WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellites climate research

  1. Rainfall variability over southern Africa: an overview of current research using satellite and climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, satellite-derived rainfall data are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art climate model, run at both high and low spatial resolution. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, a brief overview is given of the authors' research to date, pertaining to southern African rainfall. This covers (i) a description of present-day rainfall variability over southern Africa; (ii) a comparison of model simulated daily rainfall with the satellite-derived dataset; (iii) results from sensitivity testing of the model's domain size; and (iv) results from the idealised SST experiments.

  2. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  3. Satellite Data Support for the ARM Climate Research Facility, 8/01/2009 - 7/31/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Khaiyer, Mandana M [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    This report summarizes the support provided by NASA Langley Research for the DOE ARM Program in the form of cloud and radiation products derived from satellite imager data for the period between 8/01/09 through 7/31/15. Cloud properties such as cloud amount, height, and optical depth as well as outgoing longwave and shortwave broadband radiative fluxes were derived from geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellite imager radiance measurements for domains encompassing ARM permanent sites and field campaigns during the performance period. Datasets provided and documents produced are listed.

  4. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, R.; Merchant, C.J.; Saunders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to provide satellite-based climate data records (CDRs) that meet the challenging requirements of the climate community. The aim is to realize the full potential of the long-term Earth observation (EO) archives...... that both ESA and third parties have established. This includes aspects of producing a CDR, which involve data acquisition, calibration, algorithm development, validation, maintenance, and provision of the data to the climate research community. The CCI is consistent with several international efforts...... targeting the generation of satellite derived climate data records. One focus of the CCI is to provide products for climate modelers who increasingly use satellite data to initialize, constrain, and validate models on a wide range of space and time scales....

  5. SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS FOR EDUCATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILONA PAJTÓK-TARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the key statements of the IPCC (2007 Reportbased mainly on the satellite-borne observations to support teaching climatechange and geography by using the potential of this technology. In theIntroduction we briefly specify the potential and the constraints of remote sensing.Next the key climate variables for indicating the changes are surveyed. Snow andsea-ice changes are displayed as examples for these applications. Testing theclimate models is a two-sided task involving satellites, as well. Validation of theability of reconstructing the present climate is the one side of the coin, whereassensitivity of the climate system is another key task, leading to consequences onthe reality of the projected changes. Finally some concluding remarks arecompiled, including a few ideas on the ways how these approaches can be appliedfor education of climate change.

  6. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  7. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite

  8. Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan Stephen; Lyman, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the second year of research effort under the grant Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology. The research program consists of two major projects: Fault Tolerant Link Establishment and the design of an Auto-Configurable Receiver. The Fault Tolerant Link Establishment protocol is being developed to assist the designers of satellite clusters to manage the inter-satellite communications. During this second year, the basic protocol design was validated with an extensive testing program. After this testing was completed, a channel error model was added to the protocol to permit the effects of channel errors to be measured. This error generation was used to test the effects of channel errors on Heartbeat and Token message passing. The C-language source code for the protocol modules was delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center for integration with the GSFC testbed. The need for a receiver autoconfiguration capability arises when a satellite-to-ground transmission is interrupted due to an unexpected event, the satellite transponder may reset to an unknown state and begin transmitting in a new mode. During Year 2, we completed testing of these algorithms when noise-induced bit errors were introduced. We also developed and tested an algorithm for estimating the data rate, assuming an NRZ-formatted signal corrupted with additive white Gaussian noise, and we took initial steps in integrating both algorithms into the SDR test bed at GSFC.

  9. Satellite Communications Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed by SDL in the development of monolithically-integrated master oscillator power amplifiers under the NASA-SCAR research contract. The goals of the program were to demonstrate high power diffraction-limited operation from a semiconductor laser with the following characteristics: (1) Output power of 0.5 to 1.0 W continuous-wave (cw); (2) Single spectral mode with greater than 20 dB of side mode suppression; (3) Single spatial mode operation; (4) Modulation capability of 0.5 GHz; and (5) Operating wavelength between 830-860 nm. Cw diffraction-limited output powers as high as 2.2 W were achieved while maintaining a single longitudinal mode. Side mode suppression ratios greater than 20 dB are typically obtained. The single spatial mode output has a Strehl ratio estimated at 0.85, and a high-speed modulation capability was demonstrated with a small-signal 3-dB roll-off at 1.0 GHz. Finally, all of this performance was obtained in the 860 nm wavelength band, which corresponds to the peak sensitivity of Si detectors. During the first option period, three deliverables were fabricated and delivered that included 1 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser operating at 970 nm, 1 DBR laser operating at 860 nm, and one monolithic flared amplifier master oscillator power amplifier (MFA-MOPA) providing 0.5 W cw diffraction-limited output. During the second option period, a total of 5 MFA-MOPA devices were delivered, each operating to better than 1 W cw diffraction-limited at 860 nm.

  10. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  11. Satellite-based climate information within the WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, A.; Nitsche, H.; Körber, M.; Kreis, A.; Bissolli, P.; Friedrich, K.; Rösner, S.

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) around the world to create science-based climate information on a regional scale within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The paper introduces the satellite component of the WMO Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM) for Europe and the Middle East. The RCC-CM product portfolio is based on essential climate variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), spanning the atmospheric (radiation, clouds, water vapour) and terrestrial domains (snow cover, soil moisture). In the first part, the input data sets are briefly described, which are provided by the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facilities (SAF), in particular CM SAF, and by the ESA (European Space Agency) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In the second part, the derived RCC-CM products are presented, which are divided into two groups: (i) operational monitoring products (e.g. monthly means and anomalies) based on near-real-time environmental data records (EDRs) and (ii) climate information records (e.g. climatologies, time series, trend maps) based on long-term thematic climate data records (TCDRs) with adequate stability, accuracy and homogeneity. The products are provided as maps, statistical plots and gridded data, which are made available through the RCC-CM website (www.dwd.de/rcc-cm).

  12. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE-BORN INFORMATION TO CLIMATE SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKA J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Observed climate processes play important role in understanding the ongoing changes in the climate system. Our paper intends to present this cross-section of climate science illustrated by selected satellite images and diagrams in four parts. (i. Technical possibilities of the observations are briefly surveyed first. Many satellite platforms and devices started working in the 1980 and 1990s, definitely for climate purposes. (ii. Climate forcing factors and their radiation effects are comprehended, including direct observation of solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol concentration allowing us to compare natural factors to the anthropogenic ones. (iii. Detection of changes in the Earth climate system follows next, including the atmosphere, the oceans and the cryosphere, as well. (iv. Finally, satellite-born results in validation of climate models are presented in three aspects: reconstruction of present climate, validation of simulated changes and investigation of feedback mechanisms driving climate sensitivity to the external forcing factors. The above possibilities of using satellite information in climate science are mostly illustrated by key figures of the IPCC AR5 Report (2013.

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic and Evaluation: With a Focus on Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliser, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Each year, we host a summer school that brings together the next generation of climate scientists - about 30 graduate students and postdocs from around the world - to engage with premier climate scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere. Our yearly summer school focuses on topics on the leading edge of climate science research. Our inaugural summer school, held in 2011, was on the topic of "Using Satellite Observations to Advance Climate Models," and enabled students to explore how satellite observations can be used to evaluate and improve climate models. Speakers included climate experts from both NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), who provided updates on climate model diagnostics and evaluation and remote sensing of the planet. Details of the next summer school will be posted here in due course.

  15. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  16. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    From the executive summary; Based on our evaluation, we make six major recommendations and provide suggestions for how these might be implemented. 1. Establish a clear and coherent national strategy for climate research and its funding. 2. The Research Council of Norway should develop a new integrated long-term climate research programme. 3. Build on strengths and develop capacities in areas where Norway currently lacks sufficient scientific expertise. 4. Ensure societal relevance as well as inter- and transdisciplinarity in research. 5. Emphasise collaboration and cooperation as a basis for successful climate research. 6. Prioritise outreach and stakeholder interaction.(Author)

  17. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  18. Total cloud cover from satellite observations and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Probst

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Global and zonal monthly means of cloud cover fraction for total cloudiness (CF from the ISCCP D2 dataset are compared to same quantity produced by the 20th century simulations of 21 climate models from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 multi-model dataset archived by the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI. The comparison spans the time frame from January 1984 to December 1999 and the global and zonal average of CF are studied. The restriction to total cloudiness depends on the output of some models that does not include the 3D cloud structure. It is shown that the global mean of CF for the PCMDI/CMIP3 models, averaged over the whole period, exhibits a considerable variance and generally underestimates the ISCCP value. Very large discrepancies among models, and between models and observations, are found in the polar areas, where both models and satellite observations are less reliable, and especially near Antarctica. For this reason the zonal analysis is focused over the 60° S–60° N latitudinal belt, which includes the tropical area and mid latitudes. The two hemispheres are analyzed separately to show the variation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. Most models overestimate the yearly averaged values of CF over all of the analysed areas, while differences emerge in their ability to capture the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. The models represent, in a qualitatively correct way, the magnitude and the weak sign of the seasonal cycle over the whole geographical domain, but overestimate the strength of the signal in the tropical areas and at mid-latitudes, when taken separately. The interannual variability of the two yearly averages and of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is greatly underestimated by all models in each area analysed. This work shows that the climate models have an heterogeneous behaviour in simulating the CF over

  19. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  20. Precise Orbit Determination of Earth's Satellites for Climate Change Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespe, Francesco

    The tremendous improvement of the gravity field models which we are achieving with the last Earth's satellite missions like, CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE devoted to its recovery could make feasibile the use of precise orbit determination (POD) of Earth satellites as a tool for sensing global changes of some key atmosphere parameters like refractivity and extinction. Such improvements indeed, coupled with the huge number of running Earth's satellites and combinations of their orbital parameters (namely the nodes) in a gravity field free fashion (hereafter GFF) can magnify the solar radiation pressure acting on medium earth orbit satellites :GPS, Etalon and, in near real future GALILEO and its smooth modulation through the Earth's atmosphere (penumbra). We would remind that The GFF technique is able to cancel out with "n" satellite orbital parameters the first n-1 even zonal harmonics of the gravity field. Previously it was demonstrated that the signal we want to detect could in principle emerge from the noise threshold but, more refined models of the atmosphere would be needed to perform a more subtle analysis. So we will re-compute the signal features of penumbra by applying more refined atmospheric models. The analysis will be performed by including in GFF Earth's satellites equipped with DORIS systems (Jason, Spot 2-3-4-5, ENVISAT etc.) other than those ranged with SLR and GPS. The introduction of DORIS tracked satellites indeed will allow to cancel higher and higher order of even zonal harmonics and will make still more favourable the signal to noise budget. The analysis will be performed over a time span of at least few tens of years just to enhance probable climate signatures.

  1. Science Matters Podcast: Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Andy Miller, the Associate Director for Climate for the Agency's Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program, as he answers questions about climate change research, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  2. Web-Based Satellite Products Database for Meteorological and Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Dung; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The need for ready access to satellite data and associated physical parameters such as cloud properties has been steadily growing. Air traffic management, weather forecasters, energy producers, and weather and climate researchers among others can utilize more satellite information than in the past. Thus, it is essential that such data are made available in near real-time and as archival products in an easy-access and user friendly environment. A host of Internet web sites currently provide a variety of satellite products for various applications. Each site has a unique contribution with appeal to a particular segment of the public and scientific community. This is no less true for the NASA Langley's Clouds and Radiation (NLCR) website (http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov) that has been evolving over the past 10 years to support a variety of research projects This website was originally developed to display cloud products derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) over the Southern Great Plains for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. It has evolved into a site providing a comprehensive database of near real-time and historical satellite products used for meteorological, aviation, and climate studies. To encourage the user community to take advantage of the site, this paper summarizes the various products and projects supported by the website and discusses future options for new datasets.

  3. Operational climate monitoring from space: the EUMETSAT satellite application facility on climate monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schulz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF aims at the provision of satellite-derived geophysical parameter data sets suitable for climate monitoring. CM-SAF provides climatologies for Essential Climate Variables (ECV, as required by the Global Climate Observing System implementation plan in support of the UNFCCC. Several cloud parameters, surface albedo, radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as atmospheric temperature and humidity products form a sound basis for climate monitoring of the atmosphere. The products are categorized in monitoring data sets obtained in near real time and data sets based on carefully intercalibrated radiances. The CM-SAF products are derived from several instruments on-board operational satellites in geostationary and polar orbit, i.e., the Meteosat and NOAA satellites, respectively. The existing data sets will be continued using data from the instruments on-board the new EUMETSAT Meteorological Operational satellite (MetOP. The products have mostly been validated against several ground-based data sets both in situ and remotely sensed. The accomplished accuracy for products derived in near real time is sufficient to monitor variability on diurnal and seasonal scales. Products based on intercalibrated radiance data can also be used for climate variability analysis up to inter-annual scale. A central goal of the recently started Continuous Development and Operations Phase of the CM-SAF (2007–2012 is to further improve all CM-SAF data sets to a quality level that allows for studies of inter-annual variability.

  4. Climate strength: a new direction for climate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole; Subirats, Montse

    2002-04-01

    Climate strength was conceptualized within D. Chan's (1998) discussion of compositional models and the concept of culture strength from the organizational culture literature. Climate strength was operationalized in terms of within-group variability in climate perceptions-the less within-group variability, the stronger the climate. The authors studied climate strength in the context of research linking employee service climate perceptions to customer satisfaction. The hypothesis was tested that climate strength moderates the relationship between employee perceptions of service climate and customer satisfaction experiences. Partial support for the hypothesis was reported in both a concurrent and predictive (3-year) test across 118 branches of a bank. In the predictive study only the interaction of climate and climate strength predicted customer satisfaction. Implications for future research on climate and climate strength are discussed.

  5. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.;

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders...... for effective land surface representation in water resource modeling” (2009- 2012). The purpose of the new research project is to develop remote sensing based model tools capable of quantifying the relative effects of site-specific land use change and climate variability at different spatial scales....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  6. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... journal articles in the areas communication, climate change and agriculture. ... climate change communication to farmers have been purely elitist and quantitative, which ...

  7. Arctic Climate Variability and Trends from Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanji Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic climate has been changing rapidly since the 1980s. This work shows distinctly different patterns of change in winter, spring, and summer for cloud fraction and surface temperature. Satellite observations over 1982–2004 have shown that the Arctic has warmed up and become cloudier in spring and summer, but cooled down and become less cloudy in winter. The annual mean surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.34°C per decade. The decadal rates of cloud fraction trends are −3.4%, 2.3%, and 0.5% in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Correspondingly, annually averaged surface albedo has decreased at a decadal rate of −3.2%. On the annual average, the trend of cloud forcing at the surface is −2.11 W/m2 per decade, indicating a damping effect on the surface warming by clouds. The decreasing sea ice albedo and surface warming tend to modulate cloud radiative cooling effect in spring and summer. Arctic sea ice has also declined substantially with decadal rates of −8%, −5%, and −15% in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, respectively. Significant correlations between surface temperature anomalies and climate indices, especially the Arctic Oscillation (AO index, exist over some areas, implying linkages between global climate change and Arctic climate change.

  8. Evidence for climate change in the satellite cloud record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R.; Allen, Robert J.; Evan, Amato T.; Zelinka, Mark D.; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    Clouds substantially affect Earth’s energy budget by reflecting solar radiation back to space and by restricting emission of thermal radiation to space. They are perhaps the largest uncertainty in our understanding of climate change, owing to disagreement among climate models and observational datasets over what cloud changes have occurred during recent decades and will occur in response to global warming. This is because observational systems originally designed for monitoring weather have lacked sufficient stability to detect cloud changes reliably over decades unless they have been corrected to remove artefacts. Here we show that several independent, empirically corrected satellite records exhibit large-scale patterns of cloud change between the 1980s and the 2000s that are similar to those produced by model simulations of climate with recent historical external radiative forcing. Observed and simulated cloud change patterns are consistent with poleward retreat of mid-latitude storm tracks, expansion of subtropical dry zones, and increasing height of the highest cloud tops at all latitudes. The primary drivers of these cloud changes appear to be increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and a recovery from volcanic radiative cooling. These results indicate that the cloud changes most consistently predicted by global climate models are currently occurring in nature.

  9. Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.

  10. Utilizing Satellite Precipitation Products to Understand the Link Between Climate Variability and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Mousam, A.; Delamater, P. L.; Cash, B. A.; Quispe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a public health threat to people globally leading to 198 million cases and 584,000 deaths annually. Outbreaks of vector borne diseases such as malaria can be significantly impacted by climate variables such as precipitation. For example, an increase in rainfall has the potential to create pools of water that can serve as breeding locations for mosquitos. Peru is a country that is currently controlling malaria, but has not been able to completely eliminate the disease. Despite the various initiatives in order to control malaria - including regional efforts to improve surveillance, early detection, prompt treatment, and vector management - malaria cases in Peru have risen between 2011 and 2014. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variability plays a fundamental role in malaria occurrence over a 12-year period (2003-2014) in Peru. When analyzing climate variability, it is important to obtain high-quality, high-resolution data for a time series long enough to draw conclusion about how climate variables have been and are changing. Remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring and monitoring climate variables continuously in time and space. A widely used satellite-based precipitation product, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), available globally since 1998, was used to obtain 3-hourly data with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25°. The precipitation data was linked to weekly (2003-2014) malaria cases collected by health centers and available at a district level all over Peru to investigate the relationship between precipitation and the seasonal and annual variations in malaria incidence. Further studies will incorporate additional climate variables such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and surface pressure from remote sensing data products and climate models. Ultimately, this research will help us to understand if climate variability impacts malaria incidence

  11. Towards a satellite-based sea ice climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. N.; Fetterer, F.; Stroeve, J.; Cavalieri, D.; Parkinson, C.; Comiso, J.; Weaver, R.

