WorldWideScience

Sample records for saturated brine solution

  1. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Leland M

    2017-03-08

    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  2. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  3. Thermodynamics of geothermal brines. I. Thermodynamic properties of vapor-saturated NaCl (aq) solutions from 0-300 {sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvester, L.F.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Osmotic and activity coefficient data, enthalpy data, and heat capacity data on aqueous sodium chloride solutions from various sources have been fitted to a thirteen parameter equation. The equation reproduces the osmotic coefficient data to +-0.005 over the composition range 0-6M and temperature range 0-300{sup 0}C, enthalpy data to +-5-10 cal/mole for compositions of 0-5M at temperatures from 25-100{sup 0}C, and heat capacity data to +-0.5 cal/{sup 0}K for compositions of 0-2M at temperatures from 25-200{sup 0}C. Tabulated values of the total Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity, plus partial molal and excess thermodynamic quantities of sodium chloride solutions for compositions of 0-6M at 25{sup 0}C intervals from 0-300{sup 0}C are given along with the same quantities in graphical form for compositions of 0-6M at temperatures of 100-350{sup 0}C.

  4. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  5. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.

    2017-01-01

    For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2...... saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Elastic Wave Velocity of Chalk Saturated with Brines Containing Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    divided into groups of three and each group was saturated either with deionized water, calcite equilibrated water, or sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with solutions that contain divalent ions caused major shifts in the distribution...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...

  7. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  8. Brine saturation technique for extraction of light filth from rubbed, ground, and whole sage: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C C

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of light filth from the 3 commercial forms of sage was studied collaboratively. It incorporates a simple isopropanol defatting, followed by saturation of the product with brine by alternately heating and cooling, and subsequent trapping of filth from tap water with olive oil. This method circumvents the use of hazardous, expensive solvents and more time-consuming pretreatment procedures. Overall recoveries were 92.1% for rodent hair and 78.7% for insect fragments on clean, easy-to-read papers. An additional blending step was necessary to obtain satisfactory recovery of rodent hair fragments from whole sage. The method has been adopted official first action for light filth in rubbed and ground sage only.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance and sound velocity measurements of chalk saturated with magnesium rich brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The use of low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to determine petrophysical properties of reservoirs has proved to be a good technique. Together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, NMR can contribute to illustrate the changes on chalk elasticity due to different pore water...... solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with a solution that contained divalent ions caused a major shift on the distribution of the relaxation time. The changes were probably due to precipitats forming extra internal surface in the sample. Sonic velocities were relatively low in the MgCl2 solution...

  10. The Effects of NaCl Concentration and Confining Pressure on Mechanical and Acoustic Behaviors of Brine-Saturated Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanical behavior of rock with brine saturation, conventional triaxial experiments were carried out on sandstone for a range of confining pressures (0–60 MPa and NaCl concentrations (0–30%. As the confining pressure and NaCl concentration increased, the triaxial compressive strength, crack damage threshold, Young’s modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle all increased. Real-time ultrasonic wave and acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to obtain the relationship between acoustic behavior and stress level during the whole triaxial compression process. During the whole deformation process, the evolution of P-wave velocity and accumulated AE count could be divided into four phases. The microstructural characteristics of brine-saturated sandstone, before and after loading, indicated that the strength enhancement mechanism may be attributed to an increase in inter-particle friction resulting from salt crystallisation around the points of contact. The angle of friction increased by more than 86% at maximum NaCl concentration compared to that for distilled water. The NaCl deposition in the pore space resulted in nonlinear strength increases for the brine-saturated sandstone specimens with increasing salinity. The present study is expected to improve the knowledge of the strength and failure mechanisms of sedimentary rock in deep saline aquifers.

  11. Monitoring of Miit glass solution interactions by brine analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassoon, R.E.; Gong, M.; Adel-Hadadi, M.; Brandys, M.; Barkatt, A.; Macedo, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of brine samples taken from borehole MIIT=8 at the WIPP site were carried out in order to study the leaching behavior of the brine in this system. The standard addition method was used with the analytical techniques of AA, DCP and ICP-MS to determine the concentration of the components in the brine. The changes in the concentration of the major components, Na, Mg and K can be explained by reactions of the brine with the rock salt walls of the borehole. From the data obtained for the other components no leaching of the SRL-Y glass discs in the test could be observed. It was however possible to determine an upper limit for leaching of the glass from isotope ratio studies made on Li which yielded a value for the leach rate of lithium from the glass of 0.117 g m -2 d -1

  12. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren

    2010-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is the most promising strategy for the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere via long-term geological storage. The study is part of the CO2SINK project conducted at Ketzin, situated 40 km west of Berlin. There, food grade CO2 has been pumped into the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation since June 2008. The main objective of the experimental program is to investigate the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on the physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock. To achieve this goal, core samples from observation well Ktzi 202 have been saturated with synthetic brine and exposed to CO2 in high quality steel autoclaves at simulated reservoir P-T-conditions of 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C. The synthetic brine had a composition representative of the formation fluid (Förster et al., 2006) of 172.8 g/l NaCl, 8.0 g/l MgCl2×2H2O, 4.8 g/l CaCl2×2H2O and 0.6 g/l KCl. After 15 months, the first set of CO2-exposed samples was removed from the pressure vessels. Thin sections, XRD, SEM as well as EMP data were used to determine the mineralogical features of the reservoir rocks before and after the experiments. Additionally, NMR relaxation and MP was performed to measure poroperm and pore size distribution values of the twin samples. The analyzed samples are fine- to medium grained, moderately well- to well sorted and weakly consolidated sandstones. Quartz and plagioclase are the major components, while K-feldspar, hematite, white & dark mica, chlorite and illite are present in minor and varying amounts. Cements are composed of analcime, dolomite and anhydrite. Some samples show mm- to cm-scale cross-beddings. The laminae comprise lighter, quartz- and feldspar-dominated layers and dark-brownish layers with notably less quartz and feldspars. The results are consistent with those of Blaschke et al. (2008). The plagioclase composition indicates preferred dissolution of the Ca-component and a trend toward albite-rich phases or even pure

  13. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  14. Cement reactivity in CO{sub 2} saturated brines: use of a reactive transport code to highlight key degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, B.M.; Prevost, J.H.; Scherer, G.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A modular reactive transport code is proposed to analyze the reactivity of cement in CO{sub 2} saturated brine. The coupling of the transport module and the geochemical module within Dynaflow{sup TM} is derived. Both modules are coupled in a sequential iterative approach to accurately model: (1) mineral dissolution/precipitation and (2) porosity dependent transport properties. Results of the model reproduce qualitatively the dissolution of cement hydrates (C-H, C-S-H, AFm, AFt) and intermediate products (CaCO{sub 3}) into the brine. Slight discrepancies between modeling and experimental results were found concerning the dynamics of the mineral zoning. Results suggest that the power law relationship to model effective transport properties from porosity values is not accurate for very reactive case. (authors)

  15. Cement reactivity in CO2 saturated brines: use of a reactive transport code to highlight key degradation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, B.M.; Prevost, J.H.; Scherer, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    A modular reactive transport code is proposed to analyze the reactivity of cement in CO 2 saturated brine. The coupling of the transport module and the geochemical module within Dynaflow TM is derived. Both modules are coupled in a sequential iterative approach to accurately model: (1) mineral dissolution/precipitation and (2) porosity dependent transport properties. Results of the model reproduce qualitatively the dissolution of cement hydrates (C-H, C-S-H, AFm, AFt) and intermediate products (CaCO 3 ) into the brine. Slight discrepancies between modeling and experimental results were found concerning the dynamics of the mineral zoning. Results suggest that the power law relationship to model effective transport properties from porosity values is not accurate for very reactive case. (authors)

  16. Monitoring CO2 penetration and storage in the brine-saturated low permeable sandstone by the geophysical exploration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H.; Mitani, Y.; Kitamura, K.; Ikemi, H.; Imasato, M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) plays a vital role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In the northern part of Kyushu region of Japan, complex geological structure (Coalfield) is existed near the CO2 emission source and has 1.06 Gt of CO2 storage capacity. The geological survey shows that these layers are formed by low permeable sandstone. It is necessary to monitor the CO2 behavior and clear the mechanisms of CO2 penetration and storage in the low permeable sandstone. In this study, measurements of complex electrical impedance (Z) and elastic wave velocity (P-wave velocity: Vp) were conducted during the supercritical CO2 injection experiment into the brine-saturated low permeable sandstone. The experiment conditions were as follows; Confining pressure: 20 MPa, Initial pore pressure: 10 MPa, 40 °, CO2 injection rate: 0.01 to 0.5 mL/min. Z was measured in the center of the specimen and Vp were measured at three different heights of the specimen at constant intervals. In addition, we measured the longitudinal and lateral strain at the center of the specimen, the pore pressure and CO2 injection volume (CO2 saturation). During the CO2 injection, the change of Z and Vp were confirmed. In the drainage terms, Vp decreased drastically once CO2 reached the measurement cross section.Vp showed the little change even if the flow rate increased (CO2 saturation increased). On the other hand, before the CO2 front reached, Z decreased with CO2-dissolved brine. After that, Z showed continuously increased as the CO2 saturation increased. From the multi-parameter (Hydraulic and Rock-physics parameters), we revealed the detail CO2 behavior in the specimen. In the brine-saturated low permeable sandstone, the slow penetration of CO2 was observed. However, once CO2 has passed, the penetration of CO2 became easy in even for brine-remainded low permeable sandstone. We conclude low permeable sandstone has not only structural storage capacity but also residual tapping

  17. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting (Ruud)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  18. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine chilling solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, W B; Mills, E W; Cutter, C N

    2009-11-01

    Chilled brine solutions are used by the food industry to rapidly cool ready-to-eat meat products after cooking and before packaging. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) was investigated as an antimicrobial additive to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. Several experiments were performed using brine solutions made of sodium chloride (NaCl) and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) inoculated with L. monocytogenes and/or treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2). First, 10 and 20% CaCl(2) and NaCl solutions (pH 7.0) were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes to obtain approximately 7 log CFU/ml and incubated 8 h at 0 degrees C. The results demonstrated that L. monocytogenes survived in 10% CaCl(2), 10 and 20% NaCl, and pure water. L. monocytogenes levels were reduced approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml in 20% CaCl(2). Second, inoculated ( approximately 7 log CFU/ml) brine solutions (10 and 20% NaCl and 10% CaCl(2)) treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2) resulted in a approximately 4-log reduction of the pathogen within 90 s. The same was not observed in a solution of 20% CaCl(2); further investigation demonstrated that high levels of divalent cations interfere with the disinfectant. Spent brine solutions from hot dog and ham chilling were treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 3 or 30 ppm. At these concentrations, ClO(2) did not reduce L. monocytogenes. Removal of divalent cations and organic material in brine solutions prior to disinfection with ClO(2) should be investigated to improve the efficacy of the compound against L. monocytogenes. The information from this study may be useful to processing establishments and researchers who are investigating antimicrobials in chilling brine solutions.

  19. Subsurface transport of inorganic and organic solutes from experimental road spreading of oil-field brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, E.S.; Digel, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate ground water quality changes resulting from spreading oil-field brine on roads for ice and dust control was conducted using a gravel roadbed that received weekly applications of brine eight times during the winter phase and 11 times during the summer phase of the study. A network of 11 monitoring wells and five pressure-vacuum lysimeters was installed to obtain ground water and soil water samples. Thirteen sets of water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. Two sets of samples were taken prior to brine spreading, four sets during winter-phase spreading, five sets during summer-phase spreading, and two sets during the interim between the winter and summer phases. A brine plume delineated by elevated specific-conductance values and elevated chloride concentrations in ground water samples to exceed US EPA public drinking-water standards by two-fold during the winter phase and five-fold during the summer phase. No other major ions, trace metals, or volatile organic compounds exceeded the standards during the winter or summer phases. More than 99% dilution of the solutes in the brine occurred between the roadbed surface and the local ground water flow system. Further attenuation of calcium, sodium, potassium, and strontium resulted from adsorption, whereas further attenuation of benzene resulted from volatilization and adsorption

  20. Corrosion of low alloy steel containing 0.5% chromium in supercritical CO2-saturated brine and water-saturated supercritical CO2 environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei; Li, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of P110 low-Cr alloy steel in supercritical CO2-saturated brine (aqueous phase) and water-saturated supercritical CO2 (SC CO2 phase) was investigated. The results show that P110 steel primarily suffered general corrosion in the aqueous phase, while severe localized corrosion occurred in the SC CO2 phase. The formation of corrosion product scale on P110 steel in the aqueous phase divided into three stages: formation of the initial corrosion layer containing amorphous Cr(OH)3, FeCO3 and a small amount of Fe3C; transformation of initial corrosion layer to mixed layer, which consisted of FeCO3 and a small amount of Cr(OH)3 and Fe3C; growth and dissolution of the mixed layer. Finally, only a single mixed layer covered on the steel in the aqueous phase. However, the scale formed in SC CO2 phase consisted of two layers: the inner mixed layer and the dense outer FeCO3 crystalline layer.

  1. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, L.N.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Wruck, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO 2 2+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO 2 2+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO 2 2+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na 2 SO 4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  2. WHATIF-AQ, Geochem Speciation and Saturation of Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Ole John; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: WHATIF-AQ is part of a family of programs for calculations of geochemistry in the near-field of radioactive waste with temperature gradients. The program calculates speciation and saturation indices for an aqueous solution at temperatures in the range 0 - 125 degrees C. The chemical equilibrium is determined by solving a set of nonlinear equations consisting of the equilibrium constant and mass balance constraints. 2 - Method of solution: The set of equations is solved using a generalized Newton-Raphson technique

  3. Capillary pressure - saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine: Implications for capillary/residual trapping in carbonate reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), data on capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are routinely needed to appraise reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been often experimentally studied in oil-water, gas-water and three phase gas-oil-water systems, but fewer works have been reported on scCO2-water under in-situ reservoir conditions. Here, Pc-Sw relations of supercritical (sc) CO2 displacing brine, and brine rewetting the porous medium to trap scCO2 were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior in carbonate reservoirs under representative reservoir conditions. High-quality drainage and imbibition (and associated capillary pressure hysteresis) curves were measured under elevated temperature and pressure (45 ºC, 8.5 and 12 MPa) for scCO2-brine as well as at room temperature and pressure (23 ºC, 0.1 MPa) for air-brine in unconsolidated limestone and dolomite sand columns using newly developed semi-automated multistep outflow-inflow porous plate apparatus. Drainage and imbibition curves for scCO2-brine deviated from the universal scaling curves for hydrophilic interactions (with greater deviation under higher pressure) and shifted to lower Pc than predicted based on interfacial tension (IFT) changes. Augmented scaling incorporating differences in IFT and contact angle improved the scaling results but the scaled curves still did not converge onto the universal curves. Equilibrium residual trapping of the nonwetting phase was determined at Pc =0 during imbibition. The capillary-trapped amounts of scCO2 were significantly larger than for air. It is concluded that the deviations from the universal capillary scaling curves are caused by scCO2-induced wettability alteration, given the fact that pore geometry remained constant and IFT is well constrained. In-situ wettability alteration by reactive scCO2 is of critical importance and must be accounted for to achieve reliable predictions of CO2 behavior in GCS reservoirs.

  4. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

    2013-08-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

  5. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  6. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  7. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L.; Rasmuson, Ake C.

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value

  8. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmuson, Ake C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: rasmuson@ket.kth.se

    2008-12-15

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value.

  9. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  10. Armouring of well cement in H2S–CO2 saturated brine by calcite coating – Experiments and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, Nicolas; Pironon, Jacques; Lagneau, Vincent; Saint-Marc, Jérémie

    2012-01-01

    The active acid gas (H 2 S–CO 2 mixture) injection operations in North America provide practical experience for the operators in charge of industrial scale CO 2 geological storage sites. Potential leakage via wells and their environmental impacts make well construction durability an issue for efficiency/safety of gas geological storage. In such operations, the well cement is in contact with reservoir brines and the injected gas, meaning that gas–water–solid chemical reactions may change the physical properties of the cement and its ability to confine the gas downhole. The cement-forming Calcium silicate hydrates carbonation (by CO 2 ) and ferrite sulfidation (by H 2 S) reactions are expected. The main objective of this study is to determine their consequences on cement mineralogy and transfer ability. Fifteen and 60 days duration batch experiments were performed in which well cement bars were immersed in brine itself caped by a H 2 S–CO 2 phase at 500 bar–120 °C. Scanning electron microscopy including observations/analyses and elemental mapping, mineralogical mapping by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and water porosimetry were used to characterize the aged cement. Speciation by micro-Raman spectroscopy of brine trapped within synthetic fluid inclusions were also performed. The expected calcium silicate hydrates carbonation and ferrite sulfidation reactions were evidenced. Furthermore, armouring of the cement through the fast creation of a non-porous calcite coating, global porosity decrease of the cement (clogging) and mineral assemblage conservation were demonstrated. The low W/R ratio of the experimental system (allowing the cement to buffer the interstitial and external solution pH at basic values) and mixed species diffusion and chemical reactions are proposed to explain these features. This interpretation is confirmed by reactive transport modelling performed with the HYTEC code. The observed cement armouring, clogging and mineral

  11. Effect of solution saturation state and temperature on diopside dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Susan A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Steady-state dissolution rates of diopside are measured as a function of solution saturation state using a titanium flow-through reactor at pH 7.5 and temperature ranging from 125 to 175°C. Diopside dissolved stoichiometrically under all experimental conditions and rates were not dependent on sample history. At each temperature, rates continuously decreased by two orders of magnitude as equilibrium was approached and did not exhibit a dissolution plateau of constant rates at high degrees of undersaturation. The variation of diopside dissolution rates with solution saturation can be described equally well with a ion exchange model based on transition state theory or pit nucleation model based on crystal growth/dissolution theory from 125 to 175°C. At 175°C, both models over predict dissolution rates by two orders of magnitude indicating that a secondary phase precipitated in the experiments. The ion exchange model assumes the formation of a Si-rich, Mg-deficient precursor complex. Lack of dependence of rates on steady-state aqueous calcium concentration supports the formation of such a complex, which is formed by exchange of protons for magnesium ions at the surface. Fit to the experimental data yields Rate (moldiopsidecm−2s−1=k×10−Ea/2.303RT(aH+2aMg2+n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaaieaacqWFsbGucqWFHbqycqWF0baDcqWFLbqzcqqGGaaicqGGOaakcqWFTbqBcqWFVbWBcqWFSbaBcqWFGaaicqWFKbazcqWFPbqAcqWFVbWBcqWFWbaCcqWFZbWCcqWFPbqAcqWFKbazcqWFLbqzcqWFGaaicqWFJbWycqWFTbqBdaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTiabikdaYaaakiab=bcaGiab=nhaZnaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaeGymaedaaOGaeiykaKIaeyypa0Jaem4AaSMaey41aqRaeeymaeJaeeimaaZaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcqWGfbqrdaWgaaadbaGaemyyaegabeaaliabc+caViabikdaYiabc6caUiabioda

  12. Theoretical investigation of the evolution of the passive state on Alloy 22 in acidified, saturated brine under open circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.

    2011-01-01

    It is observed in many systems that as a metal or alloy is exposed to an aqueous solution over a long period of time, the corrosion potential drifts in the positive direction and the corrosion rate decreases. This implies the possibility that the potential may become sufficiently positive that it will exceed the transpassive potential and result in depassivation of the surface and hence to massive corrosion. On the other hand, if depassivation does not occur, the corrosion rate is predicted to continuously decrease with time, such that experiments carried out over short periods of time may seriously over-estimate the true corrosion rate over extended periods. This is an important issue in the selection of materials for the containment of high-level nuclear waste (HLNW), because of the excessively long performance horizon (up to 10 6 years), and in interpreting corrosion data from archeological artifacts. The theory developed in this work provides a physico-electrochemical explanation of the ennoblement phenomenon that is in good agreement with experiment and, in principle, allows one to optimize the model on short-term data and then predict the corrosion behavior over the very long term.

  13. Electroerosion method for preparation of saturated solutions of ruthenium hydroxochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalev, V.A.; Andrianov, G.A.; Zhadanov, B.V.; Ryazanov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant for carrying out electroerosion processes using pulse current of high unit power is developed. The solution process of metallic Ru in concentrated HCl is investigated. The possibility of preparation of ruthenium hydroxochloride solutions of 300 g/l concentration is established; it gives the possibility of Ru solution under conditions similar to the process of salting out

  14. Acid and base recovery from brine solution using PVP intermediate-based bipolar membrane through water splitting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Krishnaveni; Murugappan, Minnoli; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2017-07-01

    Potable water has become a scarce resource in many countries. In fact, the world is not running out of water, but rather, the relatively fixed quantity is becoming too contaminated for many applications. Hence, the present work was designed to evaluate the desalination efficiency of resin and glass fiber-reinforced Polysulfone polymer-based monopolar and bipolar (BPM) ion exchange membranes (with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as the intermediate layer) on a real sample brine solution for 8 h duration. The prepared ion exchange membranes (IEMs) were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA, water absorption, and contact angle measurements. The BPM efficiency, electrical conductivity, salinity, sodium, and chloride ion concentration were evaluated for both prepared and commercial-based IEM systems. The current efficiency and energy consumption values obtained during BPMED process were found to be 45 % and 0.41 Wh for RPSu-PVP-based IEM system and 38 % and 1.60 Wh for PSDVB-based IEM system, respectively.

  15. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH 2 ) -1/2 dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2009-01-01

    We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered as ...

  17. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

  18. Exact solutions of the two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with saturable nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K. O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2010-01-01

    We show that the two-dimensional, nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity admits periodic and pulse-like exact solutions. We establish the general formalism for the stability considerations of these solutions and give examples of stability diagrams. Finally, we show that the e...

  19. Exact bright and dark spatial soliton solutions in saturable nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    We present exact analytical bright and dark (black and grey) solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation describing the propagation of spatial beams in media exhibiting a saturable nonlinearity (such as centrosymmetric photorefractive materials). A qualitative study of the stationary equation is carried out together with a discussion of the stability of the solutions.

  20. Gravity flow and solute dispersion in variably saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahor, Samuel K.; de Rooij, Gerrit H.; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Solute dispersion in porous media depends on the structure of the velocity field at the pore scale. Hence, dispersion is expected to change with water content and with mean flow velocity. We performed laboratory experiments using a column of repacked fine-grained quartz sand (0.1-0.3 mm grain size) with a porous plate at the bottom to controle the water potential at the lower boundary. We established gravity flow conditions - i.e. constant matric potential and water content throughout the column - for a number of different irrigation rates. We measured breakthrough curves during unit gradient flow for an inert tracer which could be described by the convection-dispersion equation. As the soil water content decreased we observed an initially gradual increase in dispersivity followed by an abrupt increase below a threshold water content (0.19) and pressure head (-38 hPa). This phenomena can be explained by the geometry of phase distribution which was simulated based on Xray-CT images of the porous structure.

  1. The molar enthalpies of solution and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of some cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cesium chloride, cesium bromide, cesium nitrate, cesium sulfate, cesium formate, and cesium oxalate were determined as a function of temperature. These vapour pressures were used to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients and molar enthalpies of vapourization. Molar enthalpies of solution of cesium chloride, Δ sol H m (T = 295.73 K; m = 0.0622 mol . kg -1 ) = (17.83 ± 0.50) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium bromide, Δ sol H m (T = 293.99 K; m = 0.0238 mol . kg -1 ) = (26.91 ± 0.59) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium nitrate, Δ sol H m (T = 294.68 K; m = 0.0258 mol . kg -1 ) = (37.1 ± 2.3) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium sulfate, Δ sol H m (T = 296.43 K; m = 0.0284 mol . kg -1 ) (16.94 ± 0.43) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium formate, Δ sol H m (T = 295.64 K; m = 0.0283 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.10 ± 0.26) kJ . mol -1 and Δ sol H m (T = 292.64 K; m = 0.0577 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.56 ± 0.56) kJ . mol -1 ; and cesium oxalate, Δ sol H m (T = 291.34 K; m = 0.0143 mol . kg -1 ) = (22.07 ± 0.16) kJ . mol -1 were determined calorimetrically. The purity of the chemicals was generally greater than 0.99 mass fraction, except for HCOOCs and (COOCs) 2 where purities were approximately 0.95 and 0.97 mass fraction, respectively. The uncertainties are one standard deviations

  2. Use of azeotropic distillation for isotopic analysis of deuterium in soil water and saturate saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Vieira dos.

    1995-05-01

    The azeotropic distillation technique was adapted to extract soil water and saturate saline solution, which is similar to the sea water for the Isotopic Determination of Deuterium (D). A soil test was used to determine the precision and the nature of the methodology to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis, using the azeotropic distillation and comparing with traditional methodology of heating under vacuum. This methodology has been very useful for several kinds of soil or saturate saline solution. The apparatus does not have a memory effect, and the chemical reagents do not affect the isotopic composition of soil water. (author). 43 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  3. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to the Stochastic Porous Media Equations of Saturated Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotir, Ioana

    2010-01-01

    This paper proves the existence and uniqueness of nonnegative solutions for the stochastic porous media equations with multiplicative noise, infinite jump and discontinuous diffusivity function relevant in description of saturation processes in underground water infiltration in a bounded domain of R 3 .

