anti-p65 NFkB-inhibitor were used to characterize the pathways of FA action. General approach used primary human term trophoblast cell culture. Methods and end-points used real-time quantitative PCR, cytokine measurements, immunohistochemistry, western blots. The long chain saturated fatty acids, stearic and palmitic (PA), stimulated the synthesis as well as the release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 by trophoblast cells (2- to 6-fold, P acids did not modify cytokine expression significantly. Palmitate-induced inflammatory effects were mediated via TLR4 activation, NF-kB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. TNF-α protein level was close to the limit of detection in the culture medium even when cells were cultured with PA. These mechanisms open the way to a better understanding of how changes in maternal lipid homeostasis may regulate placental inflammatory status. X.Y. was recipient of fellowship award from West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University (NIH HD 22965-19). The authors have nothing

  15. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

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    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  16. The Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A Long-Chain Fatty Acid Is Important for Rhizobium leguminosarum Growth and Stress Adaptation in Free-Living and Nodule Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dianna V; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Sherrier, D Janine; Buhr, R Jeffrey; Carlson, Russell W

    2017-02-01

    Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipid A containing a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA). VLCFA function for rhizobial growth in soil and plant environments is not well understood. Two genes, acpXL and lpxXL, encoding acyl carrier protein and acyltransferase, are among the six genes required for biosynthesis and transfer of VLCFA to lipid A. Rhizobium leguminosarum mutant strains acpXL, acpXL - /lpxXL - , and lpxXL - were examined for LPS structure, viability, and symbiosis. Mutations in acpXL and lpxXL abolished VLCFA attachment to lipid A. The acpXL mutant transferred a shorter acyl chain instead of VLCFA. Strains without lpxXL neither added VLCFA nor a shorter acyl chain. In all strains isolated from nodule bacteria, lipid A had longer acyl chains compared with laboratory-cultured bacteria, whereas mutant strains displayed altered membrane properties, modified cationic peptide sensitivity, and diminished levels of cyclic β-glucans. In pea nodules, mutant bacteroids were atypically formed and nitrogen fixation and senescence were affected. The role of VLCFA for rhizobial environmental fitness is discussed.

  17. A Simple Method for the Detection of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in an Anaerobic Digestate Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor

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    Takuro Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In anaerobic digestion (AD, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs produced by hydrolysis of lipids, exhibit toxicity against microorganisms when their concentration exceeds several millimolar. An absorption detection system using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was developed to monitor the LCFA concentration during an anaerobic digester’s operation treating oily organic waste. The dissociation of the LCFAs considerably improved the sensor response and, moreover, enabled it to specifically detect LCFA from the mixture of LCFA and triglyceride. Under alkaline conditions, the frequency-shift rates of the QCM sensor linearly increased in accordance with palmitic acid concentration in the range of 0–100 mg/L. Frequency changes caused by anaerobic digestate samples were successfully measured after removing suspended solids and adjusting the pH to 10.7. Finally, the QCM measurements for digestate samples demonstrated that frequency-shift rates are highly correlated with LCFA concentrations, which confirmed that the newly developed QCM sensor is helpful for LCFA monitoring in terms of rapidness and usability.

  18. Lower n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid values in patients with phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Decsi, Tamás

    2013-07-01

    The mainstream of phenylketonuria (PKU) management is lifelong restriction of protein intake; however, this dietary restriction may be accompanied by insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The objective of this review was to assess whether significant depletion of LCPUFA can be detected in PKU patients on low-protein diet and whether LCPUFA supplementation is an effective way to increase the availability of LCPUFA in PKU patients. The method included structured search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction procedure, and meta-analysis. We evaluated 9 case-control studies and 6 randomized controlled trials, dated from the inception of the databases to 2012. The meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed significantly lower values of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all biomarkers investigated and that of arachidonic acid in total plasma lipids in PKU patients as compared with healthy controls. There were sufficient data to demonstrate that dietary DHA supplementation of patients with PKU significantly increases the contribution of DHA to total plasma lipids. In summary, suboptimal LCPUFA status, especially that of n-3 LCPUFA, can be detected in PKU patients. Supplementing DHA to the diet of PKU patients may improve their LCPUFA status; however, further research is needed to determine the optimal supplementation dosage and to establish beneficial functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

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    Stefanie M Hixson

    Full Text Available Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011, with smaller wings (p < 0.05 and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001. We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.

  1. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  2. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. DietaryFish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

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    Fu-Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09 and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09, respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF.

  5. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2011-10-21

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both 10% [w/w]) and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w]) or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]). Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P safflower oil, had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001) which were associated with lower hepatic SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) but not apo B-100, apo E or ACAT-2 mRNA or protein levels. Independent of cholesterol status, fish oil fed hamsters had lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.001), which were associated with lower hepatic apoA-I protein levels (p < 0.05). These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  6. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

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    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  7. Long chain fatty acids alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal drug binding sites of human serum albumin.

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    Keishi Yamasaki

    Full Text Available A wide variety of drugs bind to human serum albumin (HSA at its two principal sites, namely site I and site II. A number of reports indicate that drug binding to these two binding sites are not completely independent, and that interactions between ligands of these two discrete sites can play a role. In this study, the effect of the binding of long-chain fatty acids on the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; site I ligand and ibuprofen (site II ligand at pH6.5 was examined. Binding experiments showed that the binding of sodium oleate (Ole to HSA induces conformational changes in the molecule, which, in turn, changes the individual binding of DNSA and ibuprofen, as well as the mode of interaction between these two ligands from a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction in the case of the defatted HSA conformer to a 'nearly independent' binding in the case of non-defatted HSA conformer. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that ibuprofen and Ole are likely to modify the spatial orientation of DNSA at its binding site. Docking simulations suggest that the long-distance electric repulsion between DNSA and ibuprofen on defatted HSA contributes to a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction, whereas extending the distance between ligands and/or increasing the flexibility or size of the DNSA binding site in fatted HSA evokes a change in the interaction mode to 'nearly independent' binding. The present findings provide further insights into the structural dynamics of HSA upon the binding of fatty acids, and its effects on drug binding and drug-drug interactions that occur on HSA.

  8. The effect of n-3 long chain fatty acids supplementation on plasma peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and thyroid hormones in obesity

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    Parizad Taraghijou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ is a transcription factor, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and has a direct link to adiposity. It seems that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs can regulate PPAR γ expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3LC PUFA supplementation on plasma levels of PPAR γ and thyroid hormones in obesity. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 66 subjects with obesity were assigned to 2 groups. Participants in intervention group consumed omega3 capsules contained 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids (180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and placebo group consumed placebo capsules contained paraffin twice a day for 4 wk. Fasting blood samples and weight measurements were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Plasma PPAR γ and thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed using a repeated measure model-two factor for comparing two groups in two times. Results: No significant changes were observed in PPAR γ levels between and within the groups after supplementation (P>0.05. N-3LC PUFA supplementation significantly increased T4 levels after 4 wk (P<0.05 but T3 and TSH did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our study showed that n-3LC PUFAs supplementation increased T4 levels. However, no significant changes in T3, TSH and PPAR γ plasma levels were observed in obese adults.

  9. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  11. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  12. OleA Glu117 is key to condensation of two fatty-acyl coenzyme A substrates in long-chain olefin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Matthew R.; Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Christenson, James K.; Esler, Morgan A.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2017-10-12

    In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encodes the enzymes necessary to produce cis-olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules to form a β-keto acid. In this report, the mechanistic role of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Glu117 is investigated through mutant enzymes. Crystal structures were determined for each mutant as well as their complex with the inhibitor cerulenin. Complemented by substrate modeling, these structures suggest that Glu117 aids in substrate positioning for productive carbon–carbon bond formation. Analysis of acyl-CoA substrate hydrolysis shows diminished activity in all mutants. When the active site lacks an acidic residue in the 117 position, OleA cannot form condensed product, demonstrating that Glu117 has a critical role upstream of the essential condensation reaction. Profiling of pH dependence shows that the apparent pKa for Glu117 is affected by mutagenesis. Taken together, we propose that Glu117 is the general base needed to prime condensation via deprotonation of the second, non-covalently bound substrate during turnover. This is the first example of a member of the thiolase superfamily of condensing enzymes to contain an active site base originating from the second monomer of the dimer.

  13. Associations of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish consumption during gestation can provide the fetus with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and other nutrients essential for growth and development of the brain. However, fish consumption also exposes the fetus to the neurotoxicant, methyl mercury (MeHg). We studied the association between these fetal exposures and early child development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Specifically, we examined a priori models of Omega-3 and Omega-6 LCPUFA measures in maternal serum to test the hypothesis that these LCPUFA families before or after adjusting for prenatal MeHg exposure would reveal associations with child development assessed by the BSID-II at ages 9 and 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data available for analysis. At 9 months, the PDI was positively associated with total Omega-3 LCPUFA and negatively associated with the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. These associations were stronger in models adjusted for prenatal MeHg exposure. Secondary models suggested that the MeHg effect at 9 months varied by the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. There were no significant associations between LCPUFA measures and the PDI at 30 months. There were significant adverse associations, however, between prenatal MeHg and the 30-month PDI when the LCPUFA measures were included in the regression analysis. The BSID-II mental developmental index (MDI) was not associated with any exposure variable. These data support the potential importance to child development of prenatal availability of Omega-3 LCPUFA present in fish and of LCPUFA in the overall diet. Furthermore, they indicate that the beneficial effects of LCPUFA can obscure the determination of adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure in longitudinal observational studies.

  14. Long chain fatty Acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a biomarker for and mediator of hormone resistance in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4 in breast cancer. Public databases were utilized to analyze the relationship between ACSL4 mRNA expression and the presence of steroid hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in both breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. In addition, cell lines were utilized to assess the consequences of either increased or decreased levels of ACSL4 expression. Proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent growth and apoptosis were used as biological end points. Effects on mRNA expression and signal transduction pathways were also monitored. A meta-analysis of public gene expression databases indicated that ACSL4 expression is positively correlated with a unique subtype of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, characterized by the absence of androgen receptor (AR and therefore referred to as quadruple negative breast cancer (QNBC. Results of experiments in breast cancer cell lines suggest that simultaneous expression of ACSL4 and a receptor is associated with hormone resistance. Forced expression of ACSL4 in ACSL4-negative, estrogen receptor α (ER-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in increased growth, invasion and anchorage independent growth, as well as a loss of dependence on estrogen that was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of steroid hormone receptors. Sensitivity to tamoxifen, triacsin C and etoposide was also attenuated. Similarly, when HER2-positive, ACSL4-negative, SKBr3 breast cancer cells were induced to express ACSL4, the proliferation rate increased and the apoptotic effect of lapatinib was reduced. The growth stimulatory effect of ACSL4 expression was also observed in vivo in nude mice when MCF-7 control and ACSL4-expressing cells were utilized to induce tumors. Our data strongly suggest that ACSL4 can serve as both a biomarker for, and mediator of, an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  15. The impact of probiotics and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal permeability in pregnancy: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, K; Pussinen, P; Houttu, N; Koivuniemi, E; Vahlberg, T; Laitinen, K

    2018-02-27

    A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity. The probiotic supplement was a combination of two bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. This study included 200 overweight pregnant women participating in an on-going study; participants were randomised to consume either (1) probiotics, (2) LC-PUFA, (3) probiotics and LC-PUFA, or (4) placebo for each supplement. Blood samples were obtained at early, the baseline, and late pregnancy (mean 14 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). Serum zonulin concentration increased from early (mean (standard deviation): 62.7 (12.9) ng/ml) to late pregnancy by 5.3 (95%CI 3.7-6.9) ng/ml, and LPS activity increased from (0.16 (0.04) EU/ml) by 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.05) EU/ml. No differences among the intervention groups were detected in the change from early to late pregnancy in serum zonulin concentration (P=0.8) or LPS activity (P=0.2). The change in serum zonulin concentration during the pregnancy was associated with the weeks of follow up (r=0.25, Pzonulin concentration or LPS activity.

  16. Identification of long and very long chain fatty acids, plasmalogen-C16:0 and phytanic acid as new lipid biomarkers in Tunisian coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Ahmed, Samia; Koubaa, Nadia; Kharroubi, Wafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Mnari, Amira; Batbout, Fethi; Gamra, Habib; Hammami, Sonia; Lizard, Gérard; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population. Lipidomic strategy based on GC/MS-SIM was used to quantify LCPUFAs, VLCSFAs, and PL-C16:0 in red blood cells of CAD patients, non-CAD patients, and controls. We observed a significant increase in phytanic acid, PL-C16:0 and VLCFAs, particularly C26:0, in CAD group compared to controls. Further our findings showed positive correlations of C26:0 with MDA and with vascular severity score (Gensini score). In addition, a significant negative correlation was shown between hs-CRP and C22:6 n-3 (r=-0.297; p=0.002) and a significant positive association was observed between hs-CRP and C20:4 n-6 levels (r=0.196; p=0.039). Our results show changes in LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs concentrations in RBC among study groups, and suggest alterations in fatty acids metabolism regulated by elongase and desaturase enzymes. The positive correlations of C20:4n-6 and the negative correlations of C22:6n-3, simultaneously with Gensini score and hs-CRP, suggest a link of both inflammation and vascular severity complication of CAD with LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs. Induction of lipid oxidation, can be one of the outcomes of LCFAs and VLCFAs accumulation in vascular tissues and, thus, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Quantification of LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs, phytanic acid and PL-C16:0 simultaneously, would be of great value for the screening of

  17. Secretive production of long-chain fatty acids, triacylglycerols and n-alkane-2-ones by fermentation processes; Hakkoho ni yoru ekitai nenryo no seisan wa kanoka (shishitsu no bunpi seisan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, S. [University of Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-20

    Secretive production of lipids, which are useful source for engine-driving fuel, by microbial process using carbohydrate biomasses as substrate has been investigated in our laboratory. This review consists of four parts concerning breedings and selection of lipid-secretive microorganisms : (1) breedings of long-chain fatty acid-secretive strains from Candida lipolytica L-1 by a step-wise mutagenesis process, (2) selection of a triacylglycerol (TG)-secretive and accumulative yeast strain Trichosporon sp. SH45Y, (3) breedings of mutants, SH45Y-derivatieves, having potent ability to produce TG secretively from glucose, a typical biomass charbohydrate, and (4) selection of microorganisms which produce liquid-n-alkane in culture medium by utilizing long-chain fatty acids and TG; a strain of Penicillium decumbens can produce liquid alkalis with a yield of approximately 60 % in weight from palm kernel oil, a commercial TG. 10 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  19. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  20. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  1. Dietary long-chain fatty acids and carbohydrate biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in participants from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Prentice, Ross L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate. Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake. A total of 41 PLFAs were measured with the use of gas chromatography in end-of-feeding-period fasting serum samples and expressed in both relative and absolute concentrations. R 2 values (percentages of variation explained) from linear regressions of (ln-transformed) consumed fatty acids (individual, groups, and broad categories) on (ln-transformed) corresponding measures of serum PLFAs alone and together with selected participant-related variables (age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, season of study participation, education level, and estimated energy intake from doubly labeled water) were used for evaluation against established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intake as benchmarks. Models to predict intakes of other nutrients were also explored. Results: Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid achieved the benchmark of R 2 > 36% with or without covariates. When all 41 serum PLFAs and participant-related covariates were initially included in the model for selection, cross-validated R 2 achieved >36% for consumed total carbohydrate (grams per day), total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), percentage of energy from SFAs, and total trans fatty acids with serum PLFAs in both relative and absolute concentrations. Conclusions: Serum PLFA biomarkers perform similarly to established energy and protein urinary

  2. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  3. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  4. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  5. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  6. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation.