    2005-12-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the Earth's climate through its influence on the surface albedo, heat and moisture transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the thermohaline circulation. Satellite data reveal that since 1979, summer Arctic sea ice has, overall, been declining at a rate of almost 8%/decade, with recent summers (beginning in 2002) being particularly low. The receding sea ice is having an effect on wildlife and indigenous peoples in the Arctic, and concern exists that these effects may become increasingly severe. Thus, a long-term, ongoing climate data record of sea ice is crucial for tracking the changes in sea ice and for assessing the significance of long-term trends. Since the advent of passive microwave satellite instruments in the early 1970s, sea ice has been one of the most consistently monitored climate parameters. There is now a 27+ year record of sea ice extent and concentration from multi-channel passive microwave radiometers that has undergone inter-sensor calibration and other quality controls to ensure consistency throughout the record. Several algorithms have been developed over the years to retrieve sea ice extent and concentration and two of the most commonly used algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap, have been applied to the entire SMMR-SSM/I record to obtain a consistent time series. These algorithms were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and are archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. However, the complex surface properties of sea ice affect the microwave signature, and algorithms can yield ambiguous results; no single algorithm has been found to work uniformly well under all sea ice conditions. Thus there are ongoing efforts to further refine the algorithms and the time series. One approach is to develop data fusion methods to optimally combine sea ice fields from two or more algorithms. Another approach is to take advantage of the improved capabilities of JAXA's AMSR-E sensor on NASA's Aqua

  12. Observing upper troposphere-lower stratosphere climate with radio occultation data from the CHAMP satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Borsche, Michael; Steiner, Andrea K.; Gobiet, Andreas; Pirscher, Barbara; Kirchengast, Gottfried [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (WegCenter) and Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology (IGAM), Graz (Austria); Wickert, Jens; Schmidt, Torsten [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    High quality observations of the atmosphere are particularly required for monitoring global climate change. Radio occultation (RO) data, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, are well suited for this challenge. The special climate utility of RO data arises from their long-term stability due to their self-calibrated nature. The German research satellite CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload for geoscientific research (CHAMP) continuously records RO profiles since August 2001 providing the first opportunity to create RO based climatologies for a multi-year period of more than 5 years. A period of missing CHAMP data from July 3, 2006 to August 8, 2006 can be bridged with RO data from the GRACE satellite (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment). We have built seasonal and zonal mean climatologies of atmospheric (dry) temperature, microwave refractivity, geopotential height and pressure with 10 latitudinal resolution. We show representative results with focus on dry temperatures and compare them with analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Although we have available only about 150 CHAMP profiles per day (compared to millions of data entering the ECMWF analyses) the overall agreement between 8 and 30 km altitude is in general very good with systematic differences <0.5 K in most parts of the domain. Pronounced systematic differences (exceeding 2 K) in the tropical tropopause region and above Antarctica in southern winter can almost entirely be attributed to errors in the ECMWF analyses. Errors resulting from uneven sampling in space and time are a potential error source for single-satellite climatologies. The average CHAMP sampling error for seasonal zonal means is <0.2 K, higher values occur in restricted regions and time intervals which can be clearly identified by the sampling error estimation approach we introduced (which is based on ECMWF analysis fields). The total error of this new type of temperature

  13. Reconstructing regional climate networks from irregularly sampled satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donner, Reik V.; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. Satellite data with high resolution in time and space allow for an in-depth analysis of small-scale processes in the climate as well as ecosystems. This data type, however, also harbors crucial conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the dataset and both measurements can not be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps, due to cloud cover or maintenance work and irregular time steps, due to the orbiting time of the satellite. In this work, we utilize sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from the SMOS satellite as part of ESA's Earth Explorer Mission to study small-scale regional interactions between different parts of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea. In a first step, we create homogeneous time series for each grid point by combining data from ascending and descending satellite paths by utilizing principal component and singular spectrum analysis. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the dataset. By setting a threshold to the thus obtained correlation matrix we obtain a binary matrix which can be interpreted as the adjacency matrix of a complex network. We then use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. The methods presented

  14. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  15. Satellite image analysis for surveillance, vegetation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, D Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Recently, many studies have provided abundant evidence to show the trend of tree mortality is increasing in many regions, and the cause of tree mortality is associated with drought, insect outbreak, or fire. Unfortunately, there is no current capability available to monitor vegetation changes, and correlate and predict tree mortality with CO{sub 2} change, and climate change on the global scale. Different survey platforms (methods) have been used for forest management. Typical ground-based forest surveys measure tree stem diameter, species, and alive or dead. The measurements are low-tech and time consuming, but the sample sizes are large, running into millions of trees, covering large areas, and spanning many years. These field surveys provide powerful ground validation for other survey methods such as photo survey, helicopter GPS survey, and aerial overview survey. The satellite imagery has much larger coverage. It is easier to tile the different images together, and more important, the spatial resolution has been improved such that close to or even higher than aerial survey platforms. Today, the remote sensing satellite data have reached sub-meter spatial resolution for panchromatic channels (IKONOS 2: 1 m; Quickbird-2: 0.61 m; Worldview-2: 0.5 m) and meter spatial resolution for multi-spectral channels (IKONOS 2: 4 meter; Quickbird-2: 2.44 m; Worldview-2: 2 m). Therefore, high resolution satellite imagery can allow foresters to discern individual trees. This vital information should allow us to quantify physiological states of trees, e.g. healthy or dead, shape and size of tree crowns, as well as species and functional compositions of trees. This is a powerful data resource, however, due to the vast amount of the data collected daily, it is impossible for human analysts to review the imagery in detail to identify the vital biodiversity information. Thus, in this talk, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges to use high resolution satellite imagery and

  16. Groundwater and climate change research scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C. R.; Cheetham, M.; Guha, P

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study has reviewed much of the published literature in the field of climate change and groundwater research. Whilst it is not exhaustive with regard to groundwater quality issues, most of the published literature relating to climate change and groundwater resources, particularly in the UK, is covered. Further work is required to identify current research needs relating to the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. The study of the effects of climate chan...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  19. The Cloud Project Climate Research with Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the in- dustrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthro- pogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. How- ever, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming—and yet the mechanism is not under- stood. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales are too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind, may be directly affect- ing the climate, providing an effective indirect solar forcing mechanism. Indeed recent satellite observations—although disputed—suggest that cosmic rays may affect clouds un- der certain conditions. However, given the many sources of variability in the atmosphere and the lack of control of the cosmic ray flux, demonstrating overall ca...

  20. A Bibliometric Analysis of Climate Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, C. W.; Seidel, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past five years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of media and scientific publications on the topic of climate engineering, or geoengineering, and some scientists are increasingly calling for more research on climate engineering as a possible supplement to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this context, understanding the current state of climate engineering research can help inform policy discussions and guide future research directions. Bibliometric analysis - the quantitative analysis of publications - is particularly applicable to fields with large bodies of literature that are difficult to summarize by traditional review methods. The multidisciplinary nature of the published literature on climate engineering makes it an ideal candidate for bibliometric analysis. Publications on climate engineering are found to be relatively recent (more than half of all articles during 1988-2011 were published since 2008), include a higher than average percentage of non-research articles (30% compared with 8-15% in related scientific disciplines), and be predominately produced by countries located in the Northern Hemisphere and speaking English. The majority of this literature focuses on land-based methods of carbon sequestration, ocean iron fertilization, and solar radiation management and is produced with little collaboration among research groups. This study provides a summary of existing publications on climate engineering, a perspective on the scientific underpinnings of the global dialogue on climate engineering, and a baseline for quantitatively monitoring the development of climate engineering research in the future.

  1. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, E. L. A.

    2012-03-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) retrieval algorithm. In Chapter 3 it is shown that the CPP cloud-phase retrieval algorithm has sufficient accuracy (West Africa. During the afternoon, precipitation occurrence frequency over dry soils becomes significantly higher than over wet soils, whereas for precipitation intensity no significant difference is discerned. The study demonstrates that the combination of satellite-based soil moisture and precipitation observations can be helpful in improving the understanding of the land surface-precipitation interaction over tropical areas. The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations on future algorithm improvements and potential research applications. For both cloud phase and precipitation properties, extension of the algorithm to include nighttime observations would be desirable to enable detailed studies on the full diurnal cycle. Further, the SEVIRI High-Resolution Visible (HRV) channel could be incorporated to correct retrieved cloud physical properties for broken and inhomogeneous cloud cases. Finally, the accurate cloud phase and precipitation datasets combined with the high SEVIRI spatial and temporal sampling resolution enables possibilities for detailed research on climate monitoring, nowcasting applications, evaluation of cloud schemes in climate models, studies on land surface-precipitation interactions (with a special focus on the diurnal cycle), and assimilation of the datasets in weather and climate models

  2. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Observer-based Satellite Attitude Control and Simulation Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子才; 马克茂

    2002-01-01

    Observer design method is applied to the realization of satellite attitude control law baaed on simplified control model. Exact mathematical model of the satellite attitude control system is also constructed, together with the observer-based control law, to conduct simulation research. The simulation results justify the effectiveness andfeasibility of the observer-based control method.

  4. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  5. Interannual Variability of Tropical Precipitation: How Well Do Climate Models Agree With Current Satellite Estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Roads, John; Oglesby, Robert J.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginning of the World Climate Research Program's Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite remote sensing of precipitation has made dramatic improvements, particularly for tropical regions. Data from microwave and infrared sensors now form the most critical input to precipitation data sets and can be calibrated with surface gauges to so that the strengths of each data source can be maximized in some statistically optimal sense. Recent availability of the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) has further aided in narrowing uncertainties in rainfall over die tropics and subtropics. Although climate modeling efforts have long relied on space-based precipitation estimates for validation, we now are in a position to make more quantitative assessments of model performance, particularly in tropical regions. An integration of the CCM3 using observed SSTs as a lower boundary condition is used to examine how well this model responds to ENSO forcing in terms of anomalous precipitation. An integration of the NCEP spectral model used for the Reanalysis-H effort is also examined. This integration is run with specified SSTs, but with no data assimilation. Our analysis focuses on two aspects of inter-annual variability. First are the spatial anomalies that are indicative of dislocations in Hadley and Walker circulations. Second, we consider the ability of models to replicate observed increases in oceanic precipitation that are noted in satellite observations for large ENSO events. Finally, we consider a slab ocean version of the CCM3 model with prescribed ocean beat transports that mimic upwelling anomalies, but which still allows the surface energy balance to be predicted. This less restrictive experiment is used to understand why model experiments with specified SSTs seem to have noticeably less interannual variability in precipitation than do the satellite observations.

  6. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  7. Assessment and Comparison of TMPA Satellite Precipitation Products in Varying Climatic and Topographic Regimes in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Milewski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA satellite precipitation products have been utilized to quantify, forecast, or understand precipitation patterns, climate change, hydrologic models, and drought in numerous scientific investigations. The TMPA products recently went through a series of algorithm developments to enhance the accuracy and reliability of high-quality precipitation measurements, particularly in low rainfall environments and complex terrain. In this study, we evaluated four TMPA products (3B42: V6, V7temp, V7, RTV7 against 125 rain gauges in Northern Morocco to assess the accuracy of TMPA products in various regimes, examine the performance metrics of new algorithm developments, and assess the impact of the processing error in 2012. Results show that the research products outperform the real-time products in all environments within Morocco, and the newest algorithm development (3B42 V7 outperforms the previous version (V6, particularly in low rainfall and high-elevation environments. TMPA products continue to overestimate precipitation in arid environments and underestimate it in high-elevation areas. Lastly, the temporary processing error resulted in little bias except in arid environments. These results corroborate findings from previous studies, provide scientific data for the Middle East, highlight the difficulty of using TMPA products in varying conditions, and present preliminary research for future algorithm development for the GPM mission.

  8. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  9. Central Satellite Data Repository Supporting Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Brust, J.

    2015-12-01

    Near real-time satellite data is critical to many research and development activities of atmosphere, land, and ocean processes. Acquiring and managing huge volumes of satellite data without (or with less) latency in an organization is always a challenge in the big data age. An organization level data repository is a practical solution to meeting this challenge. The STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR) is a scalable, stable, and reliable repository to acquire, manipulate, and disseminate various types of satellite data in an effective and efficient manner. SCDR collects more than 200 data products, which are commonly used by multiple groups in STAR, from NOAA, GOES, Metop, Suomi NPP, Sentinel, Himawari, and other satellites. The processes of acquisition, recording, retrieval, organization, and dissemination are performed in parallel. Multiple data access interfaces, like FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, and RESTful, are supported in the SCDR to obtain satellite data from their providers through high speed internet. The original satellite data in various raster formats can be parsed in the respective adapter to retrieve data information. The data information is ingested to the corresponding partitioned tables in the central database. All files are distributed equally on the Network File System (NFS) disks to balance the disk load. SCDR provides consistent interfaces (including Perl utility, portal, and RESTful Web service) to locate files of interest easily and quickly and access them directly by over 200 compute servers via NFS. SCDR greatly improves collection and integration of near real-time satellite data, addresses satellite data requirements of scientists and researchers, and facilitates their primary research and development activities.

  10. Growing Diversity in Space Weather and Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Ng, C.; Marchese, P.; Austin, S.; Frost, J.; Cheung, T. D.; Robbins, I.; Carlson, B. E.; Steiner, J. C.; Tremberger, G.; Paglione, T.; Damas, C.; Howard, A.; Scalzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather and Global Climate Impacts are critical items on the present national and international science agendas. Understanding and forecasting solar activity is increasingly important for manned space flight, unmanned missions (including communications satellites, satellites that monitor the space and earth environment), and regional power grids. The ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate is critical to survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies via advanced degrees and pursue careers related to these areas. This CUNY-based initiative, supported by NASA and NSF, provided undergraduate research experience for more than 70 students in topics ranging from urban impacts of global climate change to magnetic rope structure, solar flares and CMEs. Other research topics included investigations of the ionosphere using a CubeSat, stratospheric aerosols in Jupiter's atmosphere, and ocean climate modeling. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences included CUNY faculty, GISS and GSFC scientists. Students were recruited from CUNY colleges as well as other colleges including Spelman, Cornell, Rutgers and SUNY colleges. Fifty-eight percent of the undergraduate students were under-represented minorities and thirty-four percent were female. Many of the research teams included high school teachers and students as well as graduate students. Supporting workshops for students included data analysis and visualization tools, space weather, planetary energy balance and BalloonSats. The project is supported by NASA awards NNX10AE72G and NNX09AL77G, and NSF REU Site award 0851932.

  11. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  12. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5-6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top-the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows that

  13. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    governing the distribution? Detailed aspects of the local climate warranted more investigation. Chapter 4 investigates the climate associated with the frequent cloud formation over the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada: the "sequoia belt". This region is climatically distinct in a number of ways, all of which could be factors in influencing the distribution of giant sequoia and other species. Satellite and micrometeorological flux tower data reveal characteristics of the sequoia belt that were not evident with surface climate measurements and maps derived from them. Results have implications for species distributions everywhere, but especially in rugged mountains, where climates are complex and poorly mapped. Chapter 5 summarizes some of the main conclusions from the work and suggests directions for related future research. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  14. TROPOMI: Solar backscatter satellite instrument for air quality and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.de; Laan, E.C.; Hoogeveen, R.W.M.; Jongma, R.T.; Aben, U.; Visser, H.; Boslooper, E.C.; Saari, H.; Dobber, M.; Veefkind, P.; Kleipool, Q.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing grating-based imaging spectrograph in the line of OMI and SCIAMACHY. TROPOMI is part of the ESA Candidate Core Explorer Mission proposal TRAQ and also of the CAMEO satellite proposed for the US NRC decadal study. A TROPOMI-like instrument is part of the ESA/EU Sentinel 4&5

  15. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  16. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Morton; G. J. Collatz; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate–fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burne...

  17. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  18. A pathway to generating Climate Data Records of sea-surface temperature from satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, Peter J.; Corlett, Gary K.

    2012-11-01

    In addition to having known uncertainty characteristics, Climate Data Records (CDRs) of geophysical variables derived from satellite measurements must be of sufficient length to resolve signals that might reveal the signatures of climate change against a background of larger, unrelated variability. The length of the record requires using satellite measurements from many instruments over several decades, and the uncertainty requirement implies that a consistent approach be used to establish the errors in the satellite retrievals over the entire period. Retrieving sea-surface temperature (SST) from satellite is a relatively mature topic, and the uncertainties of satellite retrievals are determined by comparison with collocated independent measurements. To avoid the complicating effects of near-surface temperature gradients in the upper ocean, the best validating measurements are from ship-board radiometers that measure, at source, the surface emission that is measured in space, after modification by its propagation through the atmosphere. To attain sufficient accuracy, such ship-based radiometers must use internal blackbody calibration targets, but to determine the uncertainties in these radiometric measurements, i.e. to confirm that the internal calibration is effective, it is necessary to conduct verification of the field calibration using independent blackbodies with accurately known emissivity and at very accurately measured temperatures. This is a well-justifiable approach to providing the necessary underpinning of a Climate Data Record of SST.