  5. VS2DRTI: Simulating Heat and Reactive Solute Transport in Variably Saturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W; Haile, Sosina S; Parkhurst, David L; Charlton, Scott R

    2018-01-29

    Variably saturated groundwater flow, heat transport, and solute transport are important processes in environmental phenomena, such as the natural evolution of water chemistry of aquifers and streams, the storage of radioactive waste in a geologic repository, the contamination of water resources from acid-rock drainage, and the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Up to now, our ability to simulate these processes simultaneously with fully coupled reactive transport models has been limited to complex and often difficult-to-use models. To address the need for a simple and easy-to-use model, the VS2DRTI software package has been developed for simulating water flow, heat transport, and reactive solute transport through variably saturated porous media. The underlying numerical model, VS2DRT, was created by coupling the flow and transport capabilities of the VS2DT and VS2DH models with the equilibrium and kinetic reaction capabilities of PhreeqcRM. Flow capabilities include two-dimensional, constant-density, variably saturated flow; transport capabilities include both heat and multicomponent solute transport; and the reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of geochemical reactions of PHREEQC. The graphical user interface includes a preprocessor for building simulations and a postprocessor for visual display of simulation results. To demonstrate the simulation of multiple processes, the model is applied to a hypothetical example of injection of heated waste water to an aquifer with temperature-dependent cation exchange. VS2DRTI is freely available public domain software. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150 0 C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150 0 C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references

  7. Modeling variably saturated subsurface solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and MT3DMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Langevin, Christian D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Healy, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    The MT3DMS groundwater solute transport model was modified to simulate solute transport in the unsaturated zone by incorporating the unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package developed for MODFLOW. The modified MT3DMS code uses a volume-averaged approach in which Lagrangian-based UZF1 fluid fluxes and storage changes are mapped onto a fixed grid. Referred to as UZF-MT3DMS, the linked model was tested against published benchmarks solved analytically as well as against other published codes, most frequently the U.S. Geological Survey's Variably-Saturated Two-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model. Results from a suite of test cases demonstrate that the modified code accurately simulates solute advection, dispersion, and reaction in the unsaturated zone. Two- and three-dimensional simulations also were investigated to ensure unsaturated-saturated zone interaction was simulated correctly. Because the UZF1 solution is analytical, large-scale flow and transport investigations can be performed free from the computational and data burdens required by numerical solutions to Richards' equation. Results demonstrate that significant simulation runtime savings can be achieved with UZF-MT3DMS, an important development when hundreds or thousands of model runs are required during parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and transport simulations revealed UZF-MT3DMS to have runtimes that are less than one tenth of the time required by models that rely on Richards' equation. Given its accuracy and efficiency, and the wide-spread use of both MODFLOW and MT3DMS, the added capability of unsaturated-zone transport in this familiar modeling framework stands to benefit a broad user-ship.

  8. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  9. Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.

  10. Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Tang, Guang-Fa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2008-01-15

    Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element. (author)

  11. Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Di [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: liudi66@163.com; Zhao Fuyun [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: zfycfdnet@163.com; Tang Guangfa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: gftangcfd@163.com

    2008-01-15

    Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element.

  12. Photochemical oxidation of americium(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of UV radiation on 1.1x10 -4 mol/l Am(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions of sodium and potassium saturated with N 2 O was studied by spectrographic method. In all the cases Am(4) was formed as a primary product. Initial rate of Am(4) accumulation remains stable in solutions up to HCO 3 - or HCO 3 - +CO 3 2- concentration of approximately 1.5 mol/l, but it decreases in case of their higher concentration. In solutions with pH 8.4-10 Am(4) disproportionates at a slow rate and the method suggested permits attaining practically 100% yield of it

  13. Transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media under various solution chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Gao Bin; Morales, Verónica L.; Tian Yuan; Wu Lei; Gao Jie; Bai Wei; Yang Liuyan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its wide applications, nanosized titanium dioxide may become a potential environmental risk to soil and groundwater system. It is therefore important to improve current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of titanium oxides nanoparticles (TONPs). In this work, the effect of solution chemistry (i.e., pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration) on the deposition and transport of TONPs in saturated porous media was examined in detail. Laboratory columns packed with acid-cleaned quartz sand were used in the experiment as porous media. Transport experiments were conducted with various chemistry combinations, including four ionic strengths, three pH levels, and two NOM concentrations. The results showed that TONP mobility increased with increasing solution pH, but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. It is also found that the presence of NOM in the system enhanced the mobility of TONPs in the saturated porous media. The Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to justify the mobility trends observed in the experimental data. Predictions from the theory agreed excellently with the experimental data.

  14. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappala, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  15. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  16. Carbonate dissolution rates in high salinity brines: Implications for post-Noachian chemical weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Parnell, S. R.; McGraw, L. E.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2018-06-01

    A diverse suite of carbonate minerals including calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) have been observed on the martian surface and in meteorites. Terrestrial carbonates usually form via aqueous processes and often record information about the environment in which they formed, including chemical and textural biosignatures. In addition, terrestrial carbonates are often found in association with evaporite deposits on Earth. Similar high salinity environments and processes were likely active on Mars and some areas may contain active high salinity brines today. In this study, we directly compare calcite and magnesite dissolution in ultrapure water, dilute sulfate and chloride solutions, as well as near-saturated sulfate and chloride brines with known activity of water (aH2O) to determine how dissolution rates vary with mineralogy and aH2O, as well as aqueous cation and anion chemistry to better understand how high salinity fluids may have altered carbonate deposits on Mars. We measured both calcite and magnesite initial dissolution rates at 298 K and near neutral pH (6-8) in unbuffered solutions containing ultrapure water (18 MΩ cm-1 UPW; aH2O = 1), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1; aH2O = 1) and near-saturated Na2SO4 (2.5 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1) and near-saturated NaCl (5.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.75). Calcite dissolution rates were also measured in dilute and near-saturated MgSO4 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 2.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92, respectively) and MgCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 3 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.73, respectively), while magnesite dissolution rates were measured in dilute and near-saturated CaCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 9 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.35). Initial calcite dissolution rates were fastest in near-saturated MgCl2 brine, while magnesite dissolution rates were fastest in dilute (0.1 mol kg-1) NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. Calcite dissolution rates in near-saturated Na2SO4 were similar to those observed in the dilute solutions (-8.00 ± 0

  17. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  18. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of Olkiluoto bounding brine water on buffer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, J.; Schatz, T.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents a set of results from laboratory studies on the effect of bounding brine water exposure on buffer performance. In order to evaluate the effect of bounding brine water exposure on compacted bentonite buffer performance a series of experiments were conducted using swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements as follows: Direct exposure measurements were performed on MX-80 bentonite samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1334 to 1585 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 70 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3:2. Direct exposure measurements were performed on IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1314 to 1564 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. A set of MX-80 and IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1018 to 1607 kg/m 3 were initially saturated with tap water followed by (indirect) exposure to a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. Sample swelling pressures were continuously monitored and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed at each constant swelling pressure condition. In some cases, exchangeable cation analyses were performed. The specific test results are summarized as follows: All of the measured swelling pressure values upon exposure to bounding brine water were lower than the corresponding values after saturation with tap water. The relative swelling pressure decrease for the IBECO RWC samples was approximately half of the corresponding decrease for the MX-80 samples. On exposure to bounding brine water, hydraulic conductivity values were increased at the lowest densities, for both the MX-80 and IBECO samples, while at higher densities hydraulic conductivity values were essentially equivalent, for both the

  19. Characterization of some electronic spectral parameters for doped Nd (III) ion in saturated aqueous solution of some pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulakha, Neelam; Soni, K.P.; Bhati, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The stereo-environment of doped Nd(III) ion in various saturated solutions of some medicinal compounds has been studied for various electronic spectral parameters. The various electronic parameters, viz., Slater Condon (F k ), Lande (ζ 4f ) intensity of hypersensitive band ( 4 G 5/2 ), bonding parameter (b 1/2 ), Judd-Ofelt parameter (Tλ) and Racah parameter (E k ) for Nd(III) ion doped in saturated solution of diphenylhydramine, tripelennamine, chlorophenaramine, promethazine, terfinadine, naproxen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, oxaprozine, ketoprofen and ibuprofen have been studied. (author)

  20. The performance of a surface-applied corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH)2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Haibing; Li, Weihua; Ma, Fubin; Kong, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the performance of an amino alcohol based surface applied inhibitor was studied by the electrochemical techniques in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The surface morphology of the carbon steel was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the energy diffraction spectrum was also tested. Results showed that the inhibitor used in this work demonstrated obvious inhibition efficiency on the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The inhibition mechanism of the inhibitor lies in the quick adsorption of the active component on carbon steel surface

  1. Analysis of products of thymine irradiated by 18O8+ ion beam in N2O saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xichen; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian; Liang Jianping; Li Qiang

    1999-01-01

    Some methods of capillary gas chromatography, such as GC, GC-MS GC-FT-IR, are used to analyze the products of thymine irradiated by 18 O 8+ ion beam in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution. From the results of GC-MS the molecular weight of products can be determined, and from the results of GC-FT-IR some molecular structure information of products can be obtained. By this way the products, 5,6-Dihydro-thymine, 5-Hydroxyl-5-Methylhydantoin, 5-Hydroxyl-6-Hydro-thymine, 5-Hydro-6-Hydroxyl thymine, 5-Hydroxymethyluracil, Trans-Thymine glycol, Cis-Thymine glycol and dimers are determined without separation of them from samples. Though these products are as same as those products of thymine irradiated by γ rays in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution, the mechanism of thymine irradiated by heavy ion beam in aqueous solution is different from that by γ rays. The main products of thymine irradiated by 18 O 8+ ion beam in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution are hydroxyl adducts at 5-6 band of thymine, while the main products of thymine irradiated by γ ray in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution are dimers of thymine

  2. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: Phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data obtained in the course of the WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program. The investigations focus on the brine present in the near-field environment around the WIPP underground workings. Although the WIPP underground workings are considered dry, small amounts of brine are present. This amount of brine is not unexpected in rocks of marine sedimentary origin. Part of that brine can and does migrate into the repository in response to pressure gradients, at essentially isothermal conditions. These small volumes of brine have little effect on the day-to-day operations, but are pervasive throughout the repository and may contribute enough moisture over a period of years to affect resaturation and repressurization after sealing and closure. Gas bubbles are observed in many of the brine occurrences. Gas is also known to exsolve from solution as the brine is poured from container to container. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin

    2016-10-20

    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  4. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C.

    2016-01-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO 2 at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO 2 is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO 2 is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO 3 separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  5. Facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand: Effects of solution ionic strength and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu in association with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) in water-saturated quartz sand at different solution concentrations of NaCl (0 to 100 mM) or CaCl2 (0.1 to 1.0 mM). The experimental breakthrough curves and retent...

  6. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  7. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  8. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl 2 solutions and MgCl 2 hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180 0 C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H 2 [G(H 2 )] and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H 2 ) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143 0 C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45 0 C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl 2 and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O 2 into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H 2 was present as O 2 . We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H 2 from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85 0 C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143 0 C and 30 to 45 0 C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H 2 and O 2 . The values found in this work for G(H 2 ) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H 2 in pure H 2 O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H 2 ) in 2 M NaCl solutions at room temperature

  9. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  10. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth.

  11. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  12. The effects of halide ions on the radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobutake; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Washino, Masamitsu

    1978-01-01

    The radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes was studied in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions containing halide ions. In the N 2 O-saturated solutions, the decoloration yield, G(-Dye), increased markedly upon the addition of Br - and I - , which are efficient scavengers of the OH radical. In the nitrogen-saturated solutions, however, the G(-Dye) decreased upon the addition of Br - and I - . Such an increase in the G(-Dye) upon the addition of Br - and I - in the N 2 O-saturated solutions is mainly attributable to the attacks of the halide radical anions, Br 2 - and I 2 - , on the ring structure of the dyes. On the other hand, the G(-Dye) was not changed upon the addition of Cl - in the N 2 O-saturated solution. This may be attributable to the very slow rate of the formation of Cl 2 - in a neutral solution. (auth.)

  13. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  14. Anion exchange removal of Al3+ from Li+-Al3+ aqueous solution (originating from lithium recovery from brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Somrani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to separate aluminum(III ion from an aqueous solution containing Li+ at 25°C. Al3+ was transferred into [Al(C2O43]3- by means of complexation and removed by an anion exchange resin. This resin was anionic type Amberlite IRA 402 regenerated by sodium chloride. Hence, a theoretical study based on speciation diagrams was carried out to determine the best pH domain for separation. The complexation of aluminum ions by ammonium oxalate was studied. The motar ratio of Ox/Al and pH was investigated. Optimum values of these factors were found to be 3 and 4 respectively. In this case, the remaining lithium is 98.5%.

  15. Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2014-09-01

    The kinetics of calcium carbonate hexahydrate (ikaite) precipitation and dissolution were investigated in seawater and seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures using the constant addition experimental technique. The steady state rate of these two processes was found to be a function of the deviation of the solution from equilibrium with respect to ikaite and conformed to the same empirical rate law as the anhydrous CaCO3 polymorphs, calcite and aragonite. In addition to the saturation state of the brine with respect to ikaite, the salinity of the brine and the temperature of the reaction evidently exerted some control on the ikaite precipitation kinetics, while the dissolution kinetics of the polymorph were not noticeably influenced by these two parameters. The experimental salinity and temperature conditions were equivalent to those at thermal equilibrium between brine and ice in the sea ice cover of polar seas. Simple modelling of the CO2 system by extrapolation of the oceanic equivalent to sea ice brines showed that the physical concentration of seawater ions and the changes in ikaite solubility as a function of salinity and temperature, both inherent in the sea ice system, would be insufficient to drive the emergent brines to ikaite supersaturation and precipitation in sea ice down to -8 °C. The loss of dissolved inorganic carbon to the gas phase of sea ice and to sympagic autotrophs are two independent mechanisms which, in nature, could prompt the brine CO2 system towards ikaite supersaturation and precipitation. Under these conditions, the steady state precipitation rate of ikaite was found to be fast enough for rapid formation within short time scales (days to weeks) in sea ice. The observed ikaite dissolution kinetics were also found conducive to short turn-over time scales of a few hours to a few days in corrosive solutions, such as surface seawater.

  16. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Potsane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

  17. Analytical solution to the diffusion, sorption and decay chain equation in a saturated porous medium between two reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Juan; Maximov, Serguei; Escarela-Perez, Rafael; López-García, Irvin; Moranchel, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion and distribution coefficients are important parameters in the design of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. These coefficients can be determined using a two-reservoir configuration, where a saturated porous medium is allocated between two reservoirs filled by stagnant water. One of the reservoirs contains a high concentration of radioisotopes. The goal of this work is to obtain an analytical solution for the concentration of all radioisotopes in the decay chain of a two-reservoir configuration. The analytical solution must be obtained by taking into account the diffusion and sorption processes. Concepts such as overvalued concentration, diffusion and decay factors are employed to this end. It is analytically proven that a factor of the solution is identical for all chains (considering a time scaling factor), if certain parameters do not change. In addition, it is proven that the concentration sensitivity, due to the distribution coefficient variation, depends of the porous medium thickness, which is practically insensitive for small porous medium thicknesses. The analytical solution for the radioisotope concentration is compared with experimental and numerical results available in literature. - Highlights: • Saturated porous media allocated between two reservoirs. • Analytical solution of the isotope transport equation. • Transport considers diffusion, sorption and decay chain

  18. Laboratory analysis of fluid flow and solute transport through a variably saturated fracture embedded in porous tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Y.; Haldeman, W.R.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1990-02-01

    Laboratory techniques are developed that allow concurrent measurement of unsaturated matrix hydraulic conductivity and fracture transmissivity of fractured rock blocks. Two Apache Leap tuff blocks with natural fractures were removed from near Superior, Arizona, shaped into rectangular prisms, and instrumented in the laboratory. Porous ceramic plates provided solution to block tops at regulated pressures. Infiltration tests were performed on both test blocks. Steady flow testing of the saturated first block provided estimates of matrix hydraulic conductivity and fracture transmissivity. Fifteen centimeters of suction applied to the second block top showed that fracture flow was minimal and matrix hydraulic conductivity was an order of magnitude less than the first block saturated matrix conductivity. Coated-wire ion-selective electrodes monitored aqueous chlorided breakthrough concentrations. Minute samples of tracer solution were collected with filter paper. The techniques worked well for studying transport behavior at near-saturated flow conditions and also appear to be promising for unsaturated conditions. Breakthrough curves in the fracture and matrix, and a concentration map of chloride concentrations within the fracture, suggest preferential flows paths in the fracture and substantial diffusion into the matrix. Average travel velocity, dispersion coefficient and longitudinal dispersivity in the fracture are obtained. 67 refs., 54 figs., 23 tabs

  19. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  20. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, R.

    2000-01-01

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource

  1. Rock-fluid chemical interactions at reservoir conditions: The influence of brine chemistry and extent of reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabaraonye, B. U.; Crawshaw, J.; Trusler, J. P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Following carbon dioxide injection in deep saline aquifers, CO2 dissolves in the formation brines forming acidic solutions that can subsequently react with host reservoir minerals, altering both porosity and permeability. The direction and rates of these reactions are influenced by several factors including properties that are associated with the brine system. Consequently, understanding and quantifying the impacts of the chemical and physical properties of the reacting fluids on overall reaction kinetics is fundamental to predicting the fate of the injected CO2. In this work, we present a comprehensive experimental study of the kinetics of carbonate-mineral dissolution in different brine systems including sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate of varying ionic strengths. The impacts of the brine chemistry on rock-fluid chemical reactions at different extent of reactions are also investigated. Using a rotating disk technique, we have investigated the chemical interactions between the CO2-saturated brines and carbonate minerals at conditions of pressure (up to 10 MPa) and temperature (up to 373 K) pertinent to carbon storage. The changes in surface textures due to dissolution reaction were studied by means of optical microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry. Experimental results are compared to previously derived models.

  2. Selective nonspecific solvation under dielectric saturation and fluorescence spectra of dye solutions in binary solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiev, N G; Kiselev, M B

    1991-09-01

    The influence of selective nonspecific solvation on the fluorescence spectra of three substitutedN-methylphthalimides in a binary solvent system consisting of a nonpolar (n-heptane) and a polar (pyridine) component has been studied under conditions close to dielectric saturation. The substantially nonlinearity of the effect is confirmation that the spectral shifts of fluorescence bands depend on the number of polar solvent molecules involved in solvating the dye molecule. The measured fluorescence spectral shifts determined by substituting one nonpolar solvent molecula with a polar one in the proximity of the dye molecule agree quantitatively with the forecasts of the previously proposed semiempirical theory which describes this nonlinear solvation phenomenon.

  3. Volumetric interpretation of protein adsorption: interfacial packing of protein adsorbed to hydrophobic surfaces from surface-saturating solution concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ping; Parhi, Purnendu; Krishnan, Anandi; Noh, Hyeran; Haider, Waseem; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Allara, David L; Vogler, Erwin A

    2011-02-01

    The maximum capacity of a hydrophobic adsorbent is interpreted in terms of square or hexagonal (cubic and face-centered-cubic, FCC) interfacial packing models of adsorbed blood proteins in a way that accommodates experimental measurements by the solution-depletion method and quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) for the human proteins serum albumin (HSA, 66 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 160 kDa), fibrinogen (Fib, 341 kDa), and immunoglobulin M (IgM, 1000 kDa). A simple analysis shows that adsorbent capacity is capped by a fixed mass/volume (e.g. mg/mL) surface-region (interphase) concentration and not molar concentration. Nearly analytical agreement between the packing models and experiment suggests that, at surface saturation, above-mentioned proteins assemble within the interphase in a manner that approximates a well-ordered array. HSA saturates a hydrophobic adsorbent with the equivalent of a single square or hexagonally-packed layer of hydrated molecules whereas the larger proteins occupy two-or-more layers, depending on the specific protein under consideration and analytical method used to measure adsorbate mass (solution depletion or QCM). Square or hexagonal (cubic and FCC) packing models cannot be clearly distinguished by comparison to experimental data. QCM measurement of adsorbent capacity is shown to be significantly different than that measured by solution depletion for similar hydrophobic adsorbents. The underlying reason is traced to the fact that QCM measures contribution of both core protein, water of hydration, and interphase water whereas solution depletion measures only the contribution of core protein. It is further shown that thickness of the interphase directly measured by QCM systematically exceeds that inferred from solution-depletion measurements, presumably because the static model used to interpret solution depletion does not accurately capture the complexities of the viscoelastic interfacial environment probed by QCM. Copyright © 2010

  4. Citropin 1.1 Trifluoroacetate to Chloride Counter-Ion Exchange in HCl-Saturated Organic Solutions: An Alternative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Neubauer, Damian; Jaśkiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    In view of the increasing interest in peptides in various market sectors, a stronger emphasis on topics related to their production has been seen. Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis, although being fast and efficient, provides final products with significant amounts of trifluoroacetate ions in the form of either a counter-ion or an unbound impurity. Because of the proven toxicity towards cells and peptide activity inhibition, ion exchange to more biocompatible one is purposeful. Additionally, as most of the currently used counter-ion exchange techniques are time-consuming and burdened by peptide yield reduction risk, development of a new approach is still a sensible solution. In this study, we examined the potential of peptide counter-ion exchange using non-aqueous organic solvents saturated with HCl. Counter-ion exchange of a model peptide, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH 2 ), for each solvent was conducted through incubation with subsequent evaporation under reduced pressure, dissolution in water and lyophilization. Each exchange was performed four times and compared to a reference method-lyophilization of the peptide from an 0.1 M HCl solution. The results showed superior counter-ion exchange efficiency for most of the organic solutions in relation to the reference method. Moreover, HCl-saturated acetonitrile and tert -butanol provided a satisfying exchange level after just one repetition. Thus, those two organic solvents can be potentially introduced into routine peptide counter-ion exchange.

  5. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  6. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Bassini, Glenda; Monastero, Annamaria; Cavallari, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA), diethylamine (DEtA), triethylamine (TEtA), monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), pyrrolidine (Py), piperidine (Pp), morpholine (M), piperazine (Pz) and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE) analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); a saturated solution (5 mL) of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs) contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane. PMID:24300300

  7. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  8. Effects of Temperature on Solute Transport Parameters in Differently-Textured Soils at Saturated Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, S.; Arihara, M.; Kawamoto, K.; Nishimura, T.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface warming driven by global warming, urban heat islands, and increasing use of shallow geothermal heating and cooling systems such as the ground source heat pump, potentially causes changes in subsurface mass transport. Therefore, understanding temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics is essential to accurately assess environmental risks due to increased subsurface temperature. In this study, one-dimensional solute transport experiments were conducted in soil columns under temperature control to investigate effects of temperature on solute transport parameters, such as solute dispersion and diffusion coefficients, hydraulic conductivity, and retardation factor. Toyoura sand, Kaolin clay, and intact loamy soils were used in the experiments. Intact loamy soils were taken during a deep well boring at the Arakawa Lowland in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In the transport experiments, the core sample with 5-cm diameter and 4-cm height was first isotropically consolidated, whereafter 0.01M KCl solution was injected to the sample from the bottom. The concentrations of K+ and Cl- in the effluents were analyzed by an ion chromatograph to obtain solute breakthrough curves. The solute transport parameters were calculated from the breakthrough curves. The experiments were conducted under different temperature conditions (15, 25, and 40 oC). The retardation factor for the intact loamy soils decreased with increasing temperature, while water permeability increased due to reduced viscosity of water at higher temperature. Opposite, the effect of temperature on solute dispersivity for the intact loamy soils was insignificant. The effects of soil texture on the temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics will be further investigated from comparison of results from differently-textured samples.

  9. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  11. Mixed field radiation effects on dry and acidic solution saturated polyamide 6,6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ont., K7K 7B4 (Canada); Bonin, H.W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ont., K7K 7B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca; Bui, V.T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ont., K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2005-05-15

    The disposal of Canada's radioactive waste materials has been the focus of ongoing research at the Royal Military College of Canada, in the use of polymer-based composite materials for the fabrication of disposal containers. An evaluation of the performance of polyamide 6,6 after exposure to radiation and acidic aqueous solutions provides the basis for the assessment of the lifetime performance of a polymeric-based storage container. This work demonstrates the importance of the combined effects of aqueous solution diffusion and radiation exposure on the mechanical performance and molecular structure of polyamide 6,6. Irradiation of dry samples initially results in a marked reduction of mechanical performance, however, post-irradiation aging allows for the return to pre-irradiation mechanical strength. Samples irradiated after exposure to either distilled water or 0.1 M sulfuric acid solutions exhibited increases in mechanical performance upon exposure to a mixed field radioactive environment.