  8. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  9. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    Allergies have become more prevalent globally over the last 20 years. Dietary consumption of n-3 (or omega 3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has declined over the same period of time. This, together with the known role of n-3 LCPUFA in inhibiting inflammation, has resulted in speculation that n-3 LCPUFA may prevent allergy development. Dietary n-3 fatty acids supplements may change the developing immune system of the newborn before allergic responses are established, particularly for those with a genetic predisposition to the production of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. Individuals with IgE-mediated allergies have both the signs and symptoms of the allergic disease and a positive skin prick test (SPT) to the allergen. To assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnant and/or breastfeeding women on allergy outcomes (food allergy, atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma/wheeze) in their children. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), PubMed (1966 to 01 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCOhost (1984 to 01 August 2014), Scopus (1995 to 01 August 2014), Web of Knowledge (1864 to 01 August 2014) and ClinicalTrials.gov (01 August 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation of pregnant and/or lactating women (compared with placebo or no treatment) on allergy outcomes of the infants or children. Trials using a cross-over design and trials examining biochemical outcomes only were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and performed data extraction. Where the review authors were also investigators on trials selected, an independent reviewer assessed trial quality and performed data extraction. Eight trials involving 3366 women and their 3175 children were included in the review. In these trials, women

  10. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  11. Importance of sulfide interaction with iron as regulator of the microbial community in biogas reactors and its effect on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids turnover, and syntrophic long-chain fatty acids degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr; Ziels, Ryan M; Björn, Annika; Skyllberg, Ulf; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Karlsson, Anna; Svedlund, Matilda; Willén, Magnus; Svensson, Bo H

    2017-05-01

    The inhibitory effects of sulfide on microbial processes during anaerobic digestion have been widely addressed. However, other effects of sulfide are less explored, given that sulfide is a potential sulfur source for microorganisms and its high reactivity triggers a suit of abiotic reactions. We demonstrated that sulfide interaction with Fe regulates the dynamics and activities of microbial community during anaerobic digestion. This was manifested by the S:Fe molar ratio, whose increase adversely influenced the acetoclastic methanogens, Methanosaeta, and turnover of acetate. Dynamics of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, Methanoculleus and Methanobrevibacter, were presumably influenced by sulfide-induced changes in the partial pressure of hydrogen. Interestingly, conversion of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), oleate, to methane was enhanced together with the abundance of LCFA-degrading, β-oxidizing Syntrophomonas at an elevated S:Fe molar ratio. The results suggested that sulfur chemical speciation is a controlling factor for microbial community functions in anaerobic digestion processes. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is inhibited by cafenstrole, N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide and its analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Ohki, A.; Sato, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Matthes, B.; Boeger, P.

    2001-01-01

    The rice herbicide cafenstrole and its analogs inhibited the incorporation of [1- 14 C]-oleate and [2- 14 C]-malonate into very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), using Scenedesmus cells and leek microsomes from Allium porrum. Although the precise mode of interaction of cafenstrole at the molecular level is not completely clarified by the present study, it is concluded that cafenstrole acts as a specific inhibitor of the microsomal elongase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids with alkyl chains longer than C 18 . For a strong VLCFA biosynthesis inhibition an -SO 2 - linkage of the 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides was required. Furthermore, N,N-dialkyl substitution of the carbamoyl nitrogen and electron-donating groups such as methyl at the benzene ring of 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides produced a strong inhibition of VLCFA formation. A correlation was found between the phytotoxic effect against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) and impaired VLCFA formation. (orig.)

  13. Associations between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and child cognition at 7 years of age: the MEFAB birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske; Van de Rest, Ondine; Godschalk, Roger; Zeegers, Marij; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences

  14. Associations between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and child cognition at 7 years of age: The MEFAB birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Rest, van de O.; Godschalk, B.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Gielen, M.; Groot, de R.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse

  15. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  16. A practical synthesis of long-chain iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 and related natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A gram-scale synthesis of terminally-branched iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 was developed commencing with methyl undec-10-enoate (methyl undecylenate (for iso-C12–C14 or the C15 and C16 lactones pentadecanolide (for iso-C15–C17 and hexadecanolide (for iso-C18–C19. Central to the approaches outlined is the two-step construction of the terminal isopropyl group through addition of methylmagnesium bromide to the ester/lactones and selective reduction of the resulting tertiary alcohols. Thus, the C12, C17 and C18 iso-fatty acids were obtained in three steps from commercially-available starting materials, and the remaining C13–C16 and C19 iso-fatty acids were prepared by homologation or recursive dehomologations of these fatty acids or through intercepting appropriate intermediates. Highlighting the synthetic potential of the iso-fatty acids and various intermediates prepared herein, we describe the synthesis of the natural products (S-2,15-dimethylpalmitic acid, (S-2-hydroxy-15-methylpalmitic acid, and 2-oxo-14-methylpentadecane.

  17. USE OF A GRIFFITH TUBE TO EVALUATE THE ANAEROBIC SLUDGE SEDIMENTATION IN A UASB REACTOR TREATING AN EFFLUENT WITH LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes to study the sedimentation characteristics of anaerobic sludge, by determining the settling velocity of sludge granules with the Griffith Tube. This is a simple, low-cost method, suitable for use in full-scale treatment plants. The settling characteristics of sludge from two laboratory-scale UASB reactors fed with saccharose and different concentrations of sodium oleate and sodium stereate were evaluated. Addition of fatty acids caused a gradual destabilization of the system, affecting overall performance. The sedimentation profile changed after addition of fatty acids to the synthetic substrate, decreased sedimentation velocity and increased granule diameter. This behaviour was attributed to the adsorption of fatty acids onto the granules, modifying the diameter, shape and density of these bioparticles.

  18. Short Communication: Elevated Concentrations of Oleic Acid and Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Milk Fat of Multiparous Subclinical Ketotic Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, van Y.N.T.; Beeckman, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of

  19. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the

  20. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  1. Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Schwanda, Simone; Scholz, Elke; Spitzer, Manfred; Bode, Harald

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairments in children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16 weeks trial was conducted with 95 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. Behavior was assessed by parents, teachers and investigators using standardized rating scales and questionnaires. Further outcome variables were working memory, speed of information processing and various measures of attention. For a subgroup of 81 participants, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was analyzed before and after the intervention. Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols and lipids against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 2: comparison at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson, H; Traustason, B S; Kristmundsdóttir, T; Thormar, H

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some lipids and fatty alcohols have microbicidal activities against a broad variety of pathogens. In this study, virucidal activities of fatty acids, monoglycerides and fatty alcohols were tested against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) at different concentrations, times and pH levels. The most active compounds were mixed with milk products and fruit juices and the mixtures tested for virucidal effects. The aim was to determine which compounds are the most active against these respiratory viruses and could possibly be used in pharmaceutical formulations or as additives to milk products or juice. Several compounds caused a significant inactivation of virus, and there was generally a good agreement between the activities against RSV and parainfluenza virus. By changing the pH from 7 to 4.2, the virucidal activities of some of the compounds were greatly increased, i.e., they inactivated virus in a shorter time and at lower concentrations. The most active compound tested was 1-monoglyceride of capric acid, monocaprin, which also showed activity against influenza A virus and significant virucidal activities after addition to milk products and fruit juices, even at a concentration as low as 0.06-0.12%. The significant virucidal activities of fatty alcohols and lipids on RSV and parainfluenza virus demonstrated in this in vitro study raise the question of the feasibility of using such compounds as ingredients in pharmaceutical dosage forms against respiratory infections caused by these viruses, and possibly other paramyxo- and myxoviruses.

  3. Associations between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and child cognition at 7 years of age: The MEFAB birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; van de Rest, O; Godschalk, R; Zeegers, M P A; Gielen, M; de Groot, R H M

    2017-11-01

    Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences for fetal brain development and functioning. Analyses were conducted using longitudinal observational data of 292 mother-child pairs participating in the MEFAB cohort. Maternal AA, DHA, and EPA were determined in plasma phospholipids - obtained in three trimesters - by gas-liquid chromatography. Cognitive function was assessed at 7 years of age, using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, resulting in three main outcome parameters: sequential processing (short-term memory), simultaneous processing (problem-solving skills), and the mental processing composite score. Spline regression and linear regression analyses were used to analyse the data, while adjusting for potential relevant covariates. Only 2% of the children performed more than one SD below the mental processing composite norm score. Children with lower test scores (children with higher test scores (≥25%). Fully-adjusted linear regression models did not show associations of maternal AA, DHA, or EPA status during any of the pregnancy trimesters with childhood sequential and simultaneous processing. Maternal fatty acid status during pregnancy was not associated with cognitive performance in Dutch children at age 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  5. Trans monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids have similar effects on postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Siebelink, E.; Bots, M.L.; Tol, van A.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Several studies suggest that a fatty meal impairs flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a measur9e of endothelial function. We tested whether the impairment was greater for trans fats than for saturated fats. We did this because we previously showed that replacement of saturated fats by trans

  6. Tissue carnitine homeostasis in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Tokunaga, Chonan; Wendel, Udo; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Vaz, Frederic M.; van Vlies, Naomi; Overmars, Henk; Duran, Marinus; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Strauss, Arnold W.

    2005-01-01

    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation defect and presents with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines and deficiency of free carnitine have often been proposed to play an important

  7. Cross-sectional associations of cortical β-amyloid with erythrocyte membrane long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in older adults with subjective memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Claudie; De Souto Barreto, Philipe; Payoux, Pierre; Salabert, Anne Sophie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) and 6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with reduced cognitive decline in observational studies. Hence, we examined the cross-sectional associations between cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) and erythrocyte membrane PUFAs in 61 non-demented elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial placebo arm. Cortical-to-cerebellar standard uptake value ratios were obtained using [ 18 F] florbetapir positron emission tomography. Fatty acids were measured in erythrocyte membranes by gas chromatography. Associations were explored using adjusted multiple linear regression models and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.005 after correction for multiple testing (10 comparisons). We found no significant associations between cortical Aβ and erythrocyte membrane PUFAs. The associations closest to significance after adjustment were those between Aβ and erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid (without apolipoprotein E status adjustment: B-coefficient, 0.03; CI, 0.01, 0.05; p = 0.02. Including Apolipoprotein E adjustment: B-coefficient, 0.03; CI, 0.00, 0.06; p = 0.04) and Aβ and erythrocyte membrane linoleic acid (without apolipoprotein E status adjustment: B-coefficient, -0.02; CI, -0.04, 0.00; p = 0.02. Including Apolipoprotein E adjustment: B-coefficient, -0.02; CI, -0.04, 0.00; p = 0.09). Furthermore, the association between Aβ and erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid seemed to be specific to Apolipoprotein E ε4 non-carriers (B-coefficient 0.03, CI: 0.00, 0.06, p = 0.03, n = 36). In contrast, no association was found between Aβ and erythrocyte membrane linoleic acid in Apolipoprotein E ε4 stratified analysis. Investigating the relationships between Aβ and PUFAs longitudinally would provide further evidence as to whether fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, might modulate cognition through Aβ-dependent mechanisms. © 2017 International

  8. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) modulate metabolic and inflammatory markers in a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model (Stillman Salgado rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Alejandro; Repossi, Gaston; Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo T; Vanamala, Jairam; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo R

    2016-11-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM. After weaning, eSS rats received, intraperitoneally, once a month ω-3 (EPA 35% and DHA 40%-6.25 mg/Kg) or ω-6 (90% arachidonic acid- 6. 25 mg/Kg) for twelve months. Two additional groups of rats received 1.9 mg/kg NDGA added to ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Blood samples were collected at day 40, and at the end of the 6th month and 12th month of age to determine plasma triglycerides (TGs), total plasma fatty acids (FA), A1C hemoglobin (HbA1C), C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipo and hydro peroxides, nitrites and IL-6 (in plasma and liver, kidney, and pancreas) and underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well. Wistar and eSS rats that received saline solution were used as controls. Plasma lipids profile, TG, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and glycosylated HbA1C showed significant improvements in ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA treated animals compared to eSS control group. ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA groups showed an inverse correlation with fasting blood glucose and showed lower plasma levels of GGT, TG, and CRP. eSS rats treated with ω-3 LCPUFAs showed reduced level of inflammatory and oxidative indices in plasma and liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in comparison with eSS control (non-treated) and ω-6 treated groups. eSS rats are a useful model to study type 2 DM pathophysiology and related inflammatory

  9. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  10. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is inhibited by cafenstrole, N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide and its analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H.; Ohki, A.; Sato, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. [Tamagawa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Kanzaki, M. [Regulatory Affairs Dept., Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, A. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Matthes, B.; Boeger, P. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Physiologie und Biochemie der Pflanzen

    2001-10-01

    The rice herbicide cafenstrole and its analogs inhibited the incorporation of [1-{sup 14}C]-oleate and [2-{sup 14}C]-malonate into very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), using Scenedesmus cells and leek microsomes from Allium porrum. Although the precise mode of interaction of cafenstrole at the molecular level is not completely clarified by the present study, it is concluded that cafenstrole acts as a specific inhibitor of the microsomal elongase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids with alkyl chains longer than C{sub 18}. For a strong VLCFA biosynthesis inhibition an -SO{sub 2}- linkage of the 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides was required. Furthermore, N,N-dialkyl substitution of the carbamoyl nitrogen and electron-donating groups such as methyl at the benzene ring of 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides produced a strong inhibition of VLCFA formation. A correlation was found between the phytotoxic effect against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) and impaired VLCFA formation. (orig.)

  12. The effect of non-esterified long-chain fatty acids on blood flow and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue in the young dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1985-01-01

    In vitro experiments have demonstrated that increasing the molar ratio of extracellular non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to albumin stimulates thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. To test these results, in vivo blood flow and local temperature were measured in perirenal brown adipose tissue (BAT...... level. Plasma noradrenaline concentration increased about three-fold and plasma adrenaline concentration about six-fold. The BAT temperature increased by an average of 0.9 degrees C. However, since BAT blood flow was simultaneously reduced by about 50%, it can be calculated that the local heat...... production was also reduced. Consequently, the increase in whole body oxygen consumption was not due to stimulation of BAT thermogenesis. It is concluded that in vivo assessment of BAT thermogenesis requires concomitant measurements of both local BAT temperature and blood flow....

  13. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  14. Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury is Attenuated in Transgenic fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing Long-chain n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Conghui; Yan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hang; Su, Huanxing; Kang, Jing X; Shang, Chang-Zhen; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-18

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling. APAP overdose caused severe liver injury in WT mice as indicated by serum parameters, histopathological changes and hepatocyte apoptosis, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. These protective effects of n-3 PUFA were associated with regulation of the prolonged JNK activation via inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) / mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) pathway. Additionally, the augment of endogenous n-3 PUFA reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) - mediated inflammation response induced by APAP treatment in the liver. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against APAP-induced acute liver injury, suggesting that n-3 dietary supplement with n-3 PUFA may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kawelke

    Full Text Available Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2 and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity.

  16. Spexin is a Novel Human Peptide that Reduces Adipocyte Uptake of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Causes Weight Loss in Rodents with Diet-induced Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J.; Vasselli, Joseph; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most dysregulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Design and Methods Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with dietary-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [3H]-oleate uptake were determined. Results In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = −0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 μg/kg/day s.c) reduced caloric intake ~32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 μg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70μg/kg/day i.p.) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Conclusions Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. PMID:24550067

  17. Spexin is a novel human peptide that reduces adipocyte uptake of long chain fatty acids and causes weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J; Vasselli, Joseph R; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most down-regulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore, we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [(3)H]-oleate uptake were determined. In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = -0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 µg/kg/day SC) reduced caloric intake ∼32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 µg/kg/day IP) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70 µg/kg/day IP) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit neuroprotective properties and represent a potential treatment for a variety of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. However, traditionally there has been a lack of discrimination between the different omega-3 PUFAs and effects have been broadly accredited to the series as a whole. Evidence for unique effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and more recently docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is growing. For example, beneficial effects in mood disorders have more consistently been reported in clinical trials using EPA; whereas, with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, the focus has been on DHA. DHA is quantitatively the most important omega-3 PUFA in the brain, and consequently the most studied, whereas the availability of high purity DPA preparations has been extremely limited until recently, limiting research into its effects. However, there is now a growing body of evidence indicating both independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. The purpose of this review is to highlight how a detailed understanding of these effects is essential to improving understanding of their therapeutic potential. The review begins with an overview of omega-3 PUFA biochemistry and metabolism, with particular focus on the central nervous system (CNS), where DHA has unique and indispensable roles in neuronal membranes with levels preserved by multiple mechanisms. This is followed by a review of the different enzyme-derived anti-inflammatory mediators produced from EPA, DPA and DHA. Lastly, the relative protective effects of EPA, DPA and DHA in normal brain aging and the most common neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. With a greater understanding of the individual roles of EPA, DPA and DHA in brain health and repair it is hoped that appropriate dietary recommendations can be established and therapeutic interventions can be more targeted and refined.