  19. Satellite Communications for Aeronautical Applications: Recent research and Development Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Communications systems have always been a critical element in aviation. Until recently, nearly all communications between the ground and aircraft have been based on analog voice technology. But the future of global aviation requires a more sophisticated "information infrastructure" which not only provides more and better communications, but integrates the key information functions (communications, navigation, and surveillance) into a modern, network-based infrastructure. Satellite communications will play an increasing role in providing information infrastructure solutions for aviation. Developing and adapting satellite communications technologies for aviation use is now receiving increased attention as the urgency to develop information infrastructure solutions grows. The NASA Glenn Research Center is actively involved in research and development activities for aeronautical satellite communications, with a key emphasis on air traffic management communications needs. This paper describes the recent results and status of NASA Glenn's research program.

  20. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, N.; Williams, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.; Kremic, T.; Agrawal, A.; Andreae, M.; Bierbaum, R.; Blakeslee, R.; Boerner, A.; Bowles, N.; Christian, H.; Dunion, J.; Horvath, A.; Huang, X.; Khain, A.; Kinne, S.; Lemos, M.-C.; Penner, J.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is foundational to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey (NRC 2007) indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER proposes to revolutionize our understanding of the interactions of aerosols with clouds by making the first global measurements of the fundamental physical entity linking them: activated cloud condensation nuclei. The CHASER mission was conceptualized to measure all quantities necessary for determining the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed them. CHASER uses a new technique (Freud et al. 2011; Rosenfeld et al. 2012) and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER measures the CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity with the desirable quantity) allow the determination of each effect statistically. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions limit their much-needed use in decision-making. CHASER mitigates this

  1. Analysis of TRMM Satellite Data in Varying Climates and Elevation in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M.

    2012-12-01

    The use of satellite precipitation data (TRMM, SSM/I) in scientific investigations has been on the rise due to the general paucity or unavailability of adequate rain gauge data for the majority of the Earth's surface. Unfortunately, the number of research studies integrating TRMM data into various scientific applications (e.g., water resources, rainfall analysis, climate change, hydrologic modeling, etc.) has far outweighed those studying the accuracy, uncertainty, and usefulness of TRMM data. Even less research has been conducted on the viability of TRMM rainfall products as an adequate substitute for field gauges in data sparse and arid to semi-arid environments; the most critical area in need of satellite rainfall. An assessment on the accuracy and uncertainty of TRMM in these critical areas (ungauged basins, low rainfall) was conducted by comparing in-situ rain gauge stations in Northern Morocco against both the TRMM 3B42.v6 and recently processed 3B42.v7 precipitation products. We compared average annual precipitation values from 79 wide-spread field gauges in three watersheds (Oum Er Rbia, Sebou, Melouya Watersheds) originating in the Atlas Mountains to the TRMM datasets. In addition, we assessed the effect that different variables (elevation, climate regime, and season) have on both the version 6 and version 7 TRMM products. Gauges were divided into three elevation classes (Low: 0-500m; Medium: 500-1000m; High: >1000m) and precipitation/climate (Arid: 100-300mm/yr; Semi-Arid: 300-500mm/yr; Humid: >500mm/yr) classes to evaluate the impact of rainfall and elevation on satellite-based rainfall products. Results indicate that 3B42.v7 is more accurate than 3B42.v6 data using average annual precipitation data from 1998-2009 for the Oum Er Rbia Watershed (0.47 to 0.18 R2), however produces similar correlations for the 79 gauges combined (0.30 to 0.29 R2). The R2 values were improved using the version 7 products for the different elevation (Low: 0.30 v7 to 0.46 v6

  2. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  3. Cloud cover diurnal cycles in satellite data and regional climate model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifroth, Uwe; Ahrens, Bodo [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hollmann, Rainer [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The amount and diurnal cycle of cloud cover play an important role in the energy and water cycle of the earth-atmosphere system and influence the radiation budget of the earth. Due to its importance and the challenging nature of its quantification, cloud cover is considered the biggest uncertainty factor in climate modeling. There is a clear need for reliable cloud datasets suitable for climate model evaluation studies. This study analyzes two datasets of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle derived from satellite observations by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and by EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) in Africa and Europe. Two regions, Europe and the subtropical southern Atlantic Ocean, were identified as offering distinct cloud cover diurnal cycles reasonably observed by both satellite datasets. In these regions, simulations by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) were evaluated in terms of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle during the time period of 1990 to 2007. Results show that the satellite derived cloud diurnal cycles largely agree, while discrepancies occur under extreme conditions like in the Sahara region. The CCLM is able to simulate the diurnal cycle observed consistently in the two satellite datasets in the South-Atlantic ocean, but not in Europe. CCLM misses the afternoon maximum cloud cover in Summer in Europe, which implies deficiencies in the parameterization of convection and in the treatment of surface-atmosphere interactions. The simulation of the diurnal cycle of the more stratiform cloud cover over the subtropical Atlantic was satisfactory in CCLM. (orig.)

  4. Interweaving climate research and public understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    For the past 10 years I have been using research into land-atmosphere-cloud coupling to address Vermont's need to understand climate change, and develop plans for greater resilience in the face of increasing severe weather. The research side has shown that the fraction of days with snow cover determines the cold season climate, because snow acts as a fast climate switch between non-overlapping climates with and without snow cover. Clouds play opposite roles in warm and cold seasons: surface cooling in summer and warming in winter. The later fall freeze-up and earlier spring ice-out on lakes, coupled to the earlier spring phenology, are clear markers both of a warming climate, as well as the large interannual variability. Severe flooding events have come with large-scale quasi-stationary weather patterns. This past decade I have given 230 talks to schools, business and professional groups, as well as legislative committees and state government. I have written 80 environmental columns for two Vermont newspapers, as part of a weekly series I helped start in 2008. Commentaries and interviews on radio and TV enable me to explain directly the issues we face, as the burning of fossil fuels destabilizes the climate system. The public in Vermont is eager to learn and understand these issues since many have roots in the land; while professional groups need all the information and guidance possible to prepare for the future. My task as a scientist is to map out what we know in ways that can readily be grasped in terms of past experience, even though the climate system is already moving outside this range - and at the same time outline general principles and hopeful strategies for dealing with global and local climate change.

  5. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan [National Institute of R& D for Optoelectronics, MG5 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Romania (Romania); Dida, Adrian [University Transylvania of Brasov, Brasov (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  6. Research from an Operatonal Space Weather Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    STEREO real-time white-light images, or beacon images, are heavily compressed, 256x256 pixel images. And yet, they show the same transient features that are in the STEREO science images, which are up to 2048x2048 pixels. Based on our experience with STEREO beacon images, we demonstrate that operational images can be used to do good quality science. We also discuss the limitations of operational data for scientific research. Finally, we discuss ways in which a predominantly operational mission could be combined with science mission, to further enhance research.

  7. Retrospect and prospect: advances and future strategies in climate research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A brief review of the progress in climate research and a prospect on its further development in the 21st century is presented. Some key findings including the concept of climate system, the discovery of climatic multi-equilibrium and abrupt climate changes, and the recognition of human activities as an important force of climate change made breakthroughs in climatology possible during last few decades. The adaptation to climatic and global change emerged as a new aspect of climatic research during the 1990s. Climate research will break through in the observation of the global system, in the analysis of mass data, in the deepening of research on the mechanism of climatic change, and in the improvement of models. In the applied fields of climate research, there will be substantial progress in the research on adaptation to global change and sustainable development, on orderly human activities, and climate modification.

  8. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica

    2011-11-15

    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  9. The research in climate system modeling, simulating and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The major point of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) is to predict the real-time climate change in seasons and years. Climate disasters in China occurred frequently, and resulted in a 200 billion RMB lost annually.

  10. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993-2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Larnicol, G.;

    2015-01-01

    Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in climate change monitoring. In the past two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of importan...

  11. Uncertainty and global climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

  12. Climate engineering research : A precautionary response to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.; Fleurke, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they – like climate change itself – pose uncertain risks

  13. Climate engineering research : A precautionary response to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.; Fleurke, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they – like climate change itself – pose uncertain risks

  14. Satellite Observations and Chemistry Climate Models - A Meandering Path Towards Better Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical and dynamical processes that control the stratospheric ozone layer has grown rapidly since the 1970s, when ideas that depletion of the ozone layer due to human activity were put forth. The concept of ozone depletion due to anthropogenic chlorine increase is simple; quantification of the effect is much more difficult. The future of stratospheric ozone is complicated because ozone is expected to increase for two reasons: the slow decrease in anthropogenic chlorine due to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and stratospheric cooling caused by increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Prediction of future ozone levels requires three-dimensional models that represent physical, photochemical and radiative processes, i.e., chemistry climate models (CCMs). While laboratory kinetic and photochemical data are necessary inputs for a CCM, atmospheric measurements are needed both to reveal physical and chemical processes and for comparison with simulations to test the conceptual model that CCMs represent. Global measurements are available from various satellites including but not limited to the LIMS and TOMS instruments on Nimbus 7 (1979 - 1993), and various instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (1991 - 2005), Envisat (2002 - ongoing), Sci-Sat (2003 - ongoing) and Aura (2004 - ongoing). Every successful satellite instrument requires a physical concept for the measurement, knowledge of physical chemical properties of the molecules to be measured, and stellar engineering to design an instrument that will survive launch and operate for years with no opportunity for repair but providing enough information that trend information can be separated from any instrument change. The on-going challenge is to use observations to decrease uncertainty in prediction. This talk will focus on two applications. The first considers transport diagnostics and implications for prediction of the eventual demise of the Antarctic ozone hole

  15. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  16. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  17. Climate Literacy Through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.

    2006-12-01

    Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  18. Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    together. For example, climate measurements have allowed scientists to better understand the effect of deforestation on how the earth absorbs heat, retains...Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Progress Has Been Made, but Improvements Are Needed to Effectively Manage Risks, GAO-08-18 (Washington...color; and atmospheric observations such as greenhouse gas levels (e.g., carbon dioxide), aerosol and dust particles, and moisture concentration. When

  19. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993-2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Larnicol, G.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in climate change monitoring. In the past two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of importan...... present preliminary independent validations of the SL_cci products, based on tide gauges comparison and a sea level budget closure approach, as well as comparisons with ocean reanalyses and climate model outputs....

  20. Combining Satellite and in Situ Data with Models to Support Climate Data Records in Ocean Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson

    2011-01-01

    The satellite ocean color data record spans multiple decades and, like most long-term satellite observations of the Earth, comes from many sensors. Unfortunately, global and regional chlorophyll estimates from the overlapping missions show substantial biases, limiting their use in combination to construct consistent data records. SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua differed by 13% globally in overlapping time segments, 2003-2007. For perspective, the maximum change in annual means over the entire Sea WiFS mission era was about 3%, and this included an El NinoLa Nina transition. These discrepancies lead to different estimates of trends depending upon whether one uses SeaWiFS alone for the 1998-2007 (no significant change), or whether MODIS is substituted for the 2003-2007 period (18% decline, P less than 0.05). Understanding the effects of climate change on the global oceans is difficult if different satellite data sets cannot be brought into conformity. The differences arise from two causes: 1) different sensors see chlorophyll differently, and 2) different sensors see different chlorophyll. In the first case, differences in sensor band locations, bandwidths, sensitivity, and time of observation lead to different estimates of chlorophyll even from the same location and day. In the second, differences in orbit and sensitivities to aerosols lead to sampling differences. A new approach to ocean color using in situ data from the public archives forces different satellite data to agree to within interannual variability. The global difference between Sea WiFS and MODIS is 0.6% for 2003-2007 using this approach. It also produces a trend using the combination of SeaWiFS and MODIS that agrees with SeaWiFS alone for 1998-2007. This is a major step to reducing errors produced by the first cause, sensor-related discrepancies. For differences that arise from sampling, data assimilation is applied. The underlying geographically complete fields derived from a free-running model is unaffected

  1. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which...... will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from...... derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products...

  2. The 2010 IADR--Geriatric Oral Research Group satellite meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin

    2012-09-01

    On 12 and 13 July, the 2010 IADR General Session satellite meeting of the IADR - Geriatric Oral Research Group (GORG) - was attended by around 60 participants in the beautiful surroundings of Sitges in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain. The speakers reflected on the main topics 'Disparities and Expectations in Oral Healthcare: An Elderly Focus' and 'Risks and Benefits of Ageing with a Natural Dentition', which was followed by fruitful discussions in the auditorium and the jointly enjoyed meals. The Sitges meeting comprised lectures of distinguished speakers as well as poster presentations, which discussed and defined the situation of research in the field of gerodontology today as well as the development since the last GORG satellite symposium held on Vancouver Island in 1999. Despite enormous progress over the last 10 years, many important questions concerning economics, regulation, the implementation of oral health care, treatment protocols as well as general health implications of oral disease in the frail and elderly remain still unanswered.

  3. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-07

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model.

  4. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  5. Vegetation coupling to global climate: Trajectories of vegetation change and phenology modeling from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy Isaac

    Important systematic shifts in ecosystem function are often masked by natural variability. The rich legacy of over two decades of continuous satellite observations provides an important database for distinguishing climatological and anthropogenic ecosystem changes. Examples from semi-arid Sudanian West Africa and New England (USA) illustrate the response of vegetation to climate and land-use. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, pastoral and agricultural practices compete for land area, while degradation may follow intensification. The Nouhao Valley is a natural experiment in which pastoral and agricultural land uses were allocated separate, coherent reserves. Trajectories of annual net primary productivity were derived from 18 years of coarse-grain (AVHRR) satellite data. Trends suggested that pastoral lands had responded rigorously to increasing rainfall after the 1980's droughts. A detailed analysis at Landsat resolution (30m) indicated that the increased vegetative cover was concentrated in the river basins of the pastoral region, implying a riparian wood expansion. In comparison, riparian cover was reduced in agricultural regions. We suggest that broad-scale patterns of increasing semi-arid West African greenness may be indicative of climate variability, whereas local losses may be anthropogenic in nature. The contiguous deciduous forests, ocean proximity, topography, and dense urban developments of New England provide an ideal landscape to examine influences of climate variability and the impact of urban development vegetation response. Spatial and temporal patterns of interannual climate variability were examined via green leaf phenology. Phenology, or seasonal growth and senescence, is driven by deficits of light, temperature, and water. In temperate environments, phenology variability is driven by interannual temperature and precipitation shifts. Average and interannual phenology analyses across southern New England were conducted at resolutions of 30m (Landsat

  6. EXTENDING LKN CLIMATE REGIONALIZATION WITH SPATIAL REGULARIZATION: AN APPLICATION TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Liss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  7. Extending Lkn Climate Regionalization with Spatial Regularization: AN Application to Epidemiological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander; Gel, Yulia R.; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method) to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step) to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step) to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step) to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  8. Research-related intercultural higher education in satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Heck, B.; Krueger, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    In order to improve the education of young researchers (master degree, PhD, PostDocs) a cooperation between the Department of Geomatics (DGEOM), Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK), University Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany) was established which now exists since more than five years. The joint venture is actually called "PROBRAL: Precise positioning and height determination by means of GPS: Modeling of errors and transformation into physical heights" and focuses on research and education within the field of satellite geodesy. PROBRAL is funded by the Brazilian academic exchange service CAPES and the German academic exchange service DAAD. The geodetic aim of the research project is to validate and improve the quality of 3d positions derived from observations related to satellite navigation systems like GPS. In order to fulfill this ambitious goal sustainably, research has to be carried out in close cooperation. At the same time, e.g. to guarantee continuous success, a coordinated education has to be ensured. Besides technical education aspects key competences (e.g. language, capacity for teamwork, project management skills) are trained. Within the presentation the lessons which were learned from this project are discussed in detail.

  9. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects for three metropolitan regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George

    2008-01-01

    By using both high-resolution orthoimagery and medium-resolution Landsat satellite imagery with other geospatial information, several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for three geographically distinct urban areas in the United States – Seattle, Washington, Tampa Bay, Florida, and Las Vegas, Nevada, are obtained. Percent impervious surface is used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapor content. Land surface temperatures were analyzed for different land use and land cover categories in the three regions. The heterogeneity of urban land surface and associated spatial extents were shown to influence surface thermal conditions because of the removal of vegetative cover, the introduction of non-transpiring surfaces, and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces. Fifty years of in situ climate data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a profound influence on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects.

  10. The Strengths and Limitations of Satellite Data for Evaluating Tropospheric Processes in Chemistry-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    There is now a wealth of satellite data products available with which to evaluate a model fs simulation of tropospheric composition and other model processes. All of these data products have their strengths and limitations that need to be considered for this purpose. For example, uncertainties are introduced into a data product when 1) converting a slant column to a vertical column and 2) estimating the amount of a total column of a trace gas (e.g., ozone, nitrogen dioxide) that resides in the troposphere. Oftentimes, these uncertainties are not well quantified and the satellite data products are not well evaluated against in situ observations. However, these limitations do not preclude us from using these data products to evaluate our model processes if we understand these strengths and limitations when developing diagnostics. I will show several examples of how satellite data products are being used to evaluate particular model processes with a focus on the strengths and limitations of these data products. In addition, I will introduce the goals of a newly formed team to address issues on the topic of "satellite data for improved model evaluation and process studies" that is established in support of the IGAC/SPARC Global Chemistry ]Climate Modeling and Evaluation Workshop.