  12. Mixed field radiation effects on dry and acidic solution saturated polyamide 6,6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2005-01-01

    The disposal of Canada's radioactive waste materials has been the focus of ongoing research at the Royal Military College of Canada, in the use of polymer-based composite materials for the fabrication of disposal containers. An evaluation of the performance of polyamide 6,6 after exposure to radiation and acidic aqueous solutions provides the basis for the assessment of the lifetime performance of a polymeric-based storage container. This work demonstrates the importance of the combined effects of aqueous solution diffusion and radiation exposure on the mechanical performance and molecular structure of polyamide 6,6. Irradiation of dry samples initially results in a marked reduction of mechanical performance, however, post-irradiation aging allows for the return to pre-irradiation mechanical strength. Samples irradiated after exposure to either distilled water or 0.1 M sulfuric acid solutions exhibited increases in mechanical performance upon exposure to a mixed field radioactive environment

  13. Improved solution for saturated-unsaturated flow to a partially penetrating well in a compressible unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Tartakovsky and Neuman [2007] developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well pumping at a constant rate from a compressible unconfined aquifer considering an unsaturated zone of infinite thickness. In their solution three-dimensional, axially symmetric unsaturated flow was described by a linearized version of Richards’ equation in which both relative hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value. Both exponential functions were characterized by a common exponent. We present an improved solution in which relative hydraulic conductivity and water content are characterized by separate parameters and the unsaturated zone has finite thickness. Our four-parameter representation of these functions is more flexible than the three-parameter version of Mathias and Butler [2006], who consider flow in the unsaturated zone to be strictly vertical and the pumping well to be fully penetrating. We investigate the effects of unsaturated zone thickness and constitutive parameters on drawdown in the unsaturated and saturated zones as functions of position and time. We then use our new solution to analyze data from synthetic and real pumping tests.

  14. Investigation on the formation of Cu-Fe nano crystalline super-saturated solid solution developed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, M., E-mail: m.mojtahedi@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, M.; Aboutalebi, M.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Soleimanian, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation of the mechanically alloyed Cu-Fe powder is anisotropic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld method is more proper and results in smaller crystallite size than the Scherer and Williamson-Hall methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual phase super saturated solid solution achieved after 96 h of milling of the mixtures with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A final proportion of approximately 85% FCC and 15% BCC structure obtained in all of the applied compositions. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of super saturated solid solution in the binary Cu-Fe system was investigated. Three powder blends with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Fe were milled for different times to 96 h. The variations of lattice parameter and inter-planar spacing were calculated and analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis (XDA). The anisotropy of lattice deformation in the FCC phase was studied and the obtained results were compared to milled pure Cu powder. Furthermore, crystallite size was calculated using Scherer formula in comparison with Rietveld full profile refinement method. Considering the previous studies about the formation of non-equilibrium FCC and BCC phases, the phase evolution has been discussed and the proportion of each phase was calculated using Rietveld refinement method. Supplementary studies on the evolution of microstructure and formation of solid solution were carried out using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Finally, high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging was utilized to find out the level of homogeneity in the resulting phases. While true alloying takes place in each phase, the final structure consists of both FCC and BCC nano-crystallites.

  15. Fabrication of nanocrystalline alloys Cu–Cr–Mo super satured solid solution by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzmán, D. [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Castro, F.; Martínez, V.; Cuevas, F. de las [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizábal, N° 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Muthiah, T. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-08-01

    This work discusses the extension of solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu processed by mechanical alloying. Three alloys processed, Cu–5Cr–5Mo, Cu–10Cr–10Mo and Cu–15Cr–15Mo (weight%) using a SPEX mill. Gibbs free energy of mixing values 10, 15 and 20 kJ mol{sup −1} were calculated for these three alloys respectively by using the Miedema's model. The crystallite size decreases and dislocation density increases when the milling time increases, so Gibbs free energy storage in powders increases by the presence of crystalline defects. The energy produced by crystallite boundaries and strain dislocations were estimated and compared with Gibbs free energy of mixing values. The energy storage values by the presence of crystalline defects were higher than Gibbs free energy of mixing at 120 h for Cu–5Cr–5Mo, 130 h for Cu–10Cr–10Mo and 150 h for Cu–15Cr–15Mo. During milling, crystalline defects are produced that increases the Gibbs free energy storage and thus the Gibbs free energy curves are moved upwards and hence the solubility limit changes. Therefore, the three alloys form solid solutions after these milling time, which are supported with the XRD results. - Highlights: • Extension of solid solution Cr and Mo in Cu achieved by mechanical alloying. • X-ray characterization of Cu–Cr–Mo system processed by mechanical alloying. • Thermodynamics analysis of formation of solid solution of the Cu–Cr–Mo system.

  16. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  17. Corrosion of carbon steel in saturated high-level waste salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    High level waste stored as crystallized salts is to be removed from carbon steel tanks by water dissolution. Dissolution of the saltcake must be performed in a manner which will not impact the integrity of the tank. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor that must be added to the dissolution water in order to ensure that the salt solution formed would not induce corrosion degradation of the tank materials. The corrosion testing performed included controlled potential slow strain rate, coupon immersion, and potentiodynamic polarization tests. These tests were utilized to investigate the susceptibility of the cooling coil material to stress corrosion cracking in the anticipated environments. No evidence of SCC was observed in any of the tests. Based on these results, the recommended corrosion requirements were that the temperature of the salt solution be less than 50 degrees C and that the minimum hydroxide concentration be 0.4 molar. It was also recommended that the hydroxide concentration not stay below 0.4 molar for longer than 45 days

  18. Analytical solution for the transient response of a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system subjected to an impulsive line source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng; Jing, Liping; Li, Yongqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, transient wave propagation is investigated within a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system with a planar interface that is subjected to a cylindrical P-wave line source. Assuming the permeability coefficient is sufficiently large, analytical solutions for the transient response of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system are developed. Moreover, the analytical solutions are presented in simple closed forms wherein each term represents a transient physical wave, especially the expressions for head waves. The methodology utilised to determine where the head wave can emerge within the system is also given. The wave fields within the fluid and porous medium are first defined considering the behaviour of two compressional waves and one tangential wave in the saturated porous medium and one compressional wave in the fluid. Substituting these wave fields into the interface continuity conditions, the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are then derived. To transform the solutions into the time domain, a suitable distortion of the contour is provided to change the integration path of the solution, after which the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are transformed into the time domain by employing Cagniard's method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system. In particular, the interface wave and head waves that propagate along the interface between the fluid and saturated porous medium can be observed.

  19. Slumping of brine mounds : bounds on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.R.; Duijn, van C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two modifications of the approximate analysis of interface motion during two-fluid density-driven flows of De Josselin de Jong (Proc. Euromech., 143: 75–82, 1981) are applied to the slumping of finite two-dimensional and axisymmetric brine mounds. Both lead to simple similarity solutions. One

  20. Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and polymerization of tricalcium silicate in stirred suspensions of CaO-saturated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.; Korhonen, Charles J.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate was hydrated at 274, 278, 283, 298, and 313 K in stirred suspensions of saturated CaO solutions under a nitrogen-gas atmosphere until the end of deceleratory period. The suspension conductivities and energy flows were measured continuously. The individual reaction rates for tricalcium silicate dissolution, calcium silicate hydrate precipitation, and calcium hydroxide precipitation were calculated from these measurements. The results suggest that the proportion of tricalcium silicate dissolved was determined by the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution and the time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation. The time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation was more sensitive to changes in temperature than was the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution, so that the proportion of tricalcium silicate hydration dissolved by the deceleratory period increased with decreasing temperature. The average chain length of the calcium silicate hydrate ascertained by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased with increasing temperature

  1. Optimizing the molarity of a EDTA washing solution for saturated-soil remediation of trace metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.D.; Prasher, S.O.; Hendershot, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to optimize the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for reclaiming urban soils contaminated with trace metals. As compared to Na 2 EDTA (NH 4 ) 2 EDTA extracted 60% more Zn and equivalent amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from a sandy loam. When successively saturating and draining loamy sand columns during a washing cycle, which submerged it once with a (NH 4 ) 2 EDTA wash and four times with deionised water, the post-wash rinses largely contributed to the total cumulative extraction of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Both the washing solution and the deionised water rinses were added in a 2:5 liquid to soil (L:S) weight ratio. For equal amounts of EDTA, concentrating the washing solution and applying it and the ensuing rinses in a smaller 1:5 L:S weight ratio, instead of a 2:5 L:S weight ratio, increased the extraction of targeted Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - A single EDTA addition is best utilised in a highly concentrated washing solution given in a small liquid to soil weight ratio

  2. Effect of Cr on the passive film formation mechanism of steel rebar in saturated calcium hydroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Cheng, Xuequn [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Li, Xiaogang, E-mail: lixiaogang@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201, Zhejiang (China); Pan, Yue; Li, Jun [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Cr inhibits the formation of passive film at the beginning of its formation. • Cr promotes the formation of a denser and more compact passive film. • The passive film thickness presents a slight increase as the content of Cr goes up. - Abstract: Passive films grow on the surface of Cr-modified steels subjected to saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Electrochemical techniques, such as measurement of open circuit potentials, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy combined with X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and auger electron spectroscopy, were applied to study the influence of low Cr content on the passive film formation mechanism of steel rebar in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Results show that Cr inhibits the formation of passive film at the beginning of its formation. Corrosion current density decreases and polarization resistance increases with the extension of the immersion time. A stable passive film takes at least three days to form. The passive film resistance of HRB400 carbon steel is higher than that of Cr-modified steels in the early stage of immersion (<72 h). The polarization resistance of Cr-modified steel is larger after a stable passive film is formed (>72 h), and Cr promotes the formation of a denser and more compact passive film. The stable passive film is primarily made up of iron oxides with a thickness of 5–6 nm. Cr are involved in the formation of passive films, thereby resulting in a film that consists of an inner layer that contains Cr–Fe oxides and an outer layer that contains Fe oxides, whose thickness presents a slight increase as the content of Cr increases.

  3. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  4. Simultaneous transport of synthetic colloids and a nonsorbing solute through single saturated natural fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Robinson, B.A.; Nuttall, H.E.; Kale, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tracer transport experiments involving colloids that showed little tendency to attach to rock surfaces and a nonsorbing solute (iodide) -were conducted in three different well-characterized natural fractures in tuff. The colloids always arrived earlier in the effluent than the iodide, which we believe is evidence of (1) hydrodynamic chromatography and/or (2) the fact that the colloids experience a smaller effective volume in the fracture because they diffuse too slowly to enter low-velocity regions (dead zones) along the rough fracture walls. The iodide also approached the inlet concentration in the effluent more slowly than the colloids, with the concentration at a given elution volume being greater at higher flow rates. By contrast, the rate of approach of the colloid concentration to the inlet concentration did not vary with flow rate. We attribute this behavior to matrix diffusion of the iodide, with the colloids being too large/nondiffusive to experience this phenomenon. Dispersion of all tracers was greatest in the fracture of widest average aperture and least in the fracture of narrowest aperture, which is consistent with Taylor dispersion theory. The tracer experiments were modeled/interpreted using a three-step approach that involved (1) estimating the aperture distribution in each fracture using surface profiling techniques, (2) predicting the flow field in the fractures using a localized parallel-plate approximation, and (3) predicting tracer transport in the fractures using particle-tracking techniques. Although considered preliminary at this time, the model results were in qualitative agreement with the experiments

  5. Effects of Solution Chemistry on Nano-Bubbles Transport in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Nihei, N.; Nishimura, T.

    2017-12-01

    Nano-bubbles (NBs) have a considerable potential for the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by organic compounds, especially when used in conjunction with bioremediation technologies. Understanding the transport mechanisms of NBs in soils is essential to optimize NB-based remediation techniques. In this study, one-dimensional column transport experiments using glass beads with 0.1 mm size were conducted, where NBs created by oxygen gas at different pH and ionic strength were injected to the column at the constant flow rate. The NBs concentration in the effluent was quantified using a resonant mass measurement technique. Effects of solution chemistry of the NBs water on NB transport in the porous media were investigated. The results showed that attachment of NBs was enhanced under higher ionic strength and lower pH conditions, caused by the reduced repulsive force between NBs and glass beads. In addition, bubble size distributions in the effluents showed that relatively larger NBs were retained in the column. This trend was more significant at lower pH condition.

  6. (p,V{sub m},T,x) measurements for aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions[Density; Concentration; Electrolyte solutions; Equation of state; Lithium nitrate; Saturated density; Saturated pressure; Temperature; Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulagatov, I.M. E-mail: ilmutdin@boulder.nist.govmangur@datacom.ru; Azizov, N.D. E-mail: Nazim_Azizov@yahoo.com

    2004-01-01

    (p,V{sub m},T,x) properties of four aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions (0.181, 0.526, 0.963, and 1.728) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} H{sub 2}O were measured in the liquid phase with a constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. Measurements were made for 10 isotherms between (298 and 573) K. The range of pressure was from (2 to 40) MPa. The total uncertainty of density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements were estimated to be less than 0.06 %, 0.05 %, 10 mK, and 0.014 %, respectively. The values of saturated density were determined by extrapolating experimental (p,{rho}) data to the vapor-pressure at fixed temperature and composition using an interpolating equation. A polynomial type of equation of state for specific volume was obtained as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition by a least-squares method from the experimental data. The average absolute deviation (AAD) between measured and calculated values from this polynomial equation for density was 0.02 %. Measured values of solution density were compared with values calculated from Pitzer's ion-interaction equation. The agreement is within (0.2 to 0.4) % depending of concentration range.

  7. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  8. Modeling reactive geochemical transport of concentrated aqueous solutions in variably saturated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-01-28

    Concentrated aqueous solutions (CAS) have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. Chemical components in CAS are incompletely dissociated, especially those containing divalent or polyvalent ions. The problem is further complicated by the interaction between CAS flow processes and the naturally heterogeneous sediments. As the CAS migrates through the porous media, the composition may be altered subject to fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of CAS, we must take into account ion-interaction. A combination of the Pitzer ion-interaction and the ion-association model would be an appropriate way to deal with multiple-component systems if the Pitzer' parameters and thermodynamic data of dissolved components and the related minerals are available. To quantify the complicated coupling of CAS flow and transport, as well as the involved chemical reactions in natural and engineered systems, we have substantially extended an existing reactive biogeochemical transport code, BIO-CORE{sup 2D}{copyright}, by incorporating a comprehensive Pitzer ion-interaction model. In the present paper, the model, and two test cases against measured data were briefly introduced. Finally we present an application to simulate a laboratory column experiment studying the leakage of the high alkaline waste fluid stored in Hanford (a site of the U.S. Department of Energy, located in Washington State, USA). With the Pitzer ion-interaction ionic activity model, our simulation captures measured pH evolution. The simulation indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges, mineral precipitation and dissolution, are coupled.

  9. Microstructural analysis of metal solution interfacial films in the multiphase brine CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S hydrocarbon inhibitor system; Analise microestrutural de filmes na interface metal-solucao no sistema multifasico salmoura Co{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S hidrocarboneto inibidor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, Adriana; Yesid Pena, Dario [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Bott, Ivani de S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    2005-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the formation of different films obtained at the metal - solution interface in a multiphase Brine - CO{sub /}H{sub 2}S Hydrocarbon - Inhibitor - Steel AISI SAE 1020 system. Tests were carried out on loss of mass test pieces in a static autoclave, for exposure times of 21 days. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (IAS), X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) techniques, were used for the analysis of the products of corrosion and the inhibitor films formed. The results obtained for XRD indicate the formation hydrous oxide of iron, Siderite, Magnetite, and in some cases chloride crystals and iron sulphates. The results obtained by SEM, show that the thin films of the inhibitor and corrosion products have irregular surfaces, are porous, fragile and have little adhesion to the metal. Additionally the generation of primary films of carbonate of iron saturated with carbon and oxide of iron was confirmed and also the formation of secondary carbonates of iron due to recrystallization of the of iron carbonate. (author)

  10. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  11. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  12. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  13. Thermodynamics of high temperature brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, K.S.; Bradley, D.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Peiper, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    Osmotic and activity coefficient data and enthalpy and heat capacity data for NaCl solutions at saturation pressure of water from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and to saturation composition have been simultaneously fit to a 30 parameter equation. The data are reproduced by the equation, in most cases, to within experimental error. Calculated values of the osmotic coefficient, the activity of water, the activity of NaCl, and the heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of the solution are given in Tables in 25{sup 0}C intervals from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and concentrations from 0.25 to 25 wt% NaCl.

  14. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  15. Anomalous solute transport in saturated porous media: Relating transport model parameters to electrical and nuclear magnetic resonance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ryan D; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual-domain mass-transfer (DDMT) model. DDMT model parameters are commonly calibrated via curve fitting, providing little insight into the relation between effective parameters and physical properties of the medium. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can provide insight into the geometry and connectedness of pore spaces related to transport model parameters. Here, we consider proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), direct-current (DC) resistivity, and complex conductivity (CC) measurements for this purpose, and assess these methods using glass beads as a control and two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material that demonstrates non-Fickian transport due to intragranular porosity. We estimate DDMT parameters via calibration of a transport model to column-scale solute tracer tests, and compare NMR, DC resistivity, CC results, which reveal that grain size alone does not control transport properties and measured geophysical parameters; rather, volume and arrangement of the pore space play important roles. NMR cannot provide estimates of more-mobile and less-mobile pore volumes in the absence of tracer tests because these estimates depend critically on the selection of a material-dependent and flow-dependent cutoff time. Increased electrical connectedness from DC resistivity measurements are associated with greater mobile pore space determined from transport model calibration. CC was hypothesized to be related to length scales of mass transfer, but the CC response is unrelated to DDMT.

  16. The effect of NCS- on the radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobutake; Hotta, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    The radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes was studied in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions containing NCS - . In the N 2 O-saturated solutions, the decoloration yield, G(-Dye), increased markedly upon the addition of NCS - , which is an efficient scavenger of the OH radical-that is, from 1.46 up to 2.10 for Acid Red 265 and from 0.51 up to 1.51 for Acid Blue 40 upon the addition of 1 mM NCS - . In the nitrogen-saturated solutions, however, the G(-Dye) decreased upon the addition of NCS - . It is concluded that the increase in the G(-Dye) upon the addition of NCS - in the N 2 O-saturated solutions is mainly attributable to the attack of the radical anion (NCS) 2 - on the ring structure of the dyes. This radical anion is formed through the following path: NCS - +OH → NCS+OH - and NCS+NCS - reversible (NCS) 2 - . At low NCS - concentrations, the G(-Dye) decreased for Acid Red 265 and increased for Acid Blue 40. This may be attributable to the larger reactivity of (NCS) 2 - on Acid Blue 40 than on Acid Red 265. (auth.)

  17. Transport and Retention of TiO2 Rutile Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Solution pH, Ionic Strength, and the Presence of Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of solution pH, ionic strength, and varying concentrations of the Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticle aggregates (nTiO2) in saturated porous media was investigated through systematically examining the tra...

  18. Preparation of H3-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids by heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange in solution with gaseous tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of preparing 3 H-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids in the dioxane solution using the method of isotopic heterogenous catalytic exchange with gaseous tritium, is suggested. 3 H-labelled natural fatty acids (C 12 -C 18 ) are prepared by alkaline hydrolysis [ru

  19. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  20. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  1. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Myers, J.; Tyburski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) Phase II Report is an interim report which updates the data released in the BSEP Phase I Report. Direct measurements and observations of the brine that seeps into the WIPP repository excavations were continued through the period between August 1986 and July 1987. That data is included in Appendix A, which extends the observation period for some locations to approximately 900 days. Brine observations at 87 locations are presented in this report. Although WIPP underground workings are considered ''dry,'' small amounts of brine are present. Part of that brine migrates into the repository in response to pressure gradients at essentially isothermal conditions. The data presented in this report is a continuation of moisture content studies of the WIPP facility horizon that were initiated in 1982, as soon as underground drifts began to be excavated. Brine seepages are manifested by salt efflorescences, moist areas, and fluid accumulations in drillholes. 35 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  2. The mechanism of 'solid-body' rotation of superfluid and normal components in the process of separation into layers of the over saturated 3He-4He solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashitskij, Eh.A.; Mal'nev, V.N.; Naryshkin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that unstable hydrodynamic vortices may be formed inside subcritical nuclei of separation in the normal component of the decaying over saturated 3 He- 4 He solution. We consider the mechanism of drag of the superfluid component of the 3 He- 4 He solution by the normal component into the 'solid-body' rotation due to the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov forces in the equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics, resulting in the formation of quantized vortices. An increase in the average density of the quantized vortices may accelerate the process of heterogeneous decomposition of the 3 He- 4 He solution

  3. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10 -7 m s -1 (13 m y -1 ) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10 -4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  4. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  5. Study of rhyolitic glasses alteration in contact with natural brines (Bolivia). Application to the study of the long-term behaviour of the R7T7 nuclear glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelouas, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to complement an experimental program on the R7T7 nuclear waste glass alteration in brines at 190 deg C in Germany by the analysis of the structure and the chemical composition of the alteration layers, and to study the alteration of rhyolitic glasses in natural brines from Bolivia as analogue for nuclear waste glasses disposed in salt formations. Alteration experiments with the R7T7 and basaltic glasses and obsidian in MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 -saturated brine at 190 deg. C were also conducted in order to study the influence of the glass composition on the nature of the secondary phases. The experiments with the R7T7 glass in three salt brines, saturated respectively in MgCl 2 , MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 and NaCl, showed that the solubilities of most radionuclides are controlled by the secondary phases. Nd, La, and Pr are trapped in powellite, Ce in cerianite, U in coffinite, and Sr is partially immobilized in barite. These phases are stable for more than one year. There is a good similarity between the secondary phases formed experimentally on volcanic glasses and the R7T7 glass altered in MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 -saturated brine. The abundance of Mg in solution permits the formation of similar magnesian clays on the glass samples independently of the nature of the initial glasses. These results support the use of volcanic glasses alteration patterns in Mg-rich solutions to understand the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glasses and to evaluate the stability of the secondary phases. The study of the sediments of Uyuni (Bolivia) showed that the corrosion rate of the rhyolitic glass in brines at 10 deg. C is 12 to 30 time lower than those of rhyolitic glasses altered in high dilute conditions. The low alteration rate of rhyolitic glasses in brines and the formation of secondary phases such as smectite, barite and cerianite (also formed during the experimental alteration of the R7T7 glass), permit us to expect the low alteration of nuclear waste glasses at long

  6. Artifactual degradation of secondary amine-containing drugs during accelerated stability testing when saturated sodium nitrite solutions are used for humidity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluggett, Gregory W; Zelesky, Todd; Hetrick, Evan M; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Baertschi, Steven W

    2018-02-05

    Accelerated stability studies of pharmaceutical products are commonly conducted at various combinations of temperature and relative humidity (RH). The RH of the sample environment can be controlled to set points using humidity-controlled stability chambers or via storage of the sample in a closed container in the presence of a saturated aqueous salt solution. Herein we report an unexpected N-nitrosation reaction that occurs upon storage of carvedilol- or propranolol-excipient blends in a stability chamber in the presence of saturated sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) solution to control relative humidity (∼60% RH). In both cases, the major products were identified as the corresponding N-nitroso derivatives of the secondary amine drugs based on mass spectrometry, UV-vis and retention time. These degradation products were not observed upon storage of the samples at the same temperature and humidity but in the presence of saturated potassium iodide (KI) solution (∼60% RH) for humidity control. The levels of the N-nitrosamine derivatives varied with the pH of various NaNO 2 batches. The presence of volatile NOx species in the headspace of a container containing saturated NaNO 2 solution was confirmed via the Griess assay. The process for formation of the N-nitrosamine derivatives is proposed to involve volatilization of nitric oxide (NO) from aqueous nitrite solution into the headspace of the container followed by diffusion into the solid drug-excipient blend and subsequent reaction of NOx with the secondary amine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behaviour of corroded steel in a Ca(OH2-saturated solution and in cement mortar. Possibility of rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, L. S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the response of rust-free and corroded steel electrodes in Ca(OH2-saturated solutions and in cement mortar, essentially defined in terms of polarization resistance as measured with gravimetric, metallographic and electrochemical methods. Answers were sought for the following questions, which persist despite the use of reinforced concrete (RC in building for over a century: At what corrosion rate is RC durability seriously compromised? Does restoration of the initial conditions in properly manufactured concrete guarantee repassivation of corroded steel? Does the use of inhibitors enhance repassivation? Does the nature of the corrosion products have any significant effect on the response of corroded steel reinforcement? The results obtained in indicated that the effectiveness of preventive methods is much more closely related to the degree of existing corrosion than to the nature of the corrosion products.En el presente trabajo se analizan las respuestas de electrodos de acero, limpios y precorroídos, en soluciones saturadas de Ca(OH2 y en mortero de cemento, recurriendo para ello a técnicas gravimétricas, metalográficas y electroquímicas, esencialmente a medidas de resistencia de polarización. Se intenta encontrar respuesta a las siguientes dudas persistentes después de más de un siglo de utilización de las estructuras de hormigón armado (EHA: ¿qué velocidades de corrosión comprometen seriamente la durabilidad de las EHA? ¿La restauración de las condiciones iniciales de un hormigón correctamente fabricado garantiza la recuperación del estado pasivo en los refuerzos ya corroídos? ¿La utilización de inhibidores facilita la repasivación de los refuerzos? ¿Cambia la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión sustancialmente la respuesta de las armaduras ya corroídas? Los resultados obtenidos indican que la eficacia de las medidas preventivas resulta mucho más condicionada por el grado de

  8. The effect of temperature and concentration on the corrosion inhibition mechanism of an amphiphilic amido-amine in CO2 saturated solution

    OpenAIRE

    Desimone, Paula Mariela; Gordillo, Gabriel Jorge; Simison, Silvia Noemi

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition mechanism of the N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide on mild steel surface in CO2-saturated 5% NaCl solution has been studied. The inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of the inhibitor studied is found to follow the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. EIS results show that the mechanism of its corrosion inhibition at concentrations higher than critical micelle concentration is by forming a protective porous bi-layer. The a...