  19. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of cancer Cachexia and tumour growth in patients with malignant diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Symington

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have the capacity to modulate cancer outcomes. The body responds to cancer in the same way that it responds to inflammation and wound healing. Nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could therefore be expected to play a role in cancer treatment. This review focuses on the role of ω-3 PUFAs in tumourigenesis and cancer cachexia. Studies indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation may promote arrest of tumour growth and reduce cell proliferation. Patients need to consume at least 2 g of EPA per day for it to have a therapeutic effect. Positive outcomes related to cachexia include diminished weight loss, increased appetite, improved quality of life and prolonged survival, although there is controversy regarding these clinical outcomes. The effects of ω-3 PUFAs on tumourigenesis and cachexia are viewed in the context of altered lipid and protein metabolism. This altered metabolism usually experienced by cancer patients results in increased formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. Cytokines play an indirect role by stimulating the production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, which support inflammation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis. It can be concluded that ω-3 PUFA supplementation offers a means of augmenting cancer therapy, inhibiting tumourigenesis and possibly contributing to cachexia alleviation. Opsomming Onlangse studies toon dat ω-3-poli-onversadigde vetsure (POVSe oor die vermoë beskik om kankeruitkomste te moduleer. Die liggaam reageer op kanker op dieselfde wyse as wat dit op inflammasie en wondgenesing reageer. Daar kan dus verwag word dat voedingstowwe met ‘n anti-inflammatoriese uitwerking ‘n rol in die behandeling van kanker kan speel. In hierdie oorsig word daar op die rol van ω-3-POVSe in tumorigenese en kankerkageksie gefokus. Studies dui daarop dat eikosapentanoënsuur- (EPS

  1. The relation of saturated fatty acids with low-grade inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight,

  2. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  3. Effect of preterm formula with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, C; Schweer, H; Jelinek, J; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Leonhardt, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP)-enriched preterm formula on the endogenous formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha as possible markers of lipid peroxidation in preterm infants during their first weeks of life. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, infants received either formula enriched with LCP (n = 8), standard preterm formula (n = 7), or (expressed) breast milk (n = 8). Urine was sampled at study entry and after the study period of 3 weeks. The formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha was evaluated by measuring the urinary excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No differences in the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha were observed at the end of the study period. This result suggests that supplementation of a preterm formula with LCP for a period of 3 weeks does not stimulate lipid peroxidation in preterm infants.

  4. Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L.M.; Tolley, E.A.; Thodosoff, J.M.; Kerling, E.H.; Sullivan, D.K.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n=54) compared to control formula (n=15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS® that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  5. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  6. Health economic potential of early nutrition programming: a model calculation of long-term reduction in blood pressure and related morbidity costs by use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; von Kries, Rüdiger; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The reported effect sizes of early nutrition programming on long-term health outcomes are often small, and it has been questioned whether early interventions would be worthwhile in enhancing public health. We explored the possible health economic consequences of early nutrition programming by performing a model calculation, based on the only published study currently available for analysis, to evaluate the effects of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on lowering blood pressure and lowering the risk of hypertension-related diseases in later life. The costs and health effects of LC-PUFA-enriched and standard infant formulas were compared by using a Markov model, including all relevant direct and indirect costs based on German statistics. We assessed the effect size of blood pressure reduction from LC-PUFA-supplemented formula, the long-term persistence of the effect, and the effect of lowered blood pressure on hypertension-related morbidity. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed an increased life expectancy of 1.2 quality-adjusted life-years and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -630 Euros (discounted to present value) for the LC-PUFA formula in comparison with standard formula. LC-PUFA nutrition was the superior strategy even when the blood pressure-lowering effect was reduced to the lower 95% CI. Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding practice, but infants who are not breastfed should receive an appropriate infant formula. Following this model calculation, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula represents an economically worthwhile prevention strategy, based on the costs derived from hypertension-linked diseases in later life. However, because our analysis was based on a single randomized controlled trial, further studies are required to verify the validity of this thesis.

  7. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at pstudy is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Cultured hypothalamic neurons are resistant to inflammation and insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Kim, Francis; Schwartz, Michael W; Wisse, Brent E

    2010-06-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation induced by high-fat feeding causes insulin and leptin resistance and contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Since in vitro exposure to saturated fatty acids causes inflammation and insulin resistance in many cultured cell types, we determined how cultured hypothalamic neurons respond to this stimulus. Two murine hypothalamic neuronal cell cultures, N43/5 and GT1-7, were exposed to escalating concentrations of saturated fatty acids for up to 24 h. Harvested cells were evaluated for activation of inflammation by gene expression and protein content. Insulin-treated cells were evaluated for induction of markers of insulin receptor signaling (p-IRS, p-Akt). In both hypothalamic cell lines, inflammation was induced by prototypical inflammatory mediators LPS and TNFalpha, as judged by induction of IkappaBalpha (3- to 5-fold) and IL-6 (3- to 7-fold) mRNA and p-IkappaBalpha protein, and TNFalpha pretreatment reduced insulin-mediated p-Akt activation by 30% (P fatty acid (100, 250, or 500 microM for neurons, whereas they did in control muscle and endothelial cell lines. Despite the lack of evidence of inflammatory signaling, saturated fatty acid exposure in cultured hypothalamic neurons causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, induces mitogen-activated protein kinase, and causes apoptotic cell death with prolonged exposure. We conclude that saturated fatty acid exposure does not induce inflammatory signaling or insulin resistance in cultured hypothalamic neurons. Therefore, hypothalamic neuronal inflammation in the setting of DIO may involve an indirect mechanism mediated by saturated fatty acids on nonneuronal cells.

  9. Differential effects of saturated fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome: a matched case-control and meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Sin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ju; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the association between plasma saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of metabolic syndrome among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan who attended a health check-up center. A case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control participants (mean age, 54.9 ± 10.7 y; 36% females) were recruited. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma (% of total fatty acids). Even-chain SFAs, including 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0, were associated with metabolic syndrome; the adjusted odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] per standard deviation [SD] difference was 3.32, [1.98-5.59]; however, very-long-chain SFAs, including 20:0, 21:0, 22:0, 23:0, and 24:0, were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome. The adjusted OR [95% CI] per SD difference was 0.67 [0.58-0.78]. The area under the receiver operative characteristic curve increased from 0.814 in the basic model to 0.815 (p = 0.54, compared with the basic model), 0.818 (p metabolic syndrome, implying that SFAs are not homogenous for the effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  11. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  12. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  13. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  14. Increasing the efficiency of sulphur dioxide in wine by using of saturated higher fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bábíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on stopping of alcoholic fermentation to leave residual sugar and the possibility of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology and storage. As a very good opportunity showed mixture of higher saturated fatty acids with a reduced dose of sulfur dioxide. Experiments have confirmed that the concentration of viable yeasts in 1 ml of wine for variants treated with a mixture of fatty acids is significantly lower than in variants treated with sulfur dioxide alone. Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine in the bottle was confirmed. Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.

  15. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in bovine cumulus cells protects the oocyte against saturated fatty acid stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, Hilde; van Tol, Helena T A; Wubbolts, Richard W; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Gadella, Bart M; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic rich and poor conditions are both characterized by elevated free fatty acid levels and have been associated with impaired female fertility. In particular, saturated free fatty acids have a dose-dependent negative impact on oocyte developmental competence, while mono-unsaturated free fatty

  16. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science; Dunstan, Graeme A.; Blackburn, Susan I. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Abell, Guy C.J.; Clementson, Lesley A. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Nichols, Peter D. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Food Futures National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Koutoulis, Anthony [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science

    2012-03-15

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, {>=}C{sub 20}) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. {beta},{beta}-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. (orig.)

  17. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  18. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  19. Adsorption of saturated fatty acid in urea complexation: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawardhani, Dwi Ardiana; Sulistyo, Hary; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Fahrurrozi, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Urea complexation is fractionation process for concentrating poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from vegetable oil or animal fats. For process design and optimization in commercial industries, it is necessary to provide kinetics and equilibrium data. Urea inclusion compounds (UICs) as the product is a unique complex form which one molecule (guest) is enclosed within another molecule (host). In urea complexation, the guest-host bonding exists between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and crystalline urea. This research studied the complexation is analogous to an adsorption process. The Batch adsorption process was developed to obtain the experimental data. The ethanolic urea solution was mixed with SFA in certain compositions and adsorption times. The mixture was heated until it formed homogenous and clear solution, then it cooled very slowly until the first numerous crystal appeared. Adsorption times for the kinetic data were determined since the crystal formed. The temperature was maintained constant at room temperature. Experimental sets of data were observed with adsorption kinetics and equilibrium models. High concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) was used to represent adsorption kinetics and equilibrium parameters. Kinetic data were examined with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intra particle diffusion models. Linier, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm were used to study the equilibrium model of this adsorption. The experimental data showed that SFA adsorption in urea crystal followed pseudo second-order model. The compatibility of the data with Langmuir isotherm showed that urea complexation was a monolayer adsorption.

  20. A human model of dietary saturated fatty acid induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ozias, Marlies K; Deer, James; Kurtz, Julie; Salbe, Arline D; Harman, S Mitchell; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT). Both diets were compared to a standard eucaloric American Heart Association (AHA) control diet in a series of crossover studies. Whole body insulin resistance was estimated as steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the last 30min of a 3-h insulin suppression test. SSPG was increased after a 24-h SFA diet (by 83±74% vs. control, n=38) in the entire cohort, which was comprised of participants with NGT (92±82%, n=22) or IGT (65±55%, n=16) (all pinsulin resistance in both NGT and IGT subjects. Insulin resistance persisted overnight after the last SFA meal and was attenuated by one day of a healthy diet. This model offers opportunities for identifying early mechanisms and potential treatments of dietary saturated fat induced insulin resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bio-plastic production under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S K; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt

    2013-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular reserve material stored by gram-negative bacteria under nutrient-limited condition. PHAs are utilized in biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) synthesis due to their similarity with conventional synthetic plastic. In the present study, the effect of addition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on the production of PHAs by the soil bacterium Alcaligenes sp. NCIM 5085 was studied. Fatty acid supplementation in basal media produced saturated and unsaturated PHAs of medium and short chain length. Gas chromatography analysis of palmitic acid-supplemented media showed the presence of short chain length (scl) PHAs which could potentially serve as precursors for bio-plastic production. The scl PHA was subsequently characterized as PHB by NMR and FTIR. On the other hand, oleic acid and linoleic acid addition showed both saturated and unsaturated PHAs of different chain lengths. Palmitic acid showed maximum PHB content of 70.8 % at concentration of 15 g l -1 under shake flask cultivation. When shake flask cultivation was scaled up in a 7.5-l bioreactor (working volume 3 l), 7.6 g l -1 PHA was produced with a PHB yield (Y P/X ) and productivity of 75.89 % and 0.14 g l -1  h, respectively.

  2. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-04-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids in the form of TAGs, but these are typically not rich in saturated fatty acids. To make yeast an attractive host for microbial production of CBLs, its fatty acid composition needs to be optimized. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains toward a modified fatty acid synthesis. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the modified strains showed that the fatty acid content as well as the titers of saturated fatty acids and the titers of TAGs were increased. The relative content of potential CBLs in the TAG pool reached up to 22% in our engineered strains, which is a 5.8-fold increase over the wild-type. SOS content reached a level of 9.8% in our engineered strains, which is a 48-fold increase over the wild type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics...... as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids...... industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature...

  4. Individual serum saturated fatty acids and markers of chronic subclinical inflammation: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos; Festa, Andreas; Bazinet, Richard P; Hanley, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Recent evidence has documented distinct effects of individual saturated FAs (SFAs) on cardiometabolic outcomes, with potential protective effects from odd- and very long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs). Cross-sectional and prospective associations of individual serum SFAs (12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, and total SFA) with proinflammatory biomarkers and adiponectin were investigated in 555 adults from the IRAS. Principal component analysis (PCA) of proinflammatory markers yielded three clusters: principal component (PC) 1: fibrinogen, white cell count, C-reactive protein; PC 2: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TNF-α, IL-18; PC 3: IL-6 and IL-8. Cross-sectional analyses on proinflammatory PCs and adiponectin, and prospective analyses on 5 year PAI-1 and fibrinogen concentrations were conducted with multiple regression. Total SFA and 16:0 were positively associated with PC 1 and PC 2, and negatively associated with adiponectin. The 14:0 was positively associated with PC 1 and negatively associated with adiponectin. In contrast, 15:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with PC 2, and 20:0 and 22:0 were positively associated with adiponectin. The 18:0 was negatively associated with PC 3. Prospectively, 15:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with 5 year PAI-1 concentrations. The results demonstrate that individual SFAs have distinct roles in subclinical inflammation, highlighting the unique metabolic impacts of individual SFAs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Saturated fatty acid in the phospholipid monolayer contributes to the formation of large lipid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Kotoko; Mitsudome, Haruka; Yoshida, Konomi; Sugimoto, Shizuka; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Yoko; Ichi, Ikuyo

    2016-01-01

    The degree of saturation of fatty acid chains in the bilayer membrane structure is known to control membrane fluidity and packing density. However, the significance of fatty acid composition in the monolayers of lipid droplets (LDs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we noted a relationship between the size of LDs and the fatty acid composition of the monolayer. To obtain large LDs, we generated NIH3T3 cells overexpressing fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27). This induced the fusion of LDs, resulting in larger LDs in FSP27-overexpressing cells compared with LDs in control cells. Moreover, the lipid extracts of LDs from FSP27-overexpressing cells reconstituted large-droplet emulsions in vitro, implying that the lipid properties of LDs might affect the size of LDs. FSP27-overexpressing cells had more saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer of the LDs compared with control cells. To further investigate the effects of the degree of phospholipid unsaturation on the size of LDs, we synthesized artificial emulsions of a lipid mixed with distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC, diC18:0-PC) and with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC, diC18:1n-9-PC) and compared the sizes of the resulting LDs. The emulsions prepared from saturated PC had larger droplets than those prepared from unsaturated PC. Our results suggest that saturated fatty acid chains in phospholipid monolayers might establish the form and/or stability of large LDs. - Highlights: • The lipid extracts of larger LDs from FSP27 cells reconstructed large-droplet emulsions. • Isolated LDs from FSP27 cells had more saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer compared with the control. • Saturated fatty acids in the phospholipid monolayer are a factor in the formation of large emulsions.

  6. Enterococcus faecalis Responds to Individual Exogenous Fatty Acids Independently of Their Degree of Saturation or Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Holly E; Harp, John R; Fozo, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract that can persist in the external environment and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Given its diverse habitats, the organism has developed numerous strategies to survive a multitude of environmental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids from bile and serum into its membrane, resulting in an induced tolerance to membrane-damaging agents. To discern whether all fatty acids induce membrane stress protection, we examined how E. faecalis responded to individually supplied fatty acids. E. faecalis readily incorporated fatty acids 14 to 18 carbons in length into its membrane but poorly incorporated fatty acids shorter or longer than this length. Supplementation with saturated fatty acids tended to increase generation time and lead to altered cellular morphology in most cases. Further, exogenously supplied saturated fatty acids did not induce tolerance to the membrane-damaging antibiotic daptomycin. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids produced variable growth effects, with some impacting generation time and morphology. Exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids that are normally produced by E. faecalis and those that are found in bile or serum could restore growth in the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitor. However, only the eukaryote-derived fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid provided protection from daptomycin. Thus, exogenous fatty acids do not lead to a common physiological effect on E. faecalis The organism responds uniquely to each, and only host-derived fatty acids induce membrane protection. IMPORTANCE Enterococcus faecalis is a commonly acquired hospital infectious agent with resistance to many antibiotics, including those that target its cellular membrane. We previously demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids found in human fluids, like serum, into its cellular membrane

  7. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  8. The relation of saturated fatty acids with low-grade inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2016-10-01

    The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD. The intimate relationship between inflammation and metabolism, including glucose, fat and cholesterol metabolism, revealed that the dyslipidemia in Western societies, notably increased triglycerides, "small dense" low-density lipoprotein and "dysfunctional" high-density lipoprotein, is influenced by many unfavorable lifestyle factors. Dietary SFA is only one of these, not necessarily the most important, in healthy, insulin-sensitive people. The environment provides us not only with many other proinflammatory stimuli than SFA but also with many antiinflammatory counterparts. Resolution of the conflict between our self-designed environment and ancient genome may rather rely on returning to the proinflammatory/antiinflammatory balance of the Paleolithic era in consonance with the 21st century culture. Accordingly, dietary guidelines might reconsider recommendations for SFA replacement and investigate diet in a broader context, together with nondietary lifestyle factors. This should be a clear priority, opposed to the reductionist approach of studying the effects of single nutrients, such as SFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols

  10. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  11. Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of a baby with a severe infant form of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, a very rare genetic disorder. The basis for the disease is a disorder of mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Accumulation of acyl-CoA-derived fatty acids causes a toxic effect on the myocardium and cardiac conduction system, liver, skeletal muscles, and other organs. The development of hypoglycemia is typical. Treatment in the acute period involves the immediately ceased delivery of long-chain triglycerides, the provision of the body with medium-chain triglycerides, and the correction of glycemia. In our observation the baby was born at term with a satisfactory condition in a family with a poor history (the first baby had suddenly died at the age of 3,5 months. The disease manifested itself as bradyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest on day 2 of life. The clinical symptom complex also included hepatomegalia, hypoglycemic episodes, lactate acidosis, and elevated blood levels of cytolytic enzymes and creatine phosphokinase. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the high blood values of acylcarnitines (primarily C14:1 and verified by a molecular genetic examination. Syndrome therapy and dietotherapy resulted in the abolishment of the abnormality. At the age of 2 years of life, the infant’s physical, motor, mental, and speech development corresponded to his age although he had mild right-sided hemiparesis. Thus, timely therapy determines the favorable prognosis of the disease even in its severe infant forms. 