  11. Gray Wave of the Great Transformation: A Satellite View of Urbanization, Climate Change, and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc Lee; Kamiell, Arnon Menahem

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change driven by human activity is profoundly affecting Earth's natural systems with impacts ranging from a loss of biological diversity to changes in regional and global climate. This change has been so pervasive and progressed so rapidly, compared to natural processes, scientists refer to it as "the great transformation". Urbanization or the 'gray wave' of land transformation is being increasingly recognized as an important process in global climate change. A hallmark of our success as a species, large urban conglomerates do in fact alter the land surface so profoundly that both local climate and the basic ecology of the landscape are affected in ways that have consequences to human health and economic well-being. Fortunately we have incredible new tools for planning and developing urban places that are both enjoyable and sustainable. A suite of Earth observing satellites is making it possible to study the interactions between urbanization, biological processes, and weather and climate. Using these Earth Observatories we are learning how urban heat islands form and potentially ameliorate them, how urbanization can affect rainfall, pollution, and surface water recharge at the local level and climate and food security globally.

  12. Multiple satellite estimates of urban fractions and climate effects at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G.; Xu, R.; He, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Regional climate is controlled by large scale forcing at lateral boundary and physical processes within the region. Landuse in East Asia has been changed substantially in the last three decades, featured with expansion of urban built-up at unprecedented scale and speed. The fast expansion of urban areas could contribute to local even regional climate change. However, current spatial datasets of urban fractions do not well represent extend and expansion of urban areas in the regions, and the best available satellite data and remote sensing techniques have not been well applied to serve regional modeling of urbanization impacts on near surface temperature and other climate variables. Better estimates of localized urban fractions and urban climate effects are badly needed. Here we use high and mid resolution satellite data to estimate urban fractions and to assess effects of urban heat islands at local and regional scales. With our fractional cover, data fusion, and differentiated threshold approaches, estimated urban extent was greater than previously reported in many global datasets. Many city clusters were merging into each other, with gradual blurring boundaries and disappearing of gaps among member cities. Cities and towns were more connected with roads and commercial corridors, while wildland and urban greens became more isolated as patches among built-up areas. Those new estimates are expected to effectively improve climate simulation at local and regional scales in East Asia. There were significant positive relations between urban fraction and urban heat island effects as demonstrated by VNIR and TIR data from multiple satellites. Stronger warming was detected at the meteorological stations that experienced greater urbanization, i.e., those with a higher urbanization rate. While the total urban area affects the absolute temperature values, the change of the urban area (urbanization rate) likely affects the temperature trend. Increases of approximately 10% in

  13. Satellite altimetry reveals spatial patterns of variations in the Baltic Sea wave climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, Nadezhda; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-08-01

    The main properties of the climate of waves in the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea and its decadal changes since 1990 are estimated from satellite altimetry data. The data set of significant wave heights (SWHs) from all existing nine satellites, cleaned and cross-validated against in situ measurements, shows overall a very consistent picture. A comparison with visual observations shows a good correspondence with correlation coefficients of 0.6-0.8. The annual mean SWH reveals a tentative increase of 0.005 m yr-1, but higher quantiles behave in a cyclic manner with a timescale of 10-15 years. Changes in the basin-wide average SWH have a strong meridional pattern: an increase in the central and western parts of the sea and a decrease in the east. This pattern is likely caused by a rotation of wind directions rather than by an increase in the wind speed.

  14. Simulation of land surface temperatures: comparison of two climate models and satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Edwards

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been significant progress in the retrieval of land surface temperature from satellite observations. Satellite retrievals of surface temperature offer several advantages, including broad spatial coverage, and such data are potentially of great value in assessing general circulation models of the atmosphere. Here, retrievals of the land surface temperature over the contiguous United States are compared with simulations from two climate models. The models generally simulate the diurnal range realistically, but show significant warm biases during the summer. The models' diurnal cycle of surface temperature is related to their surface flux budgets. Differences in the diurnal cycle of the surface flux budget between the models are found to be more pronounced than those in the diurnal cycle of surface temperature.

  15. Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerabilities Assessment on Forest Vegetation Through Time-Series Multisensor Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Sustaining forest resources in Romania requires a better understanding of forest ecosystem processes, and how management decisions and climate and anthropogenic change may affect these processes in the future. Spatio- temporal forest vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI LAI satellite images over 2000 - 2015 period for a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, from MODIS Terra/Aqua, LANDSAT TM/ETM and Sentinel satellite and meteorological data. For investigated test area, considerable NDVI decline was observed for drought events during 2003, 2007 and 2010 years. Under stress conditions, it is evident that environmental factors such as soil type, parent material, and topography are not correlated with NDVI dynamics. EO-based estimates of forest biophysical variables were shown to be similar to predictions derived from forest field inventories.

  16. Gridded sunshine duration climate data record for Germany based on combined satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Jakub; Kothe, Steffen; Trentmann, Jörg; Pfeifroth, Uwe; Cremer, Roswitha

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a 1 km2 gridded daily sunshine duration data record for Germany covering the period from 1983 to 2015 (33 years) based on satellite estimates of direct normalised surface solar radiation and in situ sunshine duration observations using a geostatistical approach. The CM SAF SARAH direct normalized irradiance (DNI) satellite climate data record and in situ observations of sunshine duration from 121 weather stations operated by DWD are used as input datasets. The selected period of 33 years is associated with the availability of satellite data. The number of ground stations is limited to 121 as there are only time series with less than 10% of missing observations over the selected period included to keep the long-term consistency of the output sunshine duration data record. In the first step, DNI data record is used to derive sunshine hours by applying WMO threshold of 120 W/m2 (SDU = DNI ≥ 120 W/m2) and weighting of sunny slots to correct the sunshine length between two instantaneous image data due to cloud movement. In the second step, linear regression between SDU and in situ sunshine duration is calculated to adjust the satellite product to the ground observations and the output regression coefficients are applied to create a regression grid. In the last step regression residuals are interpolated with ordinary kriging and added to the regression grid. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the gridded sunshine duration data record is performed by calculating prediction errors (cross-validation routine). "R" is used for data processing. A short analysis of the spatial distribution and temporal variability of sunshine duration over Germany based on the created dataset will be presented. The gridded sunshine duration data are useful for applications in various climate-related studies, agriculture and solar energy potential calculations.

  17. The microwave limb sounder for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, J. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Curtis, P. D.; Maddison, B. J.; Harwood, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder was designed to map the concentrations of trace gases from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, to improve understanding of the photochemical reactions which take place in this part of the atmosphere. The instrument will measure the intensity of thermal radiation from molecules in the atmosphere at frequencies corresponding to rotational absorption bands of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and water vapor. Molecular concentration profiles will be determined over a height range of 15 to 80 km (20 to 45 km for C10). The 57 deg inclination orbit proposed for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will allow global coverage.

  18. Advancing Coastal Climate Adaptation in Denmark by Land Subsidence Mapping using Sentinel-1 Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels H.; Mølgaard, Mads R.

    2016-01-01

    There are still large uncertainties in projections of climate change and sea level rise. Here, land subsidence is an additional factor that may adversely affect the vulnerability towards floods in low-lying coastal communities. The presented study performs an initial assessment of subsidence...... mapping using Sentinel-1 satellite imagery and leveling at two coastal locations in Denmark. Within both investigated areas current subsidence rates of 5-10 millimeters per year are found. This subsidence is related to the local geology, and challenges and potentials in bringing land subsidence mapping...... and geology into climate adaptation are discussed in relation to perspectives of a national subsidence monitoring system partly based on the findings from the two coastal locations. The current lack of subsidence data and a fragmentation of geotechnical information are considered as hindrances to optimal...

  19. Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, S.C.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Morton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997–2010 and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984–2009 BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation – PE was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6–12 months. Fire season PE increased from the 1980s–2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s–2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of

  1. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types

  2. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  3. Lightning hazard region over the maritime continent observed from satellite and climate change threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhamsyah, Y.; Koesmaryono, Y.; Hidayat, R.; Murjaya, J.; Nurjaya, I. W.; Rizwan

    2017-02-01

    Climate change would lead to such hydrometeorological disaster as: flash-flood, landslide, hailstone, lightning, and twister become more likely to happen in the future. In terms of lightning event, one research question arise of where lightning would be mostly to strike over the Maritime Continent (MC)?. The objective of the research is to investigate region with high-density of lightning activity over MC by mapping climatological features of lightning flashes derived from onboard NASA-TRMM Satellite, i.e. Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor (OTD/LIS). Based on data retrieved since 1995-2013, it is seasonally observed that during transition season March to May, region with high vulnerability of lightning flashes cover the entire Sumatra Island, the Malacca Strait, and Peninsular Malaysia as well as Java Island. High-frequent of lightning activity over the Malacca Strait is unique since it is the only sea-region in the world where lightning flashes are denser. As previously mentioned that strong lightning activity over the strait is driven by mesoscale convective system of Sumatra Squalls due to convergences of land breeze between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Lightning activity over the strait is continuously observed throughout season despite the intensity reduced. Java Island, most populated island, receive high-density of lightning flashes during rainy season (December to February) but small part in the northwestern of Java Island, e.g., Bogor and surrounding areas, the density of lightning flashes are high throughout season. Northern and southern parts of Kalimantan and Central part of Sulawesi are also prone to lightning activity particularly during transition season March to May and September to November. In the eastern part of MC, Papua receive denser lightning flashes during September to November. It is found that lightning activity are mostly concentrated over land instead of ocean which is in accordance with diurnal convective

  4. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate–fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997–2010 and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984–2009 BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation – PE was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6–12 months. Fire season PE increased from the 1980's–2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE–BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's–2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the

  5. Assessment of soil moisture fields from imperfect climate models with uncertain satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schumann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that global satellite products can be used to evaluate climate model soil moisture predictions but conclusions should be drawn with care. The quality of a limited area climate model (LAM was compared to a general circulation model (GCM using soil moisture data from two different Earth observing satellites within a model validation scheme that copes with the presence of uncertain data. Results showed that in the face of imperfect models and data, it is difficult to investigate the quality of current land surface schemes in simulating hydrology accurately. Nevertheless, a LAM provides, in general, a better representation of spatial patterns and dynamics of soil moisture. However, in months when data uncertainty is higher, particularly in colder months and in periods when vegetation cover and soil moisture are out of phase (e.g. August in the case of Western Europe, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about model acceptability. Our work indicates that a higher resolution LAM has more benefits to soil moisture prediction than are due to the resolution alone and can be attributed to an overall intensification of the hydrological cycle relative to the GCM.

  6. Characterization of interfade duration for satellite communication systems design and optimization in a temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Flávio; Riva, Carlo; Rocha, Armando

    2016-03-01

    The characterization of the fade dynamics on Earth-satellite links is an important subject when designing the so called fade mitigation techniques that contribute to the proper reliability of the satellite communication systems and the customers' quality of service (QoS). The interfade duration, defined as the period between two consecutive fade events, has been only poorly analyzed using limited data sets, but its complete characterization would enable the design and optimization of the satellite communication systems by estimating the system requirements to recover in time before the next propagation impairment. Depending on this analysis, several actions can be taken ensuring the service maintenance. In this paper we present for the first time a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the interfade events statistical properties based on 9 years of in-excess attenuation measurements at Ka band (19.7 GHz) with very high availability that is required to build a reliable data set mainly for the longer interfade duration events. The number of years necessary to reach the statistical stability of interfade duration is also evaluated for the first time, providing a reference when accessing the relevance of the results published in the past. The study is carried out in Aveiro, Portugal, which is conditioned by temperate Mediterranean climate with Oceanic influences.

  7. Soil Moisture Drought Monitoring and Forecasting Using Satellite and Climate Model Data over Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Leng, Guoyong; Li, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Real-time monitoring and predicting drought development with several months in advance is of critical importance for drought risk adaptation and mitigation. In this paper, we present a drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting framework based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model over Southwest China (SW). The satellite precipitation data are used to force VIC model for near real-time estimate of land surface hydrologic conditions. As initialized with satellite-aided monitoring, the climate model-based forecast (CFSv2_VIC) and ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP)-based forecast (ESP_VIC) are both performed and evaluated through their ability in reproducing the evolution of the 2009/2010 severe drought over SW. The results show that the satellite-aided monitoring is able to provide reasonable estimate of forecast initial conditions (ICs) in a real-time manner. Both of CFSv2_VIC and ESP_VIC exhibit comparable performance against the observation-based estimates for the first month, whereas the predictive skill largely drops beyond 1-month. Compared to ESP_VIC, CFSv2_VIC shows better performance as indicated by the smaller ensemble range. This study highlights the value of this operational framework in generating near real-time ICs and giving a reliable prediction with 1-month ahead, which has great implications for drought risk assessment, preparation and relief.

  8. Expanding the Foundation: Climate Change and Opportunities for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph; Long, David; Berger, Paul; Russell, Constance; Drewes, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Human-caused climate change is a dominant global challenge. Unlike other disciplines and fields, there has as yet been only limited attention to climate change in educational research generally, and in educational foundations in particular. Education is key to assisting humanity in mitigating and adapting to climate change, and educational…

  9. Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Constellation of 66 Iridium Satellites: Climate Science Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W.; Chiu, CJ. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The "global warming hiatus" since the 1998 El Nino, highlighted by Meehl et al., and the resulting "missing energy" problem highlighted by Trenberth et al., has opened the door to a more fundamental view of climate change than mere surface air temperature. That new view is based on two variables which are strongly correlated: the rate of change of ocean heat content d(OHC)/dt; and Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) at the top of the atmosphere, whose guesstimated range is 0.4 to 0.9 Watts per square meters (this imbalance being mainly due to increasing CO2). The Argo float array is making better and better measurements of OHC. But existing satellite systems cannot measure ERI to even one significant digit. So, climate model predictions of ERI are used in place of real measurements of it, and the satellite data are tuned to the climate model predictions. Some oceanographers say "just depend on Argo for understanding the global warming hiatus and the missing energy", but we don't think this is a good idea because d(OHC)/dt and ERI have different time scales and are never perfectly correlated. We think the ERB community needs to step up to measuring ERI correctly, just as oceanographers have deployed Argo to measure OHC correctly. This talk will overview a proposed constellation of 66 Earth radiation budget instruments, hosted on Iridium satellites, that will actually be able to measure ERI to at least one significant digit, thus enabling a crucial test of climate models. This constellation will also be able to provide ERI at two-hourly time scales and 500-km spatial scales without extrapolations from uncalibrated narrowband geostationary instruments, using the highly successful methods of GRACE to obtain spatial resolution. This high time resolution would make ERI a synoptic variable like temperature, and allow studies of ERI's response to fast-evolving phenomena like dust storms and hurricanes and even brief excursions of Total Solar Irradiance. Time permitting, we

  10. Deriving required model structures to predict global wildfire burned area from multiple satellite and climate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Lasslop, Gitta; Teubner, Irene; Chuvieco, Emilio; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation fires have important effects on human infrastructures and ecosystems, and affect atmospheric composition and the climate system. Consequently, it is necessary to accurately represent fire dynamics in global vegetation models to realistically represent the role of fires in the Earth system. However, it is unclear which model structures are required in global vegetation/fire models to represent fire activity at regional to global scales. Here we aim to identify required structural components and necessary complexities of global vegetation/fire models to predict spatial-temporal dynamics of burned area. For this purpose, we developed the SOFIA (satellite observations for fire activity) modelling approach to predict burned area from several satellite and climate datasets. A large ensemble of SOFIA models was generated and each model was optimized against observed burned area data. Models that account for a suppression of fire activity at wet conditions result in the highest performances in predicting burned area. Models that include vegetation optical depth data from microwave satellite observations reach higher performances in predicting burned area than models that do not include this dataset. Vegetation optical depth is a proxy for vegetation biomass, density and water content and thus indicates a strong control of vegetation states and dynamics on fire activity. We further compared the best performing SOFIA models with the global process-oriented vegetation/fire model JSBACH-SPITFIRE, and with the GFED and Fire_CCI burned area datasets. SOFIA models outperform JSBACH-SPITFIRE in predicting regional variabilities of burned area. We further applied the best SOFIA model to identify controlling factors for burned area. The results indicate that fire activity is controlled by regionally diverse and complex interactions of human, vegetation and climate factors. Our results demonstrate that the use of multiple observational datasets on climate, hydrological

  11. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

  12. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTComplexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra NevadabyEric Kindseth WallerDoctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Dennis D. Baldocchi, ChairA better understanding of the environmental controls on current plant species distribution is essential if the impacts of such diverse challenges as invasive species, changing fir...