  9. A solution thermodynamics definition of the fiber saturation point and the derivation of a wood-water phase (state) diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Donald S. Stone

    2016-01-01

    The fiber saturation point (FSP) is an important concept in wood– moisture relations that differentiates between the states of water in wood and has been discussed in the literature for over 100 years. Despite its importance and extensive study, the exact theoretical definition of the FSP and the operational definition (the correct way to measure the FSP) are still...

  10. HAM solutions on MHD squeezing axisymmetric flow of water nanofluid through saturated porous medium between two parallel disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Siva Kumar; Rao, K. V. Surya Narayana; Vijaya, R. Bhuvana

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic squeezing axi-symmetric flow of water-nanofluid through saturated porous medium between two parallel disks. The equations for the governing flow are solved by Galerkin optimal Homotopy asymptotic method. The effects of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration have been discussed with the help of graphs. Also we obtained local Nusselt number and computationally discussed with reference to flow parameters.

  11. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  12. [Dynamics of riboflavin level in aqueous humour of anterior chamber of experimental animals under standard stroma saturation by ultraviolet corneal cross-linking solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, M M; Shevchuk, N E; Khalimov, A R; Bikbova, G M

    To evaluate the dynamics of riboflavin changes in the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber (AHAC) of rabbits' eyes during standard ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking with account to the area of corneal debridement. Forty two rabbits were studied sequentially. The following solutions of riboflavin were used for cornea saturation: IR - 0.1% isosmotic riboflavin, D - Dextralink (0.1% riboflavin with 20% dextran), R - 0.1% riboflavin with 1.0% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Each solution was evaluated in 3 groups that differed in the diameter of corneal debridement: group 1 - Epi-Off 3 mm (IR-3, D-3, P-3), group 2 - Epi-Off 6 mm (IR-6, D-6, R-6), and group 3 - Epi-Off 9 mm (IR-9, D-9, R-9). Aqueous humour sampling (252 samples in total) was performed in 10-minute intervals within a 60 minute period. Riboflavin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ID-Vit microbiological test system; Immundiagnostik, Germany). Stable growth rates of riboflavin level in the AHAC (with maximum values reached at 30-40 min) were observed for solutions D and R, regardless of the variant of corneal debridement. Moreover, throughout the whole follow-up period and regardless of the area of corneal debridement, the solution D provided a relatively lower concentration of riboflavin in the AHAC as compared to the two other solutions. At 30 minutes, when the cornea was considered ready for UV irradiation, the riboflavin level in the AHAC ranged from 385±26.1 μg/l (D-9) to 665±28 μg/l (R-9). In groups IR-9, IR-6, P-6, IR-3, and P-3 riboflavin levels were found to be in the same range starting at 20 minutes. However, even a sufficient concentration of riboflavin in the cornea or AHAC cannot guarantee safe and effective UV cross-linking, since the removed epithelium limits the area of the stroma that can be saturated with riboflavin, while the area of UV exposure is 8-10 mm. Safe and efficient standard UV cross-linking may be performed only under sufficient saturation of the

  13. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  14. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  15. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture †

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M. Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique. PMID:28788188

  16. A computer program incorporating Pitzer's equations for calculation of geochemical reactions in brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fleming, G.W.; Dunkle, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The program named PHRQPITZ is a computer code capable of making geochemical calculations in brines and other electrolyte solutions to high concentrations using the Pitzer virial-coefficient approach for activity-coefficient corrections. Reaction-modeling capabilities include calculation of (1) aqueous speciation and mineral-saturation index, (2) mineral solubility, (3) mixing and titration of aqueous solutions, (4) irreversible reactions and mineral water mass transfer, and (5) reaction path. The computed results for each aqueous solution include the osmotic coefficient, water activity , mineral saturation indices, mean activity coefficients, total activity coefficients, and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coeffients , and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coefficients. A data base of Pitzer interaction parameters is provided at 25 C for the system: Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-H2O, and extended to include largely untested literature data for Fe(II), Mn(II), Sr, Ba, Li, and Br with provision for calculations at temperatures other than 25C. An extensive literature review of published Pitzer interaction parameters for many inorganic salts is given. Also described is an interactive input code for PHRQPITZ called PITZINPT. (USGS)

  17. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  18. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis of ground water flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yi.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed

  19. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption under saturated equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Three contaminated bulk surface soils were used for investigating the effect of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption. At a low solution pH, the major chemical species of uranium and thorium, uranyl UO 2 +2 , thorium dihydroxide Th(OH) 2 +2 , and thorium hydroxide Th(OH) +3 , tend to form complexes with acetates in the solution phase, which increases the fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed into this phase. At a high solution pH, important uranium and thorium species such as uranyl tricarbonate complex UO 2 (CO) 33 -4 and thorium tetrahydroxide complex Th(OH) 4 tend to resist complexation with acetates. The presence of complexing reagents in solution can release radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium from the soil to the solution by forming soluble complexes. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are strong complex formers that released 38% to 62% of total uranium activity and 78% to 86% of total thorium activity, respectively, from the soil samples investigated. Solutions of 0.1 molar sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and 0.1 molar sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) were not effective complex formers with uranium and thorium under the experimental conditions. Fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed by 0.15g/200ml humic acid ranged from 4.62% to 6.17% and 1.59% to 7.09%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of a knowledge of solution chemistry in investigating the desorption of radionuclides

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  1. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  2. Chemistry of glass corrosion in high saline brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Mueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion data obtained in laboratory tests can be used for the performance assessment of nuclear waste glasses in a repository if the data are quantitatively described in the frame of a geochemical model. Experimental data were obtained for conventional pH values corrected for liquid junction, amorphous silica solubility and glass corrosion in concentrated salt brines. The data were interpreted with a geochemical model. The brine chemistry was described with the Pitzer formalism using a data base which allows calculation of brine compositions in equilibrium with salt minerals at temperatures up to 200C. In MgCl 2 dominated brines Mg silicates form and due to the consumption of Mg the pH decreases with proceeding reaction. A constant pH (about 4) and composition of alteration products is achieved, when the alkali release from the glass balances the Mg consumption. The low pH results in high release of rare earth elements REE (rare earth elements) and U from the glass. In the NaCl dominated brine MgCl 2 becomes exhausted by Mg silicate formation. As long as there is still Mg left in solution the pH decreases. After exhaustion of Mg the pH rises with the alkali release from the glass and analcime is formed

  3. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  4. Brine Migration in Heated Salt: Lessons Learned from Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Matteo, E. N.; Mills, M.

    2017-12-01

    We summarize several interesting brine migration related phenomena hinted at in field experiments from field testing related to salt radioactive waste repositories in Germany and the US. Past heater tests in salt have shown 1) thermal-hydrological-mechanical coupling is quite strong during both heating and cooling; 2) chemical composition of brine evolves during heating, and comprises a mix of several water sources; and 3) acid gas (HCl) generation has been observed during past heater tests and may have multiple mechanisms for formation. We present a heated brine migration test design, formulated with these complexities in mind. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  5. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Justel, F. J.; Claros, M.; Taboada, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different...

  6. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  7. Two-dimensional finite element solution for the simultaneous transport of water and solutes through a nonhomogeneous aquifer under transient saturated unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  8. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  9. The role of climate in the accumulation of lithium-rich brine in the Central Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L.V.; Chan, L.-H.; Alonso, R.N.; Lowenstein, T.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Houston, J.; Li, J.; Bobst, A.; Jordan, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • δ 7 Li of waters and rocks in the Central Andes were measured. • Halite/brine partition coefficients of lithium and δ 7 Li of halite were determined. • Li-rich brines have a high component of fluids of geothermal origin. • Removal of lithium by clays is minor relative to other regions of the world. • The weathering flux of lithium and sodium decouple according to climate state. - Abstract: Lithium-rich brine within the sub-surface of the Salar del Hombre Muerto (SHM) salt pan in the Andes of northwestern Argentina has a chemical and isotopic composition which is consistent with Li derived from several sources: the modern halite saturated lagoon, Li-rich salts and brines formed recently, and dissolution of halite which precipitated from ancient saline lakes. SHM lies in the closed basin that includes part of the massive Cerro Galán caldera which is drained by the Río los Patos, which is responsible for 90% of surface runoff into the salar. The low Li isotope composition, +3.4‰, of this river is consistent with significant contributions of geothermal spring water. As water drains through the volcaniclastic deposits which cover a large proportion of the basin, Li removal, as indicated by decreasing Li/Na, occurs but without significant isotope fractionation. This indicates a mechanism of surface sorption onto smectite or ferrihydrite rather than Li incorporation into octahedral structural sites of clays. These observations suggest that conditions in this high altitude desert have limited the dilution of hydrothermal spring water as well as the formation of clay minerals, which jointly have allowed the Li resource to accumulate rapidly. Changes in climate on a multi-millennial time scale, specifically in the hydrologic budget, have resulted in solute accumulation rates that have been variable through time, and decoupled Li and Na fluxes. Inflow to the salar under modern conditions has high Li/Na (7.9 × 10 −3 by wt) with δ 7 Li

  10. Microbiological study of naturally fermented Algerian green olives: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts along with the effects of brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation on Lactobacillus plantarum...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of naturally fermented green olives produced in Western Algeria was studied over 15, 60 and 90 day fermentation periods. Different microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, yeasts, psychrotrophs and lipolytic bacteria were recorded at 15 and 60 days of fermentation. After 90 days (pH 4.40 of fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria population became dominant and persisted together with yeasts throughout the fermentation period. The lactic acid bacteria isolated (343 isolates were identified as L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans. The dominant species was L. plantarum. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (32 isolates and were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida parapsilosis. Also, in this study we reported that brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation were able to stimulate the growth of several L. plantarum strainsLa microflora de las aceitunas verdes fermentadas naturalmente elaboradas en Argelia Occidental fue estudiada en períodos de fermentación de 15, 60 y 90 días. Diferentes microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, estafilococos, bacterias del ácido láctico, lactobacilos, enterococos, levaduras, psicotrofos y bacterias lipolíticas fueron detectados a los 15 y 60 días de fermentación. Después de 90 días de fermentación (pH 4.40, la población de bacterias lácticas se hizo dominante y persistió junto con las levaduras a lo largo de todo el proceso. Las bacterias lácticas aisladas (343 fueron identificadas como L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium y E. durans. La especie dominante fue L. plantarum. Las levaduras aisladas (32 de todas las muestras fueron identificadas como Saccharomyces cerevisiae o Candida parapsilosis. También se recoge en este estudio que las

  11. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Justel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K, and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility. Knowledge of these properties and solubility data are useful in the leaching process and in the design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystallization plants from the leaching process using seawater by means of the addition of sulfuric acid.

  12. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevremović, Ivana; Singer, Marc; Nešić, Srđan; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO 2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO 2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

  14. Deposition and release kinetics of nano-TiO2 in saturated porous media: Effects of solution ionic strength and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, Itzel G.; Darnault, Christophe J.G.; Khodadoust, Amid P.; Bogdan, Dorin

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation, transport and deposition kinetics (i.e. attachment and release) of TiO 2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) were investigated as a function of ionic strength and the presence of anionic (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS) and non-ionic (Triton X-100) surfactants in 100% critical micelle concentration (CMC). The electrolyte concentration of the suspensions dictated the kinetic stability of nano-TiO 2 thus influencing the transport and retention of the nanoaggregates in the saturated porous medium. With increasing ionic strength, the interaction between approaching nano-TiO 2 and nano-TiO 2 already deposited onto collectors surfaces seemed to be more favorable than the interaction between approaching nano-TiO 2 and bare collectors surfaces. The abrupt and gradual reduction in electrolyte concentration during the flushing cycles of the column experiments induced the release of previously deposited nano-TiO 2 suggesting attachment of nano-TiO 2 through secondary energy minimum. Highlights: ► This study focuses on aggregation, transport and deposition kinetics of nano-TiO 2 . ► Ionic strength and surfactants impact nano-TiO 2 transport in saturated porous media. ► Previously deposited nano-TiO 2 serve as preferential sites for subsequent deposition. ► Changes in solution chemistry cause nanodeposits to release a portion of nano-TiO 2 . -- Previously deposited nano-TiO 2 serve as preferential sites for subsequent deposition and changes in solution chemistry cause nanodeposits to release a portion of nano-TiO 2

  15. Possible Mars brines - Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A. P.; Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the fate of postulated near surface brines on Mars, the rate of H2O mass loss from subsurface brines was calculated as a function of latitude, depth, regolith porosity, eutectic temperature, and pore size. A model for a chemically reasonable brine that could reproduce Martian radar results was developed, and the escape rate of H2O molecules from such a brine was estimated. It is suggested that the presence of a low-permeability duricrust may be required to preserve such a brine for reasonable periods, and to prevent detection of an extensive subsurface system by the Viking MAWD instrument.

  16. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  17. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry

  18. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  19. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  20. Handling the problem of the brine tubing bend on the basis of experiences gained during UGS - Mogilno construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, P.; Skwarczynski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the article problems of brine tubing bending and bent string cutting methods in the well conditions has been described. Implementation of safety joint in the brine string as an alternative solution that eliminates the need of cutting has been presented as well. (authors)

  1. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  3. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: 1988 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Case, J.B.; Crawley, M.E.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Givens, C.A.; King, R.B.; Myers, J.; Pietz, J.M.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Tyburski, J.R.; Belski, D.S.; Niou, S.; Wallace, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1988. These activities, which are a continuation and update of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program, were formalized as the BSEP in 1985 to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation, and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. Previous BSEP reports (Deal and Case, 1987; Deal and others, 1987) described the results of ongoing activities that monitor brine inflow into boreholes in the facility, moisture content of the Salado Formation, brine geochemistry, and brine weeps and crusts. The information provided in this report updates past work and describes progress made during the calendar year 1988. During 1988, BSEP activities focused on four major areas to describe and quantify brine activity: (1) monitoring of brine inflow parameters, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled upward from the underground drifts (upholes), downward from the underground drifts (downholes), and near-horizontal holes; (2) characterizing the brine, e.g., the geochemistry of the brine and the presence of bacteria and their possible interactions with experiments and operations; (3) characterizing formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine; e.g., determining the water content of various geologic units, examining these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measuring their resistivity (conductivity); and (4) modeling to examine the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and brine seepage through the deforming salt. 77 refs., 48 figs., 32 tabs

  4. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all

  5. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  6. A carbon inventory for Orca Basin brines and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, W.M.; Brooks, J.M.; Bernard, B.B.; Schwab, C.R.; Chung, H.; Parker, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Orca Basin, an intraslope depression at a depth of about 2400 m on the continental slope of the north-central Gulf of Mexico, contains an anoxic, hypersaline brine similar to composition to those reported in the Red Sea. Concentrations and stable carbon isotope compositions of various inorganic and organic carbon species have been determined on the brine and sediments in order to gain an understanding of the origin and cycling of carbon in this unique environment. ΣCO 2 in the brine (55 mg C/l) is about twice seawater with delta 13 C sub(PDB)=-16.4per thousand and Δ 14 C=-501per thousand. CH 4 has a concentration of 12 mg C/l and delta 13 C=-73.5per thousand. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations are seven times higher and have delta 13 C values several permil different than the overlying seawater, ΣCO 2 and CH 4 in the interstitial waters are considerably higher in concentrations and isotropically light than the overlying brine. Solution of near-surface salt deposits by seawater with subsequent microbial production and consumption of methane can be used to explain most of the data. (Auth.)

  7. Permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, L.O.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Shor, A.J.; Canonico, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the movement of brine along grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, measurements have been made of the radial flow of brine through the interface between cylindrical salt crystals under axial stresses to 140 bar and temperatures to 80 0 C. For constant conditions, the total flow of brine showed a linear dependence on the logarithm of time, and the reciprocal permeability increased linearly with time. Loss of salt from the interface by pressure solution effects was more than enough to account for the decrease in the apparent thickness of the interface (i.e., that which may be estimated for an interface of the same permeability formed by plane parallel surfaces). This apparent thickness, initially as large as 10 μm, decreased to as little as 0.2 μm with exposure to stress and flowing brine. It decreased quickly with sudden increases in axial stress and usually increased, though not reversibly, with decreases in stress. The rate of increase in the reciprocal permeability with time was roughly proportional to the stress and to the square of the hydraulic pressure drop. Assuming similar apparent thicknesses for the grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, permeabilities are predicted that are quite consistent with the low values reported for stressed core specimens

  8. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  9. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.

  10. The effect of temperature and concentration on the corrosion inhibition mechanism of an amphiphilic amido-amine in CO2 saturated solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimone, M.P.; Gordillo, G.; Simison, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Behaviour of N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide (AAOA) as CO 2 corrosion inhibitor. → The adsorption of the AAOA corrosion inhibitor obeys a Frumkin adsorption isotherm. → The inhibition efficiency of the AAOA depends on temperature and concentration. → There is a change in the adsorption mode of the inhibitor with concentration. → AAOA is mainly physi- or chemisorbed for low or high concentrations, respectively. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition mechanism of the N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide on mild steel surface in CO 2 -saturated 5% NaCl solution has been studied. The inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of the inhibitor studied is found to follow the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. EIS results show that the mechanism of its corrosion inhibition at concentrations higher than critical micelle concentration is by forming a protective porous bi-layer. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters and electrochemical results reveal a change in the adsorption mode of the inhibitor studied: the inhibitor could primarily be physically adsorbed at low concentrations, while chemisorption is favoured as concentration increases.

  11. Interaction of inhibitors with corrosion scale formed on N80 steel in CO{sub 2}-saturated NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China); Qiu, Y.B.; Guo, X.P. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); Tomoe, Y.; Bando, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, The Former Japan National Oil Corporation, Hamada, Mihama-ku, Chiba-City, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The performance of the selected inhibitors, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and naphthene acid imidazolines (IM), on the bare surface of N80 steel and its scaled surface pre-corroded in CO{sub 2}-saturated 1%NaCl solution was investigated by weight-loss method, electrochemical measurements using rotating cylinder electrode and surface analytical methods (SEM, XRD, and EPMA). The results indicate that there is a remarkable difference in inhibition efficiency of inhibitors on the N80 steel with and without pre-corrosion scale. The synergistic effect between inhibitors and corrosion scale not only depends on the size of inhibitor molecules, but also depends on the interaction of the inhibitor with the corrosion scale. It shows that IM and DETA have a good positive synergistic effect with the corrosion scale formed on N80 steel, although DETA has no inhibition efficiency for bare N80 steel, which can easily enter into the apertures of the corrosion scale, and block the active sites on the metal surface and the diffusion routeways of the reactant so as to depress the corrosion of the substrate metal. While TGA shows excellent inhibition efficiency on bare N80 steel, but it has an antagonistic effect with the corrosion scale although it has a small molecular weight as well as DETA, because TGA can dissolve corrosion scale and break its integrality and protectiveness performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Strand breaks, base release and post-irradiation changes in DNA γ-irradiated in dilute O2-saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.; Kuo, I.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of DNA in dilute O 2 -saturated aqueous solution releases free bases and damaged bases from the macromolecule. The yields of these products were measured after column chromatographic separation. For double stranded DNA the immediate yield of bases varies from G = 0.012 for cytosine to G = 0.033 for adenine. The yields of released bases increase with post-irradiation time (the majority of the increase occurs in the first 2 hrs.) to yields in the range of G = 0.07 +- 0.012. Yields of two released damaged thymine radiation products from γ-irradiated 3 H thymine labelled DNA also increased with post-irradiation time. Strand breaks were measured in γ-irradiated single stranded DNA the initial yield G = 0.02 was low but increased with time to G = 0.07. No direct correlation between strand-break production and release of low molecular weight products is possible. The findings are discussed in terms of damage to DNA in vivo and its enzymatic repair

  13. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  15. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  16. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  17. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  18. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  19. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  20. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung von C-14{sub gesamt} in gesaettigten Salzloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO{sub 2} at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO{sub 2} is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO{sub 2} is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO{sub 3} separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  1. The microwave assisted synthesis of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as potential corrosion inhibitor toward carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasasa, Norman Vincent A., E-mail: npasasa@gmail.com; Bundjali, Bunbun; Wahyuningrum, Deana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Injection of corrosion inhibitor into the fluid current of oil and gas pipelines is an effective way to mitigate corrosion rate on the inner-surface parts of pipelines, especially carbon steel pipelines. In this research, two alkylimidazolium ionic liquids, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (IL1) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (IL2) have been synthesized and studied as a potential corrosion inhibitor towards carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution saturated with carbon dioxide. IL1 and IL2 were synthesized using microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) method. Mass Spectrometry analysis of IL1 and IL2 showed molecular mass [M-H+] peak at 223.2166 and 251.2484, respectively. The FTIR,{sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra confirmed that IL1 and IL2 were successfully synthesized. Corrosion inhibition activity of IL1 and IL2 were determined using weight loss method. The results showed that IL1 and IL2 have the potential as good corrosion inhibitors with corrosion inhibition efficiency of IL1 and IL2 are 96.00% at 100 ppm (343 K) and 95.60% at 50 ppm (343 K), respectively. The increase in the concentration of IL1 and IL2 tends to improve their corrosion inhibition activities. Analysis of the data obtained from the weight loss method shows that the adsorption of IL1 and IL2 on carbon steel is classified into chemisorption which obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm.

  2. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  3. Freezing of perchlorate and chloride brines under Mars-relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, K. M.; Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V. F.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Perchlorate and chloride salts on Mars could readily absorb water vapor and deliquesce into aqueous solutions. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) as well as the efflorescence (recrystallization) RH of several Mars-relevant salts are now well known; however, the conditions that could cause a brine to freeze are not well established. It is often assumed that ice formation will occur whenever the saturation with respect to ice, Sice, of the system is greater than or equal to unity; however, ice nucleation is often hindered due to a kinetic barrier. For ice to form, a critical cluster of the ice crystal must first be achieved, often requiring Sice > 1. Here we use a Raman microscope and an environmental cell to examine the RH and temperature conditions required for Mg(ClO4)2 and MgCl2 brines to freeze into ice. By examining the salt phase present both optically and spectrally under different low temperature conditions, it is found that both salts exhibit Sice values much greater than unity, meaning that supersaturation readily occurs and brines can persist under conditions previously thought to lead to freezing. The RH range of ice formation for Mg(ClO4)2 from 218 to 245 K is 83-95%, respectively, corresponding to Sice = 1.30-1.54. The RH of ice formation for MgCl2 ranges from 80 to 100% for temperatures between 221 and 252 K, corresponding to Sice = 1.30-1.35. In addition to ice nucleation, the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values for MgCl2 were determined. Two hydrates for MgCl2 were observed, and exhibited different deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) values. The DRH for MgCl2·4H2O was found to be 12.8 ± 0.3% at 243 K with slightly increasing DRH as temperature decreased. The DRH for MgCl2·6H2O was found to be 31.3 ± 0.6% at 242 K with little temperature dependence. The DRH of MgCl2·6H2O was measured below the previously reported eutectic, 240 K, suggesting that the eutectic might be incorrect or that there is a different relevant

  4. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  5. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  6. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  7. Process for using a saturated salt hydrate solution as a heat storing material in a latent heat storage device. Anvendelse av en mettet salthydratloesning som varme-lagringsmateriale i et latent varmemagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasel-Nielen, J.; Merkenich, K.; Gehrig, O.; Sommer, K.

    1984-06-12

    Disclosed is a process for preparing a salt composition having a phase transition heat greater than the heat capacity of water at a corresponding temperature, for charging a latent heat storage device. The process comprises the steps of providing an acid component of the salt hydrate; providing a base component of the salt hydrate, wherein at least one of the acid or base components comprises a liquid; and mixing the acid component and the base component together to cause a neutralization reaction. The acid and base components are mixed in a ratio and in respective concentrations to produce a salt hydrate solution saturated at the desired phase transition point. The claims concern the use of saturated salt hydrate solution with a certain phase transition heat produced in a particular way.

  8. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  9. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  10. Thermodynamic activity of saturated solutions of CsClO4 in ethylene glycol and its analogs of the HOCH2(CH2CH2O)nCH2OH series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperova, A.P.; Ivanova, E.F.; Kijko, S.M.; Yukhno, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Solubility of CsClO 4 in ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycols with molar mass 300 and 400 in the temperature range of 273.15-318.15 K has been ascertained by the method of radioactive indicators. Dependence of saturated solutions activity on temperature, dielectric permittivity and the number of (CH 2 CH 2 O) ether groups in glycols is discussed

  11. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  12. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  13. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer...... of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  14. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  15. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to reduce life support consumables. The project...