  12. Differential effects of saturated versus unsaturated dietary fatty acids on weight gain and myocellular lipid profiles in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Vogel-van den Bosch, de H.M.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Schaart, G.; Beurden, van D.; Hesselink, M.; Meer, van der R.W.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:
    In conditions of continuous high-fat (HF) intake, the degree of saturation of the fatty acids (FAs) in the diet might have a crucial role in the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. In particular, the FA composition of the diet might influence the storage form of lipids

  13. Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Kiel, Douglas P; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish may influence bone health. Objective: We aimed to examine associations between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intakes and hip bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline (1988–1989; n = 854) and changes 4 y later in adults (n = 623) with a mean age of 75 y in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Design: BMD measures were regressed on energy-adjusted quartiles of fatty acid intakes [n−3 (omega-3): α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+ DHA; n−6 (omega-6): linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA); and n−6:n−3 ratio] and on categorized fish intakes, with adjustment for covariates. Effect modification by EPA+DHA intake was tested for n−6 exposures. Results: High intakes (≥3 servings/wk) of fish relative to lower intakes were associated with maintenance of femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD) in men (dark fish + tuna, dark fish, and tuna) and in women (dark fish) (P < 0.05). Significant interactions between AA and EPA+DHA intakes were observed cross-sectionally in women and longitudinally in men. In women with EPA+DHA intakes at or above the median, those with the highest AA intakes had a higher mean baseline FN-BMD than did those with the lowest intakes (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: P = 0.03, P for trend = 0.02). In men with the lowest EPA+DHA intakes (quartile 1), those with the highest intakes of AA (quartile 4) lost more FN-BMD than did men with the lowest intakes of AA (quartile 1; P = 0.04). LA intake tended to be associated with FN-BMD loss in women (P for trend < 0.06). Conclusions: Fish consumption may protect against bone loss. The protective effects of a high AA intake may be dependent on the amount of EPA+DHA intake. PMID:21367955

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION Repellency property of long chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repellency property of long chain aliphatic methyl ketones against Anopheles gambiae s.s ... tained from huge diversity of plant species are an important source of safe .... dry and then introduced with the hand covered by a glove in .... citronellal in repelling bees from basil (Oci- ... Journal of American Mosquito Control As-.

  15. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  16. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  17. “Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  18. Saturated fatty acids, palm oil and cardiovascular health – where do we stand today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Khosla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For  almost  sixty years dietary fat  has  been  the  focal  point  for reducing the risk  from  coronary  heart  disease (CHD.  With  evidence  based  largely on  animal  and  observational  studies documenting that  saturated fatty acids (SFA  increase LDL-C (with the latter being associated with increased CHD risk, the notion that SFA increased CHD, became etched in folklore. As a consequence,   decreasing   SFA   to   <10%   of   total   calories,   became   the corner-stone   of   global   dietary recommendations. Ironically, the fact that SFA increased the large buoyant LDL particles (as opposed to small-dense atherogenic LDL particles, or that they increased the cardio-protective HDL-C and in some instances, lowered the atherogenic Lp(a, went largely unnoticed. However a spate of studies starting in 2009 has dramatically challenged our thinking on the “widely accepted” role of SFA.  Twenty year follow up data from prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that only two classes of fatty acids affect CHD risk, namely trans monounsaturated fatty acids (resulting principally from the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA – which increase and decrease risk, respectively. These studies suggested that when  replacing/removing  SFA   from  the  diet,  the  replacement  nutrient  may  be  as important. Thus SFA replacement with PUFA may provide small benefits, but the replacement represents a dramatic shift in dietary regimen. The effects of replacing SFA with MUFA were inconclusive. If SFA are replaced with carbohydrates, then the quality of the carbohydrate (as measured by the glycemic index is also important. Earlier this year, a highly publicized study found no benefit on CHD even when SFA were replaced by PUFA, and questioned the usefulness of this public health message. The data on SFA has had a profound effect on the perceived role of

  19. Effects of dietary fat on the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The effect of dietary fats differing in fatty acid (FA) composition on the metabolism of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in growing pigs was investigated. The deposition of FA in the body and the fate of individual dietary FA were assessed after slaughter. Gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 60 kg were used as experimental animals. Six pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW, while further 18 pigs received three isoenergetic and isonitrogen experimental diets containing linseed oil, rapeseed oil or beef tallow at 50 g/kg diet until they reached 105 kg (six pigs per group). The chemical composition and the content of FA in the whole body were determined and compared across groups. Regardless of dietary treatment, the whole body contained similar amounts of protein, fat and total FA. The total accumulation (percentage of net intake and de novo production) of SFA and MUFA was similar in all groups, but the processes of elongation and desaturation of SFA and MUFA depended upon the type of FA added to the diet. A high dietary content and intake of MUFA inhibits desaturation compared to SFA- and PUFA-rich diets, whereas a high SFA content and intake lowers elongation rate. The increasing net intake of total SFA and MUFA was associated with a lower total de novo production of these FA in the whole body of pigs.

  20. Assessing whether early attention of very preterm infants can be improved by an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intervention: a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Colombo, John; Collins, Carmel T; Makrides, Maria; Hewawasam, Erandi; Smithers, Lisa G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the frontal lobes (responsible for higher-order cognitive skills) of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm miss some of this in utero provision of DHA, and have an increased risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment. It is thought that supplementing infants born preterm with DHA may improve developmental outcomes. The aim of this follow-up is to determine whether DHA supplementation in infants born preterm can improve areas of the brain associated with frontal lobe function, namely attention and distractibility. Methods and analysis We will assess a subset of children from the N-3 (omega-3) Fatty Acids for Improvement in Respiratory Outcomes (N3RO) multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial of DHA supplementation. Infants born cognition, language and motor development with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. A minimum of 72 children will be assessed to ensure 85% power to detect an effect on the primary outcome. Families, and research personnel are blinded to group assignment. All analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principal. Ethics and dissemination All procedures were approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees prior to commencement of the study. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal publications and academic presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12612000503820; Pre-results. PMID:29804059

  1. Diets Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio Decrease Liver Content of Saturated Fatty Acids Across Generations of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Halfen

    Full Text Available Our study evaluated how the consumption of diets with low (LOW group - 0.4/1 or high (CON group - 13.6/1 omega-6/omega-3 ratio across generations (F1 and F2 can modulate liver fatty acid (FA profile and blood biomarkers. Liver content of α-linolenic acid was higher in animals always fed with LOW diet than animals that changed from CON to LOW diet, which by your time was higher than animals always fed with CON diet. Liver saturated FA concentration decreased in both groups from F1 to F2. In conclusion, both diets were efficient in decreasing the saturated FA liver content across generations, the LOW ratio diet was more effective in reducing blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and there was a multigenerational effect of the LOW ratio diet, improving the FA profile even when the offspring start receiving the CON diet.

  2. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  4. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic

  5. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  6. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Diet is one factor that plays a part in coronary heart disease risk through multiple biological mechanisms including subclinical inflammation. In this review, we aimed to systematically assess and summarize evidence regarding the association of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with inflammatory markers and adipokines. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to September 2010 using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct (updated from September 2010 to August 2011 through Medline). Original studies that were written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and addressed the effects of SFA (not dietary sources or SFA-rich diets) on inflammatory markers or adipokines in adult populations were considered eligible. Data from 15 studies providing adjusted estimates were extracted. The publication year varied from 1995 to 2010 and the sample size from 54 to 4900. Most studies were cross sectional, with 3 studies using a prospective design. Twelve studies assessed total SFA, and 3 studies considered their subtypes, which were measured through dietary assessments (11 studies) or in blood samples (4 studies). Significant positive associations were observed between SFA and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6, whereas no significant associations were observed with E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibrinogen, and adiponectin. For high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2 studies showed significant positive associations, whereas 3 studies reported no significant associations. One study reported a significant inverse association of SFA with leptin, although the other 3 found no significant associations. Based on this systematic review, a potential positive association of SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein but not with adipokines is suggested, which should be confirmed by future research. © 2013.

  7. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  8. Investigation of the effects of the fatty acid profile on fuel properties using a multi-criteria decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Muhammad Aminul; Brown, Richard J.; Brooks, P.R.; Jahirul, M.I.; Bockhorn, H.; Heimann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Long chain mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1) have positive impact on CN. • Very long chain unsaturated fatty acids (C20:5, C22:5, C22:6) increase the fuel density and decrease the cetane number. • Calculated CN overestimated the impact of very long chain unsaturated fatty acids. - Abstract: The structural features of fatty acids in biodiesel, including degree of unsaturation, percentage of saturated fatty acids and average chain length, influence important fuel properties such as cetane number, iodine value, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value and oxidation stability. The composition of fatty acid esters within the fuel should therefore be in the correct ratio to ensure fuel properties are within international biodiesel standards such as ASTM 6751 or EN 14214. This study scrutinises the influence of fatty acid composition and individual fatty acids on fuel properties. Fuel properties were estimated based on published equations, and measured according to standard procedure ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 to confirm the influences of the fatty acid profile. Based on fatty acid profile-derived calculations, the cetane number of the microalgal biodiesel was estimated to be 11.6, but measured 46.5, which emphasises the uncertainty of the method used for cetane number calculation. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), PROMETHEE–GAIA, was used to determine the influence of individual fatty acids on fuel properties in the GAIA plane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids increased the iodine value and had a negative influence on cetane number. Kinematic viscosity was negatively influenced by some long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C20:5 and C22:6 and some of the more common saturated fatty acids C14:0 and C18:0. The positive impact of average chain length on higher heating value was also confirmed in the GAIA plane

  9. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  10. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  11. Long-chain inulin for stimulating an immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paulus; Vogt, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a long chain inulin for influencing the immune response against a pathogen. The invention also relates to a combination comprising a long chain inulin and a vaccine for influencing the immune response against a pathogen, wherein the long chain inulin is orally administrated.

  12. Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoğlu, Halime; Demirci, Mehmet; Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Karasu, Salih; Sagdic, Osman

    2018-05-24

    Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification, and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content. One of the promising ways is using oleogels, structuring oils with oleogelators. In this review, history, raw materials and production methods of the oleogels and their functions in oleogel quality were mentioned. Moreover, studies related with oleogel usage in different products were summarized and positive and negative aspects of oleogel were also mentioned. Considering the results of the related studies, it can be concluded that oleogels can be used in the formulation of bakery products, breakfast spreads, margarines, chocolates and chocolate-derived products and some of the meat products.

  13. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  14. Preparation of H3-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids by heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange in solution with gaseous tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of preparing 3 H-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids in the dioxane solution using the method of isotopic heterogenous catalytic exchange with gaseous tritium, is suggested. 3 H-labelled natural fatty acids (C 12 -C 18 ) are prepared by alkaline hydrolysis [ru

  15. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  16. Positional specificity of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidic acid from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possmayer, F.; Scherphof, G.L.; Dubbelman, T.M.A.R.; Golde, L.M.G. van; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1969-01-01

    1. 1. The relative incorporation of a number of radioactive fatty acids into the different glycerolipids of rat liver microsomes has been investigated. 2. 2. Studies on the distribution of the radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid

  17. Saturated fatty acids and fatty acid esters promote the polymorphic transition of clarithromycin metastable form I crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miteki; Mizoguchi, Midori; Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-10-15

    The phase transition of active pharmaceutical ingredients should be taken into account during manufacturing, processing- and storage, because different crystal forms lead to different physical properties of formulations. The phase transition of clarithromycin (CAM) metastable form I to stable form II was investigated on heating with additives such as fatty acids or fatty acid esters. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that when form I was heated with additives, the phase transition temperature of form I decreased close to the melting points of the additives. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the tentative presence of a non-crystalline component during the transition of form I to form II on heating with additives. These observations implied that CAM form I dissolved in the melted additives on heating and the dissolved CAM crystallized to form II. Reduction of transition temperatures in the presence of additives were also observed for the crystals of nifedipine form B and carbamazepine form III. These results suggested that the phenomena can be widely applicable for simultaneous crystalline phase transition and granulation using binder additives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Triacylglyceride composition and fatty acyl saturation profile of a psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungal species grown at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Blair, Hannah B; Fischer, Amy E; Gerdes, Cheyenne L; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus that infects cutaneous tissues in cave dwelling bats, and it is the causal agent for white nose syndrome (WNS) in North American (NA) bat populations. Geomyces pannorum is a related psychrotolerant keratinolytic species that is rarely a pathogen of mammals. In this study, we grew P. destructans and G. pannorum in static liquid cultures at favourable and suboptimal temperatures to: 1) determine if triacylglyceride profiles are species-specific, and 2) determine if there are differences in fatty acyl (FA) saturation levels with respect to temperature. Total lipids isolated from both fungal spp. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and determined to be primarily sterols (∼15 %), free fatty acids (FFAs) (∼45 %), and triacylglycerides (TAGs) (∼50 %), with minor amounts of mono-/diacylglycerides and sterol esters. TAG compositions were profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and acyl lipid unsaturation levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pseudogymnoascus destructans produced higher proportions of unsaturated 18C fatty acids and TAGs than G. pannorum. Pseudogymnoascus destructans and G. pannorum produced up to a two-fold increase in 18:3 fatty acids at 5 °C than at higher temperatures. TAG proportion for P. destructans at upper and lower temperature growth limits was greater than 50 % of total dried mycelia mass. These results indicate fungal spp. alter acyl lipid unsaturation as a strategy to adapt to cold temperatures. Differences between their glycerolipid profiles also provide evidence for a different metabolic strategy to support psychrophilic growth, which may influence P. destructans' pathogenicity to bats. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carareto, Natália D.D. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Adenílson O. dos [Social Sciences, Health and Technology Center, University of Maranhão, UFMA, CEP 65900-410 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Rolemberg, Marlus P. [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Alfenas, UNIFAL, Rodovia José AurélioVilela, CEP 37715400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Cardoso, Lisandro P. [Institute of Physics GlebWataghin, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa, Mariana C. [School of Applied Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A., E-mail: tomze@fea.unicamp.br [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min{sup −1} and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state.

  20. Supplementation with bypass fat in silvopastoral systems diminishes the ratio of milk saturated/unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahecha, L; Angulo, J; Salazar, B; Cerón, M; Gallo, J; Molina, C H; Molina, E J; Suárez, J F; Lopera, J J; Olivera, M

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate if supplementing bypass fat to cows under silvopastoral systems, increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk, thus improving the saturated/ unsaturated ratio without a negative effect on total milk yield in fat or protein. Two concentrations of two different sources of bypass fat were evaluated for 40 days, each in a group of 24 multiparous Lucerna (Colombian breed) cows. A cross-over design of 8 Latin squares 3 x 3 was used. The variables submitted to analysis were body condition, daily milk production and milk composition. Body condition, milk yield and milk quality were not different but there was a significant decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acid in both experiments while the unsaturated fat increased significantly in experiment 1 and remained stable in experiment 2. Results, such as these have as far as we know, not been reported previously and they provide an approach for the improvement of milk as a "functional food".

  1. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Santos, Adenílson O. dos; Rolemberg, Marlus P.; Cardoso, Lisandro P.; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min −1 and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state

  2. Saturation and desaturation of fatty acids in digestion channel and its wall in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyushov, V.M.; Aliev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is stated that ration physical structure has considerable effect on hydrogenation of unsaturated acids in ruminants rumens. Saturation of unsaturated acids decreases with the ration of crushed granulated feeds. The gastrointestinal stenosis possessing desaturation activity dehydrogenizes octadecanoic acid formed by microorganisms in pregasters and provides sheep (ruminants) organism with unsaturated acids

  3. Intracellular long-chain acyl CoAs activate TRPV1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available TRPV1 channels are an important class of membrane proteins that play an integral role in the regulation of intracellular cations such as calcium in many different tissue types. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 is a known positive modulator of TRPV1 channels and the negatively charged phosphate groups interact with several basic amino acid residues in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain of the TRPV1 channel. We and other groups have shown that physiological sub-micromolar levels of long-chain acyl CoAs (LC-CoAs, another ubiquitous anionic lipid, can also act as positive modulators of ion channels and exchangers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 channel activity is similarly regulated by LC-CoAs. Our results show that LC-CoAs are potent activators of the TRPV1 channel and interact with the same PIP2-binding residues in TRPV1. In contrast to PIP2, LC-CoA modulation of TRPV1 is independent of Ca2+i, acting in an acyl side-chain saturation and chain-length dependent manner. Elevation of LC-CoAs in intact Jurkat T-cells leads to significant increases in agonist-induced Ca2+i levels. Our novel findings indicate that LC-CoAs represent a new fundamental mechanism for regulation of TRPV1 channel activity that may play a role in diverse cell types under physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter fatty acid transport and metabolism such as obesity and diabetes.