  13. Promoting Climate Literacy and Enhancing Student Achievement Through a Worldwide Student Research Campaign on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    In 2011, the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) program in collaboration with numerous U.S. and international scientific and educational organizations, will launch a worldwide student research campaign on Climate Change. The goals of the campaign are: (1) to engage over 1 million K-16 students and teachers in collaborative, grade-level appropriate climate research, (2) enhance climate and environmental literacy for students, teachers, parents, and citizens in tens of thousands of communities around the world, and (3) encourage action stewardship on climate-related environmental issues at local and regional levels. "Climate Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts" (NOAA, 2008) will provide a foundation for student learning, research, and stewardship activities. Planning is currently underway between scientists, students, and teachers from around the world to identify the key questions that will guide student research investigations on topics ranging from Climate, Carbon and Energy to Climate, Weather, and Water to Climate and Ecosystems to Climate and Human Health. Once a set of key climate questions and investigation topics have been selected, high quality climate resources including learning activities, data sets, images, models, and professional development modules and courses, will be found, assembled, and made available to Climate Change Campaign participants through the GLOBE Research Collaboratory. The Collaboratory, which is currently under development, will be a virtual learning, research, and collaboration environment that will include easy to use data collection, analysis, sharing, review, and reporting tools as well as tools and services to promote school to school and student-scientist- teacher collaborations. The formal portion of the Climate Campaign will end in 2013 with a high-profile student research conference at which students will share the results of their research and their local and regional

  14. Small Satellites and RPAs in Global-Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Cornwall F. Dyson N. Fortson R. Garwin S. Koonin C. Max G. MacDonald S. Ride M. Ruderman S. Treiman J. Vesecky R. Westervelt F. Zachariasen DTIC...in Global-Change Research1 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - 8503A P. Banks, J. Cornwall , F. Dyson, N. Fortson, F. Garwin, S. Koonin, C. Max, G. MacDonald, S. Ride, M...press). 2. Charlson, R., J. Lovelock, M. Andreae , and S. Warren (1987) Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326

  15. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  16. High-Resolution Satellite Data Open for Government Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Nickeson, Jaime E.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. satellite commercial imagery (CI) with resolution less than 1 meter is a common geospatial reference used by the public through Web applications, mobile devices, and the news media. However, CI use in the scientific community has not kept pace, even though those who are performing U.S. government research have access to these data at no cost.Previously, studies using multiple CI acquisitions from IKONOS-2, Quickbird-2, GeoEye-1, WorldView-1, and WorldView-2 would have been cost prohibitive. Now, with near-global submeter coverage and online distribution, opportunities abound for future scientific studies. This archive is already quite extensive (examples are shown in Figure 1) and is being used in many novel applications.

  17. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  18. Climate Research Wageningen UR : Projects, researchers and expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon-Steensma, van J.M.; Vellinga, P.; Remme, R.

    2009-01-01

    Wageningen UR focuses not only on the global climate system but also on regional and local climate phenomena, taking both scientific and social aspects into account in an integral way. Wageningen UR wants to play an effective role in the transition to a world that is both climate neutral and climate

  19. SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project results[SATellite base bio-geophysical parameter MAPping and aggregation modelling for CLIMATE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.; Woetmann Nielsen, N.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Jensen, N.O.; Schultz Rasmussen, M.; Astrup, P.; Dellwik, E.

    2002-08-01

    Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI). The observed parameters are used in the DMI-HIRLAM-D05 weather prediction model in order to improve the forecasting. The effect of introducing actual sea surface temperatures from NOAA AVHHR compared to climatological mean values, shows a more pronounced land-sea breeze effect which is also observable in field observations. The albedo maps from NOAA AVHRR are rather similar to the climatological mean values so for the HIRLAM model this is insignicant, yet most likely of some importance in the HIRHAM regional climate model. Land cover type maps are assigned local roughness values determined from meteorological field observations. Only maps with a spatial resolution around 25 m can adequately map the roughness variations of the typical patch size distribution in Denmark. A roughness map covering Denmark is aggregated (ie area-average non-linearly) by a microscale aggregation model that takes the non-linear turbulent responses of each roughness step change between patches in an arbitrary pattern into account. The effective roughnesses are calculated into a 15 km by 15 km grid for the HIRLAM model. The effect of hedgerows is included as an added roughness effect as a function of hedge density mapped from a digital vector map. Introducing the new effective roughness maps into the HIRLAM model appears to remedy on the seasonal wind speed bias over land and sea in spring. A new parameterisation on the effective roughness for scalar surface fluxes is developed and tested on synthetic data. Further is a method for the estimation the evapotranspiration from albedo, surface temperatures and NDVI succesfully compared to field observations. The HIRLAM predictions of water vapour at 12 GMT are used for atmospheric correction of

  20. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  1. Using records from submarine, aircraft and satellite to evaluate climate model simulations of Arctic sea ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stroeve

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice thickness distributions from models participating in the World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 are evaluated against observations from submarines, aircraft and satellites. While it's encouraging that the mean thickness distributions from the models are in general agreement with observations, the spatial patterns of sea ice thickness are poorly represented in most models. The poor spatial representation of thickness patterns is associated with a failure of models to represent details of the mean atmospheric circulation pattern that governs the transport and spatial distribution of sea ice. The climate models as a whole also tend to underestimate the rate of ice volume loss from 1979 to 2013, though the multi-model ensemble mean trend remains within the uncertainty of that from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. These results raise concerns regarding the ability of CMIP5 models to realistically represent the processes driving the decline of Arctic sea ice and project the timing of when a seasonally ice-free Arctic may be realized.

  2. Satellite observations of the role and impacts of dry season climate limitations on tropical forest fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Wu, J.; Devadas, R.; Guan, K.; Liu, Y.; Ratana, P.; Sun, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change scenarios projected for the 21st century predict drying of the Amazon, greening of monsoon tropical Asia and no change in the tropics of Australia. Dry season variability is increasing with complex associated forest responses and feedbacks as they become exposed to longer and/or more intense dry seasons. The functional response of tropical forests to dry seasonal periods is thus crucial to forest resilience, as forests may respond with either enhanced photosynthesis (due to more sunlight) or may dry down with greater susceptibility to fires and release of greenhouse gases and severe public health haze alerts. In this study, we use multiple satellite remote sensing datasets representing forest canopy states, environmental drivers (light and water status), and disturbance (fires), along with in situ flux tower measures of photosynthesis to assess whole ecosystem patterns and test mechanisms of forest- dry season climate interactions. We compare photosynthesis patterns and dry season responses of Asia-Oceania tropical forests with neotropical forests to better understand forest resilience to climate change and human impacts. In contrast to the neotropics, human activities in monsoon tropical Asia have resulted in intensive transformations of tropical forests. We find forest disturbance exerts a strong influence on tropical forest functioning and a partial loss or degradation of tropical forests can reverse dry seasonal responses with substantial impacts on carbon fluxes. Neotropical forests displayed large variations in dry season forest responses due to spatially variable dry season lengths and magnitude, whereas most of monsoon Asia tropical forests lacked well-defined dry seasons, yet were highly sensitive to shorter term, intense drought events that impacted severely upon the disturbed forests. Our results highlight the interactions among rainfall, radiation and forest health with the relative importance of each factor varying with the

  3. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Mission and Vision Statements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mission The ARM Climate Research Facility, a DOE scientific user facility, provides the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote-sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. Vision To provide a detailed and accurate description of the Earth atmosphere in diverse climate regimes to resolve the uncertainties in climate and Earth system models toward the development of sustainable solutions for the nation's energy and environmental challenges.

  5. Parameterizing atmosphere-land surface exchange for climate models with satellite data: A case study for the Southern Great Plains CART site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.

    High-resolution satellite data provide detailed, quantitative descriptions of land surface characteristics over large areas so that objective scale linkage becomes feasible. With the aid of satellite data, researchers examined the linearity of processes scaled up from 30 m to 15 km. If the phenomenon is scale invariant, then the aggregated value of a function or flux is equivalent to the function computed from aggregated values of controlling variables. The linear relation may be realistic for limited land areas having no large surface contrasts to cause significant horizontal exchange. However, for areas with sharp surface contrasts, horizontal exchange and different dynamics in the atmospheric boundary may induce nonlinear interactions, such as at interfaces of land-water, forest-farm land, and irrigated crops-desert steppe. The linear approach, however, represents the simplest scenario and is useful for developing an effective scheme for incorporating subgrid land surface processes into large-scale models. Our studies focus on coupling satellite data and ground measurements with a satellite-data-driven land surface model to parameterize surface fluxes for large-scale climate models. In this case study, we used surface spectral reflectance data from satellite remote sensing to characterize spatial and temporal changes in vegetation and associated surface parameters in an area of about 350 x 400 km covering the southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  6. Mutual influence between climate and vegetation cover through satellite data in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shirbeny, Mohammed A.; Aboelghar, Mohamed A.; Arafat, Sayed M.; El-Gindy, Abdel-Ghany M.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of vegetation cover on climatic change has not yet observed in Egypt. In the current study, Ismailia Governorate was selected as a case study to assess the impact of the vegetation cover expansion on both land surface and air temperature during twenty-eight years from 1983 to 2010. This observation site was carefully selected as a clear example for the highly rate of reclamation and vegetation expansion process in Egypt. Land Surface Temperature (LST) that were extracted from NOAA/AVHRR satellite data and air temperature (Tair) data that were collected from ground stations, were correlated with the expansion of vegetation cover that was delineated using Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ data. The result showed that (LST) decreased by about 2.3°C while (Tair) decreased by about 1.6°C with the expansion of the cultivated land during twenty-eight years.

  7. The German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubelt, Tilo; Sneeuw, Nico; Fichter, Walter; Müller, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Within the German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions", funded by the Geotechnologies programme of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, options and concepts for future satellite missions for precise (time-variable) gravity field recovery are investigated. The project team is composed of members from science and industry, bringing together experts in geodesy, satellite systems, metrology, sensor technology and control systems. The majority of team members already contributed to former gravity missions. The composition of the team guarantees that not only geodetic aspects and objectives are investigated, but also technological and financial constraints are considered. Conversely, satellite, sensor and system concepts are developed and improved in a direct exchange with geodetic and scientific claims. The project aims to develop concepts for both near and mid-term future satellite missions, taking into account e.g. advanced satellite formations and constellations, improved orbit design, innovative metrology and sensor systems and advances in satellite systems.

  8. Exploring the Ocean Through Climate Indicators: What Do Research, Predictions, and Decision-makers Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are several new and ongoing efforts around communicating climate and global change and variability by developing Climate Indicators (e.g. the US Global Change Research Project's Pilot Indicators Program, the US EPA's Climate Change Indicators, and the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate State of the Ocean indicators). Indicators provide information tailored to identified stakeholders and facilitate monitoring status, trends, extremes and variability of important climate features or processes. NOAA's Climate Monitoring program is in the middle of a three-year initiative toward supporting research toward the development of Ocean Climate Indicators for research, prediction, and decision makers. These indices combine ocean observations, climate data and products from platforms like (but not limited to) the drifting buoy, Argo, satellite, and buoy arrays that provide fundamental observations that contribute towards climate understanding, predictions, and projections. The program is supporting eight distinct projects that focus on primarily regional indices that target varied stakeholders and outreach strategies - from public awareness and education to targeted model performance improvement. This presentation will discuss the diverse set of projects, initial results, and discuss possibilities for and examples of using the indicators and processes for developing them for broader science outreach and education, with an eye toward the aim of organizing the ocean climate and observing community around developing a comprehensive ocean monitoring and indicators system.

  9. Teachers Learning to Research Climate: Development of hybrid teacher professional development to support climate inquiry and research in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, M. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Kennedy, T.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program is an international science and education focused on connecting scientists, teachers and students around relevant, local environmental issues. GLOBE's focus during the next two years in on climate, global change and understanding climate from a scientific perspective. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRFC) will engage youth from around the world in understanding and researching climate through investigations of local climate challenges. GLOBE teachers are trained in implementation of inquiry in the classroom and the use of scientific data collection protocols to develop inquiry and research projects of the Earth System. In preparation for the SCRC, GLOBE teachers will need additional training in climate science, global change and communicating climate science in the classroom. GLOBE's reach to 111 countries around the world requires development of scalable models for training teachers. In June GLOBE held the first teacher professional development workshop (Learning to Research Summer Institute) in a hybrid format with two-thirds of the teachers participating face-to-face and the remaining teachers participating virtually using Adobe Connect. The week long workshop prepared teachers to integrate climate science inquiry and research projects in the classrooms in the 2011-12 academic year. GLOBE scientists and other climate science experts will work with teachers and their students throughout the year in designing and executing a climate science research project. Final projects and research results will be presented in May 2012 through a virtual conference. This presentation will provide the framework for hybrid teacher professional development in climate science research and inquiry projects as well as summarize the findings from this inaugural session. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE

  10. SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Jinsheng

    2003-01-01

    This is a summarized paper. Two topics are discussed: Firstly, the concept, development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced; Secondly, some problems of theory and method, which must be considered in the study of the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data, are expounded.

  11. Review: Advances in delta-subsidence research using satellite methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the world's major river deltas are sinking relative to local sea level. The effects of subsidence can include aquifer salinization, infrastructure damage, increased vulnerability to flooding and storm surges, and permanent inundation of low-lying land. Consequently, determining the relative importance of natural vs. anthropogenic pressures in driving delta subsidence is a topic of ongoing research. This article presents a review of knowledge with respect to delta surface-elevation loss. The field is rapidly advancing due to applications of space-based techniques: InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar), GPS (global positioning system), and satellite ocean altimetry. These techniques have shed new light on a variety of subsidence processes, including tectonics, isostatic adjustment, and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment compaction. They also confirm that subsidence associated with fluid extraction can outpace sea-level rise by up to two orders of magnitude, resulting in effective sea-level rise that is one-hundred times faster than the global average rate. In coming years, space-based and airborne instruments will be critical in providing near-real-time monitoring to facilitate management decisions in sinking deltas. However, ground-based observations continue to be necessary for generating complete measurements of surface-elevation change. Numerical modeling should seek to simulate couplings between subsidence processes for greater predictive power.

  12. High resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, W.R.; Hays, P.B.; Grassl, H.J.; Gell, D.A.; Burrage, M.D.; Marshall, A.R.; Ortland, D.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite has been providing measurements of the wind field in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere since November 1991. Examination of various calibration data indicates the instrument has remained remarkably stable since launch. The instrument has a thermal drift of about 30 m/s/{degree}C (slightly dependent on wavelength) and a long-term temporal drift that has amounted to about 80 m/s since launch. These effects are removed in the data processing leaving an uncertainty in the instrument stability of {minus}2 nVs. The temperature control of the instrument has improved significantly since launch as a new method was implemented. The initial temperature control held the instrument temperature at about {+-}1{degree}C. The improved method, which holds constant the temperature of the optical bench instead of the radiator, keeps the instrument temperature at about 0.2{degree}C. The calibrations indicate very little change in the sensitivity of the instrument. The detector response has shown no degradation and the optics have not changed their transmittance.

  13. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  14. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  15. Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Leemans, R.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Long, P.

    2015-01-01

    This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative

  16. Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Leemans, R.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Long, P.

    2015-01-01

    This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequ

  17. Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX): A Public-Private Partnership for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for

  18. Satellite telemetry : a new tool for wildlife research and management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have cooperated since 1984 to develop and evaluate satellite telemetry as a means of...

  19. Ship and satellite observations over the ocean for verification of the shortwave cloud radiative effect in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the accuracy of the radiative transfer scheme of the ECHAM-5 climate model for reproducing the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE at the sea surface has been investigated. A characterization of both the observed state of the atmosphere and the surface radiation budget from ship and satellite is used for this purpose. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  20. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  1. Land surface phenological response to decadal climate variability across Australia using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A.; Tulbure, M. G.; Ma, X.; Xin, Q.; Paget, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Davies, K.; Devadas, R.; Held, A.

    2014-05-01

    Land surface phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning are influenced by variability in climatic forcing. Quantitative information on phenological cycles and their variability is important for agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land management, land surface modeling, and climate change studies. Most phenology studies have focused on temperature-driven Northern Hemisphere systems, where phenology shows annually reoccurring patterns. Yet, precipitation-driven non-annual phenology of arid and semi-arid systems (i.e. drylands) received much less attention, despite the fact that they cover more than 30% of the global land surface. Here we focused on Australia, the driest inhabited continent with one of the most variable rainfall climates in the world and vast areas of dryland systems. Detailed and internally consistent studies investigating phenological cycles and their response to climate variability across the entire continent designed specifically for Australian dryland conditions are missing. To fill this knowledge gap and to advance phenological research, we used existing methods more effectively to study geographic and climate-driven variability in phenology over Australia. We linked derived phenological metrics with rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We based our analysis on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2000 to 2013, which included extreme drought and wet years. We conducted a continent-wide investigation of the link between phenology and climate variability and a more detailed investigation over the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the primary agricultural area and largest river catchment of Australia. Results showed high inter- and intra-annual variability in phenological cycles. Phenological cycle peaks occurred not only during the austral summer but at any time of the year, and their timing varied by more than a month in the interior of the

  2. Land surface phenological response to decadal climate variability across Australia using satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning are influenced by variability in climatic forcing. Quantitative information on phenological cycles and their variability is important for agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land management, land surface modeling, and climate change studies. Most phenology studies have focused on temperature-driven Northern Hemisphere systems, where phenology shows annually reoccurring patterns. Yet, precipitation-driven non-annual phenology of arid and semi-arid systems (i.e. drylands received much less attention, despite the fact that they cover more than 30% of the global land surface. Here we focused on Australia, the driest inhabited continent with one of the most variable rainfall climates in the world and vast areas of dryland systems. Detailed and internally consistent studies investigating phenological cycles and their response to climate variability across the entire continent designed specifically for Australian dryland conditions are missing. To fill this knowledge gap and to advance phenological research, we used existing methods more effectively to study geographic and climate-driven variability in phenology over Australia. We linked derived phenological metrics with rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. We based our analysis on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS from 2000 to 2013, which included extreme drought and wet years. We conducted a continent-wide investigation of the link between phenology and climate variability and a more detailed investigation over the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB, the primary agricultural area and largest river catchment of Australia. Results showed high inter- and intra-annual variability in phenological cycles. Phenological cycle peaks occurred not only during the austral summer but at any time of the year, and their timing varied by more than a month in

  3. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  4. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  5. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  6. Application of Satellite Remote Sensing to Identify Climatic and Anthropogenic Changes Related to Water and Health Conditions in Emerging Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Jutla, A.