  16. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  17. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  18. Influence of radiolytic products on the chemistry of uranium VI in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, J-F.; Reed, D.T.; Borkowski, M.; Rafalski, A.; Conca, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near field of a salt repository of nuclear waste, ionizing radiations can strongly affect the chemistry of concentrated saline solutions. Radiolysis can locally modify the redox conditions, speciation, solubility and mobility of the actinide compounds. In the case of uranium VI, radiolytic products can not only reduce U(VI), but also react with uranium species. The net effect on the speciation of uranyl depends on the relative kinetics of the reactions and the buildup of molecular products in brine solutions. The most important molecular products in brines are expected to be hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Although U(VI) is expected not to be significantly affected by radiolysis, the combined effects of the major molecular radiolytic products on the chemistry of U(VI) in brines have not been experimentally established previously. (authors)

  19. New calculation method for thermodynamic properties of humid air in humid air turbine cycle – The general model and solutions for saturated humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zidong; Chen, Hanping; Weng, Shilie

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes a new calculation method for thermodynamic properties (i.e. specific enthalpy, specific entropy and specific volume) of humid air in humid air turbine cycle. The research pressure range is from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa. The fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and gas component pressures. This provides a good explanation of the fundamental behaviors of gas components in gas mixture from a new perspective. Another discovery is that the water vapor component pressure of saturated humid air equals P S , always smaller than its partial pressure (f·P S ) which was believed in the past researches. In the new model, “Local Gas Constant” describes the interaction between similar molecules. “Improvement Factor” is proposed for the first time by this article, and it quantitatively describes the magnitude of interaction between dissimilar molecules. They are combined to fully describe the real thermodynamic properties of humid air. The average error of Revised Dalton's Method is within 0.1% compared to experimentally-based data. - Highlights: • Our new model is suitable to calculate thermodynamic properties of humid air in HAT cycle. • Fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. • Local-Gas-Constant describes existing alone component and Improvement Factor describes interaction between different components. • The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and component pressures. • It solves saturated humid air thoroughly and deviates from experimental data less than 0.1%

  20. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO 4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  1. Notes on HP1 a software package for simulating variably-saturated water flow, heat transport, solute transport, and biogeochemistry in porous media. HP1 Version 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-15

    HP1 is a comprehensive modeling tool in terms of processes and reactions for simulating reactive transport and biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated porous media. HP1 results from coupling the water and solute transport model HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2009a) and PHREEQC-2 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This note provides an overview of how to set up and execute a HP1 project using version 2.2.002 of HP1 and version 4.13 of the graphical user interface (GUI) of HYDRUS-1D. A large part of this note are step-by-step instructions for selected examples involving mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, surface complexation and kinetic degradation networks. The implementation of variably-saturated flow conditions, changing boundary conditions, a layered soil profile or immobile water is also illustrated.

  2. Notes on HP1 a software package for simulating variably-saturated water flow, heat transport, solute transport, and biogeochemistry in porous media. HP1 Version 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-01

    HP1 is a comprehensive modeling tool in terms of processes and reactions for simulating reactive transport and biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated porous media. HP1 results from coupling the water and solute transport model HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2009a) and PHREEQC-2 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This note provides an overview of how to set up and execute a HP1 project using version 2.2.002 of HP1 and version 4.13 of the graphical user interface (GUI) of HYDRUS-1D. A large part of this note are step-by-step instructions for selected examples involving mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, surface complexation and kinetic degradation networks. The implementation of variably-saturated flow conditions, changing boundary conditions, a layered soil profile or immobile water is also illustrated.

  3. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines : Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper

  4. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10 -21 to 10 -20 m 2 (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF CLINOPTILOLITE NATURAL ZEOLITE REGENERATION BY AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVAL OF AMMONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rahmani ، M. T. Samadi ، H. R. Ehsani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to regenerate clinoptilolite natural zeolite by air stripping followed by removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions. The research was carried out in continuous system. The characteristics of graded clinoptilolite from Semnan (one of the central provinces in Iran mines were determined and then regeneration tests were done by contacting of 1 N NaCl solution with given weights of ammonium saturated zeolite. Then the brine of column was transferred to the air stripping column for regeneration. The pH of brine solution before entrance to a stripping column was increased to 11. Air stripped ammonia from the brine was converted to the ammonium ion by using acid scrubber. The outlet effluent from stripping column was collected for reuse. The results showed that the cation exchange capacities were 17.31 to 18.38 mg NH4+/g of zeolite weight. Regeneration efficiency of zeolite by NaCl solution and air stripping was in the range of 92%-97% under various operational conditions. However, the efficiency of acid absorption of released ammonia in stripping process was 55% with a major rejection of the surplus ammonia to the atmosphere. It could be concluded that the method studied may be considered as an advanced and supplementary process for treating effluents of aqueous solution and fishponds in existing treatment plants.

  7. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. A protective layer formation in saturated solution of sulfohydric acid in water at pH = 4.43. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    As complement to the experiences on carbon steel passivation for its use in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water production plants, the results herein obtained are given, processing the material with a saturated solution at 2.3 MPa of full pressure and 125 temperature degree of H 2 S in NaOH 5 x 10 -3 M, which, at an equilibrium point, the pH is 4.43. The characteristics, the composition and adherence to the layer formed and the corrosion velocity data are analyzed. (Author) [es

  8. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  9. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  10. Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

    1983-04-01

    The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal

  11. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  12. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  13. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO_4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO_4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic

  14. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  15. Microbial Carbonate Precipitation by Synechococcus PCC8806, LS0519 and Synechocystis PCC6803 on Concrete Surfaces and in Low Saturation Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Lin, Y.; Dittrich, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) by cyanobacteria has been recognized in a variety of environment such as freshwater, marine, cave, and even desert. Recently, their calcification potential has been tested in an emerging technology-- bioconcrete. This study is to explore the calcification by three cyanobacteria strains under different environmental conditions. Experiment A was carried out in 2mM NaHCO3 and 5mM CaCl2, with a cell concentration of 107 cells L-1. In experiment B, one side of the concrete surface was treated with bacteria and then immersed in the solution containing 0.4 mM NaHCO3 and 300 mM CaCl2. In experiment A, the pH of the abiotic condition remained constant around 8.55, while that of biotic conditions increased by 0.15 units in the presence of LS0519, and by 0.3 units in the presence of PCC8806 or PCC6803 within 8 hours. Over a period of 30 hours, PCC8806, LS0519 and PCC6803 removed 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM calcium from the solution respectively. After 30 hours, the alkalinity of the solution decreased by 30 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively in the presence of PCC6803, LS0519 and PCC8806. Under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no precipitate was found in the abiotic condition, while calcium carbonate was associated by all the three strains. Among them, PCC6803 precipitated more carbonates. In experiment B, LS0519 and PCC8806 increased the pH with a value of 0.25, while PCC6803 increased the pH by 0.33 units. SEM shows LS0519 was less likely attached to the concrete surface. Neither did the precipitates on concrete surface differ from that in the abiotic condition. In comparison, PCC8806 and PCC6803 were closely associated with 8-μm porous precipitates. Cells were either found enclosed in precipitates or connecting two precipitates. In conclusion, all the three strains triggered the calcium carbonate precipitation. LS0519 has a little impact on the carbonate precipitation in the solution, but negligent influence on the concrete surface

  16. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  17. Envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de azevém com e sem solução salina e saturada Accelerated aging of ryegrass seeds submitted to saturated salt solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Madruga de Tunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de azevém, bem como verificar a possibilidade do uso de solução não saturada e saturada de NaCl como opção para controle da absorção de água pelas sementes durante a realização do teste, sem reduzir sua sensibilidade. Foram utilizados quatro lotes de sementes, submetidos aos testes de germinação, emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência e envelhecimento acelerado, empregando-se os períodos de exposição de 24, 48, 72 e 96h, com e sem solução salina (NaCl. A utilização de solução não saturada e saturada de NaCl diminui a absorção de água pelas sementes de azevém durante o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, acarretando uma taxa de deterioração menos acentuada e resultados menos drásticos e mais uniformes. A opção 24h com solução não saturada (SNS só conseguiu estratificar os lotes em dois grupos, não devendo ser indicada como promissora. Assim, deve-se usar a opção 48h com solução saturada de NaCl (SSS, que estratificou em três lotes.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the methodology of the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological potential of s ryegrass seeds, as well as verify the possibility of the use of unsaturated and saturated solution of NaCl as an option for control of water uptake by seeds during the test without reducing its sensitivity. Four lots of ryegrass seeds were tested for germination, seedling emergence, speed emergence and accelerated aging (periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96h, with or without the use of saturated and saline solution of NaCl. The use of unsaturated and saturated solution of NaCl reduces water absorption by ryegrass seeds during the accelerated aging test, resulting in a rate of deterioration is less pronounced ,less drastic and more uniform results. Option 24h with

  18. Investigation of decomposition of solid solution of Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 over-saturated in carbon during tempering at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, Francois

    1966-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports the investigation of the structure of the tempered Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 alloy by using optical and electronic microscopy. The second part addresses the relationship between the structural status of the alloy and its electrochemical behaviour. The third part reports the investigation of the Portevin - Le Chatelier phenomenon in relationship with the decomposition of the solid solution. A last part addresses the investigation of a possible microstructure ordering of the Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 alloy

  19. Simple addition of silica to an alkane solution of Wilkinson WMe6 or Schrock W alkylidyne complex give active complex for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Callens, Emmanuel

    2015-08-24

    Addition of PDA silica to a solution of the Wilkinson WMe6 as well as the Schrock W neopentilidyne tris neopentyl complex catalyzes linear or cyclic alkanes to produce respectively a distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane or a mixture of cyclic and macrocyclic hydrocarbons. This single catalytic system transforms also linear α-olefins into higher and lower homologues via isomerization/metathesis mechanism (ISOMET). This complex is also efficient towards functionalized olefins. Unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) are converted into diesters corresponding to self-metathesis products.

  20. An experimental study of relative permeability hysteresis, capillary trapping characteristics, and capillary pressure of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza

    We present the results of an extensive experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on permanent capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine and supercritical (sc)CO2+SO2/brine systems. We performed numerous unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, i.e., low and high-permeability Berea, Nugget sandstones, and Madison limestone carbonate rock sample. A state-of-the-art reservoir conditions core-flooding system was used to perform the tests. The core-flooding apparatus included a medical CT scanner to measure in-situ saturations. The scanner was rotated to the horizontal orientation allowing flow tests through vertically-placed core samples with about 3.8 cm diameter and 15 cm length. Both scCO2 /brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems were studied. The gaseous and supercritical CO2/brine experiments were carried out at 3.46 and 11 MPa back pressures and 20 and 55°C temperatures, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the gCO2 and scCO2 have 0.081 and 0.393 gr/cm3 densities, respectively. During unsteady-state tests, the samples were first saturated with brine and then flooded with CO2 (drainage) at different maximum flow rates. The drainage process was then followed by a low flow rate (0.375 cm 3/min) imbibition until residual CO2 saturation was achieved. Wide flow rate ranges of 0.25 to 20 cm3/min for scCO2 and 0.125 to 120 cm3min for gCO2 were used to investigate the variation of initial brine saturation (Swi) with maximum CO2 flow rate and variation of trapped CO2 saturation (SCO2r) with Swi. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO 2. During the steady-state experiments, after providing of fully-brine saturated core, scCO2 was injected along with brine to find the drainage curve and as

  1. Approach to recover strategic metals from brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

    1981-09-16

    The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

  2. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO 2 -binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  3. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  4. Shear weakening for different lithologies observed at different saturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethart-Jauk, Elisabeth; Gegenhuber, Nina

    2018-01-01

    For this study, samples from different lithologies ("Leitha"-limestone, "Dachstein"-limestone, "Haupt"-dolomite, "Bunt"-sandstone, Grey Berea sandstone, granite, quartzite and basalt) were selected. Samples were dried at 70 °C, respectively 105 °C and were saturated with brine. Mass, porosity, permeability, compressional and shear wave velocity were determined from dry and brine saturated samples at laboratory conditions, based on an individual measurement program. Shear modulus was calculated to find out, if shear weakening exists for the dataset. Shear weakening means that shear modulus of dry samples is higher than of saturated samples, but it is assumed that shear modulus is unaffected by saturation. "Dachstein"-limestone and basalt show shear weakening, quartzite samples show both weakening and hardening. Granite samples are affected by temperature, after drying with 105 °C no change can be observed anymore. "Bunt"-sandstone samples show a change in the shear modulus in a small extent, although they may contain clay minerals. The other lithologies show no effect. Explanations for carbonate samples can be the complicated pore structure, for basalt it could be that weathering creates clay minerals which are known as causes for a change of the shear modulus. Fluid viscosity can also be an important factor.

  5. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  6. Modeling of brine migration in halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.; Fuller, M.E.; Gaffney, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    When canisters containing radwastes are emplaced in a repository the heat produced by the decaying radwaste will cause moderate thermal gradients to develop which will cause the brine present in a halite medium (salt deposits) to accumulate around the canister. Four different models of the migration process have been reviewed to determine their suitability as a working model. One model predicts that inclusions smaller than 0.1 mm dimension probably will not migrate. The other models do not consider size as a factor. Thermal diffusion (Soret effect) is considered insignificant in three models, while in the fourth model it is added to the concentration diffusion term. The following conclusions can be made: Temperature is the most significant parameter in all models and must be known as a function of time, and distance from the canister. All four models predict about the same migration velocity for it is a given set of conditions; for 100 0 C and 1 0 C/cm thermal gradient, it is 3.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 mm/y. Diffusion of ions through the brine inclusions is the rate controlling mechanism. The difference between the thermal gradients in the liquid and in the solid should always be considered and is a function of droplet shape. The model based upon work by Nernst is easiest to use, but it predicts the lowest migration rate. The maximum volume of pure brine accumulated at the canister surface would be less than 20-40 liters in 50 years, for a canister initial thermal power of 3.5 kW.Bitterns would migrate proportionately less volume. A computer code, BRINE, was developed to make these calculations by means of any of the four models

  7. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for simulation of variable-density saturated-unsaturated ground-water flow with solute or energy transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.

  8. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interfacial tension measurement between CO2 and brines under high temperature and elevated pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Boek, E. S.; Maitland, G. C.; Trusler, J. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the dependence of interfacial tension of (CO2 + brine) on temperature, pressure and salinity (including both salt type and molality) over the range of conditions applicable to CO2 storage in saline aquifers. The study covered a wide range of measurements of the interfacial tensions between carbon dioxide and (NaCl + KCl)(aq), CaCl2(aq), MgCl2(aq), Na2SO4(aq), KHCO3(aq), NaHCO3(aq) and two laboratory constructed brines with molality ranging from (0.3 to 5.0) mol·kg-1. The measurements were made at temperatures between (298 and 448) K at various pressures up to 50 MPa, using the pendant drop method in a high-pressure view cell filled with water-saturated CO2. The drop to be imaged was created by injecting brine from a high-pressure syringe pump into a capillary sealed through the top of the cell. The expanded uncertainties of the experimental state variables at 95 % confidence are +0.05 K in temperature and +70 kPa in pressure. For the interfacial tension, the overall expanded relative uncertainty at 95 % confidence was +1.6%. The experimental results show that interfacial tension for all the systems increases linearly with molality, indicating that relatively few measurements and simple interpolation procedures are adequate for describing this property accurately over wide ranges of conditions.

  10. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  11. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  12. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  13. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  14. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  15. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  16. Reaction and devitrification of a prototype nuclear-waste-storage glass with hot magnesium-rich brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, S.; Freeborn, W.P.; Scheetz, B.E.; White, W.B.; McCarthy, G.J.

    1982-10-01

    PNL 76-68, a prototype nuclear waste storage glass, was reacted under hydrothermal conditions at 100, 200, and 300 C with NBT-6a (Ca-Mg-K-Na-Cl) brine. Reaction products were identified, the state of the residual glass determined, and the concentrations of various elements remaining in the solutions analyzed. Solid products formed by reaction of the glass and brine talc (hydrated magnesium silicate), powellite (CaMoO 4 ), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and rarely an unidentified uranium-containing phase. Glass fragments were leached to depths of 300 to 500 μm, depending on time and temperature. Most elements were extracted, but the silicate framework remained intact. Distinct diffusion fronts due to K/Na exchange and Mg/Zn exchange were identified. A complex compositional layering develops in the outer reaction rind. The concentration of silica in brine solution was lower by an order of magnitude than the concentration of silica in deionized water reacted under similar conditions. The concentration of cesium, strontium, uranium, rare earths, and other alkali and alkaline earth elements in solution increases exponentially with temperature of reaction. Behavior of the transition metals is more complex. In general the extraction of elements from the glass by hydrothermal brine leads to concentrations in solution that are from 10 to 100 times higher than the concentrations obtained by deionized water extraction under similar conditions of temperature and pressure

  17. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  18. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0) 3 ), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl 2 showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85 0 C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste

  19. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of phases equilibrium in aqueous systems to recover potassium chloride from natural brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruberlan Gomes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and other chemical products like sodium hydroxide and soda ash are produced from electrolyte solutions or brines with a high content of soluble salts. Some of these products are manufactured by fractional crystallization, when several salts are separated as solid phases with high purity (>90%. Due to the large global demand for potassium fertilizers, a good knowledge about the compositions of salts and brines is helpful to design an effective process. A thermodynamic model based on Pitzer and Harvie's model was used to predict the composition of crystallized salts after water removal by forced evaporation and cooling from multicomponent solutions or brines. Initially, the salts’ solubilities in binary systems (NaCl–H2O, KCl–H2O and MgCl2–H2O and ternary system (KCl–MgCl2–H2O were calculated at 20 °C and compared with literature data. Next, the model was compared to our experimental data on the quinary system NaCl–KCl–MgCl2–CaCl2–H2O system at 20 °C. The Pitzer and Harvie's model represented well both the binary and ternary systems. Besides, for the quinary system the fit was good for brine densities up to 1350 kg/m3. The models were used to estimate the chemical composition of the solutions and salts produced by fractional crystallization and in association with material balance to respond to issues related to the production rates in a solar pond containing several salts dissolved, for instance, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2.

  1. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  3. Dynamics and mass transport of solutal convection in a closed porous media system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Baole; Akhbari, Daria; Hesse, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Most of the recent studies of CO2 sequestration are performed in open systems where the constant partial pressure of CO2 in the vapor phase results in a time-invariant saturated concentration of CO2 in the brine (Cs). However, in some closed natural CO2 reservoirs, e.g., Bravo Dome in New Mexico, the continuous dissolution of CO2 leads to a pressure drop in the gas that is accompanied by a reduction of Cs and thereby affects the dynamics and mass transport of convection in the brine. In this talk, I discuss the characteristics of convective CO2 dissolution in a closed system. The gas is assumed to be ideal and its solubility given by Henry's law. An analytical solution shows that the diffusive base state is no longer self-similar and that diffusive mass transfer declines rapidly. Scaling analysis reveals that the volume ratio of brine and gas η determines the behavior of the system. DNS show that no constant flux regime exists for η > 0 nevertheless, the quantity F /Cs2 remains constant, where F is the dissolution flux. The onset time is only affected by η when the Rayleigh number Ra is small. In this case, the drop in Cs during the initial diffusive regime significantly reduces the effective Ra and therefore delays the onset.

  4. Domal salt brine migration experiments at Avery Island, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.B.; Gnirk, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    Three in-situ brine migration experiments were performed in domal salt in the Avery Island mine located in southwestern Louisiana. The primary measurements included temperature, moisture collection, and pre- and post-test permeability at the experimental sites. Experimental data are discussed and compared with calculations based on the single-crystal brine migration theory. Comparisons indicate reasonable agreement between experiment and theory

  5. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  6. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  7. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  8. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  9. Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers in and near the East Poplar oil field is as much as 17.9 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone in contaminated areas. The brine contamination affects 15–37 billion gallons of groundwater. Brine contamination in the shallow aquifers east of the Poplar River generally moves to the southwest toward the river and then southward in the Poplar River valley. The likely source of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers is brine that is produced with crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area. Brine contamination has not only affected the water quality from privately owned wells in and near the East Poplar oil field, but also the city of Poplar’s public water-supply wells. Three water-quality types characterize water in the shallow aquifers; a fourth water-quality type in the study area characterizes the brine. Type 1 is uncontaminated water that is suitable for most domestic purposes and typically contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium/magnesium sulfate as the dominant ions. Type 2 is moderately contaminated water that is suitable for some domestic purposes, but not used for drinking water, and typically contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 is considerably contaminated water that is unsuitable for any domestic purpose and always contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 quality of water in the shallow aquifers is similar to Type 4, which is the brine that is produced with crude oil. Electromagnetic apparent conductivity data were collected in the 106 square-mile area and used to determine extent of brine contamination. These data were collected and interpreted in conjunction with water-quality data collected through 2009 to delineate brine plumes in the shallow aquifers. Monitoring wells subsequently were drilled in some areas without existing water wells to confirm most of the delineated brine plumes; however, several possible

  10. Water swelling, brine soluble imidazole based zwitterionic polymers-synthesis and study of reversible UCST behaviour and gel-sol transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Julius G.

    2014-01-01

    New vinylbenzene substituted imidazole based zwitterionic polymers with unique characteristics like swelling in water and solubility in concentrated brine solution in which they exhibited a reversible upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and gel-sol transitions are reported herein. © 2014 The

  11. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  12. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  14. Ultra-high chlorine in submarine Kı̄lauea glasses: Evidence for direct assimilation of brine by magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi

    2004-01-01

    Basaltic glass grains from the submarine south flank of Kı̄lauea, Hawai′i, have Cl concentrations of 0.01–1.68 wt%, the latter being the highest Cl content yet recorded for a Hawaiian glass. The high-Cl glass grains are products of brine assimilation by tholeiite magma. The glasses are grains in a sandstone clast from bedded breccias draping the southwestern margin of Kı̄lauea’s submarine midslope bench. The clast contains two distinct suites of glass grains: abundant degassed tholeiites, perhaps derived from subaerial lavas of Mauna Loa that shattered upon ocean entry, and a smaller population of Kea-type tholeiite (n=17 analyzed) that erupted subaqueously, based on elevated S (780–1050 ppm), H2O (0.42–1.27 wt%), and CO2 (1000 ppm, six >5000 ppm, and two grains have >10 000 ppm dissolved Cl. Abundances of H2O, Na2O, K2O, and several trace elements increase regularly with Cl concentration, and we estimate that Cl enrichment was due to up to 13 wt% addition of a brine consisting of 78% H2O (wt), 13% Cl, 4.4% Na, 2.6% K, 2.6% Ca, 620 ppm Ba, 360 ppm Sr, 65 ppm Rb, and 7 ppm Pb. The large amounts of brine addition argue against bulk assimilation of low-porosity brine-bearing rock. The brine’s composition is appropriate for a seawater-derived hydrothermal fluid that reacted with basaltic wall rocks at T>100°C, losing Mg and S and gaining K, Ca, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Pb, followed by phase separation near 500°C and ∼50 MPa (5 km below sea level at hydrostatic pressure). Brine was assimilated at or near the depth it formed, as estimated on petrologic grounds, but under lithostatic conditions. The highest extents of assimilation either forced volatile saturation of the magma or enriched already coexisting magmatic vapor in H2O. Possible mechanisms for assimilation are: (1) forcible injection of brine into magma during bursting of overpressured pockets heated by new dikes, or (2) intrusion of magma into lenses or sills occupied by trapped brine.

  15. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  16. Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Frailey, Scott [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Dastgheib, Seyed [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.