  4. The older people, omega-3, and cognitive health (EPOCH trial design and methodology: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial investigating the effect of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive ageing and wellbeing in cognitively healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have suggested an association between omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs and better cognitive outcomes in older adults. To date, only two randomised, controlled trials have assessed the effect of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older cognitively healthy populations. Of these trials only one found a benefit, in the subgroup carrying the ApoE-ε4 allele. The benefits of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older normal populations thus still remain unclear. The main objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential of n-3 LC PUFAs to slow cognitive decline in normal elderly people, and included ApoE-ε4 allele carriage as a potential moderating factor. The detailed methodology of the trial is reported herein. Methods The study was a parallel, 18-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with assessment at baseline and repeated 6-monthly. Participants (N = 391, 53.7% female aged 65-90 years, English-speaking and with normal cognitive function, were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants in the intervention arm received capsules containing fish-oil at a daily dosage of 1720 mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 600 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm received the equivalent amount of olive oil in their capsules. The primary outcome is rate of change in cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables for the cognitive constructs (encompassing Reasoning, Working Memory, Short-term Memory, Retrieval Fluency, Inhibition, Simple and Choice-Reaction Time, Perceptual Speed, Odd-man-out Reaction Time, Speed of Memory Scanning, and Psychomotor Speed and assessed by latent growth curve modeling. Secondary outcomes are change in the Mini-mental State Examination, functional capacity and well-being (including health status, depression, mood, and self

  5. Role of Inflammatory Signaling in the Differential Effects of Saturated and Poly-unsaturated Fatty Acids on Peripheral Circadian Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Moon Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory signaling may play a role in high-fat diet (HFD-related circadian clock disturbances that contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, palmitate, the prevalent proinflammatory saturated fatty acid (SFA in HFD and the anti-inflammatory, poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, were analyzed for effects on circadian timekeeping and inflammatory responses in peripheral clocks. Prolonged palmitate, but not DHA, exposure increased the period of fibroblast Bmal1-dLuc rhythms. Acute palmitate treatment produced phase shifts of the Bmal1-dLuc rhythm that were larger in amplitude as compared to DHA. These phase-shifting effects were time-dependent and contemporaneous with rhythmic changes in palmitate-induced inflammatory responses. Fibroblast and differentiated adipocyte clocks exhibited cell-specific differences in the time-dependent nature of palmitate-induced shifts and inflammation. DHA and other inhibitors of inflammatory signaling (AICAR, cardamonin repressed palmitate-induced proinflammatory responses and phase shifts of the fibroblast clock, suggesting that SFA-mediated inflammatory signaling may feed back to modulate circadian timekeeping in peripheral clocks.

  6. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  7. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  8. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  9. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  10. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen condensation during

  11. Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids induce gene expression of energy metabolism-related pathways in adipose tissue of abdominally obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matualatupauw, J.C.; Bohl, Mette; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, K.; Afman, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body

  12. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; Schouw, van der Yvonne T.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  13. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  14. Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Koulman, A.; Sharp, S.J.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2

  15. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  16. Saturated fatty acid palmitate negatively regulates autophagy by promoting ATG5 protein degradation in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Aritra; Yammani, Raghunatha R

    2018-07-20

    Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3. Pretreatment of meniscus cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, or with MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, restored normal levels of ATG5 and autophagosome formation, and decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3. Thus, our data suggest that palmitate downregulates autophagy in meniscus cells by degrading ATG5 protein via ER-associated protein degradation, and thus promotes apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates autophagy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in pequi fruits by capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. de Castro Barra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, an alternative method has been proposed for simultaneous analysis of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using indirect detection. The background electrolyte (BGE used for the analysis of these fatty acids (FAs consisted of 15.0 mmol L−1 NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 at pH 6.86, 4.0 mmol L−1 SDBS, 8.3 mmol L−1 Brij 35, 45% v/v acetonitrile (can, and 2.1% n-octanol. The FAs quantification of FAs was performed using a response factor approach, which provided a high analytical throughput for the real sample. The CZE method, which was applied successfully for the analysis of pequi pulp, has advantages such as short analysis time, absence of lipid fraction extraction and derivatization steps, and no significant difference in the 95% confidence intervals for FA quantification results, compared to the gas chromatography official method (AOCS Ce 1h-05.

  18. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort : Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Sluijs, I.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  20. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  1. Effects of Chain Length and Saturability of Fatty Acids on Phospholipids and Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Bamikole, Musibau Adungbe; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-12-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma are essential substrates for de novo synthesis of milk fat, or directly import into mammary cells. The physico-chemical properties of mammary cells membrane composition affected by FFAs with different chain lengths and saturability are unclear yet. Employing GC, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, the adsorption capacity, phospholipids content, membrane proteins conformation, lipid peroxidation product, and free sulfhydryl of plasma membranes (PMs) interacted with different FFAs were determined. The mammary cells PMs at 38 and 39.5 °C showed different adsorption capacities: acetic acid (Ac) > stearic acid (SA) > β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) > trans10, cis12 CLA. In the FTIR spectrum, the major adsorption peaks appeared at 2920 and 2850 cm -1 for phospholipids, and at 1628 and 1560 cm -1 for membrane proteins. The intensities of PMs-FFAs complexes were varied with the FFAs species and their initial concentrations. The β-sheet and turn structures of membrane proteins were transferred into random coil and α-helix after BHBA, SA and trans10, cis12 CLA treatments compared with Ac treatment. The quenching effects on the fluorescence of endogenous membrane protein, 1, 8-ANS, NBD-PE, and DHPE entrapped in PMs by LCFA were different from those of short chain FFAs. These results indicate that the adsorption of FFAs could change membrane protein conformation and polarity of head group in phospholipids. This variation of the mammary cells PMs was regulated by carbon chain length and saturability of FFAs.

  2. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  3. Effects of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Tartrakoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects on finishing pigs (80–100 kg BW fed diets supplemented with oil sources containing different ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA:SFA ratio were evaluated in 15 barrows and 15 gilts (Duroc × Large White × Landrace. Three experimental diets were evaluated using a randomized complete block design, with broken rice, soybean meal and rice bran as the main feedstuffs in the control diet. Diets 2 and 3 consisted of the control diet supplemented with 3% oil, with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 found in the average daily gain (ADG of the pigs fed the treatment diets; however, the pigs fed the control diet and diet 3 had better (P  0.05 among the treatment groups with regard to the carcass quality of the pigs; however, it was found that the gilts had greater (P < 0.01 loin eye areas than the barrows fed diets 2 and 3 and the loin eye area of pig fed diet 2 was the largest (P < 0.05. In the case of the meat quality parameters, it was clearly found that the pigs fed the control diet had a greater (P < 0.05 lightness (L∗ in the meat colour, and the lowest cooking loss was found in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with fat containing the UFA:SFA ratio of 5:1. Overall, the dietary treatment did not significantly affect the drip loss, thawing loss and shear force of the pork. In conclusion, the supplementation of oil with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1 has the potential to improve pork quality.

  4. Dietary intake and food sources of fatty acids in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Ambrosini, Gina; Beilin, Lawrie J; Mori, Trevor A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fat consumed during childhood and adolescence may be related to the development of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases in adulthood; however, there is a lack of information on specific fatty acid intakes and food sources in these populations. Our study aimed to assess fatty acid intakes in Australian adolescents, compare intakes with national guidelines, and identify major food sources of fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using measured 3-d records in 822 adolescents aged 13-15 y participating in The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Australia. Mean daily total fat intakes were 90 ± 25 g for boys and 73 ± 20 g for girls, with saturated fat contributing 14% of total energy intake. Mean contribution to daily energy intake for linoleic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were 3.0%, 0.40%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.04%, respectively, for boys, and 3.3%, 0.42%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.05% for girls. To meet guidelines for chronic disease prevention, consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in this population may need to increase up to three-fold and the proportion of saturated fat decrease by one-third. Girls were more likely to achieve the guidelines. Major food sources were dairy products for total fat, saturated fat and alpha-linolenic acid, margarines for linoleic acid, and fish for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Results suggest that for this population, a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly for boys, and lower proportion of saturated fat is required to meet recommendations for prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  6. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  7. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long- chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  8. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Harry R; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-02-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which 4 decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso-branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty acid-overproducing Escherichia coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) produced the same C(27) monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or-ACP [acyl carrier protein]) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which

  9. Effect of the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the melting and crystallization profiles of high-oleic high-stearic oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootello, M.A.; Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules are commonly considered as factors that determine the physical properties of a given oil or fat. The distribution of any fatty acid in fats and oils can be described through the α coefficient of asymmetry, which can be calculated from the TAG composition and fatty acid composition of the Sn-2 position of the TAGs determined through lipase hydrolysis. High-oleic high-stearic oils and fats are considered stable and healthy, and they are good substitutes for hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm fractions in many food products, such as spreads and confectionery. Here, different high-oleic high-stearic acid oils were formulated which contained different distributions of saturated fatty acids in their TAGs, while maintaining a similar fatty acid composition. The aim of this work was to discuss the possibility of using the α coefficient to predict the physical properties of fats in function of their chemical composition and their melting and crystallization behavior as examined by differential scanning calorimetry.

  10. Saturated Branched Chain, Normal Odd-Carbon-Numbered, and n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Freshwater Fish in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Hao; Jackson, James R; Twining, Cornelia; Rudstam, Lars G; Zollweg-Horan, Emily; Kraft, Clifford; Lawrence, Peter; Kothapalli, Kumar; Wang, Zhen; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-10-04

    The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mean BCFA content across all species was 1.0 ± 0.5% (mean ± SD) of total fatty acids in edible muscle, with rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) the highest at >2% BCFA. In comparison, EPA + DHA constituted 28% ± 7% of total fatty acids. Across all fish species, the major BCFA were iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0 and anteiso-17:0. Fish skin had significantly higher BCFA content than muscle tissues, at 1.8% ± 0.7%, but lower EPA and DHA. Total BCFA in fish skins was positively related with that in muscle (r 2 = 0.6). The straight chain saturates n-15:0 and n-17:0 which have been identified previously as markers for dairy consumption were relatively high with means of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, and may be an underappreciated marker for seafood intake. Consuming a standardized portion, 70 g (2.5 oz), of wild freshwater fish contributes only small amounts of BCFA, 2.5-24.2 mg, to the American diet, while it adds surprisingly high amounts of EPA + DHA (107 mg to 558 mg).

  11. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  12. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  13. Alpha linolenic acid in maternal diet halts the lipid disarray due to saturated fatty acids in the liver of mice offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomonov-Wagner, Limor; Raz, Amiram; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-02-26

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3) in maternal diets has been shown to attenuate obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring in mice. The objective in the present study was to detect the early effects of maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and their partial substitution with ω-3 ALA, docosa hexenoic acid (DHA,22:6) and eicosapentenoic acid 20:5 (EPA,20:5) on the HOMA index, liver lipids and fatty acid desaturases in the offspring at weaning. 3 month old C57Bl6/J female mice were fed diets containing normal amount of calories but rich in SFA alone or partially replaced with ALA, DHA or EPA before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant mice fed SFA produced offspring with the highest HOMA index, liver lipids and desaturase activities. ALA prevented SFA induced lipid increase but DHA and EPA only reduced it by 42% and 31% respectively. ALA, DHA and EPA decreased HOMA index by 84%, 75% and 83% respectively. ALA, DHA and EPA decreased Δ6 and SCD1 desaturase activities about 30%. SFA feeding to mothers predisposes their offspring to develop IR and liver lipid accumulation already at weaning. ω3 fatty acids reduce IR, ALA halts lipid accumulation whereas DHA and EPA only blunt it.ALA and DHA restore the increased SCD1 to normal. These studies suggest that ω-3 fatty acids have different potencies to preclude lipid accumulation in the offspring partially by affecting pathways associated to SCD1 modulation.

  14. Spectra-structure correlations of saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids. Near-infrared and anharmonic DFT study of hexanoic acid and sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ishigaki, Mika; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-05

    Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids. Broad range of concentration levels from 5·10 -4 M in CCl 4 to pure samples are investigated. The major role of cyclic dimers can be evidenced for the vast majority of these samples. A highly specific NIR feature of fatty acids, the elevation of spectral baseline around 6500-4000cm -1 , is being explained by the contributions of combination bands resulting from the vibrations of hydrogen-bonded OH groups in the cyclic dimers. Based on the high agreement between the calculated and experimental NIR spectra, a detailed NIR band assignments are proposed for hexanoic acid and sorbic acid. Subsequently, the correlations between the structure and NIR spectra are elucidated, emphasizing the regions in which clear and universal traces of specific bands corresponding to saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains can be established, thus demonstrating the wavenumber regions highly valuable for structural identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of long-chain bases in yeast promotes their conversion to a long-chain base vinyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Lone, Museer A.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Schneiter3, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain bases (LCBs) are the precursors to ceramide and sphingolipids in eukaryotic cells. They are formed by the action of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT), a complex of integral membrane proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. SPT activity is negatively regulated by Orm proteins to prevent the toxic overaccumulation of LCBs. Here we show that overaccumulation of LCBs in yeast results in their conversion to a hitherto undescribed LCB derivative, an LCB vinyl ether. The ...

  16. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    In a randomized crossover study, plasma kinetics of 2 different types of fat emulsions were studied in 8 healthy volunteers by using a hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. The method involves the stabilization of serum triglyceride (TG) concentration during 180 minutes at a predetermined level (4 mmol/L) by adjustment of TG infusion rate by repeated online measurements of serum TG concentration. The fat emulsions under study were a long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (LCT) emulsion (Intralipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi, Sweden) and a structured triglyceride (STG) emulsion (Structolipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi) where medium- and long-chain fatty acids have been interesterified within a TG molecule. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp was found to have acceptable reproducibility when tested in 3 healthy individuals on 2 different occasions, as similar steady-state TG levels were obtained by infusing similar amounts of fat. The average (+/-SEM) TG concentration during the 180-minute clamp was similar for STGs and LCTs (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; not significant), but the amount of fat that had to be infused was significantly higher during STG than during LCT clamping (0.31 +/- 0.04 vs 0.21 +/- 0.02 g TG per minute; P < .05). Higher serum levels of free fatty acids (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs 0.96 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; P < .05), free glycerol (1.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.76 +/- 0.08 mmol/L; P < .001), and beta-OH butyrate (1.61 +/- 0.44 vs 1.17 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; not significant) were obtained at the end of the clamp during infusion of STGs compared with LCTs. During infusion of STGs the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic (C:8) and decanoic acid (C:10) constituted approximately half of circulating fatty acids that correspond to the compositional ratio of the emulsion. Plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentration was higher during STG than during LCT clamping (6.06 +/- 0.62 vs 3.15 +/- 0.40 mU/mL; P < .05), and there was a positive correlation between the mean LPL concentration and the amount of

  17. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  18. Bioavailability of seocalcitol I: Relating solubility in biorelevant media with oral bioavailability in rats--effect of medium and long chain triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Mette; Pedersen, Gitte P; Nielsen, Jeanet L

    2005-01-01

    Simulated intestinal media (SIM) containing bile salt (BS) and phospholipids (PL) with and without medium chain lipolytic products (MC-LP) or long chain lipolytic products (LC-LP) were developed to study the solubility of seocalcitol. Both MC-LP and LC-LP were studied in order to investigate...... the influence of fatty acid chain length on the in vitro solubility of seocalcitol. The same solubility of seocalcitol was found in media containing either MC-LP or LC-LP. The bioavailability after oral administration of seocalcitol dissolved in medium chain triglyceride (MCT), long chain triglyceride (LCT...