    2014-12-01

    By 2050, more than 70% of the world's population is expected to be living in a city. In many of the urbanizing regions in Asia and Africa, most new development is taking place without adequate urban or regional planning, and a majority population is crowded into densely populated unplanned settlements, also known as slums. During the same period, precipitation and temperature patterns are likely to see significant changes in many of these regions while coastal megacities will have to accommodate sea-level rise in their ecosystems. The rapid increase in population is usually observed in fringes of the urban sprawl without adequate water or sanitation facilities or access to other municipal amenities (such as utilities, healthcare, and education). Collectively, these issues make the ever increasing slum dwellers in emerging megacities significantly vulnerable to a combination of climatic and anthropogenic threats. However, how the growth of unplanned urban and peri-urban sprawl and simultaneous change in climatic patterns have impacted public health in the emerging megacities remain largely unexplored due to lack of readily available and usable data. We employ a number of Remote Sensing products (GRACE, LANDSAT, MODIS) to bridge above knowledge gaps and to identify relevant hydrologic and anthropogenic changes in emerging megacities that are most vulnerable due to the climate-water-health nexus. We explore one of the largest and the fastest growing megacities in the world - Dhaka, Bangladesh - on identifying and investigating the changes in the water environment and growth of slum areas, and impact on water services and health outcomes. The hydroclimatology of South Asia is highly seasonal and the asymmetric availability of water affects vast areas of Bangladesh differently in space and time, exposing the population of Dhaka region to both droughts and floods and periodic spring-fall outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, such as cholera and rotavirus. This research

  7. Micro-propulsion research; challenges towards future nano-satellite projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.; Bouwmester, J.; Guo, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Systems Engineering department at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering is hard at work miniaturizing satellite subsystems to accommodate the growing use of small satellites. One of the challenges the department has taken on is research into micro-propulsion. The limitations that come with

  8. Advancing Australia's role in climate change and health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Pitman, Andrew; Barnett, Adrian; Kaldor, John; Doherty, Peter; Stanley, Fiona

    2017-02-01

    A major Australian government report published 25 years ago called for urgent investment in research on the impacts of climate change on human health. Since that report's release, less than 0.1% of Australian health funding has been allocated to this area. As the world continues on a high emissions pathway, the health impacts from climate change are increasing in size and complexity. While Australia has established leadership roles in climate science and health research, it must now link these two strengths. Doing so would boost regional understanding of how climate change will affect health and what adaptation strategies are needed to reduce these threats. Such research would support better health planning and decision-making in partnership with other regional countries.

  9. Research progress of extreme climate and its vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The IPCC’s fifth assessment report indicates that climate warming is unquestionable, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events may increase, and extreme weather events can destroy the growth conditions of vegetation that is otherwise in a stable condition. Therefore, it is essential to research the formation of extreme weather events and its ecological response, both in terms scientific development and the needs of societal development. This paper mainly examines these issues from the following aspects: (1) the definition of extreme climate events and the methods of studying the associated response of vegetation; (2) the research progress on extreme climate events and their vegetation response; and (3) the future direction of research on extreme climate and its vegetation response.

  10. Extended contingency table: Performance metrics for satellite observations and climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.

    2013-10-01

    Validation of gridded satellite observations and climate model simulations are fundamental to future improvements in retrieval algorithms and model developments. Among the metrics, the contingency table, which includes a number of categorical indices, is extensively used in evaluation studies. While the categorical indices offer invaluable information, they do not provide any insight into the volume of the variable detected correctly/incorrectly. In this study, the contingency table categorical metrics are extended to volumetric indices for evaluation of gridded data. The suggested indices include (a) Volumetric Hit Index (VHI): volume of correctly detected simulations relative to the volume of the correctly detected simulations and missed observations; (b) Volumetric False Alarm Ratio (VFAR): volume of false simulations relative to the sum of simulations; (c) Volumetric Miss Index (VMI): volume of missed observations relative to the sum of missed observations and correctly detected simulations; and (d) the Volumetric Critical Success Index (VCSI). The latter provides an overall measure of volumetric performance including volumetric hits, false alarms, and misses. First, using two synthetic time series, the volumetric indices are evaluated against the contingency table categorical metrics. Then, the volumetric indices are used to evaluate a gridded data set at the continental scale. The results show that the volumetric indices provide additional information beyond the commonly used categorical metrics that can be useful in evaluating gridded data sets.

  11. Prototype of the Mexican spatial data infrastructure for climate raster models and satellite imagery (“VISTA-C”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, S.; Osorno Covarrubias, J.; Magaña Rueda, V.; Martínez Zazueta, I.; Vázquez Cruz, G.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of climatic uncertainty and its impacts on agriculture yields, there is a growing need for public institutions of subtropical countries to access as reliable as possible meteorological models and transmit a representation of their results in an effective way to stakeholders in agriculture. In many of these countries however, broad climatic regions and point-based statistics remain the core of these representations. The use of satellite imagery is largely limited to visual assessment, although it could serve as complementary data to meteorological raster models and the basis for spatially consistent quantitative impact assessments of meteorological events. In view of this situation in Mexico, a project developed by the Institute of Geography at UNAM university, and promoted by the National Institute of Geography and Statistics, consisted in the development of a climate monitoring system, which includes three main features: 1) a modular array storage system containing NOAA and GOES satellite imagery acquired though a receiving station (ERISA), 2) a climate modeling squeme based on successive error corrections of climate raster maps and associated models using the above mentioned imagery, and 3) an online, dynamic geovisualization of the results of the models. We discuss the implemented technologies and illustrate the VISTA-C prototype which has been released.

  12. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  13. How Agribusiness Uses Climate Predictions: Implications for Climate Research and Provision of Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonka, S. T.; Changnon, S. A., Jr.; Hofing, S. L.

    1992-12-01

    The paper presents an analysis of climate prediction needs and uses within six important subsegments of the agribusiness sector. Results are based on a mail survey of 114 managers. Although nearly 70% of the respondents indicated some use of climate predictions in the last year, only 1 in 8 of the respondents used that information in a specific decision. Lack of sufficient accuracy and prediction lead time were identified as two important impediments to current use of climate predictions. Estimates of necessary accuracy levels and lead time are reported both for the group average and by segments of need. Recommendations are offered regarding research needs to enhance climate prediction and activities of the government and the private sector to improve use of climate predictions.

  14. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  16. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  17. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  18. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  19. NASA indicators research in support of the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, A. K.; Houser, P. R.; Tsaoussi, L.

    2013-12-01

    Indicators have the potential to concisely communicate to a broad audience the observed and projected climate trends and anomalies, as well as society's vulnerability and ability to adapt to climate change. Consequently, indicators are anticipated to play an important role in the Fourth U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) report, slated to be released in four years. The NCA objectives include providing information about observed and anticipated changes in climate and assessing the impacts for regions and sectors, in order to help the nation prepare for a changing climate. Efforts are underway within the NCA to identify a set physical, ecological, and societal climate change indicators, by leveraging existing indicators currently in use by federal agencies. The NCA indicators are intended to provide meaningful and authoritative measures about the status and trends of climate for decision makers and the public. As a complement to this effort, and to support the NCA sustained assessment process, NASA solicited membership for an Indicators System Team and selected fourteen projects to begin research in summer 2013. These teams will develop and test potential new indicators that align with the vision set forth by the NCA, by combining NASA's remote sensing and modeling data products with additional datasets. Here, we further describe the objectives of the research program and highlight preliminary findings of several key projects related to physical, ecological, and societal climate change indicators, and discuss future research activities. Ultimately, this research will be made available in the peer-reviewed literature so that the newly developed indicators have the potential to be included in future NCA reports.

  20. Increasing Diversity in Global Climate Change Research for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Howard, A. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Druyan, L. M.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Austin, S. A.; Cheung, T. D.; Damas, M. C.; Boxe, C.; Prince, T.; Ng, C.; Frost, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global Climate Change and the ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate are critical to the survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies towards advanced degrees and pursue careers related to climate change. This is best accomplished by involving undergraduates in global climate change research. This Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) initiative is based at the City University of New York (CUNY) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and is supported by NASA and NSF. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences include CUNY faculty and GISS scientists. Research topics include the Wetland Carbon Project, The Cooling Power Of Urban Vegetation, Internal Ocean Mixing, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Pollution Transport and Tropospheric Ozone. Students are recruited from CUNY colleges and other colleges and universities. The program maintains an emphasis on under-represented minorities and females. Approximately sixty percent of the undergraduate students are under-represented minorities and forty percent are female. The project is supported by NSF award AGS-1359293 REU Site: CUNY/GISS Center for Global Climate Research.

  1. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES instrument on board the NASA-Aura satellite from January 2005 to December 2008.

    The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce zonal-mean biases of less than ±3 % for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling zonal-mean biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3 % (that is ±0.14 g kg−1 in both models. Sampling led to a temperature zonal-mean bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to −1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper

  2. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite from January 2005 to December 2008.

    The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce biases of less than ±3% for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3% (that is ±0.14 g kg−1 in both models. Sampling led to a temperature bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to −1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper troposphere, respectively. Up to 8% bias was calculated in the upper

  3. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.

  4. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  5. Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, David R.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk-benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established.

  6. Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, David R [Department of Philosophy, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kopp, Robert E; Oppenheimer, Michael, E-mail: morrow@uchicago.ed [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk-benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established.

  7. Development of a Web-based visualization platform for climate research using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Wang, Panxing; Di, Liping; Lu, Mingyue

    2012-10-01

    Recently, it has become easier to access climate data from satellites, ground measurements, and models from various data centers. However, searching, accessing, and processing heterogeneous data from different sources are very time-consuming tasks. There is lack of a comprehensive visual platform to acquire distributed and heterogeneous scientific data and to render processed images from a single accessing point for climate studies. This paper documents the design and implementation of a Web-based visual, interoperable, and scalable platform that is able to access climatological fields from models, satellites, and ground stations from a number of data sources using Google Earth (GE) as a common graphical interface. The development is based on the TCP/IP protocol and various data sharing open sources, such as OPeNDAP, GDS, Web Processing Service (WPS), and Web Mapping Service (WMS). The visualization capability of integrating various measurements into GE extends dramatically the awareness and visibility of scientific results. Using embedded geographic information in the GE, the designed system improves our understanding of the relationships of different elements in a four-dimensional domain. The system enables easy and convenient synergistic research on a virtual platform for professionals and the general public, greatly advancing global data sharing and scientific research collaboration.

  8. Development of a Web-Based Visualization Platform for Climate Research Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Wang, Panxing; Di, Liping; Lu, Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has become easier to access climate data from satellites, ground measurements, and models from various data centers, However, searching. accessing, and prc(essing heterogeneous data from different sources are very tim -consuming tasks. There is lack of a comprehensive visual platform to acquire distributed and heterogeneous scientific data and to render processed images from a single accessing point for climate studies. This paper. documents the design and implementation of a Web-based visual, interoperable, and scalable platform that is able to access climatological fields from models, satellites, and ground stations from a number of data sources using Google Earth (GE) as a common graphical interface. The development is based on the TCP/IP protocol and various data sharing open sources, such as OPeNDAP, GDS, Web Processing Service (WPS), and Web Mapping Service (WMS). The visualization capability of integrating various measurements into cE extends dramatically the awareness and visibility of scientific results. Using embedded geographic information in the GE, the designed system improves our understanding of the relationships of different elements in a four dimensional domain. The system enables easy and convenient synergistic research on a virtual platform for professionals and the general public, gr$tly advancing global data sharing and scientific research collaboration.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Climate Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Lambert, K. F.; Buonocore, J.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The weak link between science and policy jeopardizes the wellbeing of people and the planet. Climate change is a pressing example of this disconnect. Policies are not keeping pace with the best of our knowledge from climate change research. We are working to bridge the science-policy divide and advance climate solutions by focusing on the positive health, ecosystem, and economic benefits of policy action. In 2013, we brought together an interdisciplinary team to estimate the co-benefits of U.S. power plant carbon standards for air quality and health, plus the economic value of the benefits. The results demonstrate that strong carbon standards with flexible compliance options can change the power sector, yielding substantial air quality and health benefits nationwide. The results also show that the economic value of these benefits outweighs the costs nationally and regionally. We advanced the policy applications of this research through a strategic campaign with three key elements: media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers. Our strategy was to build widespread awareness of the research outcomes via media engagement, amplify our message via targeted outreach to citizens groups, and inform policy solutions by sharing research results with decision makers. The research was reported in more than 600 unique news stories in mainstream media outlets and received social media posts by members of Congress and senior White House officials. We amplified the messages via 14 webinars for citizens groups. We also held 16 briefings for policymakers and the public, in addition to meetings with relevant policy staff. Regional, state and federal policy leaders have used the research to understand air quality and health benefits of power plant carbon standards. This model of pairing research with media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers is effective for bridging the gap between climate research and policy, and can be

  10. Reconciling justice and attribution research to advance climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo; Stone, Dáithí; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement is an important step for international climate policy, but the compensation for negative effects of climate change based on clear assignment of responsibilities remains highly debated. From both a policy and a science perspective, it is unclear how responsibilities should be defined and on what evidence base. We explore different normative principles of justice relevant to climate change impacts, and ask how different forms of causal evidence of impacts drawn from detection and attribution research could inform policy approaches in accordance with justice considerations. We reveal a procedural injustice based on the imbalance of observations and knowledge of impacts between developed and developing countries. This type of injustice needs to be considered in policy negotiations and decisions, and efforts strengthened to reduce it.

  11. Climate research and climate negotiations - status and prospect; Klimaforskning og klimaforhandlinger - status og utsikter fremover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Holtsmark, Bjart; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the climate process from the preliminary work on the Climate Convention to the negotiations about the Berlin mandate about the increased commitments of the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. Future prospects are discussed up to the Kyoto meeting in 1997. A status survey is given of the climate research and possible man-made climate disturbances. The various countries take different positions on some of the most important issues in the negotiations: (1) Are the various countries to have the same goal, or should the goals be differentiated?, (2) Goal and dating of emission reductions, (3) Selection of measures and means, (4) Flexibility in the fulfillment of commitments over time, (5) Only carbon dioxide or more greenhouse gases?, (6) Is binding of carbon dioxide through net forest growth to be included in the negotiations? 32 refs., 52 figs.