    2017-06-14

    availability of cased-hole logs and cross-well tomography to monitor CO2 saturation and plume distribution, respectively. Because of the proximity of the horizontal well option to two existing wells, no additional monitoring well (or caprock penetration) is required. The recommended brine extraction pilot design options are (1) a horizontal extraction well at the base of the Middle Mt. Simon, which is 350–520 ft (107–158 m) above the CO2 plume at CCS#1 and VW#1; or (2) a vertical extraction well 0.5 mi (0.8 km) from CCS#2 in a direction approximately southeast of CCS#2, perpendicular to the direction of high hydraulic connectivity. A horizontal extraction well has advantages over a vertical extraction well, including less risk of drilling into an existing CO2 plume and it can be located between two other wells that can be used for monitoring. Thus, because the two existing wells can serve as monitoring wells, it eliminates the need for a third verification well and allows for a lower extraction rate to control the CO2 plume and pressure. Managing pressure and the CO2 plume distribution via brine extraction creates the obvious and important challenge of handling and treating the extracted brine. There were three options for brine disposal: (1) underground injection control (UIC) disposal well, (2) brine treatment and industrial use, and (3) brine pretreatment and discharge into municipal wastewater system. The primary design elements were budget and permitting requirements. The disposal well would be a vertical well drilled and completed into the Potosi Dolomite. For the range of extraction rates anticipated, the cost of this well is relatively constant. The cost of brine treatment is highly depends on the extraction rate, which depends on the well orientation. If relatively high rates are required, the vertical disposal well option is more favorable; for relatively lower rates, the two brine treatment options have

  17. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Noura A; Ortiz-Medina, Juan F; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Amy, Gary; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-09-01

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8±2.1A/m 2 -anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; McNab, Walt W; Torres, Sharon C

    2011-11-11

    Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH)3. Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  19. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2017-05-03

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8 ± 2.1 A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  20. Low-cost but accurate radioactive logging for determining gas saturation in a reservior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining gas saturation in a petroleum reservoir using logging signals indirectly related to the abundances of oxygen and carbon nuclei in the reservoir rock. The first step of the invention is to record first and second logs sensitive to the abundance of oxygen and carbon nuclei, respectively, after the region surrounding the well bore is caused to have fluid saturations representative of the bulk of the reservoir. A purposeful change is then made in the fluid saturations in the region surrounding the well bore by injecting a liquid capable of displacing substantially all of the original fluids. The logs are recorded a second time. The displacing fluid is then itself displaced by brine, and a third suite of logs is recorded. The total fluid and oil saturations are then determined from the differences between respective corresponding logs and from known fractional volume oxygen and carbon contents of the reservoir brine and oil and the first injected liquid. Gas saturation is then calculated from differences between total fluid and oil saturation values. It is not necessary that the log responses be independent of the material in the borehole, the casing, the casing cement, or the reservoir rock. It is only necessary that changes in formation fluids content cause proportional changes in log responses. 7 Claims, 4 Figures

  1. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on x-ray computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples which revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the lengths of the samples. The electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent used in electric-log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone: a stationary front formed in one sample at 1-psi oil/brine capillary pressure, a moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressure ≤4 psi in samples tested in fresh mixed-wettability and cleaned water-wet states, and the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated in the samples

  2. CT-scan-monitored electrical resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Coles, M.E.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray CT scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the length of the sample. In this paper the electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent, which is used in electric log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone. A stationary front formed in one sample at 1 psi oil/brine capillary pressure. A moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressures of 4 psi or less in both samples tested, in both a fresh mixed-wettability state and in a cleaned water-wet state. In these samples, the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated

  3. Gluon Saturation and EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichtermann, Ernst

    2016-12-15

    The fundamental structure of nucleons and nuclear matter is described by the properties and dynamics of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Electron-nucleon collisions are a powerful method to study this structure. As one increases the energy of the collisions, the interaction process probes regions of progressively higher gluon density. This density must eventually saturate. An high-energy polarized Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to observe and study the saturated gluon density regime. Selected measurements will be discussed, following a brief introduction.

  4. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  5. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  6. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  7. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.B.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  8. Accessible reactive surface area and abiotic redox reactivity of iron oxyhydroxides in acidic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jennifer H.; Toner, Brandy M.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in low pH and high ionic strength solutions was quantified to assess abiotic contributions to oxidation-reduction chemistry in acidic brine environments, such as mine groundwater seepage, lakes in Western Australia, and acid mine drainage settings, which are of global interest for their environmental impacts and unique geomicrobiology. Factors expected to influence accessible and reactive surface area, including Fe(II) adsorption and aggregate size, were measured as a function of pH and CaCl2 concentration and related to the kinetics of redox reactions in aqueous suspensions of synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), and ferrihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) nanoparticles. Aqueous conditions and iron oxyhydroxides were chosen based on characterization of natural iron-rich mine microbial mats located in Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota, USA. Quinone species were used as redox sensors because they are well-defined probes and are present in natural organic matter. Fe(II) adsorption to the iron oxyhydroxide mineral surfaces from aqueous solution was measurable only at pH values above 4 and either decreased or was not affected by CaCl2 concentration. Concentrations at or above 0.020 M CaCl2 in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) induced particle aggregation. Assessment of Fe(II) adsorption and particle aggregation in acidic brine suggested that accessible reactive surface area may be limited in acidic brines. This was supported by observations of decreasing benzoquinone reduction rate by adsorbed Fe(II) at high CaCl2 concentration. In contrast, the hydroquinone oxidation rate increased at high CaCl2 concentrations, which may be due to suppressed adsorption of Fe(II) generated by the reaction. Results suggest that iron geochemical cycling in acidic brine environments will be substantially different than for iron oxyhydroxides in low-saline waters with circumneutral pH. These findings have implications for acidic

  9. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections

  10. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  11. determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using brine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF TOXICITY LEVELS OF SOME SAVANNAH PLANTS. USING BRINE ... Adoum, O. A.. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano – Nigeria. ... 1000, 100, and 10 µg/ml, respectively.

  12. A network model for characterizing brine channels in sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblappen, Ross M.; Kumar, Deip D.; Pauls, Scott D.; Obbard, Rachel W.

    2018-03-01

    The brine pore space in sea ice can form complex connected structures whose geometry is critical in the governance of important physical transport processes between the ocean, sea ice, and surface. Recent advances in three-dimensional imaging using X-ray micro-computed tomography have enabled the visualization and quantification of the brine network morphology and variability. Using imaging of first-year sea ice samples at in situ temperatures, we create a new mathematical network model to characterize the topology and connectivity of the brine channels. This model provides a statistical framework where we can characterize the pore networks via two parameters, depth and temperature, for use in dynamical sea ice models. Our approach advances the quantification of brine connectivity in sea ice, which can help investigations of bulk physical properties, such as fluid permeability, that are key in both global and regional sea ice models.

  13. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  14. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. ... off odour development, softening of the fish and positively affected personal preference.

  15. Solidification of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution in a rectangular cell. ; Discussion on influence of initial concentration of solution and mean diameter of beads. Kukei sonai no suiyoeki de mitasareta takoshitsutai no gyoko. ; Shoki nodo to beads no heikin chokkei no eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of engineering; Okada, M [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Murakami, M [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yabushita, Y [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-25

    Studies have been made for the purpose of analyzing solidification phenomenon of ground in relation to freezing construction method used in subway, water supply, and sewage constructions. Experimental studies have been carried out on solidification process of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution to discover influence of initial concentration of the solution and diameter of beads that constitute a porous medium. The experiment was performed by solidifying the porous medium sequentially from a side wall with lower temperature in a rectangular experimental tank with a height and a width of 100 mm filled with NaCl aqueous solution and beads. As a result, it was discovered that, if the initial concentration is low, the temperature difference is little between the upper part and the lower part of the experimental tank, and natural convection in the liquid-phase region is suppressed because of rising solidification temperature; the natural convection is suppressed in the liquid-phase region; and the boundary face between the mushy region and the liquid-phase region moves quickly. Further, the concentration rise in the liquid-phase region has slowed down despite that the solidification region is large enough. The smaller the mean diameter of beads, the faster the growth rate on the boundary face, hence the natural convection in the tank has been suppressed, and the growth rate on the boundary face has increased. In addition, the concentration stratification in the liquid-phase region does not expand, but is formed only on the bottom. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

  17. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  18. A general model for the dissolution of nuclear waste glasses in salt brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Strachan, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    A mechanistic model describing a dynamic mass balance between the production and consumption of dissolved silica was found to describe the dissolution of SRL-165 defense waste glass in a high-magnesium (PBB3) brine at a temperature of 90/degree/C. The synergetic effect of the waste package container on the glass dissolution rate was found to depend on a precipitation reaction for a ferrous silicate mineral. The model predicted that the ferrous silicate precipitate should be variable in composition where the iron-silica ratio depended on the metal-to-glass surface area ratio used in the experiment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by the variable iron-silica ratios observed in filtered leachates. However, the interaction between dissolved silica and iron corrosion products needs to be much better understood before the model could be used with confidence in predicting radionuclide release rates for a salt repository. If the deleterious effects of the iron corrosion products can be shown to be transient, and the fracturing of the glass can be minimized, it appears that the performance of SRL-165 defense waste glass will be near the NRC regulatory criterion for fraction release of one part in 100,000 in PBB3 brine at 90/degree/C under silica-saturated conditions. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  20. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  1. Two-beam interaction in saturable media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Schmidt, Michel R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a saturable nonlinearity is investigated It is shown by means of a variational method and by direct numerical calculations that two well-separated solitons can orbit around each other, if their initial velocity...

  2. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-02-01

    It has been proposed that the high level nuclear waste be buried deep underground in a suitable geologic formation. Natural salt deposits have been under active consideration as one of the geologic formations where a nuclear waste repository may be built in future. The salt deposits, however, are known to contain a small amount (about 0.5 vol.%) of water in the form of brine inclusions which are dispersed throughout the medium. The temperature gradients imposed by the heat generating nuclear waste will mobilize these brine inclusions. It is important to know the rate and the amount of brine accumulating at the waste packages to properly evaluate the performance of a nuclear waste repository. An extensive experimental investigation of the migration velocities of brine inclusions in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and in polycrystalline natural salt crystals has been conducted. The results show that in a salt repository the brine inclusions within a grain would move with the diffusion controlled velocities. The brine reaching a grain boundary may be swept across, if the thermal gradient is high enough. Grain boundaries in polycrystalline rock salt are apparently quite weak and open up due to drilling the hole for a waste canister and to the thermal stresses which accompany the thermal gradient produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosity allows the water reaching the grain boundary to escape by a vapor transport process

  3. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given

  4. Capillary pressure - saturation relations in quartz and carbonate sands: Limitations for correlating capillary and wettability influences on air, oil, and supercritical CO2 trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wang, S.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are essential for predicting equilibrium and flow of immiscible fluid pairs in soils and deeper geologic formations. In systems that are difficult to measure, behavior is often estimated based on capillary scaling of easily measured Pc-Sw relations (e.g., air-water, and oil-water), yet the reliability of such approximations needs to be examined. In this study, seventeen sets of brine drainage and imbibition curves were measured with air-brine, decane-brine, and supercritical (sc) CO2-brine in homogeneous quartz and carbonate sands, using porous plate systems under ambient (0.1 MPa, 23 °C) and reservoir (12.0 MPa, 45 °C) conditions. Comparisons between these measurements showed significant differences in residual nonwetting phase saturation, Snw,r. Through applying capillary scaling, changes in interfacial properties were indicated, particularly wettability. With respect to the residual trapping of the nonwetting phases, Snwr, CO2 > Snwr, decane > Snwr, air. Decane-brine and scCO2-brine Pc-Sw curves deviated significantly from predictions assuming hydrophilic interactions. Moreover, neither the scaled capillary behavior nor Snw,r for scCO2-brine were well represented by decane-brine, apparently because of differences in wettability and viscosities, indicating limitations for using decane (and other organic liquids) as a surrogate fluid in studies intended to apply to geological carbon sequestration. Thus, challenges remain in applying scaling for predicting capillary trapping and multiphase displacement processes across such diverse fields as vadose zone hydrology, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic carbon sequestration.

  5. Understanding the kinetics of sulfate reduction in brines by hydrogen: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with mixtures of hydrogen gas and each of PBB1 and PBB3 brines to examine the reduction kinetics of sulfate in high ionic strength solutions. Results from the experiments with brines showed that the kinetics of sulfate reduction is slower in high ionic strength solutions than the kinetics in low ionic strength solutions. However, the kinetic mechanism does not seem to alter the slow kinetics, but the addition of much larger quantities of sulfide, about 40 mM, does accelerate the reduction of sulfate. Since the proposed reaction mechanism for the reduction of sulfate by hydrogen gas involves the reaction of sulfide with sulfate, slow initial kinetics in the absence of sulfide is understandable, but also implies an unknown rate-limiting reaction. Precipitation of calcium sulfate(s) and calcium sulfide may limit the sulfide and sulfate concentrations to low values. The coexistence of anhydrite and oldhamite may indicate a part of the Ca-S-H 2 O that has not yet been investigated. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  7. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  8. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  9. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  10. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  11. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    transfer coefficients, and colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from ATC well NC-EWDP-19D. These estimates will allow a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters to be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC.

  12. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from ATC well NC-EWDP-19D. These estimates will allow a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters to be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC

  13. Capillary-Driven Solute Transport and Precipitation in Porous Media during Dry-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Holger; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin; Snippe, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The injection of dry or under-saturated gases or supercritical (SC) fluids into water bearing formations might lead to a formation dry-out in the vicinity of the injection well. The dry-out is caused by the evaporation/dissolution of formation water into the injected fluid and the subsequent transport of dissolved water in the injected fluid away from the injection well. Dry-out results in precipitation from solutes of the formation brine and consequently leads to a reduction of the rock's pore space (porosity) and eventually to a reduction of permeability near the injection well, or even to the loss of injectivity. Recently evidence has been found that the complexity of the pore space and the respective capillary driven solute transport plays a key role. While no effective-permeability (Keff) reduction was observed in a single-porosity sandstone, multi porosity carbonate rocks responded to precipitation with a strong reduction of Keff. The reason for the different response of Keff to salt precipitation is suspected to be in the exact location of the precipitate (solid salt) in the pore space. In this study, we investigate dry-out and salt precipitation due to supercritical CO2 injection in single and multi-porosity systems under near well-bore conditions. We image fluid saturation changes by means of μCT scanning during desaturation. We are able to observe capillary driven transport of the brine phase and the respective transport of solutes on the rock's pore scale. Finally we have access to the precipitated solid-salt phase and their distribution. The results can proof the thought models behind permeability porosity relationships K(φ) for injectivity modeling. The topic and the mechanisms we show are of general interest for drying processes in porous material such as soils and paper.

  14. Extension of the EQ3/6 computer codes to geochemical modeling of brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.J.; Wolery, T.J.

    1984-10-23

    Recent modifications to the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling software package provide for the use of Pitzer's equations to calculate the activity coefficients of aqueous species and the activity of water. These changes extend the range of solute concentrations over which the codes can be used to dependably calculate equilibria in geochemical systems, and permit the inclusion of ion pairs, complexes, and undissociated acids and bases as explicit component species in the Pitzer model. Comparisons of calculations made by the EQ3NR and EQ6 compuer codes with experimental data confirm that the modifications not only allow the codes to accurately evaluate activity coefficients in concentrated solutions, but also permit prediction of solubility limits of evaporite minerals in brines at 25/sup 0/C and elevated temperatures. Calculations for a few salts can be made at temperatures up to approx. 300/sup 0/C, but the temperature range for most electrolytes is constrained by the availability of requisite data to values less than or equal to 100/sup 0/C. The implementation of Pitzer's equations in EQ3/6 allows application of these codes to problems involving calculation of geochemical equilibria in brines; such as evaluation of the chemical environment which might be anticipated for nuclear waste canisters located in a salt repository. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lécuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity

  16. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  17. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  18. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  19. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  20. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  1. Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

  2. Stabilization of Neutral Systems with Saturating Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. El Haoussi

    2012-01-01

    to determine stabilizing state-feedback controllers with large domain of attraction, expressed as linear matrix inequalities, readily implementable using available numerical tools and with tuning parameters that make possible to select the most adequate solution. These conditions are derived by using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional on the vertices of the polytopic description of the actuator saturations. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  3. Ikaite solubility in seawater-derived brines at 1 atm and sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2013-05-01

    The concentration-based (stoichiometric) equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in seawater and cryogenic seawater-derived brines was determined at 1 atm total pressure over the temperature range from -1.1 to -7.5 °C and the salinity range from 34 to 124 in temperature-salinity pairs representative of sea ice brines. The solubility measurements were obtained in solutions that were undersaturated and supersaturated with respect to ikaite by equilibration with CO2/N2 gas mixtures of known pCO2 (20-400 μatm). The solutions were then equilibrated with synthetic ikaite (seed) for up to 3 months in a closed system. Arrival of the solid-solution system at a long-term chemical equilibrium was indicated by attainment of constant chemical solution composition with respect to total dissolved calcium, total dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity. Using these measurements, the stoichiometric equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (Ksp,ikaite∗=[Ca][CO32-], in molkgsolution-2) was determined, with the carbonate ion concentration computed from the measured total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. The computed carbonate ion concentration and, by extension, the Ksp,ikaite∗ are both contingent on solving the system of equations that describe the parameters of the CO2 system in seawater by extrapolation to the experimental salinity and temperature conditions. The results show that the pKsp,ikaite∗=-logKsp,ikaite∗ in seawater of salinity 34 at -1.1 °C was 5.362 ± 0.004 and that the pKsp,ikaite∗ in sea ice at the freezing point of brines of salinity greater than 34 can be described as a function of temperature (T, in K) by the equation, pKsp,ikaite∗=-15489.09608+623443.70216T-1+2355.14596lnT, in the temperature range of 265.15 K 1 month) approach to chemical equilibrium when incubated without seeding ikaite crystals. Simple modeling indicated that ikaite should not precipitate from sea ice brines evolving under

  4. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  5. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  6. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  7. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  8. Modeling the morphogenesis of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Gemming, S

    2010-03-01

    Brine channels are formed in sea ice under certain constraints and represent a habitat of different microorganisms. The complex system depends on a number of various quantities as salinity, density, pH value, or temperature. Each quantity governs the process of brine channel formation. There exists a strong link between bulk salinity and the presence of brine drainage channels in growing ice with respect to both the horizontal and vertical planes. We develop a suitable phenomenological model for the formation of brine channels both referring to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions as well as to the chemical basis of morphogenesis according to Turing. It is possible to conclude from the critical wave number on the size of the structure and the critical parameters. The theoretically deduced transition rates have the same magnitude as the experimental values. The model creates channels of similar size as observed experimentally. An extension of the model toward channels with different sizes is possible. The microstructure of ice determines the albedo feedback and plays therefore an important role for large-scale global circulation models.

  9. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    from 3.65 - 4.63 ppm. The definite volumes of seawater samples (3.7 litres) taken in stills for desalination correspond to 13.08 - 31.16 mg of net boron content. Analyses on the recovery of the total content of boron in brines as well as in the bitterns...

  10. [Experimental interaction of halophilic prokaryotes and opportunistic bacteria in brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, E A; Nemtseva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Study the effect of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on preservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine. 17 strains of moderately halophilic bacteria and 2 strains of extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from continental hypersaline lake Razval of Sol-Iletsk area of Orenburg Region. Identification of pure cultures of prokaryotes was carried out taking into account their phenotype properties and based on determination of 16S RNA gene sequence. The effect of halophilic prokaryote on elimination of Escherichia coli from brine was evaluated during co-cultivation. Antagonistic activity of cell extracts of the studied microorganisms was evaluated by photometric method. A more prolonged preservation of an E. coli strain in brine in the presence of live cells of extremely halophilic archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and moderately halophilic bacteria Marinococcus halophilus was established. Extracts of cells of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on the contrary displayed antagonistic activity. The protective effect of live cells of halophilic prokaryotes and antagonistic activity of their cell extracts change the period of conservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine that regulates inter-microbial interactions and changes the period of self-purification that reflects the sanitary condition of a hypersaline water body.

  11. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  12. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  13. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U.S.A.). A model for displacement of connate brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs

  14. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  15. Coastal California Wastewater Effluent as a Resource for Seawater Desalination Brine Commingling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Rodman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available California frequently experiences water scarcity, especially in high population areas. This has generated increased interest in using the Pacific Ocean as a water resource, with seawater desalination becoming a popular solution. To mitigate the environmental impacts of the high salinity brine from seawater desalination, California recommends commingling brine with wastewater effluent before ocean discharge. Results reveal that throughout the California coast, approximately 4872 MLD (1287 MGD of treated wastewater are discharged into the ocean and might be available as dilution water. Most of this dilution water resource is produced in Southern California (3161 MLD or 835 MGD and the San Francisco Bay Area (1503 MLD or 397 MGD, which are also the areas with the highest need for alternative water sources. With this quantity of dilution water, in principle, over 5300 MLD (1400 MGD of potable water could be produced in California through seawater desalination. Furthermore, this study provides a survey of the treatment levels and typical discharge violations of ocean wastewater treatment facilities in California.

  16. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  17. 222Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for 222 Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. 241 Am, 90 Sr and 226 Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. 214 Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for 222 Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l -1 were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l -1 were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  18. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  20. Stratification and space-time variability of Red Sea hot brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monin, A S; Plakhin, E A

    1982-11-01

    The results of hydrophysical studies in Red Sea hot brines prefaced with historical information are presented. The CTD-recorder readings show stratification of the upper brine in the Atlantis II Deep into meter-scale layers, in agreement with laboratory findings. Repeated soundings with the AIST CTD meter of the upper brine interface in the Valdivia Deep recorded internal waves of 3 to 4-h periods. The observations show the different nature of brines in the four deeps studied and the lack of contact between the brine layers of the Chain and Discovery deeps.

  1. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  2. Equilibrium leach tests with cobalt in the system cemented waste form/container material/aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.; Lee, M. J.; Han, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium concentrations of Co in the system of cemented waste form/aqueous solutions were determined including the effect of the container material and its corrosion products under the respective conditions. The chemical conditions in the near field of the waste form were characterized by measurement of the pH and E h value. As disposal relevant solutions, saturated sodium chloride, Q-brine (main constituent MgCl 2 ) and a granitic type groundwater were used. For comparison, also experiments using deionized water were performed. In all systems investigated the cemented waste form itself has a strong influence on the chemical conditions in the near field. The pH and E h values are affected in all cases by the addition of the cemented waste form. There is no or only a slight difference between the E h values if iron powder or iron hydroxide is added to the cemented waste form/solution systems, but the E h is markedly decreased when iron powder is added to the solution free of cement. The Co concentration is decreased in all solutions by the addition of the cemented waste form, the largest effect is observed in Q-brine and this can be attributed either to the sorption of the Co-ions on the corrosion products of the cement or to the coprecipitation of Co-hydroxide and Mg-hydroxide. In the other solutions the Co concentration is decreased by precipitation of Co-hydroxide due to the high pH value of 12.5, and the concentrations are comparable for the different solutions

  3. Mathematical solutions of rate equations of a laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched and mode locked Nd-laser with Cr4+:YAG polarized saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The intracavity frequency-doubling (IFD) of a simultaneous passively Q-switched mode-locked diode-pumped Nd 3 + - laser is studied with a polarized isotropic Cr 4 +: YAG saturable absorber. A general recurrence formula for the mode-locked pulses under the Q-switched envelope at fundamental wavelength has been reconstructed in order to analyze the temporal shape behavior of a single Q-switched envelope with mode-locking pulse trains. This formula has been derived taking into account the impact of the IFD and polarized Cr 4 +: YAG saturable absorber.The presented mathematical model describes the self-induced anisotropy appeared in the polarized Cr 4 +: YAG in the nonlinear stage of the giant pulse formation. For the anisotropic Nd 3 +: YVO 4 active medium, the generated polarized waves are assumed to be fixed through the lasing cycle. Besides, the maximum absorber initial transmission and the minimum mirror reflectivity values have been determined from the second threshold criterion. The calculated numerical results demonstrate the impact of the variation of the input laser parameters (rotational angle of the polarized crystal, absorber initial transmission and the output mirror reflectivity) on the characteristics of the output laser pulse (SH peak power, pulse width, pulse duration and shift pulse position of central mode). The calculated numerical results in this work is in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the available experimental data reported in the references. (author)

  4. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  5. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  6. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  7. Preliminary design and analysis of recovery of lithium from brine with the use of a selective extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-05-01

    Lithium requirements for battery and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor uses in the next few decades may exceed the current availability of the mineral and brine reserves. It is thus prudent to search for new reserves and resources to satisfy these and other lithium applications in the future. It has been reported that the lithium content of Smackover oilfield waters ranges in order of 100--500 mg/l, and thus could represent a substantial reserve. A method is proposed to extract lithium from this source. Experimental evidence in the literature indicates that a specific chelating agent of the diketone type, dipivaloylmethane, has a specific selectivity toward lithium in the presence of other metal ions in aqueous solutions. Based in part on this unique property of dipivaloylmethane, a conceptual design of a full size plant is performed to extract lithium from the Smackover brine. The study includes alternate flow sheet development, design information on the major units of the process, energy requirement and an economic analysis of a 10 6 kg Li/yr production facility. The economics of three different process concepts depends on the amount of water evaporated from the initial oilfield feed waters to concentrate the brine. Results as a function of production rates are indicated in a general manner

  8. Spectral induced polarization of the three-phase system CO2 - brine - sand under reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The spectral complex conductivity of a water-bearing sand during interaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) is influenced by multiple, simultaneous processes. These processes include partial saturation due to the replacement of conductive pore water with CO2 and chemical interaction of the reactive CO2 with the bulk fluid and the grain-water interface. We present a laboratory study on the spectral induced polarization of water-bearing sands during exposure to and flow-through by CO2. Conductivity spectra were measured successfully at pressures up to 30 MPa and 80 °C during active flow and at steady-state conditions concentrating on the frequency range between 0.0014 and 100 Hz. The frequency range between 0.1 and 100 Hz turned out to be most indicative for potential monitoring applications. The presented data show that the impact of CO2 on the electrolytic conductivity may be covered by a model for pore-water conductivity, which depends on salinity, pressure and temperature and has been derived from earlier investigations of the pore-water phase. The new data covering the three-phase system CO2-brine-sand further show that chemical interaction causes a reduction of surface conductivity by almost 20 per cent, which could be related to the low pH-value in the acidic environment due to CO2 dissolution and the dissociation of carbonic acid. The quantification of the total CO2 effect may be used as a correction during monitoring of a sequestration in terms of saturation. We show that this leads to a correct reconstruction of fluid saturation from electrical measurements. In addition, an indicator for changes of the inner surface area, which is related to mineral dissolution or precipitation processes, can be computed from the imaginary part of conductivity. The low frequency range between 0.0014 and 0.1 Hz shows additional characteristics, which deviate from the behaviour at higher frequencies. A Debye decomposition approach is applied to isolate the feature dominating the

  9. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  10. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  11. Geochemical evidence for the existence of high-temperature hydrothermal brines at Vesuvio volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Marini, Luigi; Russo, Massimo

    2001-07-01

    A high-temperature hydrothermal system is present underneath the crater area of Vesuvio volcano. It is suggested that NaCl brines reside in the high-temperature reservoir and influence the chemical composition of the gases discharged by the fumaroles of the crater bottom (vents FC1, FC2, and FC5). These have typical hydrothermal compositions, with H 2O and CO 2 as major components, followed by H 2, H 2S, N 2, CH 4, and CO (in order of decreasing contents) and undetectable SO 2, HCl, and HF. Fumarolic H 2O is either meteoric water enriched in 18O through high-temperature water-rock oxygen isotope exchange or a mixture of meteoric and arc-type magmatic water. Fumarolic CO 2 is mainly generated by decarbonation reactions of marine carbonates, but the addition of small amounts of magmatic CO 2 is also possible. All investigated gas species (H 2O, CO 2, CO, CH 4, H 2, H 2S, N 2, and NH 3) equilibrate, probably in a saturated vapor phase, at temperatures of 360 to 370°C for vent FC1 and 430 to 445°C for vents FC2 and FC5. These temperatures are confirmed by the H 2-Ar geoindicator. The minimum salt content of the liquid phase coexisting with the vapor phase is ˜14.9 wt.% NaCl, whereas its maximum salinity corresponds to halite saturation (49.2-52.5 wt.% NaCl). These poorly constrained salinities of NaCl brines reflect in large uncertainties in total fluid pressures, which are estimated to be 260 to 480 bar for vents FC2 and FC5 and 130 to 220 bar for vent FC1. Pressurization in some parts of the hydrothermal system, and its subsequent discharge through hydrofracturing, could explain the relatively frequent seismic crises recorded in the Vesuvio area after the last eruption. An important heat source responsible for hydrothermal circulation is represented by the hot rocks of the eruptive conduits, which have been active from 1631 to 1944. Geochemical evidence suggests that no input of fresh magma at shallow depths took place after the end of the last eruptive period.