  19. Selective fermentation of carbohydrate and protein fractions of Scenedesmus, and biohydrogenation of its lipid fraction for enhanced recovery of saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Parameswaran, Prathap; Li, Ang; Aguinaga, Alyssa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    Biofuels derived from microalgae have promise as carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. However, difficulty extracting microalgae-derived lipids and the co-extraction of non-lipid components add major costs that detract from the benefits of microalgae-based biofuel. Selective fermentation could alleviate these problems by managing microbial degradation so that carbohydrates and proteins are hydrolyzed and fermented, but lipids remain intact. We evaluated selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass in batch experiments buffered at pH 5.5, 7, or 9. Carbohydrates were fermented up to 45% within the first 6 days, protein fermentation followed after about 20 days, and lipids (measured as fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) were conserved. Fermentation of the non-lipid components generated volatile fatty acids, with acetate, butyrate, and propionate being the dominant products. Selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass increased the amount of extractable FAME and the ratio of FAME to crude lipids. It also led to biohydrogenation of unsaturated FAME to more desirable saturated FAME (especially to C16:0 and C18:0), and the degree of saturation was inversely related to the accumulation of hydrogen gas after fermentation. Moreover, the microbial communities after selective fermentation were enriched in bacteria from families known to perform biohydrogenation, i.e., Porphyromonadaceae and Ruminococcaceae. Thus, this study provides proof-of-concept that selective fermentation can improve the quantity and quality of lipids that can be extracted from Scenedesmus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  1. Extensive impact of saturated fatty acids on metabolic and cardiovascular profile in rats with diet-induced obesity: a canonical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Junior, Silvio A; Padovani, Carlos R; Rodrigues, Sergio A; Silva, Nilza R; Martinez, Paula F; Campos, Dijon Hs; Okoshi, Marina P; Okoshi, Katashi; Dal-Pai, Maeli; Cicogna, Antonio C

    2013-04-15

    Although hypercaloric interventions are associated with nutritional, endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders in obesity experiments, a rational distinction between the effects of excess adiposity and the individual roles of dietary macronutrients in relation to these disturbances has not previously been studied. This investigation analyzed the correlation between ingested macronutrients (including sucrose and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids) plus body adiposity and metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular effects in rats with diet-induced obesity. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were submitted to Control (CD; 3.2 Kcal/g) and Hypercaloric (HD; 4.6 Kcal/g) diets for 20 weeks followed by nutritional evaluation involving body weight and adiposity measurement. Metabolic and hormonal parameters included glycemia, insulin, insulin resistance, and leptin. Cardiovascular analysis included systolic blood pressure profile, echocardiography, morphometric study of myocardial morphology, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression. Canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between dietary macronutrients plus adiposity and metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular parameters. Although final group body weights did not differ, HD presented higher adiposity than CD. Diet induced hyperglycemia while insulin and leptin levels remained unchanged. In a cardiovascular context, systolic blood pressure increased with time only in HD. Additionally, in vivo echocardiography revealed cardiac hypertrophy and improved systolic performance in HD compared to CD; and while cardiomyocyte size was unchanged by diet, nuclear volume and collagen interstitial fraction both increased in HD. Also HD exhibited higher relative β-MHC content and β/α-MHC ratio than their Control counterparts. Importantly, body adiposity was weakly associated with cardiovascular effects, as saturated fatty acid intake was directly associated with most cardiac remodeling

  2. Long-chain α,ω-dioic acids as inducers of cyclosporin A-insensitive nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria loaded with calcium or strontium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, M V; Adakeeva, S I; Samartsev, V N

    2013-04-01

    Long-chain saturated monocarboxylic fatty acids can induce nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) by the mechanism insensitive to cyclosporin A. In this work we investigated the effect of their metabolites - α,ω-dioic (dicarboxylic) acids - as potential inducers of pore opening by a similar mechanism. It was established that the addition of α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) at a concentration of 10-30 µM to liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) leads to swelling of the organelles and release of these ions from the matrix. The maximum effect of HDA is observed at 50 µM Ca2+ concentration. Cyclosporin A at a concentration of 1 µM, previously added to the mitochondria, did not inhibit the observed processes. The calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red, which blocks influx of Ca2+ and Sr(2+) to the matrix of mitochondria, prevented HDA-induced swelling. The effect of HDA as inducer of swelling of mitochondria was compared with similar effects of α,ω-tetradecanedioic and α,ω-dodecanedioic acids whose acyl chains are two and four carbon atoms shorter than HDA, respectively. It was found that the efficiency of these α,ω-dioic acids decreases with reducing number of carbon atoms in their acyl chains. It was concluded that in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr(2+) long-chain saturated α,ω-dioic acids can induce a cyclosporin A-insensitive permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria as well as their monocarboxylic analogs.

  3. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  5. The degree of saturation of fatty acids in dietary fats does not affect the metabolic response to ingested carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Hassan, Youssef; Gannon, Mary C; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients, and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Previously, we and others reported that the postprandial rise in serum glucose following ingestion of 50 g carbohydrate, consumed as potato, was markedly attenuated when butter was ingested with the carbohydrate, whereas the serum insulin response was little affected by the combination. To determine whether a similar response would be observed with three other dietary fats considerably different in fatty acid composition. Nine healthy subjects received lard, twelve received olive oil and eleven received safflower oil as a test meal. The subjects ingested meals of 25 g fat (lard, olive oil or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO or water only. Glucose, C peptide, insulin, triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids were determined. Ingestion of lard, olive oil or safflower oil with potato did not affect the quantitative glucose and insulin responses to potato alone. However, the responses were delayed, diminished and prolonged. All three fats when ingested alone modestly increased the insulin concentration when compared to ingestion of water alone. When either lard, olive oil or safflower oil was ingested with the potato, there was an accelerated rise in triacylglycerols. This was most dramatic with safflower oil. Our data indicate that the glucose and insulin response to butter is unique when compared with the three other fat sources varying in their fatty acid composition.

  6. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination

  7. Meat, milk, saturated fatty acids, the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms of the PPARgamma gene and colorectal cancer risk in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Kiyonori; Hirose, Kaoru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wakai, Kenji; Ito, Hidemi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hirai, Takashi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Saito, Toshiko; Tanaka, Rie; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene plays important roles in energy homeostasis. To examine interactions between consumption of foods and fatty acids and the Pro12Ala and C161T (His447His) polymorphisms for colorectal cancer, we performed two case-control studies in Japanese. In study 1, there were 128 colorectal cancer cases and 238 non-cancer controls, and in study 2 there were 257 cases and 771 (age- and sex-matched) non-cancer controls. Assessment of food and nutrients consumption in study 1 was via a nine-item questionnaire, while in study 2 assessment of consumption was according to a more detailed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of foods and fatty acids was divided into low, moderate and high groups. The overall frequency of the Ala allele was frequencies of the Pro/Pro + C/C and Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotypes were 70-73% and 20-26%, respectively. Compared with subjects with low meat intake and the Pro/Pro + C/C genotype, those with high meat consumption and the same genotype had a stronger increased risk in study 1 [OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.14-7.30; P for trend = 0.02], but a positive association with processed meat consumption was greatest in those with the Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotype (P for trend = 0.05) in study 2. Likewise, high consumption of saturated fatty acids and milk appeared to confer marginal increased risk and stronger decreased risk, respectively, in those with the Pro/Pro and Pro/Pro + C/C genotypes (OR, 1.35 and 0.65; 95% CI, 0.93-1.96 and 0.43-1.00; P for trend = 0.10 and 0.06). Further large-scale studies are needed to determine colorectal cancer risk according to relationships between the PPARgamma gene polymorphisms and dietary intakes of meat, processed meat, milk and saturated fatty acids in Japanese with very low frequency of the Ala allele.

  8. No evidence of differential effects of SFA, MUFA or PUFA on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake: a randomised trial of fatty acid saturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Strik, Caroline M

    2010-05-24

    Abstract Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF) test breakfasts (2.0 MJ) containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat), polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76%) or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76%) fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ± 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ± 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6 ± 329.5 kJ; P

  9. Ultrafast excited state relaxation in long-chain polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Lueer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Christensen, Ronald L.; Schrock, Richard R.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excited state dynamics of a long-chain polyene studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study, by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, of excited state dynamics in a polyene that approaches the infinite chain limit. By excitation with sub-10-fs pulses resonant with the 0-0 S 0 → S 2 transition, we observe rapid loss of stimulated emission from the bright excited state S 2 , followed by population of the hot S 1 state within 150 fs. Vibrational cooling of S 1 takes place within 500 fs and is followed by decay back to S 0 with 1 ps time constant. By excitation with excess vibrational energy we also observe the ultrafast formation of a long-living absorption, that is assigned to the triplet state generated by singlet fission.

  10. Influência do treinamento físico aeróbio no transporte mitocondrial de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa no músculo esquelético: papel do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase Influence of aerobic physical training in the motochondrial transport of long chain fatty acids in the skeletal muscle: role of the carnitine palmitoil transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Shimura Yamashita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácido graxo (AG é uma importante fonte de energia para o músculo esquelético. Durante o exercício sua mobilização é aumentada para suprir as necessidades da musculatura ativa. Acredita-se que diversos pontos de regulação atuem no controle da oxidação dos AG, sendo o principal a atividade do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase (CPT, entre os quais três componentes estão envolvidos: a CPT I, a CPT II e carnitina acilcarnitina translocase. A função da CPT I durante o exercício físico é controlar a entrada de AG para o interior da mitocôndria, para posterior oxidação do AG e produção de energia. Em resposta ao treinamento físico há um aumento na atividade e expressão da CPT I no músculo esquelético. Devido sua grande importância no metabolismo de lipídios, os mecanismos que controlam sua atividade e sua expressão gênica são revisados no presente estudo. Reguladores da expressão gênica de proteínas envolvidas no metabolismo de lipídios no músculo esquelético, os receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomas (PPAR alfa e beta, são discutidos com um enfoque na resposta ao treinamento físico.Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the skeletal muscle. During exercise, their mobilization is increased to supply the muscle energetic needs. Many points of regulation act in the fatty acids metabolism, where the carnitine palmytoiltransferase (CPT complex is the main control system. Three compounds named CPT I, CPT II and carnitine acyl carnitine translocase (CACT are components of this system. Its function is to control the influx of fatty acids inside the mitochondria for posterior oxidation and energy production. There is a pronounced increase in both activity and gene expression of CPT I in the skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Due to its importance in lipid metabolism, the controlling mechanisms are reviewed in the present study. The modulation of gene expression by peroxisome

  11. Experimental vapor pressures (from 1 Pa to 100 kPa) of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs): Methyl hexanoate, methyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl tetradecanoate and methyl hexadecanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, Lakhdar; Khimeche, Kamel; Dahmani, Abdallah; Mokbel, Ilham; Jose, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • Vapor-liquid equilibria, Enthalpy of Vaporization, saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), methyl hexanoate (or methyl caproate), methyl octanoate (or methyl caprylate), Methyl decanoate (or methyl caprate), methyl dodecanoate (or methyl laurate), methyl tetradecanoate (or methyl myristate), and methyl hexadecanoate (or methyl palmitate) were measured from 1 Pa to 100 kPa and at temperature range between 262 and 453 K using a static apparatus. The experimental data (P-T) were compared with the available literature data.

  12. APOA II genotypes frequency and their interaction with saturated fatty acids consumption on lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorshahi, Neda; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohamad Reza; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Basiri, Marjan Ghane; Doostan, Farideh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that APOA II-265T/C polymorphism affect lipid profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of -265T/C APOA II polymorphism and saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake interaction on lipid profile in diabetic population who are at risk for lipid disorders. In this cross sectional study, 697 type 2 diabetic patients participated. Food consumption data were collected using validated semi-quantitative FFQ during the last year. Realtime-PCR was used to determine APOA II-265T/C genotypes. The interaction between the genotypes and SFA intake with lipid profile was tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). According to APOA II-265T/C (rs5082) genotype distribution results, CC genotype with a frequency of 12.9% and TC with that of 47.7% showed the lowest and highest frequency in our population, respectively. CC genotype subjects had significantly lower total cholesterol, triglyceride, Cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and non-HDL cholesterol than T allele carriers (p = 0.009, p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, respectively). The interaction between genotype and SFA intake contributed to significant higher levels of LDL-c and LDL/HDL in CCs (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01), suggesting vulnerability of these individuals to high intake of SFA in the diet. APOA II polymorphism may influence the saturated fatty acid intake required to prevent dyslipidemia in the type 2 diabetic population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the melting and crystallization profiles of high-oleic high-stearic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bootello, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG molecules are commonly considered as factors that determine the physical properties of a given oil or fat. The distribution of any fatty acid in fats and oils can be described through the α coefficient of asymmetry, which can be calculated from the TAG composition and fatty acid composition of the sn-2 position of the TAGs determined through lipase hydrolysis. High-oleic high-stearic oils and fats are considered stable and healthy, and they are good substitutes for hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm fractions in many food products, such as spreads and confectionery. Here, different high-oleic high-stearic acid oils were formulated which contained different distributions of saturated fatty acids in their TAGs, while maintaining a similar fatty acid composition. The aim of this work was to discuss the possibility of using the α coefficient to predict the physical properties of fats in function of their chemical composition and their melting and crystallization behavior as examined by differential scanning calorimetry.La composición y distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos se consideran factores determinantes en las propiedades físicas de los aceites y grasas. La distribución de ácidos grasos en un determinado aceite o grasa puede caracterizarse mediante un coeficiente de asimetría α, calculado a partir de las composiciones de triglicéridos y de ácidos grasos en la posición sn-2 de la molécula de triglicérido mediante hidrólisis con lipasa. El aceite de girasol alto oleico-alto esteárico es una grasa estable y saludable, adecuada para reemplazar a los aceites vegetales hidrogenados y fracciones de palma en muchos productos alimentarios, como grasas plásticas y grasas de confitería. En el presente trabajo, se formularon diferentes aceites alto oleico-alto esteárico con diferente distribución de los ácidos grasos saturados en

  14. Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2α) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  16. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223–229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C3H7), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME. PMID:22021637

  17. Enhanced saturated fatty acids accumulation in cultures of newly-isolated strains of Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytriidae sp. for large-scale biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Sen, Biswarup; Liu, Xianhua; He, Yaodong; Xie, Yunxuan; Wang, Guangyi

    2018-08-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists (Thraustochytrids) have received increasingly global attention as a renewable, sustainable and alternative source of biodiesel because of their high ability of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) accumulation. Yet, the influence of extrinsic factors (nutrients and environmental conditions) on thraustochytrid culture and optimal conditions for high SFAs production are poorly described. In the present study, two different thraustochytrid strains, Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were studied for their growth and SFAs production profiles under various conditions (carbon, nitrogen, temperature, pH, KH 2 PO 4 , salinity, and agitation speed). Of the culture conditions, substrates (C and N) source and conc., temperature, and agitation speed significantly influenced the cell growth and SFAs production of both strains. Although both the strains were capable of growth and SFAs production in the broad range of culture conditions, their physiological responses to KH 2 PO 4 , pH, and salinity were dissimilar. Under their optimal batch culture conditions, peak SFAs productions of 3.3g/L and 2.2g/L with 62% and 49% SFAs contents (relative to total fatty acids) were achieved, respectively. The results of 5-L fed-batch fermentation under optimal conditions showed a nearly 4.5-fold increase in SFAs production (i.e., 7.5g/L) by both strains compared to unoptimized conditions. Of the two strains, the quality of biodiesel produced from the fatty acids of PKU#Mn4 met the biodiesel standard defined by ASTM6751. This study, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first comprehensive report of optimal fermentation conditions demonstrating enhanced SFAs production by strains belonging to two different thraustochytrid genera and provides the basis for large-scale biodiesel production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of a Diet Enriched with Fresh Coconut Saturated Fats on Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition in Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashree, Rokkam Shankar; Manjunath, N K; Indu, M; Ramesh, M; Venugopal, V; Sreedhar, P; Pavithra, N; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) (provided by fresh coconut) versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (provided by a combination of groundnuts and groundnut oil) on plasma lipids and erythrocyte fatty acid (EFA) composition in healthy adults. Fifty-eight healthy volunteers, randomized into 2 groups, were provided standardized diet along with 100 g fresh coconut or groundnuts and groundnut oil combination for 90 days in a Yoga University. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention period for the measurement of plasma lipids and EFA profile. Coconut diet increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels significantly. In contrast, the groundnut diet decreased total cholesterol (TC), mainly due to a decrease in HDL levels. There were no differences in the major SFA of erythrocytes in either group. However, coconut consumption resulted in an increase in C14:0 and C24:0 along with a decrease in levels of C18:1 n9 (oleic acid). There was a significant increase in levels of C20:3 n6 (dihomo-gamma linolenic acid, DGLA). Consumption of SFA-rich coconut for 3 months had no significant deleterious effect on erythrocytes or lipid-related factors compared to groundnut consumption. On the contrary, there was an increase in the anti-atherogenic HDL levels and anti-inflammatory precursor DGLA in erythrocyte lipids. This suggests that coconut consumption may not have any deleterious effects on cardiovascular risk in normal subjects.