  12. A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of sea surface temperature from ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The study of climate change demands long-term, stable observational records of climate variables such as sea surface temperature (SST). ESA's Climate Change Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential climate variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, sea ice, sea level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST change. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as

  13. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  14. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research

  15. How do we support informal educators teaching for climate literacy? Lessons from design-based research to improve climate science field trips through educator experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. B.; Steiner, M.; Crowley, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy is an important and timely aspect of students' and educators' scientific understanding. Climate science is a challenging topic to understand and communicate, given that factors affecting change in climate are spatially and temporally distant from one another, and include layers of understanding biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic factors. Some learning scientists describe complex processes such as these "constraint-based interactions" and consider them to be among the more difficult for learners to grasp. An additional challenge for climate education is the politicized nature of the issue of climate change among U.S. adults. Our goal is to create a climate literacy program that bridges informal and formal learning for middle school students by integrating tools and ideas from pre-field trip classroom activities into deep investigations on the floor of the natural history museum. In this presentation, we address the challenges and successes of an in-progress climate literacy project sponsored by NASA from the perspective of educator learning. A group of experienced natural history docents were asked to participate in an iteratively designed field trip program for climate education. The project challenged educators with both new content and a new pedagogical structure: using real NASA satellite data to visualize and explore earth's climate, while implementing student-centered, participatory learning on the floor of the museum. By engaging in an iterative, design-based research process of prototyping field trips at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, we collected observational and interview data from seven dedicated informal educators who were asked to change both the content and the format of their interactions with middle school field trip students. These docents have a wide variety of experiences and opinions around climate science, data, and student-centered teaching and learning pedagogies. Over the course of one semester of iteratively

  16. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Liss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds, we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN, which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million, while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  17. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  18. A Satellite-Derived Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Transport Index for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gray J.; Lerner, Jeffrey A.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A new approach is presented to quantify upper-level moisture transport from geostationary satellite data. Daily time sequences of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-7 water vapor imagery were used to produce estimates of winds and water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud-free region of the upper troposphere sensed by the 6.7- microns water vapor channel. The winds and mixing ratio values were gridded and then combined to produce a parameter called the water vapor transport index (WVTI), which represents the magnitude of the two-dimensional transport of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Daily grids of WVTI, meridional moisture transport, mixing ratio, pressure, and other associated parameters were averaged to produce monthly fields for June, July, and August (JJA) of 1987 and 1988 over the Americas and surrounding oceanic regions, The WVTI was used to compare upper-tropospheric moisture transport between the summers of 1987 and 1988, contrasting the latter part of the 1986/87 El Nino event and the La Nina period of 1988. A similar product derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 40-Year Reanalysis Project was used to help to validate the index. Although the goal of this research was to describe the formulation and utility of the WVTI, considerable insight was obtained into the interannual variability of upper-level water vapor transport. Both datasets showed large upper-level water vapor transport associated with synoptic features over the Americas and with outflow from tropical convective systems. Minimal transport occurred over tropical and subtropical high pressure regions where winds were light. Index values from NCEP-NCAR were 2-3 times larger than that determined from GOES. This difference resulted from large zonal wind differences and an apparent overestimate of upper-tropospheric moisture in the reanalysis model. A comparison of the satellite-derived monthly

  19. Climate services in the tourism sector - examples and market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Andrea; Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Kortschak, Dominik; Hofer, Marianne; Winkler, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Tourism is one of the most weather-sensitive sectors. Hence, dealing with weather and climate risks is an important part of operational risk management. WEDDA® (WEather Driven Demand Analysis), developed by Joanneum Research, represents a comprehensive and flexible toolbox for managing weather and climate risks. Modelling the demand for products or services of a particular economic sector or company and its weather and climate sensitivity usually forms the starting and central point of WEDDA®. Coupling the calibrated demand models to either long-term climate scenarios or short-term weather forecasts enables the use of WEDDA® for the following areas of application: (i) implementing short-term forecasting systems for the prediction of the considered indicator; (ii) quantifying the weather risk of a particular economic sector or company using parameters from finance (e.g. Value-at-Risk); (iii) assessing the potential impacts of changing climatic conditions on a particular economic sector or company. WEDDA® for short-term forecasts on the demand for products or services is currently used by various tourism businesses, such as open-air swimming pools, ski areas, and restaurants. It supports tourism and recreation facilities to better cope with (increasing) weather variability by optimizing the disposability of staff, resources and merchandise according to expected demand. Since coping with increasing weather variability forms one of the challenges with respect to climate change, WEDDA® may become an important component within a whole pool of weather and climate services designed to support tourism and recreation facilities to adapt to climate change. Climate change impact assessments at European scale, as conducted in the EU-FP7 project IMPACT2C, provide basic information of climate change impacts on tourism demand not only for individual tourism businesses, but also for regional and national tourism planners and policy makers interested in benchmarks for the

  20. Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Aviation plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with aviation noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, aviation climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 aviation climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future aviation capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of aviation emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize aviation climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief

  1. Synergy use of satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data for air pollution impacts on urban climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastru, Dan M.; Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.

    2016-10-01

    The increase of urban atmospheric pollution due to particulate matters (PM) in different fraction sizes affects seriously not only human health and environment, but also city climate directly and indirectly. In the last decades, with the economic development and the increased emissions from industrial, traffic and domestic pollutants, the urban atmospheric pollution with remarkable high PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) concentration levels became serious in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. Both active as well as satellite remote sensing are key applications in global change science and urban climatology. The aerosol parameters can be measured directly in situ or derived from satellite remote sensing observations. All these methods are important and complementary. The current study presents a spatiotemporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with climate parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) in Bucharest metropolitan area. Daily average particle matters concentrations PM10 and PM2.5 for Bucharest metropolitan area have been provided by 8 monitoring stations belonging to air pollution network of Environmental Protection Agency. The C005 (version 5.1) Level 2 and Level 3 Terra and Aqua MODIS AOD550 time-series satellite data for period 01/01/2011- 31/12/2012 have been also used. Meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea level atmospheric pressure) have been provided by in-situ measurements. Both in-situ monitoring data as well as MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite data for 2011-2012 period provided useful tools for particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 monitoring.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-10-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information February 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-06-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-04-19

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-08-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. Quantitative Cloud Analysis using Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is about observations of clouds from satellite and ground based instruments. The aim is to reconstruct the three dimensional cloud distributions. This information is used both in climate research and operational meteorological applications. In climate research, cloud observations provide

  14. A Satellite-Based Surface Radiation Climatology Derived by Combining Climate Data Records and Near-Real-Time Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for adjusting long-term climate data records (CDRs for the integrated use with near-real-time data using the example of surface incoming solar irradiance (SIS. Recently, a 23-year long (1983–2005 continuous SIS CDR has been generated based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm of the MVIRI radiometers onboard the geostationary Meteosat First Generation Platform. The CDR is available from the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF. Here, it is assessed whether a homogeneous extension of the SIS CDR to the present is possible with operationally generated surface radiation data provided by CM SAF using the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellites. Three extended CM SAF SIS CDR versions consisting of MVIRI-derived SIS (1983–2005 and three different SIS products derived from the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the MSG satellites (2006 onwards were tested. A procedure to detect shift inhomogeneities in the extended data record (1983–present was applied that combines the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT and a penalized maximal T-test with visual inspection. Shift detection was done by comparing the SIS time series with the ground stations mean, in accordance with statistical significance. Several stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN and about 50 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA over Europe were used as the ground-based reference. The analysis indicates several breaks in the data record between 1987 and 1994 probably due to artefacts in the raw data and instrument failures. After 2005 the MVIRI radiometer was replaced by the narrow-band SEVIRI and the broadband GERB radiometers and a new retrieval algorithm was applied. This induces significant challenges for the homogenisation across the satellite generations. Homogenisation is performed by applying a mean-shift correction depending on the shift size of

  15. Engaging Scientists and Users in Climate Change Research and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, E. T.; Reeves, K.; Shimamoto, M. M.; Zerbonne, S.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program has a mandate to "consult with actual and potential users of the results of the program" in developing products that will support learning about and responding to climate change. USGCRP has sought to engage stakeholders throughout the development and dissemination of key products, such as the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3, 2014) and the Climate and Health Assessment (CHA, 2016), in the strategic planning processes leading to the National Global Change Research Plan (2012) and Update to the Strategic Plan (2016), and through regular postings to social media that highlight research results and opportunities for engagement. Overall, USGCRP seeks to promote dialogue between scientific experts, stakeholders, and decision makers about information needs in regions or sectors, the potential impacts of climate change, and possible responses. This presentation will describe how USGCRP has implemented various stakeholder engagement measures during the planning, development, and release of products such as NCA3 and CHA. Through repeated opportunities for stakeholder input, USGCRP has promoted process transparency and inclusiveness in the framing of assessments and other products. In addition, USGCRP has supported scientists' engagement with a range of audiences and potential collaborators through a variety of mechanisms, including community-based meetings, deliberative forums, and identification of non-Federal speaking and knowledge co-production opportunities. We will discuss key lessons learned and successful approaches for engaging users as well as opportunities and challenges for future engagement.

  16. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  17. Constructing new satellite-only time series of global mean, sea surface temperature data for climate from ATSR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Karen; Remedios, John; Ghent, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Along Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) have provided a near-continuous record of sea surface temperature (SST) data for climate from the launch of ATSR-1 in 1991 to the loss of the Advanced ATSR (AATSR) in April 2012. The intention was always to provide an SST record, independent of in situ data, to corroborate and improve climate data records in recent times. We show that the ATSR record provides a very suitable data set with which to study the recent climate record, particularly during the ATSR-2 and AATSR periods (1995 to 2012) in three major respects. First, ATSR climate time series achieve anomaly accuracies of better than 0.05 K (and high stability). Second, the overlap between instruments allows for excellent determination and removal of biases; between ATSR-2 and AATSR, these are less than 0.05 K for the highest accuracy SST data. Finally, uncertainties on global monthly mean data are less than 0.02 K and hence comparable to those achieved by in situ analyses such as HadSST3. A particular hallmark of the ATSR instruments was their exceptional design for accuracy incorporating high accuracy radiometric calibration, dual-view of the Earth's surface and the use of three thermal emission channels; additional channels are included for cloud clearing in this context. The use of dual-view and multiple thermnal wavelengths allows a number of combinations for retrievals of SST, the most accurate being the dual-view, three-channel retrieval (D3) at nighttime. This restriction is due to the use of the 3.7 micron channel which is sensitive to solar radiation during the day. Extensive work has resulted in a major advances recently resulting in both an operational V2.0 SST product and a further improved ATSR Re-analysis for Climate (ARC) product, a particular feature of the latter being the development of a depth SST product in addition to the skin SST directly determined from satellite data. We will discuss the characteristics of these data sets in terms of

  18. NIST Infrared Blackbody Calibration Support for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Zeng, J.; Mekhontsev, S.; Khromchenko, V.

    2012-12-01

    The National Institute of Technology (NIST) Sensor Science Division has established measurement capabilities in support of various existing and planned satellite programs, which monitor key parameters for the study of climate change, such as solar irradiance, earth radiance, and atmospheric effects. These capabilities include the characterization of infrared reference blackbody sources and cavity radiometers, as well as the materials used to coat the cavity surfaces. In order to accurately measure high levels of effective emissivity and absorptance of cavities, NIST has developed a laser- and integrating-sphere-based facility (the Complete Hemispherical Infrared Laser-based Reflectometer (CHILR)). The system is used for both radiometer and blackbody cavity characterization. Multiple laser sources with wavelengths ranging from 1.5 μm to 23 μm are used to perform reflectance (1 - emissivity (or absorptance)) measurements of radiometer cavities. Measurements have been performed for numerous instruments including the Internal Calibration Target (ICT)) blackbody source used for calibration of the Cross track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) instrument on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), both for the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), as well as the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) instrument, and blackbodies constructed for prototyping of an infrared instrument on the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). For a more comprehensive understanding of the measurement results, NIST has also measured samples of the coated surfaces of the cavities and associated baffles. This includes several types of reflectance measurements: specular, directional-hemispherical (diffuse), and bi-directional distribution function (BRDF). The first two are performed spectrally and provide information that enables estimation of the cavity performance where laser sources for CHILR are not available

  19. Initial phase of the Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research – A virtual centre at the interface of basic and applied weather and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weissmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research is a network of German universities, research institutes and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD. It has been established to trigger and intensify basic research and education on weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The performed research ranges from nowcasting and short-term weather forecasting to convective-scale data assimilation, the development of parameterizations for numerical weather prediction models, climate monitoring and the communication and use of forecast information. Scientific findings from the network contribute to better understanding of the life-cycle of shallow and deep convection, representation of uncertainty in ensemble systems, effects of unresolved variability, regional climate variability, perception of forecasts and vulnerability of society. Concrete developments within the research network include dual observation-microphysics composites, satellite forward operators, tools to estimate observation impact, cloud and precipitation system tracking algorithms, large-eddy-simulations, a regional reanalysis and a probabilistic forecast test product. Within three years, the network has triggered a number of activities that include the training and education of young scientists besides the centre's core objective of complementing DWD's internal research with relevant basic research at universities and research institutes. The long term goal is to develop a self-sustaining research network that continues the close collaboration with DWD and the national and international research community.

  20. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing Missions for Monitoring Water, Carbon, and global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the subjects of water, carbon, and global climate change have attracted worldwide attention by scientists and the media. Climate change, whether associated with human- induced or natural variations, has and will continue to be important to policy makers and the public. It is clear t...

  2. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993–2010 from the Climate Change Initiative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ablain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS in climate change monitoring. In the last two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of important scientific questions such as: "Is sea level rise accelerating?", "Can we close the sea level budget?", "What are the causes of the regional and interannual variability?", "Can we already detect the anthropogenic forcing signature and separate it from the internal/natural climate variability?", and "What are the coastal impacts of sea level rise?", the accuracy of altimetry-based sea level records at global and regional scales needs to be significantly improved. For example, the global mean and regional sea level trend uncertainty should become better than 0.3 and 0.5 mm year−1, respectively (currently of 0.6 and 1–2 mm year−1. Similarly, interannual global mean sea level variations (currently uncertain to 2–3 mm need to be monitored with better accuracy. In this paper, we present various respective data improvements achieved within the European Space Agency (ESA Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI project on "Sea Level" during its first phase (2010–2013, using multi-mission satellite altimetry data over the 1993–2010 time span. In a first step, using a new processing system with dedicated algorithms and adapted data processing strategies, an improved set of sea level products has been produced. The main improvements include: reduction of orbit errors and wet/dry atmospheric correction errors, reduction of instrumental drifts and bias, inter-calibration biases, intercalibration between missions and combination of the different sea level data sets, and an improvement of the reference mean sea surface. We also present preliminary independent validations of the SL_cci products, based on tide gauges comparison and sea level budget closure approach

  3. Socio-economic research in support of climate policy development: Mistra's Research Program Clipore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grennfelt, Peringe; Kjellén, Bo; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Zetterberg, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Mistra's Climate Policy Research Program, Clipore, is one of the largest research programs directed to support international climate policy development, involving research groups in Sweden, Norway, United States and India. It has been running from 2004 to 2011 with a budget of more than 100 MSEK (15 M USD). The paper briefly describes the program and its outcomes in relation to climate policy development. Discussion focuses on how the program has been able to be in the front of and include the development of emissions trading systems in Europe and the United States and how the program has been able to follow and produce inputs to the agenda of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper also discusses how the program has managed to present its outcomes and maintain an active dialogue with the various stakeholders. The paper emphasises options and obstacles in the communication between science and policy.

  4. Assessing ecosystem response to multiple disturbances and climate change in South Africa using ground- and satellite-based measurements and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Falge, E. M.; Brümmer, C.; Mukwashi, K.; Schmullius, C.; Hüttich, C.; Odipo, V.; Scholes, R. J.; Mudau, A.; Midgley, G.; Stevens, N.; Hickler, T.; Scheiter, S.; Martens, C.; Twine, W.; Iiyambo, T.; Bradshaw, K.; Lück, W.; Lenfers, U.; Thiel-Clemen, T.; du Toit, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa currently experiences rapidly growing human population, intrinsically tied to substantial changes in land use on shrubland, savanna and mixed woodland ecosystems due to over-exploitation. Significant conversions driving degradation, affecting fire frequency and water availability, and fueling climate change are expected to increase in the immediate future. However, measured data of greenhouse gas emissions as affected by land use change are scarce to entirely lacking from this region. The project 'Adaptive Resilience of Southern African Ecosystems' (ARS AfricaE) conducts research and develops scenarios of ecosystem development under climate change, for management support in conservation or for planning rural area development. This will be achieved by (1) creation of a network of research clusters (paired sites with natural and altered vegetation) along an aridity gradient in South Africa for ground-based micrometeorological in-situ measurements of energy and matter fluxes, (2) linking biogeochemical functions with ecosystem structure, and eco-physiological properties, (3) description of ecosystem disturbance (and recovery) in terms of ecosystem function such as carbon balance components and water use efficiency, (4) set-up of individual-based models to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements, (5) combination with long-term landscape dynamic information derived from remote sensing and aerial photography, and (6) development of sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change. Emphasis is given on validation (by a suite of field measurements) of estimates obtained from eddy covariance, model approaches and satellite derivations.

  5. Overview of a new scenario framework for climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes; the risks these could pose to human and natural systems, particularly how these changes could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce the risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. Developing new scenarios for use in impacts, adaptation, and mitigation research requires more than emissions of greenhouse gases and resulting climate change. Scenarios also require assumptions about socioeconomic development, including a narrative, and qualitative and quantitative assumptions about development patterns. An insight recently gained is that the magnitude and extent of greenhouse gas emissions is relatively independent of demographic and socioeconomic development; that is, multiple demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can lead to any particular emission scenario. A relatively wealthy world with high population density could have low greenhouse gas emissions because of policies that encourage energy efficiency and sufficient low emission technology. The opposite also is plausible. Therefore, demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can be described separately from the Representative Concentration Pathways and then combined using a matrix architecture into a broader range of scenarios than was possible with the SRES. Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale. To encompass a wide range of possible development pathways, five SSPs are defined along two axes describing worlds with increasing socioeconomic challenges to mitigation (y-axis) and adaptation (x

  6. Climate Comics: polar research in a cartoon form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Z.; Carbaugh, S.; Defrancis, G.; Donegan, R.; Brown, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Comics is a collaborative outreach effort between the Montshire Museum of Science, in Norwich, VT, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research staff, and freelance artist and recent graduate of the Center for Cartoon Studies in White River Junction, VT, Sam Carbaugh. The project involves the cartoonist, the education staff from the museum, and researchers from CRREL creating a series of comic books with polar science and research themes, including sea ice monitoring, sea ice albedo, ice cores, extreme microbial activity, and stories and the process of fieldwork. The aim of the comic series is to provide meaningful science information in a comic-format that is both informative and fun, while highlighting current polar research work done at the lab. The education staff at the Montshire Museum develops and provides a series of hands-on, inquiry-based activity descriptions to complement each comic book, and CRREL researchers provide science background information and reiterative feedback about the comic books as they are being developed. Here, we present the motivation for using the comic-book medium to present polar research topics, the process involved in creating the comics, some unique features of the series, and the finished comic books themselves. Cartoon illustrating ways snow pack can be used to determine past climate information.