  12. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  13. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  14. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  15. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  16. Calculated radiation doses from radionuclides brought to the surface if future drilling intercepts the WIPP repository and pressurized brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a scenario in which an exploratory borehole connects an underlying brine reservoir with the repository and results in saturation of the waste storage area. A subsequent borehole brings portions of this radionuclide contaminated brine to the surface. Radiation odses are calculated for time periods of 125, 400, and 1000 years after repository closing for the following: (1) external radiation doses for workers at the borehole location; (2) inhalation doses for workers at the borehole location; (3) external and inhalation doses for a resident located 360 meters downwind; (4) ingestion doses for the downwind resident from locally grown produce, milk, and meat; and (5) population doses from inhalation within a 50-mile radius. The probability of the various calculated doses occurring was estimated. Probability was included in the report because of a belief that probability considerations are useful in evaluating the acceptability of unlikely events and to encourage others to provide a more detailed evaluation using more sophisticated methodology. Since the probabilities presented in this report were calculated using a simple methodology, with some parameter values chosen arbitrarily, they should be considered as approximate examples, not accurate numbers. The reasonableness of the scenario and the significance of the results are also discussed

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Bean, J.E.; Butcher, B.M.; Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P.; Schreiber, J.D.; Swift, P.N.

    1993-08-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability

  18. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is an important unit-operation in the production of cooked and peeled shrimps. The present study explores the feasibility of using ohmic heating for cooking of shrimps. The focus is on investigating the effects of different process parameters on heating time and quality of ohmic cooked...... shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... of the shrimp) over varying salt concentrations (10 kg m−3 to 20 kg m−3) and electric field strengths (1150 V m−1 to 1725 V m−1) with the heating time as the response; 2) a 2 level factorial experiment for screening the impact of processing conditions using electric field strengths of 1250 V m−1 and 1580 V m−1...

  19. Impact of Reservoir Fluid Saturation on Seismic Parameters: Endrod Gas Field, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Abdel Moktader A.; El Sayed, Nahla A.

    2017-12-01

    Outlining the reservoir fluid types and saturation is the main object of the present research work. 37 core samples were collected from three different gas bearing zones in the Endrod gas field in Hungary. These samples are belonging to the Miocene and the Upper - Lower Pliocene. These samples were prepared and laboratory measurements were conducted. Compression and shear wave velocity were measured using the Sonic Viewer-170-OYO. The sonic velocities were measured at the frequencies of 63 and 33 kHz for compressional and shear wave respectively. All samples were subjected to complete petrophysical investigations. Sonic velocities and mechanical parameters such as young’s modulus, rigidity, and bulk modulus were measured when samples were saturated by 100%-75%-0% brine water. Several plots have been performed to show the relationship between seismic parameters and saturation percentages. Robust relationships were obtained, showing the impact of fluid saturation on seismic parameters. Seismic velocity, Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus and rigidity prove to be applicable during hydrocarbon exploration or production stages. Relationships among the measured seismic parameters in gas/water fully and partially saturated samples are useful to outline the fluid type and saturation percentage especially in gas/water transitional zones.

  20. Uranium, RADON and radon isotopes in selected brines of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Zipper, W.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactive isotopes were studied in nine different types of brines from four locations in Poland. Investigated brines are exploited from various geological structures composed of the rocks of different chemical and mineral composition as well as different age and depth. All investigated brines are used in balneotherapy (i.e. baths, inhalations, showers). The main goal of this study was to obtain some basic knowledge on the activity range of natural elements such as uranium, RADON and radon in different brine types in Poland and their variability depending on their location in certain geological structures. Activities of 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes were measured with the use of two nuclear spectrometry techniques: liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn vary from below 1 to 76.1±3.7 Bq/l, for the 226 Ra isotope from 0.19±0.01 to 85.5±0.4 Bq/l and for 228 Ra from below 0.03 to 2.17±0.09 Bq/l. For uranium isotopes, the concentrations are in the range from below 0.5 to 5.1±0.4 mBq/l for 238 U and from 1.6±0.4 to 45.6±2.0 mBq/l for 2 34U . The obtained results indicate high RADON activity concentrations corresponding to high mineralization of waters. (authors)

  1. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  2. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  4. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Certain questions about analysis of natural gas disolved in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, M; Nakamura, M; Omi, K

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the gaseous phase of stratum brines is determined and the analysis technique is described. Ordinary analysis is performed with the assumptions that the contents of small components (excluding C02 and N2) are ignorably small and that the gas contains no 02. The determined concentrations of 02 and the proportional share of N2 are calculated from results of analysis as bound with pollutants. The high sensitivity of modern analytical methods makes it possible to identify quite small and trace concentrations of components, but corrections for air contamination may partially depreciate these results. Data are cited from gas chromatographic identifications of the components of gases disolved in the stratum brines of a Japanese deposit. C2H6 is established in all samples and C3H8 in two thirds of the samples, where H2 and helium were not detected anywhere. The concentrations of the gas phase on the whole in the brine were low. 02 falls into the samples in a water dissolved state; this demands the use of unconventional proportion of 02 to N2 (1 to 3.55), which is characteristic for air and a proportion of 1 to 2 which is characteristic for disolved air. With the conventional ordinary technique the consideration of the air contamination leads to a substantial underestimate of the N2 results. At the same time, the incorrect introduction of corrections for N2 has no effect on the heat creativity of the disolved gas.

  6. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  7. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  8. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  9. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  10. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2017-01-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  11. Application of X-ray CT investigation of CO{sub 2}-brine flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Liu, Yu; Song, Yongchen; Yang, Mingjun; Zhao, Yuechao; Zhao, Jiafei; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Zijian [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian (China); Xue, Ziqiu [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kizugawa City, Kyoto (Japan); Suekane, Tetsuya [Tokyo Institute Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, Nagatsuta, Yokohama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    A clear understanding of two-phase flows in porous media is important for investigating CO{sub 2} geological storage. In this study, we conducted an experiment of CO{sub 2}/brine flow process in porous media under sequestration conditions using X-ray CT technique. The flow properties of relative permeability, porosity heterogeneity, and CO{sub 2} saturation were observed in this experiment. The porous media was packed with glass beads having a diameter of 0.2 mm. The porosity distribution along the flow direction is heterogeneous owing to the diameter and shape of glass beads along the flow direction. There is a relationship between CO{sub 2} saturation and porosity distribution, which changes with different flow rates and fractional flows. The heterogeneity of the porous media influences the distribution of CO{sub 2}; moreover, gravity, fractional flows, and flow rates influence CO{sub 2} distribution and saturation. The relative permeability curve was constructed using the steady-state method. The results agreed well with the relative permeability curve simulated using pore-network model. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  13. Modification and application of TOUGH2 as a variable-density, saturated-flow code and comparison to SWIFT II results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    Human intrusion scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) involve penetration of the repository and an underlying brine reservoir by a future borehole. Brine and gas from the brine reservoir and the repository may flow up the borehole and into the overlying Culebra formation, which is saturated with water containing different amounts of dissolved 'solids resulting in a spatially varying density. Current modeling approaches involve perturbing a steady-state Culebra flow field by inflow of gas and/or brine from a breach borehole that has passed through the repository. Previous studies simulating steady-state flow in the Culebra have been done. One specific study by LaVenue et al. (1990) used the SWIFT 2 code, a single-phase flow and transport code, to develop the steady-state flow field. Because gas may also be present in the fluids from the intrusion borehole, a two-phase code such as TOUGH2 can be used to determine the effect that emitted fluids may have on the steady-state Culebra flow field. Thus a comparison between TOUGH2 and SWIFT2 was prompted. In order to compare the two codes and to evaluate the influence of gas on flow in the Culebra, modifications were made to TOUGH2. Modifications were performed by the authors to allow for element-specific values of permeability, porosity, and elevation. The analysis also used a new equation of state module for a water-brine-air mixture, EOS7 (Pruess, 1991), which was developed to simulate variable water densities by assuming a miscible mixture of water and brine phases and allows for element-specific brine concentration in the INCON file

  14. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  16. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  17. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  18. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.)

  19. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density 37 refs, 15 figs

  20. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.). 14 refs.

  1. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density

  2. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  3. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from both the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from NC-EWDP-19D1 (one of the wells at the ATC) so that a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters can be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC

  4. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from both the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from NC-EWDP-19D1 (one of the wells at the ATC) so that a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters can be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC.

  5. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  6. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake sou...

  8. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B.; Steinitz, G.; Raab, M.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2σ). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios could have been developed. (author)

  9. Brine migrations in the Athabasca Basin platform, alteration and associated fluid-rock exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, J.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, A.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposits of Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) are considered as the richest in the world. They result from massive percolation of basin brines in the underlying platform. The authors describe the brine movements and how structures and micro-fractures promoted this percolation until very important depths (hundreds of meters under the discordance), and their chemical modifications as they interacted with platform rocks, thus promoting the transformation of an initially sodic brine into a uranium-enriched calcic brine which is essential to the formation of discordance-type deposit

  10. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  11. Colloid transport in porous media: impact of hyper-saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Walker, Sharon L; Yakirevich, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    The transport of colloids suspended in natural saline solutions with a wide range of ionic strengths, up to that of Dead Sea brines (10(0.9) M) was explored. Migration of microspheres through saturated sand columns of different sizes was studied in laboratory experiments and simulated with mathematical models. Colloid transport was found to be related to the solution salinity as expected. The relative concentration of colloids at the columns outlet decreased (after 2-3 pore volumes) as the solution ionic strength increased until a critical value was reached (ionic strength > 10(-1.8) M) and then remained constant above this level of salinity. The colloids were found to be mobile even in the extremely saline brines of the Dead Sea. At such high ionic strength no energetic barrier to colloid attachment was presumed to exist and colloid deposition was expected to be a favorable process. However, even at these salinity levels, colloid attachment was not complete and the transport of ∼ 30% of the colloids through the 30-cm long columns was detected. To further explore the deposition of colloids on sand surfaces in Dead Sea brines, transport was studied using 7-cm long columns through which hundreds of pore volumes were introduced. The resulting breakthrough curves exhibited a bimodal shape whereby the relative concentration (C/C(0)) of colloids at the outlet rose to a value of 0.8, and it remained relatively constant (for the ∼ 18 pore volumes during which the colloid suspension was flushed through the column) and then the relative concentration increased to a value of one. The bimodal nature of the breakthrough suggests different rates of colloid attachment. Colloid transport processes were successfully modeled using the limited entrapment model, which assumes that the colloid attachment rate is dependent on the concentration of the attached colloids. Application of this model provided confirmation of the colloid aggregation and their accelerated attachment during

  12. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimension transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 refs., 8 figs

  13. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  14. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  15. Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Protein removal from waste brines generated during ham salting through acidification and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Maria del Rosario; Muñoz-Guerrero, Hernán; Alcaína-Miranda, Maria Isabel; Barat, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The salting step in food processes implies the production of large quantities of waste brines, having high organic load, high conductivity, and other pollutants with high oxygen demand. Direct disposal of the residual brine implies salinization of soil and eutrophication of water. Since most of the organic load of the waste brines comes from proteins leaked from the salted product, precipitation of dissolved proteins by acidification and removal by centrifugation is an operation to be used in waste brine cleaning. The aim of this study is optimizing the conditions for carrying out the separation of proteins from waste brines generated in the pork ham salting operation, by studying the influence of pH, centrifugal force, and centrifugation time. Models for determining the removal of proteins depending on the pH, centrifugal force, and time were obtained. The results showed a high efficacy of the proposed treatment for removing proteins, suggesting that this method could be used for waste brine protein removal. The best pH value to be used in an industrial process seems to be 3, while the obtained results indicate that almost 90% of the proteins from the brine can be removed by acidification followed by centrifugation. A further protein removal from the brine should have to be achieved using filtrating techniques, which efficiency could be highly improved as a consequence of the previous treatment through acidification and centrifugation. Waste brines from meat salting have high organic load and electrical conductivity. Proteins can be removed from the waste brine by acidification and centrifugation. The total protein removal can be up to 90% of the initial content of the waste brine. Protein removal is highly dependent on pH, centrifugation rate, and time. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  18. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  19. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Marinated herring processing brines, which are usually discarded, are rich in salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, iron, fatty acids, antioxidant and even possess enzymatic activity. This study investigated the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration of two herring spice brines with a major focus...

  20. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H 2 O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H 2 , would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Geochemistry of Salado formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogeneous with respect to composition but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing:Alternate ammonia removal/Advanced oxidation. Brine purification technologies KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  4. The use of bacconcentrate Herobacterin in brine cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Slyvka:

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a comparative analysis of the use of the bacterial preparation Herobacterin and the starter RSF-742 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark in the technology of brine cheese was conducted. Herobacterin is a bacterial preparation created using bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus garvieae, isolated from traditional Carpathian brine cheese brynza and identified using classical microbiological and modern molecular genetic methods (RAPD-PCR, RFLP-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of investigations of organoleptic, physico-chemical, syneretical and microbiological parameters of cheese brynza with use of preparation Herobacterin are presented in comparison with the starter RSF-742, which includes cultures: Lactococcus lactis subsp. сremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus. The use of Herobacterin has a positive effect on organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, all parameters complied with the requirements of DSTU 7065:2009. The level of survival of lactic acid bacteria in brynza during maturation and storage is high, which confirms the correctness of the selection of strains to preparation Herobakterin, which demonstrated good adaptability to the composition and properties of ewe's milk.

  5. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  6. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Algot K.

    2018-02-01

    In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m-2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  7. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  8. Evolution of mineralizing brines in the east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type ore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; Gesink, J.A.; Haynes, F.M. (Univ. of Michingan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore field contains barite-fluorite and sphalterite deposits in a continuous paleoaquifer consisting of breccia zones in the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Knox Group. Paragenetic observations and fluid inclusion compositions in these deposits indicate that the Knox paleoaquifer was invaded first by Ca-rich brines (Ca:Na about 1) that deposited fluorite and barite, and later by Na-Ca brines (Ca:Na = 0.1 to 0.5) that deposited sphalerite. Geologic relation sindicate that these brines were derived from the southeast, in the area of the Middle Ordovician Servier foreland shale basin, and that imposed by fluorite solubility indicate further that all original connate water in the Sevier basin was required to deposit the estimated flourite reserves of the ore field.Thus, the later, sphalerite-depositing brines represent recycled meteoric water from the Sevier basin or connate brines from underlying (Cambrian) shales.

  9. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  10. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  11. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  12. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  13. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  14. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in brine-injected, gas-grilled steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Call, Jeffrey E; Schlosser, Wayne; Shaw, William; Bauer, Nathan; Latimer, Heejeong

    2011-07-01

    We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals after brine injection and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with ca. 6.0 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant ECOH or kanamycin-resistant STEC, and then passed once through an automatic brine-injector tenderizer, with the lean side facing upward. Brine solutions (9.9% ± 0.3% over fresh weight) consisted of 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium tripolyphosphate and 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium chloride, prepared both with (Lac(+), pH = 6.76) and without (Lac(-), pH = 8.02) a 25% (vol/vol) solution of a 60% potassium lactate-sodium diacetate syrup. For all samples injected with Lac(-) or Lac(+) brine, levels of ECOH or STEC recovered from the topmost 1 cm (i.e., segment 1) of a core sample obtained from tenderized subprimals ranged from ca. 4.7 to 6.3 log CFU/g; however, it was possible to recover ECOH or STEC from all six segments of all cores tested. Next, brine-injected steaks from tenderized subprimals were cooked on a commercial open-flame gas grill to internal endpoint temperatures of either 37.8 °C (100 °F), 48.8 °C (120 °F), 60 °C (140 °F), or 71.1 °C (160 °F). Regardless of brine formulation or temperature, cooking achieved reductions (expressed as log CFU per gram) of 0.3 to 4.1 of ECOH and 0.5 to 3.6 of STEC. However, fortuitous survivors were recovered even at 71.1 °C (160 °F) for ECOH and for STEC. Thus, ECOH and STEC behaved similarly, relative to translocation and thermal destruction: Tenderization via brine injection transferred both pathogens throughout subprimals and cooking highly contaminated, brine-injected steaks on a commercial gas grill at 71.1 °C (160 °F) did not kill all cells due, primarily, to nonuniform heating (i.e., cold spots) within the meat. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  15. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  16. Sensory classification of table olives using an electronic tongue: Analysis of aqueous pastes and brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ítala; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Pereira, José A; Drunkler, Deisy A; Peres, António M

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are highly appreciated and consumed worldwide. Different aspects are used for trade category classification being the sensory assessment of negative defects present in the olives and brines one of the most important. The trade category quality classification must follow the International Olive Council directives, requiring the organoleptic assessment of defects by a trained sensory panel. However, the training process is a hard, complex and sometimes subjective task, being the low number of samples that can be evaluated per day a major drawback considering the real needs of the olive industry. In this context, the development of electronic tongues as taste sensors for defects' sensory evaluation is of utmost relevance. So, an electronic tongue was used for table olives classification according to the presence and intensity of negative defects. Linear discrimination models were established based on sub-sets of sensor signals selected by a simulated annealing algorithm. The predictive potential of the novel approach was first demonstrated for standard solutions of chemical compounds that mimic butyric, putrid and zapateria defects (≥93% for cross-validation procedures). Then its applicability was verified; using reference table olives/brine solutions samples identified with a single intense negative attribute, namely butyric, musty, putrid, zapateria or winey-vinegary defects (≥93% cross-validation procedures). Finally, the E-tongue coupled with the same chemometric approach was applied to classify table olive samples according to the trade commercial categories (extra, 1 st choice, 2 nd choice and unsuitable for consumption) and an additional quality category (extra free of defects), established based on sensory analysis data. Despite the heterogeneity of the samples studied and number of different sensory defects perceived, the predictive linear discriminant model established showed sensitivities greater than 86%. So, the overall performance

  17. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  18. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  19. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  20. Traveling wave fronts and the transition to saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a general method to study the solutions to nonlinear QCD evolution equations, based on a deep analogy with the physics of traveling waves. In particular, we show that the transition to the saturation regime of high energy QCD is identical to the formation of the front of a traveling wave. Within this physical picture, we provide the expressions for the saturation scale and the gluon density profile as a function of the total rapidity and the transverse momentum. The application to the Balitskii-Kovchegov equation for both fixed and running coupling constants confirms the effectiveness of this method

  1. Interrelated temperature dependence of bulk etch rate and track length saturation time in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azooz, A.A.; Al-Jubbori, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New empirical parameterization of CR-39 bulk etch rate. • Bulk etch rates measurements using two different methods give consistent results. • Temperature independence of track saturation length. • Two empirical relation between bulk etch rate and temperature are suggested. • Simple inverse relation between bulk etch rate and track saturation time. -- Abstract: Experimental measurements of the etching solution temperature dependence of bulk etch rate using two independent methods revealed a few interesting properties. It is found that while the track saturation length is independent of etching temperature, the etching time needed to reach saturation is strongly temperature-dependent. It is demonstrated that there is systematic simple inverse relation between track saturation time, and etching solution temperature. In addition, and although, the relation between the bulk etch rate and etching solution temperature can be reasonably described by a modified form of the Arrhenius equation, better fits can be obtained by another equation suggested in this work

  2. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  3. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  4. In-situ fracture mapping using geotomography and brine tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently assessing the capabilities of high resolution geophysical methods to characterize geologic sites for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. A successful experiment has recently been performed in which salt water tracers and high frequency electromagnetic waves were utilized to map rock mass fracture zones in-situ. Multiple cross-borehole EM transmissions were used to generate a tomographic image of the fractured rock region between two boreholes. The tomographs obtained correlate well with conventional wireline geophysical logs which can be used to infer the location of fractured zones in the rock mass. This indirect data suggests that the geotomography and brine tracer technique may have merit in mapping fractured zones between boreholes

  5. Degradation rate of vitamin B6 on red chili pepper drying by blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Fadzilia Arifin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is one of the alternatives to prevent spoilage in red chili pepper by removing moisture content. Red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens has complex nutrition components such as vitamins and bioactive compound. However, vitamin B6 content in chili can degrade significantly in drying process by heat. This research studied degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili drying process under various pretreatments and temperatures. In this study, post-harvest chili before dried was pretreated by blanching, osmotic dehydration with brine, immersing in calcium chloride solution and the combination of all them. They were dried in tray dyer at various temperatures 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C. Degradation of vitamin B6 content was analyzed every 2 hours by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for 8 hours. Results showed that blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment was expected to reduce drying time and retain high content of vitamin B6 in red chili pepper. The degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili followed second-order reaction. The degradation rate was influenced by temperature change referring to Arrhenius equation with activation energy was about 31.97 kJ/ mol K and constant rate (k0 was 3.769. Therefore, the vitamin B6 retention can be estimated at various pretreatments, times and temperatures. Furthermore, the favorable drying conditions can be evaluated.

  6. Improved productivity of the MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant by increasing the TBT (top brine temperature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanshik, Chung; Jeong, Hyomin; Jeong, Kwang-Woon; Choi, Soon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The evaporating process is very important in the system concerned with liquid foods, seawater distillation and wastewater treatment, which is to concentrate the aqueous solution by evaporating the pure water usually at a vacuum state. In general, the liquid concentration is performed through the membrane, electro-dialysis, and evaporation; the former are separation process and the latter is the phase change process. In this study, only the thermal process was treated for evaluating the specific energy consumption by changing the operating conditions of an existing MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant, which is still dominant for a large scale distillation plant. This study shows the quantitative energy saving strategy in sweater distillation process and, additionally, indicates that the performance of the multi-stage evaporating system can be increased with the elevation of a TBT (top brine temperature). The calculated results were based on the operating data of the currently installed plants and suggests the alternative to improve the performance of the MSF desalination plant, which means that the energy saving can be achieved only by changing the operating conditions of the existing MSF plants. - Highlights: • Detailed operating principles of an multi-stage flashing (MSF) desalting process. • Improved freshwater productivity by increasing the top brine temperature (TBT). • Increased energy efficiency of an existing MSF plants by the TBT increase.

  7. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  8. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  9. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  11. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  12. Uranium mobility in non-oxidizing brines: field and experimental evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, A.M.; Appleyard, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The present distribution of U in the Wollaston Sediments in Saskatchewan can be related to the movement of brines as revealed in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-metasomes. Experiments were conducted at 60 and 200 0 C under stringently non-oxidizing conditions using solvents ranging from distilled water to a Ca-Na-K brine formulated to simulate the major element composition of the Salton Sea geothermal brines. The experiments were conducted on natural pitchblende (UOsub(2.67)) and synthetic uraninite (UOsub(2.01)). Natural pitchblende was more strongly dissolved than the synthetic uraninite, and the synthetic Salton Sea brine was a more potent solvent than distilled water, 1:4 diluted Salton Sea brine, or pure NaCl brine. Within analytical limits of detection the dissolved U is present in the uranous (U 4+ ) state. The evidence demonstrates empirically the mechanism of dissolution of naturally occurring U minerals in reduced brines and describes a geological case where this appears to have happened. (author)

  13. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 x 10 -22 m 2 with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 x 10 -12 Pa -1

  14. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  15. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale-Dependent Solute Dispersion in Variably Saturated Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bott, Yi-Ju [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-29

    This work was performed to support performance assessment (PA) calculations for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. PA calculations require defensible estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport parameters to simulate subsurface water flow and contaminant transport in both the near- and far-field environments. Dispersivity is one of the required transport parameters.