  19. Equivalent chain lengths of all C4-C23 saturated monomethyl branched fatty acid methyl esters on methylsilicone OV-1 stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Amann, Anton; Soják, Ladislav

    2011-04-01

    Isomer mixtures of monomethyl branched saturated C7-C23 fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by performing a methylene insertion reaction to the straight chain FAME and this study model was completed by using commercially available standards of C4-C7 FAME. The equivalent chain lengths (ECL) of all 220 C4-C23 monomethyl branched FAME on OV-1 stationary phase were measured, achieving an average repeatability of ±0.0004 ECL units. The monomethyl branched FAME was identified by GC on the basis of regularity of the fractional chain lengths (FCL) dependence on the number of carbon atoms (C(z)) of individual homologous series of methyl 2-, 3-, …, 21-FAME. The prediction of retention of the first homologues, having the new position of methyl group beginning at higher carbon atoms number, and analogously for the second, third, fourth, and other members of the homologous series, allowed the dependence FCL=f(C(z)) for the first and subsequent members of beginning homologous of monomethyl derivatives of FAME. The identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. All of the methyl isomers of FAME, which could not be completely separated by gas chromatography due to having a methyl group in surroundings of the middle of the carbon chain, were resolved by mass spectrometry using deconvolution in a SIM-mode. Measured gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data were applied for identification of the monomethyl branched saturated FAME in tongue coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SEPARATION OF SATURED AND UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS FROM PALM FATTY ACIDS DISTILLATES IN CONTINUOUS MULTISTAGE COUNTERCURRENT COLUMNS WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AS SOLVENT: A PROCESS DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Teixeira MACHADO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the separation of multicomponent mixtures in counter-current columns with supercritical carbon dioxide has been investigated using a process design methodology. First the separation task must be defined, then phase equilibria experiments are carried out, and the data obtained are correlated with thermodynamic models or empirical functions. Mutual solubilities, Ki-values, and separation factors aij are determined. Based on this data possible operating conditions for further extraction experiments can be determined. Separation analysis using graphical methods are performed to optimize the process parameters. Hydrodynamic experiments are carried out to determine the flow capacity diagram. Extraction experiments in laboratory scale are planned and carried out in order to determine HETP values, to validate the simulation results, and to provide new materials for additional phase equilibria experiments, needed to determine the dependence of separation factors on concetration. Numerical simulation of the separation process and auxiliary systems is carried out to optimize the number of stages, solvent-to-feed ratio, product purity, yield, and energy consumption. Scale-up and cost analysis close the process design. The separation of palmitic acid and (oleic+linoleic acids from PFAD-Palm Fatty Acids Distillates was used as a case study.

  1. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  3. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R; Jensen, Matthew R; Mohamed, Fatuma A; Wackett, Lawrence P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2016-12-23

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys 143 ) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C 12 and C 14 ) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ 117 ) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:27815501

  5. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyop......Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence...... of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting......-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established....

  6. Alkaline Ceramidase 3 (ACER3) Hydrolyzes Unsaturated Long-chain Ceramides, and Its Down-regulation Inhibits Both Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Ruijuan; Sun, Wei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Ceramides with different fatty acyl chains may vary in their physiological or pathological roles; however, it remains unclear how cellular levels of individual ceramide species are regulated. Here, we demonstrate that our previously cloned human alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3) specifically controls the hydrolysis of ceramides carrying unsaturated long acyl chains, unsaturated long-chain (ULC) ceramides. In vitro, ACER3 only hydrolyzed C18:1-, C20:1-, C20:4-ceramides, dihydroceramides, and phyto...

  7. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  8. Replacement of dietary saturated fat by PUFA-rich pumpkin seed oil attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis development, with additional health effects of virgin over refined oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P.M.; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Duyvenvoorde, Van Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  9. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  10. Topological analysis of long-chain branching patterns in polyolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Markel, E; Dekmezian, A

    2001-01-01

    Patterns in molecular topology and complexity for long-chain branching are quantitatively described. The Wiener number, the topological complexity index, and a new index of 3-starness are used to quantify polymer structure. General formulas for these indices were derived for the cases of 3-arm star, H-shaped, and B-arm comb polymers. The factors affecting complexity in monodisperse polymer systems are ranked as follows: number of arms > arm length > arm central position approximately equal to arm clustering > total molecular weight approximately equal to backbone molecular weight. Topological indices change rapidly and then plateau as the molecular weight of branches on a polyolefin backbone increases from 0 to 5 kD. Complexity calculations relate 2-arm or 3-arm comb structures to the corresponding 3-arm stars of equivalent complexity but much higher molecular weight. In a subsequent paper, we report the application of topological analysis for developing structure/property relationships for monodisperse polymers. While the focus of the present work is on the description of monodisperse, well-defined architectures, the methods may be extended to the description of polydisperse systems.

  11. Distribution study of fatty acids (FAs) in sediments of Al-Kabeer Al-Shemali river estuary area using (HPLC) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, M.; Ali, B.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of sediments from fife sites of Al-kabeer Al-shemali river estuary area were collected during the period (22/2/2007-7/11/2007). The samples were extracted to determine their content of Fatty acids qualitatively and quantitatively by using ( HPLC) technique for determination resources of organic matter in studied sediments . The total concentrations of (FAs) varied from (0.36-1245.5μg/g dry weight).The saturated fatty acids were dominated in all samples (12.1 - 100 %) of total fatty acids. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were tested percent (0-18 %) of total fatty acids except one sample from surficial sediments in St 3 during 8/8/2007 .while the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were low (0 -21.6 %) of total fatty acids . We can use the saturated long chain fatty acid (C-22) as terrestrial biomarker. poly unsaturated fatty acid (C 1 8: 2ω6) as plankton biomarker and the Mono unsaturated fatty acid (C 1 8 : 1ω7) as bacterial biomarker.(author)

  12. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  13. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 4. The phase behavior of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol – Methyl stearate binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanan, Athira; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the phase behavior of a model binary system made of OPO (1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol); a TAG (triacylglycerol) highly effective in depressing onset of crystallization of biodiesel, and MeS (methyl stearate); a prevalent saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel. The thermal behavior, crystal structure and microstructure of the OPO/MeS mixtures were investigated with DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and PLM (polarized light microscope). The OPO/MeS system presented a phase diagram with peritectic and eutectic transitions. A simple thermodynamic modeling of the liquidus line indicated a relatively complex mixing behavior, and highlighted the prevailing effect of the peritectic compound on solubility. Different types of microstructures that were more or less influenced by MeS, OPO or/and compound microstructures were observed in the mixtures. They are associated with the crystal phases and the thermal transitions. Furthermore, MeS, OPO and compound crystal structures (monoclinic, orthorhombic and triclinic, respectively) served as templates for the crystal forms of the coexisting phases. The singularities in the liquidus line are attributed to chain length mismatch between the palmitic acid and the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester). The phase diagram achieved for OPO/MeS system is complete and can help in designing additive formulations to improve the cold flow behavior of biodiesel. - Highlights: • 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol/methyl stearate (OPO/MeS) studied in detail. • Phase diagram with thermal transitions, polymorphism, microstructure achieved. • Phase trajectory singularities attributed to length mismatch of linear chains. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization of biodiesel evidenced and explained.

  14. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2’s activation in transgenic mice fed with dosage of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mariani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To counteract oxidative stress cells developed several mechanisms, including the transcription factor Nuclear Factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of Nrf2 in transgenic mice fed saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the anti-inflammatory effect of estrogens on organism. Forty-eight ARE CRE OMO reporter mice were divided into 3 groups, consisting of 16 animals, based on presence/absence of estrogens (ovariectomized or sham female, OVX - SH; male, MA. Each group was further split in 4 subgroups of 4 animals each and fed different diets (7.5% lard, 7.5% tuna oil, 20.0 % lard and 20.0% tuna oil. Two times a week animals were anaesthetized and injected i.p. with 100µL luciferin 15 min before the imaging session. Using the Living Image Software, photon emission was mapped for selected body areas. On day 70, animals were sacrificed after a challenge with Sodium Arsenite. Specific organs were dissected and immediately subjected to ex vivo imaging session. MIXED and GLM procedures of SAS software were used for statistical analysis. Dietary treatments did not affect body weight and feed intake as well as Nrf2 expression in both pre- and post-challenge phases, with the exception of the abdominal region (P=0.031 pre-challenge; in this area, during the pre-challenge phase, OVX showed lower Nrf2 activation (P<0.001. Ex vivo results outlined a significant effect of the challenge on all the considered organs (P<0.001, while OVX subjects had higher Nrf2 expression on urinary bladder and kidney (P<0.05 and high fat diet increased Nrf2 in urinary bladder (P<0.05. The present trial shows how saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in the diet do not exert significant effects on oxidative stress in mice, but confirms the protective role of estrogens under physiological condition.

  15. Desenvolvimento de salgadinhos com teores reduzidos de gordura saturada e de ácidos graxos trans Development of snacks with reduced saturated and trans fatty acids contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D. Capriles

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A gordura vegetal hidrogenada, veículo convencional para aromatização de salgadinhos, foi substituída parcial ou totalmente por óleo de canola, gerando um novo salgadinho com 73,8% de redução da gordura saturada em relação aos salgadinhos disponíveis no mercado e eliminação dos ácidos graxos trans. Foi avaliado o impacto desta substituição sobre as características sensoriais do produto. Ao se substituir totalmente a gordura, a alteração de cor, medida pela variação da somatória dos atributos de cor deltaE, foi de 2,04. A substituição da gordura em até 50% não alterou a textura significativamente (pThe hydrogenated vegetable fat normally used as a vehicle for flavoring snacks, has been partially or totally replaced by rapeseed oil, resulting in a new snack with 73,8% less saturated fat than regular snacks. This new product doesn't have any trans fatty acids in its composition. The impact of this replacement in sensorial characteristics of this product has been analyzed. In the sample where the fat had been totally replaced the color change was deltaE=2.04. It has been also noticed that replacement up to 50% did not cause any significant changes on texture (p<0.05. However, when this replacement is over 75%, a texture difference was observed as compared to the standard sample. In the sensorial analysis, the standard sample (22% fat was compared to the one flavored with 22% rapeseed oil, and the difference in texture was noticed, with the sample flavored with vegetable fat presenting better sensory acceptance. Based on our results, we concluded that the sensorial characteristics of this product were not affected practically after the replacement of regular fat by rapeseed oil, making approaches like this viable to be used on an industrial scale with the purpose to help reducing the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids by the population.

  16. Crystallisation and chain conformation of long chain n-alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorce, J.

    2000-06-01

    Hydrocarbon chains are a basic component in a number of systems as diverse as biological membranes, phospholipids and polymers. A better understanding of the physical properties of n-alkane chains should provide a better understanding of these more complex systems. With this aim, vibrational spectroscopy has been extensively used. This technique, sensitive to molecular details, is the only one able to both identify and quantify conformational disorder present in paraffinic systems. To achieve this, methyl deformations have been widely used as ''internal standards'' for the normalisation of peak areas. However, in the case of n-alkanes with short chain length, such as n-C 44 H 90 for example, the infrared spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature and reported here show the sensitivity of these latter peaks to the various crystal structures formed. Indeed, the main frequencies of the symmetric methyl bending mode were found between 1384 cm -1 and 1368 cm -1 as a function of the crystal form. Changes in the frequency of the first order of the L.A.M. present in the Raman spectra were also observed. At higher temperatures, non all-trans conformers, inferred from different infrared bands present in the wagging mode region, were found to be essentially placed at the end of the n-alkane chains. At the monoclinic phase transition, the concentration of end-gauche conformers, proportional to the area of the infrared band at 1342 cm -1 , increases abruptly. On the contrary, in the spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature no such band is observed. We also studied the degree of disorder in two purely monodisperse long chain n-alkanes, namely n-C 198 H 398 and n-C 246 H 494 . The chain conformation as well as the tilt angle of the chains from the crystal surfaces were determined by means of low frequency Raman spectroscopy and S.A.X.S. measurements on solution-crystallised samples. The increase in the number of end-gauche conformers which was expected to occur with

  17. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-03-09

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

  19. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-03-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society.

  20. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 2. The phase behavior of 2-stearoyl diolein–methyl stearate binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Mark; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behavior of a model binary system made of OSO (2-stearoyl diolein) and MeS (methyl stearate) was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The study is part of a series of investigations of unconventional additives such as TAGs (triacylglycerols) and dimers of TAGs with a demonstrated potential to significantly alter the crystallization of biodiesel. The TAG (triacylglycerol) was found to be effective in depressing the crystallization onset of the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) significantly even at low concentration. OSO was shown to affect the crystallization of the mixtures strongly, and to dramatically alter their polymorphism. The system's phase diagram involved marked transformation lines including eutectics and solid–solid transitions. The molecular interactions were evaluated using a simple thermodynamic model. A mechanism for disruption of crystallization was proposed to be dependent on the peculiar geometry of OSO: the “straight” stearic acid participates easily in the lamellar packing of the equally “straight” FAME, whilst its kinked oleic acids effectively halt additional saturated FAMEs from participating due to steric hindrances. The findings of the study indicate that judicious loadings of TAGs which would target biodiesel's saturated FAMEs will have a substantial beneficial effect on the low temperature performance of the fuel. - Highlights: • 2-Steroyl diolein/methyl stearate (OSO/MeS) binary system investigated comprehensively. • OSO/MeS mixtures presented very complex phase trajectories and behavior. • OSO alters crystallization at both nucleation and growth stages profoundly. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization proposed and verified. • OSO and homologues formulations can be effectives cold flow additives for biodiesel

  1. Possible roles of long-chain sphingomyelines and sphingomyelin synthase 2 in mouse macrophage inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hideaki; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Sanaki, Takao; Shigaki, Shuhei; Morita, Hirotoshi; Oyama, Miki; Mitsui, Masaru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Toru; Mitsutake, Susumu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Takemoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precise role of sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) in sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism and their anti-inflammatory properties, we analyzed species of major SM and ceramide (Cer) (18:1, 18:0 sphingoid backbone, C14 - C26 N-acyl part) in SMS2 knockout and wild-type mouse plasma and liver using HPLC-MS. SMS2 deficiency significantly decreased very long chain SM (SM (d18:1/22:0) and SM (d18:1/24:0 or d18:0/24:1)) and increased very long chain Cer (Cer (d18:1/24:0 or d18:0/24:1) and Cer (d18:1/24:1)), but not long chain SM (SM (d18:1/16:0), SM (d18:1/18:0 or d18:0/18:1) and SM (d18:1/18:1)) in plasma. To examine the effects of SM on inflammation, we studied the role of very long chain SM in macrophage activation. Addition of SM (d18:1/24:0) strongly upregulated several macrophage activation markers, SM (d18:1/6:0) and Cer (d18:1/24:0) however, did not. It was suggested that very long chain SM but not long chain SM were decreased in SMS2-deficient mice liver and plasma. And the exogenously added very long chain SM (d18:1/24:0) could activate macrophages directly, suggesting a novel role of plasma very long chain SM in modulating macrophage activation and resulting inflammation. - Highlights: • Very long-chain SM species were decreased in SMS2 knockout mouse plasma and liver. • Very long-chain ceramide species were increased in SMS2 knockout mouse plasma. • SMS2 deficiency diminished the inflammatory response of macrophages. • Very long-chain SM enhanced ICAM1 and iNOS expression in peritoneal macrophages.

  2. Long-chain bases from sea cucumber mitigate endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated. Hepatic ER stress-related key genes were detected. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor κB inflammatory pathways were also evaluated in the liver. Results showed that LCBs reduced serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids concentrations. LCBs decreased serum proinflammatory cytokines levels, namely interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, and c-reactive protein, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration. The mRNA and protein expressions of these cytokines in epididymal adipose tissues were regulated by LCBs as similar to their circulatory contents. LCBs inhibited phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and inhibitor κ kinase β, and nuclear factor κB nuclear translocation. LCBs also inhibited mRNA expression of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein, activating transcription factor 6, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, and X-box binding protein 1, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-α and inositol requiring enzyme 1α. These results indicate that LCBs can alleviate ER stress and inflammatory response. Nutritional supplementation with LCBs may offer an adjunctive therapy for RE stress-associated inflammation.

  3. Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in

  4. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...... containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids....... The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18...

  5. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  6. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Chandan; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhijie; Zhai, Yujia; Fang, Junnan; Zhou, Qiangjun; Geng, Yunqi; Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans (cVLCAD) has been crystallized in space group C2 and its X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to 1.6 Å resolution. Unlike other VLCADs that were reported to form dimers, the purified cVLCAD was found as a homotetrameric protein according to static light-scattering measurements. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; EC 1.3.99.3] catalyzes the first reaction step in mitochondrial fatty-acid β-oxidation. Here, the very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans (cVLCAD) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Interestingly, unlike other very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, cVLCAD was found to form a tetramer by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with in-line static light-scattering, refractive-index and ultraviolet measurements. Purified cVLCAD (12 mg ml −1 ) was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method under conditions containing 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 150 mM sodium chloride, 200 mM magnesium formate and 13% PEG 3350. The crystal has a tetragonal form and a complete diffraction data set was collected and processed to 1.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 138.6, b = 116.7, c = 115.3 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 124.0°. A self-rotation function indicated the existence of one noncrystallographic twofold axis. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution further confirmed the presence of two molecules in one asymmetric unit, which yields a Matthews coefficient V M of 2.76 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 55%

  8. Cloning and characterization of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, chromosomal assignment of the gene and identification in four patients of nine different mutations within the VLCAD gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Vianey-Saban, C

    1996-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is one of four straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) enzymes, which are all nuclear encoded mitochondrial flavoproteins catalyzing the initial step in fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have used the very fast, Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE...

  9. The molecular basis of ligand interaction at free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4 (previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. This study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands ...

  10. Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy : applications in a mouse model of fatty acid oxidation deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakermans, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Under normal, well-fed conditions, the primary source of energy for the healthy heart are long-chain fatty acids that fuel the mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO) pathway. Patients with an inborn error in long-chain FAO may present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and liver disease, and/or a

  11. Strategies for recovering inhibition caused by long chain fatty acids on anaerobic thermophilic biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatsi, J.; Laureni, M.; Andres, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    patterns, dilution and addition of adsorbents, in order to determine the most appropriate strategy for fast recovery of the reactor activity in manure based plants inhibited by LCFA. Dilution with active inoculum for increasing the biomass/LCFA ratio, or addition of adsorbents for adsorbing the LCFA...... biomass to an inhibitory concentration of LCFA improved the recovery ability of the system, indicated as increasing degradation rates from 0.04 to 0.16 g COD_CH4/g VS day. The incubation time between subsequent pulses, or discontinuous LCFA pulses, seems to be a decisive process parameter to tackle LCFA...

  12. Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Kemperman, Ramses F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia, autism and depression do not inherit by Mendel's law, and the search for a genetic basis seems unsuccessful. Schizophrenia and autism relate to low birth weight and pregnancy complications, which are associated with developmental adaptations by "programming". Epigenetics might

  13. Odd-numbered very-long-chain fatty acids from the microbial, animal and plant kingdoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sigler, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, 3-4 (2009), s. 206-238 ISSN 0163-7827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * plants * animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.167, year: 2009

  14. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products...... were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes......, respectively, after 48h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24±3.35mg/g CDW after 48h....

  15. Synthesis, characterisation and physicochemical properties of hydrophobically modified inulin using long-chain fatty acyl chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lingyu; Ratcliffe, I; Williams, P A

    2017-12-15

    A series of inulin derivatives were synthesized in aqueous solution using acyl chlorides with varying alkyl chain length (C10-C16). They were characterised using a number of techniques including MALDI TOF-MS, 1 H NMR and FTIR and their degree of substitution determined. The solution properties of the hydrophobically modified inulins were investigated using dye solubilisation and surface tension and it was confirmed that the molecules aggregated in solution above a critical concentration (critical aggregation concentration, CAC). The value of the CAC was found to be reasonably consistent between the different techniques and was shown to decrease with increasing hydrophobe chain length. It was found that the C10, C12 and C14 derivatives formed stable oil-in-water emulsions and the emulsion droplet size decreased with increasing alkyl chain length. The C16 derivative was not able to produce stable oil-in-water emulsions; however, it was able to form stable water-in-oil emulsions. The fact that the derivatives are able to form micellar-like aggregates and stabilise emulsions makes them suitable candidates for the encapsulation and delivery of active compounds with potential application in food, cosmetic, personal care and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal and early postnatal supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids : neurodevelopmental considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    It takes >20 y before the human brain obtains its complex adult configuration. Most dramatic neurodevelopmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally, including a major transformation in cortical organization 3-4 mo after term. The long-lasting changes have practical implications for

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of some surface active agents from long chain fatty amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M. F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study continues our series of synthesis of surface active agents containing heterocyclic moiety. NHeptadecanoyl- 3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamide (4 was used as a new starting material to synthesize propenoxylated nonionic surface active agents having heterocycles such as (thiazole, triazole, benzoxazine, quinazoline, triazine, and oxazine. The structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated by using spectroscopic tools (IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Physical properties such as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, emulsification power and critical micelle concentration (CMC were determined. Antimicrobial and biodegradability properties were also screened. It was found that the produced novel groups of nonionic surface active agents have pronounced surface properties and good antimicrobial activities.Este estudio continua nuestra serie sobre la síntesis de agentes surfactantes que contienen grupos heterociclicos. N-Heptadecanoyl-3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamida (4 se usa como nueva materia prima para sintetizar surfactantes noiónico propenoxilado conteniendo herociclos tales como thiazol, triazol, benzoxazina, quinazolina, triazina, y oxazina. Las estructuras de los compuestos preparados se dilucidan mediante herramientas espectroscópicas (IR, 1H NMR and espectroscopía de masas. Se determinan sus propiedades físicas, tensión superficial e interfacial, punto de nube, altura de espuma, poder de emulsificación y concentración micelar critica.También se revisan sus propiedades antimicrobianas y de biodegradabilidad Se encontró que los nuevos compuestos poseían destacadas propiedades superficiales y unas buenas actividades antimicrobianas.

  18. Labelling of long chain fatty acids by non isotopic nucleophilic halogen exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.A.; Zaki, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    The parameters of two exchange methods for preparing pure 97% labelled 17-Br-HDA in acetone and in benzene with dry NaI in a closed system are described. In aprotic solvents the need for a phase transfer catalyst up to 50 μg is necessary to dissolve the dry NaI. The use of aqueous medium in the exchange is totally prohibited. Energies of activation are calculated for both reactions. (author)

  19. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (L-CHAD) deficiency in a patient with the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, J S; Pelegano, J P; Bennett, M J; Bebin, E M

    1994-08-01

    Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an autosomal dominant condition of macrocephaly in combination with lipomas/hemangiomas, hypotonia, developmental delay, and a lipid myopathy. The etiology of the lipid storage myopathy has been unclear. We describe a black boy with findings of BRRS who also has a defect in long-chain fatty acid oxidation expressed in cultured skin fibroblasts as a deficiency of long-chain-L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-CHAD). He also has an abnormal brain MRI and increased size of both lower limbs. We present this child because of his unusual combination of findings, and postulate that L-CHAD deficiency may be the cause of the lipid myopathy in BRRS.

  20. Post-prandial glucose levels and consumption of omega 3 fatty acids and saturated fats among two rural populations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjihia, V W; Kiplamai, F K; Waudo, J N; Boit, M K

    2009-06-01

    Amount and quality of dietary fat modifies glucose tolerance. Omega 3 Fatty Acids (n-3F A) are polyunsaturated fats, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found primarily in fish and they have a positive effect on glucose tolerance. To compare risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as demonstrated thourough impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and n-3FA intake among two rural populations. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative study. Bondo District (Luo Community) and Kericho District (Kipsigis Community) of the Lake Victoria basin of Kenya. Sample of 150 individuals, aged above 18 years was randomly selected from each of the two communities. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was measured according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. The intake of n-3FA was determined using a 24 hour dietary recall and food frequency schedule. Data was analysed using SPSS and Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to test correlation between n-3FA consumption and IGT. The inter-group comparisons were done using the t-test and analysis of variance. The prevalence of IGT was 11.8% among the Kipsigis and 4.8% among the Luo (Pfats (r=-0.002, p=0.973). The levels of IGT were significantly lower (Pfats intake and IGT. The saturated fat ingested did not affect the level of post-prandial glucose. The Luo who consumed higher n-3FA amounts, recorded lower levels of IGT than the Kipsigis who had significantly lower consumption. Effective screening methods should be used at the existing health units to determine risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus like IGT among patients. This could help in advising them accordingly on lifestyle changes, especially concerning diet and beneficial fats.

  1. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  3. Molecular sieve isolation technique for use in stable carbon isotope analysis of individual long-chain n-alkanes in crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Keita; Kon, Makoto; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Uzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    An isolation procedure of microgram amounts of long-chain n-alkanes from crude oil using molecular sieve was examined for its applicability to stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The procedure examined is as follows: molecular sieve (type 5A, 200 mg) in 1 ml of isooctane solvent are mixed with a saturated hydrocarbon fraction extracted from an appropriate amount (approx. 20 mg) of crude oil and stayed at room temperatures for more than 3 hours. Long-chain n-alkanes are isolated by extraction with n-hexane after dissolution of the resulting molecular sieve with 47% hydrofluoric acid solution. The recoveries were 90±6% for C 15 -C 34 n-alkanes when their total amounts applied do not exceed 1.4 mg. No effect of the isolation procedure on carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes was observed. (author)

  4. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C16-OH +/- C18:1-OH and Other Long Chain Acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C14:1 +/- other long-chain acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  7. Strain hardening in startup shear of long-chain branched polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengxin; Cheng, Shiwang; Lee, Hyojoon; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Hongde; Chang, Taihyun; Quirk, Roderic P; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-09

    We show for the first time that entangled polymeric liquids containing long-chain branching can exhibit strain hardening upon startup shear. As the significant long-chain branching impedes chain disentanglement, Gaussian coils between entanglements can deform to reach the finite extensibility limit where the intrachain retraction force exceeds the value expected from the usual conformational entropy loss evaluated based on Gaussian chain statistics. The phenomenon is expected to lead to further theoretical understanding.

  8. Conformational changes in human serum albumin studied by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Distance measurements as a function of pH and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Pedersen, A O

    1989-01-01

    pH- and fatty acid-induced conformational changes in human serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence-energy transfer, determining the distance between Trp-214 and bound bilirubin at 25 degrees C. This distance changes significantly with the pH, being 2.52 +/- 0.01 nm at pH 6, 2.31 +/- 0.04 nm...... at pH 9, 2.13 +/- 0.07 nm at pH 11.0 and 2.77 nm at pH 11.9. The influence of different fatty acids on the distance was also determined. At pH 7.4 medium-chain fatty acids seem to increase this distance, whereas long-chain fatty acids, at low concentrations, decrease the distance between the two...... chromophores. The contraction of the protein carrying long-chain saturated fatty acids is even more pronounced at pH 9. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Feb-15...

  9. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...

  11. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

  12. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  13. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Lipid Transport through the Fetoplacental Barrier by the Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins in Pregnant Women with Herpes Virus Infection in the third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the transport of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs from the lacunar blood through the syncytiotrophoblast of the placental villi to the fetal cord blood via a saturable protein-mediated mechanism by the heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins (H-FABPs has been examined. Exacerbation of the herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 in the third trimester of gestation reduces the delivery of the fatty acid-binding proteins to the syncytiotrophoblast. During exacerbation of the HSV-1 infection, the selective transfer of the LCPUFAs across the syncytiotrophoblast basal plasma membrane into the fetal cord blood was observed. The supply of anti-inflammatory ω-3 PUFAs was reduced; however, the inflow of inflammatory arachidonic acid and other ω-6 PUFAs into the fetal blood was increased.

  15. Lipid profiling of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae using Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Lina Fayez; Wojno, Michal; Dick, Warren A; Dick, Richard P

    2012-05-01

    Phytophthora sojae is a destructive soilborne pathogen of soybean, but currently there is no rapid or commercially available testing for its infestation level in soil. For growers, such information would greatly improve their ability to make management decisions to minimize disease damage to soybean crops. Fatty acid profiling of P. sojae holds potential for determining the prevalence of this pathogen in soil. In this study, the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profile of P. sojae was determined in pure culture, and the profile was subsequently evaluated for its potential use in detecting the pathogen in soil. The predominant fatty acids in the FAME profile of P. sojae are the unsaturated 18C fatty acids (18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) followed by the saturated and unsaturated 16C fatty acids (16:0 and 16:1ω7). FAME analysis of P. sojae zoospores showed two additional long-chain saturated fatty acids (20:0 and 22:0) that were not detected in the mycelium of this organism. Addition of a known number of zoospores of P. sojae to soil demonstrated that fatty acids such as 18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 20:1ω9, 20:4ω6, and 22:1ω9 could be detected and quantified against the background levels of fatty acids present in soil. These results show the potential for using selected FAMEs of P. sojae as a marker for detecting this pathogen in soybean fields. Copyright © 2012 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids into renewable aromatic hydrocarbons over Ni/HZSM-5: insights into the major reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shiyou; Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Jiayan; Fu, Junying; Fan, Pei; Yang, Lingmei; Yang, Gaixiu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-25

    For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons. Alternatively, the unsaturated fatty acids could be directly deoxygenated at acid sites without first being saturated. The long-chain hydrocarbons were cracked into gases such as ethane, propane, and C 6 -C 8 olefins over the catalysts' Brønsted acid sites; these underwent Diels-Alder reactions on the catalysts' Lewis acid sites to form AHCs. C 6 -C 8 olefins were determined as critical intermediates for AHC formation. As the Ni content in the catalyst increased, the Brønsted-acid site density was reduced due to coverage by the metal nanoparticles. Good performance was achieved with a loading of 10 wt% Ni, where the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a polyhedral morphology which exposed more active sites for aromatization.

  17. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  18. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  19. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  20. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue....... Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later...... acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P...

  1. Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y-H; Karmon, A E; Gaskins, A J; Arvizu, M; Williams, P L; Souter, I; Rueda, B R; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2018-01-01

    Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART. This analysis included a random sample of 100 women from a prospective cohort study (EARTH) at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center who underwent 136 ART cycles within one year of blood collection. Serum fatty acids (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) were measured by gas chromatography in samples taken between Days 3 and 9 of a stimulated cycle. Primary outcomes included the probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth per initiated cycle. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze the association of total and specific PUFAs with ART outcomes adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, use of multivitamins and history of live birth. The median [25th, 75th percentile] serum level of ω3-PUFA was 4.7% [3.8%, 5.8%] of total fatty acids. Higher levels of serum long-chain ω3-PUFA were associated with higher probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Specifically, after multivariable adjustment, the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth increased by 8% (4%, 11%) and 8% (95% CI: 1%, 16%), respectively, for every 1% increase in serum long-chain ω3-PUFA levels. Intake of long-chain ω3-PUFA was also associated with a higher probability of life birth in these women, with RR of 2.37 (95% CI: 1.02, 5.51) when replacing 1% energy of long-chain ω3-PUFA for 1% energy of saturated fatty acids. Serum ω6-PUFA, ratios of ω6 and ω3-PUFA, and total PUFA were not associated with ART outcomes. The

  2. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  3. Long-chain alkaenone unsaturation index as sea surface temperature proxy in southwest Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, N.S.; Pasha, S.K.G.; SriRamKrishna, M.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Yadava, M.G.; Rao, K.M.

    As a proxy of the sea surface temperature (SST), C sub(37) long-chain alkenones (LCAs) preserved in sediments of the southwestern Bay of Bengal and dating back to the last glacial period, were identified in SIM GC-EI MS spectra run at m/z 530...

  4. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure-activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test...

  5. Anaerobic degradation of long-chain alkylamines by a denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Ginkel, van C.G.; Plugge, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of tetradecylamine and other long-chain alkylamines by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium was studied. Strain ZN6 was isolated from a mixture of soil and active sludge and was identified as representing Pseudomonas stutzeri, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Dietary Replacement of Saturated Fatty Acids with Unsaturated Fat Sources in Adults with Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bridget A; Thompson, Sharon V; An, Ruopeng; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are frequently treated with dietary interventions before pharmacotherapy is given. Diets high in unsaturated fat have proven advantageous to disease treatment. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the evidence of the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFA) replacement with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in metabolically healthy adults with overweight and obesity on markers of dyslipidemia and body composition. Keyword search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of fatty acid substitution in adults with overweight and obesity. Meta-analysis was performed on interventions assessing lipoprotein levels and body composition. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot inspection, Begg's, and Egger's test. Eight RCTs enrolling 663 participants were included in the review, with intervention durations between 4 and 28 weeks. Although nonsignificant (p = 0.06), meta-analysis found UFA replacement to reduce total cholesterol concentrations by 10.68 mg/dL (95%CI -21.90 to 0.53). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were statistically nonsignificant. Due to null results and a small number of studies included, there is no strong evidence that replacement of SFA with UFA may benefit lipid profiles in this population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.