  17. Threshold temperature gradient effect on migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt were interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and US workers were shown to yield the same results. The migration theory was used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients were compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of threshold gradients helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  18. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  19. Deep brine recognition upstream the EBE syndicate. Geochemical and isotopic investigations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The authors report and discuss the results obtained after performing a drilling upstream the drinkable water harnessing field of a water supply syndicate in Alsace (Ensisheim, Bollwiller and surroundings), in order to confirm the existence of a deep brine source. This brine is diluted by recent waters. The first isotopic investigations do not allow the origin of this brine to be identified, but fractures due to some seismic events are suspected. The report presents the drilling and the various aspects of the chemical and isotopic studies (sampling, physico-chemical analysis, dating, identification of various isotopes)

  20. Ring Resonator for Detection of Melting Brine Under Shallow Subsurface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experimental evidence using Raman spectroscopy has shown that liquid brine may form below the shallow subsurface of Mars. A simpler experimental method to verify the presence of liquid brine or liquid water below Mars surface is needed. In this paper, a ring resonator is used to detect the phase change between frozen water and liquid water below a sandy soil that simulates the Mars surface. Experimental data shows that the ring resonator can detect the melting of thin layers of frozen brine or water up to 15 mm below the surface.

  1. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-07-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the possibility of anammox at BSI sites using metagenomic shotgun sequencing of DNA obtained from the BSI above the Discovery Deep brine pool. Analysis of sequencing reads matching the 16S rRNA and hzsA genes confirmed presence of anammox bacteria of the genus Scalindua. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this Scalindua sp. belongs to a distinct group, separate from the anammox bacteria in the seawater column, that contains mostly sequences retrieved from high-salt environments. Using coverage- and composition-based binning, we extracted and assembled the draft genome of the dominant anammox bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that this Scalindua species uses compatible solutes for osmoadaptation, in contrast to other marine anammox bacteria that likely use a salt-in strategy. We propose the name Candidatus Scalindua rubra for this novel species, alluding to its discovery in the Red Sea.

  2. Study on scale formation and suppression in heat-exchange systems for simulated geothermal brines. Final report, January 12, 1976-March 5, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Control of scale formation in heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters can be achieved by lowering the pH of the water to pH 6 or lower. This does not, however, appear to be an economic approach for highly buffered geothermal brines and would lead to severe corrosion problems. Two commercial scale control agents, Calgon CL-165 and Monsanto Dequest 2060, showed promise of effecting scaling in a minor way and should be tested further on actual geothermal waters. Other scale control methods tested were unsuccessful. These included seeding experiments, turbulence promotin and electostatic and electromagnetic devices reputated to modify scale formation. The experiments were performed with tube-in-shell heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters prepared from a salt dome solution based brine. The scale formed was primarily silica with a small percent of calcium carbonate and traces of magnesium and iron. Physically it was a hydrous soft solid adhering only lightly to the heat exchange surface. This is not typical of geothermal water scales encountered in high temperature brine operations and the results of the scale control expeirments should be evaluated with that in mind.

  3. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences....... Optimising a matching factor (k0) improved the fit considerably whereas optimising the l-parameter in the vGM model improved the fit only slightly. The vGM was improved with an empirical scaling function to account for the rapid increase in conductivity near saturation. Using the improved models...

  4. Mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z., E-mail: bzk@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pirner, H.J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Potashnikova, I.K.; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-03-14

    Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. The DGLAP driven gluon distribution turns out to be suppressed at large x, but significantly enhanced at x<<1. This is a high twist effect. In the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons on both sides get enriched in gluon density at small x, which leads to a further boosting of the saturation scale. We derive reciprocity equations for the saturation scales corresponding to a collision of two nuclei. The solution of these equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  5. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  6. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  7. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.J.; Day, S.D.; Ilevbare, G.O.; Whalen, M.T.; King, K.J.; Hust, G.A.; Wong, L.L.; Estill, J.C.; Rebak, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl 2 at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy

  8. Environmentally assisted fracture of cast and wrought mild steels in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, S.G.; Hall, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Two test methods, slow strain rate (SSR) tests and corrosion fatigue tests, are being used to investigate the susceptibility of wrought and cast mild steels to environmentally assisted fracture. The SSR test provides an assessment of relative cracking susceptibility, and is most useful for comparing the effects of different environments on a given material, and for measuring the relative susceptibility of different materials to environmentally assisted cracking in a given environment. The corrosion fatigue test measures the stress intensity (which is proportional to stress times the square root of crack length) below which an existing flaw or crack will not grow. The test may also prove useful in measuring the stress intensity that provides an acceptable rate of crack growth. The SSR test has been used to investigate the effects of strain rate, temperature, and solution oxygen content on fracture properties of mild steel. The results of currently available corrosion fatigue tests are limited to crack growth rate measurements at one frequency in air and in brine. These measurements will be part of an overall program to evaluate allowable stress intensities, but this evaluation cannot be made until measurements are taken at different frequencies and at lower stress intensities. This report, then discusses the background of SSR testing, experimental procedures, results, and conclusions

  9. Negative Saturation Approach for Non-Isothermal Compositional Two-Phase Flow Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.; Bruining, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with developing a solution approach, called the non-isothermal negative saturation (NegSat) solution approach. The NegSat solution approach solves efficiently any non-isothermal compositional flow problem that involves phase disappearance, phase appearance, and phase transition.

  10. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jia, Yongzhong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Liu, Hong [Qinghai Salt Chemical Products Supervision and Inspection Center, 816000 Golmud (China); Jing, Yan, E-mail: 1580707906@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO{sub 4} and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO{sub 4}{sup −})/n(Li{sup +}) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising.

  11. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    pulsed introduction of the agent solution into the brine at the heat exchanger inlet.

  12. Receptor saturation in roentgen films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Roentgen-film recording of small object details of low attenuation differences (e.g. pulmonary vessels) is regularly seen to be impaired when the film is exposed to yield high values of optical density (D). This high-density failure is due to receptor saturation, which implies that at high exposure values most silver halide grains of the film are made developable, leaving few grains available to receive additional informative photons. The receptor saturation is analysed by means of a mathematical model of a non-screen film yielding Dsub(max) = 2.0. Optimum recording, defined by maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the image, is found at D approximately 0.64, corresponding to, on an average, 1.6 photons absorbed per grain. On the other hand, maximum contrast occurs at D approximately 1.4, where, on the average, 3.6 photons are absorbed per grain. The detective quantum efficiency of the film, i.e. the fraction of the photons actually contributing to the information content of the image, drops from 41 per cent at maximum signal-to-noise ratio to a mere 10 per cent at maximum contrast.

  13. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  14. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre; Ngugi, David; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us

  15. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  16. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  17. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.; Ortiz-Madina, Juan F.; Katuri, Krishna; Rao, Hari Ananda; Amy, Gary L.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  18. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng; Ding, Wei; Yang, Bo; Tian, Renmao; Gu, Shuo; Luo, Haiwei; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota

  19. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Amer A. Omari; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stre...

  20. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  1. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  2. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  3. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  4. Mechanics of non-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, O.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents the different ways to approach the mechanics of non saturated soils, from the physico-chemical aspect to the mechanical aspect, from the experiment to the theoretical modeling, from the laboratory to the workmanship, and from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic one. Content: water and its representation; experimental bases of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; transfer laws in non-saturated environment; energy approach of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; homogenization for the non-saturated soils; plasticity and hysteresis; dams and backfilling; elaborated barriers. (J.S.)

  5. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.; Delshad, M.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  6. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.

    2012-11-03

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  7. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  8. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  9. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  10. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  11. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  12. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  13. Saturation in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of dual radiation action (TDRA) was developed with the aim of applying microdosimetry to radiobiology. It therefore can deal only with the first phases in a long chain of events that results in patent effects. It is, however, clear that the initial spatial and temporal pattern of energy deposition has a profound influence on the ultimate outcome. As often happens, the early formulation of the theory contained a number of simplifying assumptions. Although most of these were explicitly stated when the first version of the TDRA was published experimental data obtained when the limitations are important were cited as contrary evidence causing considerable confusion. A more advanced version eliminated some of the restrictions but there remain others, one of which relates to certain aspects of saturation which are addressed here

  14. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Aqueous Solutions Used as Secondary Working Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Melinder, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Secondary working fluids (secondary refrigerants, heat transfer fluids, antifreezes, brines) have long been used in various indirect re-frigeration and heat pump systems. Aqueous solutions (water solu-tions) have long been used as single phase (liquid only) secondary working fluids for cooling in supermarkets, ice rinks, heat recovery systems, heat pumps and other applications. However, aqueous solutions are increasingly used also for freezers in supermarkets and other applications in low tem...

  16. Saturated-unsaturated flow to a partially penetrating well with storage in a compressible aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Mishra and Neuman [2010] developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well of zero radius in a compressible unconfined aquifer that allows inferring its saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties from responses recorded in the saturated and/or the unsaturated zone. We extend their solution to the case of a finite diameter pumping well with storage. Both solutions account for horizontal as well as vertical flows throughout the system. We investigate the effects of storage in the pumping well and delayed piezometer response on drawdowns in the saturated and unsaturated zones as functions of position and time; validate our solution against numerical simulations of drawdown in a synthetic aquifer having unsaturated properties described by the van Genuchten - Mualem constitutive model; and use our solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted at the Borden site in Ontario, Canada.

  17. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  18. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10 -11 to 10 -5 M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10 -8 to 10 -5 M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week

  19. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  20. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2018-03-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  1. Kinetics of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated aqueous system at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Crawshaw, John P.; Maitland, Geoffrey; Trusler, J. P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for limiting anthropogenic CO2 emissions while allowing the continued utilisation of fossil fuels. The most promising geological storage sites are deep saline aquifers because the capacity, integrity and injection economics are most favourable, and the environmental impact can be minimal. Many rock-fluid chemical reactions are known to occur both during and after CO2 injection in saline aquifers. The importance of rock-fluid reactions in the (CO2 + H2O) system can be understood in terms of their impact on the integrity and stability of both the formation rocks and cap rocks. The chemical interactions between CO2-acidified brines and the reservoir minerals can influence the porosity and permeability of the formations, resulting in changes in the transport processes occurring during CO2 storage. Since carbonate minerals are abundant in sedimentary rocks, one of the requirements to safely implement CO2 storage in saline aquifers is to characterise the reactivity of carbonate minerals in aqueous solutions at reservoir conditions. In this work, we reported measurements of the intrinsic rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated water under high-temperature high-pressure reservoir conditions extending up to 373 K and 14 MPa. The rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-free HCl(aq) was also measured at ambient pressure at temperatures up to 353 K. Various pure minerals and reservoir rocks were investigated in this study, including single-crystals of calcite and magnesite, and samples of dolomite, chalks and sandstones. A specially-designed batch reactor system, implementing the rotating disc technique, was used to obtain the intrinsic reaction rate at the solid/liquid interface, free of mass transfer effects. The effective area and mineralogy of the exposed surface was determined by a combination of surface characterisation techniques including XRD, SEM, EDX and optical microscopy. The

  2. State-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in salt. Technical memorandum report RSI-0075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.; Krause, W.B.; Fossum, A.F.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a state-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in rock salt. Emphasis is placed on the review of literature relating to brine migration phenomena around nuclear waste canisters. This review includes experimental work which has been conducted in the laboratory and in the field. In addition to the literature review, some additional thoughts on brine migration are given and a series of laboratory experiments is proposed. The proposed laboratory experiments are designed to determine whether or not a relationship exists between brine migration and temperature, temperature gradient and stress in rock salt. 34 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  3. Patterning via optical saturable transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Precious

    For the past 40 years, optical lithography has been the patterning workhorse for the semiconductor industry. However, as integrated circuits have become more and more complex, and as device geometries shrink, more innovative methods are required to meet these needs. In the far-field, the smallest feature that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength. This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbe limit (after Prof. Ernst Abbe who first recognized this), effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons >300nm from patterning nanostructures barrier is developed and experimentally verified. This approach, which I refer to as Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions (POST) has the potential for massive parallelism, enabling the creation of nanostructures and devices at a speed far surpassing what is currently possible with conventional optical lithographic techniques. The fundamental understanding of this technique goes beyond optical lithography in the semiconductor industry and is applicable to any area that requires the rapid patterning of large-area two or three-dimensional complex geometries. At a basic level, this research intertwines the fields of electrochemistry, material science, electrical engineering, optics, physics, and mechanical engineering with the goal of developing a novel super-resolution lithographic technique.

  4. Δ isobars and nuclear saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, A.; Hagen, G.; Morris, T. D.; Papenbrock, T.; Schwartz, P. D.

    2018-02-01

    We construct a nuclear interaction in chiral effective field theory with explicit inclusion of the Δ -isobar Δ (1232 ) degree of freedom at all orders up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use pion-nucleon (π N ) low-energy constants (LECs) from a Roy-Steiner analysis of π N scattering data, optimize the LECs in the contact potentials up to NNLO to reproduce low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts, and constrain the three-nucleon interaction at NNLO to reproduce the binding energy and point-proton radius of 4He. For heavier nuclei we use the coupled-cluster method to compute binding energies, radii, and neutron skins. We find that radii and binding energies are much improved for interactions with explicit inclusion of Δ (1232 ) , while Δ -less interactions produce nuclei that are not bound with respect to breakup into α particles. The saturation of nuclear matter is significantly improved, and its symmetry energy is consistent with empirical estimates.

  5. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  6. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  7. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ismail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent. Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4 mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp

  8. Near-field environment research at PNL relevant to brine migration phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Hodges, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Heat and radiation resulting from emplacement of a high level nuclear waste package in a repository in salt will cause physical and chemical changes in the host rock and any brines present. These changes may alter the performance of waste package materials. Gamma radiolysis decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and various other free radical and ionic species. Gamma ray irradiation of rock salt decomposes that salt to sodium metal colloids and neutral chlorine (unknown form), changing both its physical and chemical properties. Sodium metal will react, if contacted by water, to form sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas, while chlorine will react to form hydrochloric plus hypochlorous acids. If irradiated salts are completely dissolved, little impact on the chemical environment is expected because the acids and bases formed will neutralize each other. Heat from the waste package can alter the chemistry of the host rock. Changes in temperature can also alter the chemistry of brines by precipitation of phases with retrograde solubility, addition of more soluble salt components to the brine, and by reaction with clays and other impurities in the salt. Some of these reactions could be accompanied by significant shifts in the pH. In experiments to date, no important changes in chemistry have been observed when typical Permian Basin intrusion or inclusion brines were heated up to 150 0 C with no excess site-specific salt present. When excess salt was included, acidic shifts were noted, increasing with brine-salt interaction time and temperature

  9. Sorption-reagent treatment of brines produced by reverse osmosis unit for liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V. A.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. I.; Chizhevsky, I. Yu

    2003-01-01

    The results of the pilot plant tests (2002-2003) of the sorption-reagent decontamination of high salinity radioactive waste (brines) remaining after the low-salinity liquid radioactive waste (LRW) treatment in the reverse-osmosis unit from long-lived radionuclides are presented. The sorption-reagent materials used in this work were developed in the Institute of Chemistry FEDRAS. They enable one to decontaminate brines with total salt content up to 50 g/l from long-lived radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Co. At joint application of the reverse-osmosis and sorption-reagent technologies total volume of solid radioactive waste (SRW) decreases up to 100-fold as compared to the technology of cementation of reverse osmosis brines. In this case total cost of LRW treatment and SRW disposal decreases more than 10-fold. Brines decontaminated from radionuclides are then diluted down to the ecologically safe total salts content in water to be disposed of. Tests were performed to compare the efficiency of technologies including evaporation of brines remaining after reverse osmosis process and their decontamination by means of the sorption-reagent method. It was shown that, as compared to evaporation, the sorption-reagent technology provides substantial advantages as in regard to radioactive waste total volume reduction as in view of total cost of the waste management

  10. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  11. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  12. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  13. Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszczak, Lara O.; Rose, Arthur W.; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of highly saline brine flow from gas wells in the Marcellus Formation after hydraulic stimulation (“fracking”). This study assesses the composition of these flowback waters from the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania, USA. Concentrations of most inorganic components of flowback water (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Ra, Fe, Mn, total dissolved solids, and others) increase with time from a well after hydraulic stimulation. Based on results in several datasets reported here, the greatest concentration of Cl − in flowback water is 151,000 mg/L. For total Ra (combined 226 Ra and 228 Ra) in flowback, the highest level reported is 6540 pCi/L. Flowback waters from hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus wells resemble brines produced from conventional gas wells that tap into other Paleozoic formations in the region. The Br/Cl ratio and other parameters indicate that both types of brine formed by the evaporation of seawater followed by dolomitization, sulfate reduction and subsurface mixing with seawater and/or freshwater. Trends and relationships in brine composition indicate that (1) increased salt concentration in flowback is not mainly caused by dissolution of salt or other minerals in rock units, (2) the flowback waters represent a mixture of injection waters with highly concentrated in situ brines similar to those in the other formations, and (3) these waters contain concentrations of Ra and Ba that are commonly hundreds of times the US drinking water standards.

  14. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl 2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl - might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl - in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl - concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl - concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl - was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl - remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl - in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; Davis, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD 50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD 50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 30 0 C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  16. Shale-brine-CO2 interactions and the long-term stability of carbonate-rich shale caprock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, A.; Aman, M.; Espinoza, D. N.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Griego, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Feldman, J.; Stewart, T.; Choens, R. C., II

    2017-12-01

    Geological carbon storage (GCS) requires an impermeable caprock (e.g., shale) that prevents the upward migration and escape of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the subsurface. Geochemical alteration can occur at the caprock-reservoir rock interface, which could lead to the altering of the rock's mechanical properties, compromising the seal. We performed laboratory experiments on Mancos shale to quantify the coupled chemical-mechanical response of carbonate-rich shale in CO2-brine mixtures at conditions typical to GCS. We constructed geochemical models, calibrated them using laboratory results, and extended to time scales required for GCS. We observed the dissolution of calcite and kaolinite and the precipitation of gypsum and amorphous aluminum (hydr)oxide following the introduction of CO2. To address whether this mineral alteration causes changes in micro-mechanical properties, we examined altered Mancos shale using micro-mechanical (scratch) testing, measuring the scratch toughness of mm-scale shale lithofacies. The quartz-rich regions of the Mancos shale did not show significant changes in scratch toughness following 1-week alteration in a CO2-brine mixture. However, the scratch toughness of the calcite-rich, originally softer regions decreased by about 50%. These observations illustrate a coupled and localized chemical-mechanical response of carbonate-rich shale to the injection of CO2. This suggests a localized weakening of the caprock may occur, potentially leading to the development of preferential flow paths. The identification of vulnerable lithofacies within caprock and a characterization of mineralogical heterogeneity is imperative at prospective GCS sites. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  17. High-rate nitrogen removal from waste brine by marine anammox bacteria in a pilot-scale UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Yasutsugu; Tokutomi, Takaaki; Kiyokawa, Tomohiro; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Daisuke; Song, Kang; Hosomi, Masaaki; Terada, Akihiko

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a startup strategy for a high-rate anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor to treat waste brine with high concentrations of ammonium from a natural gas plant. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor with an effective volume of 294 L was fed continuously with waste brine with a salinity of 3% and a NH 4 + concentration of 180 mg-N/L, as well as a NaNO 2 solution. By inoculating a methanogenic granular biomass as a biomass carrier, the reactor attained the maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 10.7 kg-N/m 3 /day on day 209, which was 1.7 times higher than the highest reported NRR for wastewater of comparable salinity. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Candidatus Scalindua wagneri was enriched successfully in granules in the UASB, and it replaced Methanosaeta and became dominant in the granule. The inhibitory effect of NO 2 - on the anammox reaction in the granules was assessed by a 15 N tracer method, and the results showed that anammox activity was maintained at 60% after exposure to 300 mg-N/L of NO 2 - for 24 h. Compared with previous studies of the susceptibilities of Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia to NO 2 - , the enriched marine anammox bacteria were proven to have comparable or even higher tolerances for high NO 2 - concentrations after a long exposure.

  18. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriëtte; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michaël A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated

  19. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  20. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification

  1. Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.

    1998-08-01

    The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)

  2. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  3. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughn, P.; Butcher, B.; Helton, J.; Swift, P.

    1993-10-01

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ''disposal-unit boundary'' or the Standard's accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations

  4. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  5. In situ brine migration experiments at the Avery Island salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.B.; Van Sambeek, L.L.; Stickney, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ brine movement study was conducted at the Avery Island Salt Mine of the International Salt Company in southwestern Louisiana. The objective of the in situ experiments was to relate field measurements to previously determined laboratory and analytical results for the purpose of determining the rate and amount of brine movement through dome salt when subjected to heating. The heating in the experiments was provided by electrical heaters emplaced in the salt mine floor. An understanding of thermally induced brine movement is essential from the standpoint of identifying conditions which may influence the physical integrity of the nuclear waste canisters or impede the functional performance of the waste package system in a nuclear waste repository in geologic salt. 28 refs

  6. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  7. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  8. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  9. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  10. Transport of Pb and Zn by carboxylate complexes in basinal ore fluids and related petroleum-field brines at 100°C: the influence of pH and oxygen fugacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Thomas H

    2002-09-01

    can mobilize up to 3% of the total Pb and up to 1.3% of the total Zn as carboxylate complexes. Furthermore, these percentages, under the most favorable conditions, correspond to approximately 1 to 100 ppm of these metals in solution; concentrations that are adequate to form economic deposits of these metals. However, the field evidence suggests that all of these optimum conditions for carboxylate complexation are rarely met at the same time. A comparison of the composite ore fluid compositions from this study and modern brine data shows that the ore brines, corresponding to log –pH conditions based on the Anderson (1975 and Giordano (1994 model fluids, are similar in many respects to modern, high trace-metal petroleum-field brines. The principal differences between modern high trace-metal brines and the composite ore fluids of Anderson (1975 and Giordano (1994 relate to their carboxylate anion content. The reported concentrations of monocarboxylate anions (∑monocbx and dicarboxylate anions (Edicbx in high trace-metal petroleum-field brines (-1 and -1, respectively are significantly lower than the concentrations assumed in the modelled brines of this study (∑monocbx = 7 700 mg L-1 and ∑dicbx = 300 mg L-1. There are also major differences in the corresponding total chloride to carboxylate ratio (∑mCl/∑mcbx and monocarboxylate to dicarboxylate ratio (∑mmonocbx/∑mdicbx. Modern high trace-metal brines have much higher ∑mCl/∑mcbx values and, therefore, the contribution of carboxylate complexes to the total Pb and Zn content in these modern brines is likely to be significantly less than the 1 to 3 percent for the composite ore fluids of Anderson (1975 and Giordano (1994. The composite ore-brine based on the Giordano and Barnes (1981 MVT ore fluid is comparable to the high salinity (> 170 000 mg L-1 TDS subset of modern brines characterized by low trace-metal content and high total reduced sulfur (∑H2S. A comparison of the Sverjensky (1984 composite ore-brine

  11. Experimental Demonstration of the Formation of Liquid Brines under Martian Polar Conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Elliott, Harvey; Borlina, Caue; Renno, Nilton

    2014-05-01

    observed within the Martian diurnal cycle. This greatly diminishes the possibility of liquid brine formation without water ice contact and has strong implications on future robotic and manned missions searching for liquid water on Mars. Acknowledgement: This research is supported by a grant from the NASA Astrobiology Program: Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology. Award #09-EXOB09-0050. References: [1] Martínez, G. M. and Renno, N. O. (2013), Water and Brines on Mars: Current Evidence and Implications for MSL, Space Sci. Rev., 175, 29-51. [2] Rennó, N. O., et al. (2009), Possible physical and thermodynamical evidence for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00E03. [3] Zorzano, M.-P., et al., Stability of liquid saline water on present day Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20201. [4] Hanley, J. et al. (2009), Low Temperature Aqueous Perchlorate Solutions on the Surface of Mars, Proceedings 40th Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, The Woodlands, TX, USA. [5] Marion, G. M. et al. (2010), Modeling Aqueous Perchlorate Chemistries with Applications to Mars, Icarus, 207, 675-685.

  12. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-01-01

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria

  14. Salting by vacuum brine impregnation in nitrite-free lonza: effect on Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Serio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or straindependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  15. Salting by Vacuum Brine Impregnation in Nitrite-Free Lonza: Effect on Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Annalisa; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Pittia, Paola; Rosa, Marco Dalla; Paparella, Antonello

    2017-01-24

    Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI) as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or strain-dependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  16. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  17. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts

  18. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  19. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  20. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.