  7. Assessment of climate variability of the Greenland ice sheet: Integration of in situ and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; Abdalati, W.; Stroeve, J.; Stober, M.; Nolin, A.; Key, J.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed research involves the application of multispectral satellite data in combination with ground truth measurements to monitor surface properties of the Greenland ice sheet which are essential for describing the energy and mass of the ice sheet. Several key components of the energy balance are parameterized using satellite data and in situ measurements. The analysis will be done for a ten year time period in order to get statistics on the seasonal and interannual variations of the surface processes and the climatology. Our goal is to investigate to what accuracy and over what geographic areas large scale snow properties and radiative fluxes can be derived based upon a combination of available remote sensing and meterological data sets. Data analysis showed the following results: (1)cloud classification based on longwave sky radiation revealed that overcast sky occurred for 25% of the time in winter, and for 15% in spring and summer respectively (winter and summer both show the same occurrence of clear sky of approximately 26%); (2) comparison of aerodynamic profile method with eddy correlation method to derive sensible and latent heat flux showed good agreement in the diurnal cycle and the turbulent fluxes were underestimated with the aerodynamic method by 10 - 30% as compared to the in situ eddy flux method; (3) the katabatic wind shows a distinct diurnal cycle with a maximum in the morning (7-9 h solar time) and a minimum in the later afternoon (18 h solar time); (4) snow grain size was modeled with a surface energy balance model (SNTHERM) and compared with in situ measurements. Sharp decreases in the modeled snow grain size, caused by accumulation events such as precipitation and deposition, could be verified with observational data; (4) radiative transfer modeling of firn supports our beliefs that the observed trends in 18 and 19 GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures are attributable to accumulation rate changes (modeling also indicates the

  8. Software Analysis of New Space Gravity Data for Geophysics and Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deese, Rupert; Ivins, Erik R.; Fielding, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Both the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellites are returning rich data for the study of the solid earth, the oceans, and the climate. Current software analysis tools do not provide researchers with the ease and flexibility required to make full use of this data. We evaluate the capabilities and shortcomings of existing software tools including Mathematica, the GOCE User Toolbox, the ICGEM's (International Center for Global Earth Models) web server, and Tesseroids. Using existing tools as necessary, we design and implement software with the capability to produce gridded data and publication quality renderings from raw gravity data. The straight forward software interface marks an improvement over previously existing tools and makes new space gravity data more useful to researchers. Using the software we calculate Bouguer anomalies of the gravity tensor's vertical component in the Gulf of Mexico, Antarctica, and the 2010 Maule earthquake region. These maps identify promising areas of future research.

  9. Engaging the Global South on climate engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, David E.; Flegal, Jane A.; Asrat, Asfawossen

    2015-07-01

    The Global South is relatively under-represented in public deliberations about solar radiation management (SRM), a controversial climate engineering concept. This Perspective analyses the outputs of a deliberative exercise about SRM, which took place at the University of California-Berkeley and involved 45 mid-career environmental leaders, 39 of whom were from the Global South. This analysis identifies and discusses four themes from the Berkeley workshop that might inform research and governance in this arena: (1) the 'moral hazard' problem should be reframed to emphasize 'moral responsibility'; (2) climate models of SRM deployment may not be credible as primary inputs to policy because they cannot sufficiently address local concerns such as access to water; (3) small outdoor experiments require some form of international public accountability; and (4) inclusion of actors from the Global South will strengthen both SRM research and governance.

  10. Transformation in a changing climate: a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Fazey, I.; Moug, P; Allen, S.; Beckmann, K.; Blackwood, D; Bonaventura, M; Burnett, K.; Danson, M; Falconer, R; Gagnon, A; Harkness, R; Hodgson, A; Holm, L; Irvine, KN; Low, R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation in relation to climate and other global change is increasingly receiving attention. The concept provides important opportunities to help examine how rapid and fundamental change to address contemporary global challenges can be facilitated. This paper contributes to discussions about transformation by providing a social science, arts and humanities perspective to open up discussion and set out a research agenda about what it means to transform and the dimensions, ...

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  15. Increasing Diversity in Global Climate Change, Space Weather and Space Technology Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.; Howard, A. M.; Boxe, C.; Jiang, M.; Tulsee, T.; Chow, Y. W.; Zavala-Gutierrez, R.; Barley, R.; Filin, B.; Brathwaite, K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes projects at Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York that contribute to the preparation of a diverse workforce in the areas of ocean modeling, planetary atmospheres, space weather and space technology. Specific projects incorporating both undergraduate and high school students include Assessing Parameterizations of Energy Input to Internal Ocean Mixing, Reaction Rate Uncertainty on Mars Atmospheric Ozone, Remote Sensing of Solar Active Regions and Intelligent Software for Nano-satellites. These projects are accompanied by a newly developed Computational Earth and Space Science course to provide additional background on methodologies and tools for scientific data analysis. This program is supported by NSF award AGS-1359293 REU Site: CUNY/GISS Center for Global Climate Research and the NASA New York State Space Grant Consortium.

  16. Monitoring global climate change using SLR data from LARES and other geodetic satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, Antonio; Paris, Claudio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), i.e. the spin axis of the Earth, is influenced by the mass redistribution inside and on the surface of the Earth. On the Earth surface, global ice melting, sea level change and atmospheric circulation are the prime contributors. Recent studies have unraveled the majority of the mysteries behind the Chandler wobble, the annual motion and the secular motion of the pole. The differences from the motion of a pole for a rigid Earth is indeed due to the mass redistribution and transfer of angular momentum among the atmosphere, the oceans and solid Earth. The technique of laser ranging and the use of laser ranged satellites such as LARES along with other techniques such Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) allow to measure the EOP with accuracies at the level of ~200 μas which correspond to few millimeters at the Earth's surface, while the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data can reach an accuracy even below 100 μas. At these unprecedented high levels of accuracy, even tiny anomalous behavior in EOP can be observed and thus correlated to global environmental changes such as ice melting on Greenland and the polar caps, and extreme events that involve strong ocean-atmosphere coupling interactions such as the El Niño. The contribution of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data such as from the LARES mission and similar satellites to this area is outlined in this paper.

  17. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity

  18. Identifying Local Scale Climate Zones of Urban Heat Island from HJ-1B Satellite Data Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C. Z.; Blaschke, T.

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing acceleration of urbanization, the degeneration of the environment and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) has attracted more and more attention. Quantitative delineation of UHI has become crucial for a better understanding of the interregional interaction between urbanization processes and the urban environment system. First of all, our study used medium resolution Chinese satellite data-HJ-1B as the Earth Observation data source to derive parameters, including the percentage of Impervious Surface Areas, Land Surface Temperature, Land Surface Albedo, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, and object edge detector indicators (Mean of Inner Border, Mean of Outer border) in the city of Guangzhou, China. Secondly, in order to establish a model to delineate the local climate zones of UHI, we used the Principal Component Analysis to explore the correlations between all these parameters, and estimate their contributions to the principal components of UHI zones. Finally, depending on the results of the PCA, we chose the most suitable parameters to classify the urban climate zones based on a Self-Organization Map (SOM). The results show that all six parameters are closely correlated with each other and have a high percentage of cumulative (95%) in the first two principal components. Therefore, the SOM algorithm automatically categorized the city of Guangzhou into five classes of UHI zones using these six spectral, structural and climate parameters as inputs. UHI zones have distinguishable physical characteristics, and could potentially help to provide the basis and decision support for further sustainable urban planning.

  19. Climate adaptation - 5 key research themes; Denmark; Klimatilpasning - 5 centrale forskningstemaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Bent; Binnerup, S.; Bijl, L. van der; Villholth, K.G.; Drews, M.; Strand, I.F.; Henrichs, T.; Larsen, Niels; Timmermann, T.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-06-15

    The report proposes five key research themes under the heading 'Future climate and climate adaptation' which can support the Danish climate adaptation efforts. These themes underpin climate adaptation in the light of research needs identified by the research environments and sectors under the government's strategy on adaptation to climate change in Denmark from March 2008. The paper has been prepared within the framework of RESEARCH2015-proposal by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation in order to bring about the knowledge and tools that are demanded by sectors and authorities to implement the government's climate adaptation strategy. This concept paper for research themes is a thorough, holistic and inter-sectoral suggestion for future research priorities in climate adaptation with anchoring in both the research community as well as in the political-administrative system. The five key themes are; 1. Models and climate adaptation; 2. Communities and climate adaptation; 3. Construction and climate adaptation; 4. Landscape and climate adaptation; 5. Climate adaptation in the coastal zone. The overall research needs over a 5 year period is estimated at 700 million DKK, of which 85 million DKK yearly can be estimated to be financed primarily through national basic funds and research council funds. Research is assumed to be coupled to external financing, for which the EU's 7th Framework Program and the Nordic excellence and innovation program in the energy, climate and environment will be significant sources.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THERMAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Patrick [Arizona State University; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Otanicar, Todd [University of Tulsa; Phelan, Bernadette [Phelan Research Solutions, Inc.; Prasher, Ravi [Arizona State University; Taylor, Robert [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Tyagi, Himanshu [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, India

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is recognized by many people around the world as being one of the most pressing issues facing our society today. The thermal engineering research community clearly plays an important role in addressing this critical issue, but what kind of thermal engineering research is, or will be, most impactful? In other words, in what directions should thermal engineering research be targeted in order to derive the greatest benefit with respect to global climate change? To answer this question we consider the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, coupled with potential economic impacts, resulting from thermal engineering research. Here a new model framework is introduced that allows a technological, sector-by-sector analysis of GHG emissions avoidance. For each sector, we consider the maximum reduction in CO2 emissions due to such research, and the cost effectiveness of the new efficient technologies. The results are normalized on a country-by-country basis, where we consider the USA, the European Union, China, India, and Australia as representative countries or regions. Among energy supply-side technologies, improvements in coal-burning power generation are seen as having the most beneficial CO2 and economic impacts. The one demand-side technology considered, residential space cooling, offers positive but limited impacts. The proposed framework can be extended to include additional technologies and impacts, such as water consumption.

  1. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  2. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  4. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment: A New Challenge to Monsoon Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol and monsoon related droughts and floods are two of the most serious environmental hazards confronting more than 60% of the population of the world living in the Asian monsoon countries. In recent years, thanks to improved satellite and in-situ observations, and better models, great strides have been made in aerosol, and monsoon research respectively. There is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that interaction of aerosol forcing with water cycle dynamics in monsoon regions may substantially alter the redistribution of energy at the earth surface and in the atmosphere, and therefore significantly impact monsoon rainfall variability and long term trends. In this talk, I will describe issues related to societal needs, scientific background, and challenges in studies of aerosol-water cycle interaction in Asian monsoon regions. As a first step towards addressing these issues, the authors call for an integrated observation and modeling research approach aimed at the interactions between aerosol chemistry and radiative effects and monsoon dynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system. A Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX) is proposed for 2007-2011, with an enhanced observation period during 2008-09, encompassing diverse arrays of observations from surface, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and satellites of physical and chemical properties of aerosols, long range aerosol transport as well as meteorological and oceanographic parameters in the Indo-Pacific Asian monsoon region. JAMEX will leverage on coordination among many ongoing and planned national programs on aerosols and monsoon research in China, India, Japan, Nepal, Italy, US, as well as international research programs of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  5. Exploratory investigation of the need for and feasibility of a Lower Atmosphere Research Satellite (LARS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The need for and feasibility of a research satellite program for the intensive study of the lower atmosphere (the troposphere and lower stratosphere) is discussed. The priorities for scientific investigation of the lower atmosphere during the next decade are examined. The findings of the study are concerned with identification of those broad research issues of highest priority and, in particular, with those that are most appropriate for investigation from space platforms.

  6. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN BHAVANISAGAR RESERVOIR AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, USING MULTITEMPORAL SATELLITE DATA AND GIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balamurugan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the warnings against climate change since the early century, recent human activities are still geared towards enhancing them. Because of climate change coupled by other human activities, natural ecosystems are facing difficulties in coping with the impacts of climate change. The evaluation of the impact of climate change on ecosystems implies studying a multi-component system in which the complexity of links is high enough to present doing it as a whole. Because of this, it is a reasonable approach to study separately the behavior of each element, to be afterwards linked into a general conceptual model for ecosystems behavior. Moreover, in the case of largely regulated region, the main impacts of climatic change will be fluvial-related since those related to the catchment areas will be severely damped by river regulation and management policies. This fact implies that Terrestrial fringes may become the main frontier between the ecosystems and climatic change effects. This paper describes the potential impacts of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on vegetation, wildlife, land use/ land covers, and agricultural ecosystems across the Bhavanisagar Reservoir region centered on Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu. We examine a geographic area that captures much of Reservoir, including a complex mosaic of urbanization and agriculture surrounding the Bhavanisagar Reservoir. The comparative study of land cover and soil status are provided using space images with middle resolution. Multitemporal satellite data provide the capability for mapping and monitoring land cover and land use change, but require the development of accurate and repeatable techniques that can be extended to a broad range of environments and conditions. The Landsat TM and ETM+ and SRTM-DEM images are included in analysis. The unsupervised and supervised classifications are applied for determination of different types of land cover. The research present here has focus

  7. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission: design, execution, and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB focused on (1 improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5–10 pptv in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  8. Integrating Dendrochronology, Climate and Satellite Remote Sensing to Better Understand Savanna Landscape Dynamics in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the integration and potential uses of linkages between climate dynamics, savanna vegetation and landscape level processes within a highly vulnerable region, both in terms of climate variability and social systems. We explore the combined applications of two time-series methodologies: (1 climate signals detected in tree ring growth, from published literature, chronologies from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank, and minimal preliminary field data; and (2 new primary production (NPP data of vegetation cover over time derived from remotely sensed analyses. Both time-series are related to the regional patterns of precipitation, the principle driver of plant growth in the area. The approach is temporally and spatially multiscalar and examines the relationships between vegetation cover, type and amount, and precipitation shifts. We review literature linking dendrochronology, climate, and remotely sensed imagery, and, in addition, provide unique preliminary analyses from a dry study site located on the outer limit of the Okavango Delta. The work demonstrates integration across the different data sources, to provide a more holistic view of landscape level processes occurring in the last 30-50 years. These results corroborate the water-limited nature of the region and the dominance of precipitation in controlling vegetation growth. We present this integrative analysis of vegetation and climate change, as a prospective approach to facilitate the development of long-term climate/vegetation change records across multiple scales.

  9. AGU Journals Among Most Cited Publications in Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jon

    2010-03-01

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) and Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (JGR-D) both ranked among the top 10 of the most highly cited research publications on climate change over the past decade in a recent analysis by sciencewatch.com, an Internet tool published by the Thomson Reuters Web of Science® that tracks trends and performances in basic research. Although Nature and Science—the multidisciplinary heavyweights—led the field, GRL ranked fifth and JGR-D ranked sixth. The study was conducted by searching the Web of Science® database for terms such as “global warming,” “climate change,” “human impact,” and other key phrases in journal articles published and cited between 1999 and the spring of 2009. The analysis produced over 28,000 papers, from which sciencewatch.com identified the most cited institutions, authors, and journals. To see the analysis in full, visit http://sciencewatch.com/ana/fea/09novdecFea/.

  10. Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess the Impacts of Urbanization on the Continental US Surface Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, L.; Zhang, P.; Imhoff, M.; Santanello, J.; Kumar, S.; Shepherd, M.; Quattrochi, D.; Silva, J.; Rosenzweigh, C.; Gaffin, S.; Mostovoy, G.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important and long lasting forms of land transformation. Urbanization affects the surface climate in different ways: (1) by reduction of the vegetation fraction causing subsequent reduction in photosynthesis and plant s water transpiration, (2) by alternation of surface runoff and infiltration and their impacts on soil moisture and the water table, (3) by change in the surface albedo and surface energy partitioning, and (4) by transformation of the surface roughness length and modification of surface fluxes. Land cover and land use change maps including urban areas have been developed and will be used in a suite of land surface models of different complexity to assess the impacts of urbanization on the continental US surface climate. These maps and datasets based on a full range of available satellite data and ground observations will be used to characterize distant-past (pre-urban), recent-past (2001), present (2010), and near future (2020) land cover and land use changes. The main objective of the project is to assess the impacts of these land transformation on past, current and near-future climate and the potential feedbacks from these changes on the atmospheric, hydrologic, biological, and socio-economic properties beyond the immediate metropolitan regions of cities and their near suburbs. The WRF modeling system will be used to explore the nature and the magnitude of the two-way interactions between urban lands and the atmosphere and assess the overall regional dynamic effect of urban expansion on the northeastern US weather and climate

  11. Analysis of the role of urban vegetation in local climate of Budapest using satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Dezso, Zsuzsanna; Fricke, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Urban areas significantly modify the natural environment due to the concentrated presence of humans and the associated anthropogenic activities. In order to assess this effect, it is essential to evaluate the relationship between urban and vegetated surface covers. In our study we focused on the Hungarian capital, Budapest, in which about 1.7 million inhabitants are living nowadays. The entire city is divided by the river Danube into the hilly, greener Buda side on the west, and the flat, more densely built-up Pest side on the east. Most of the extended urban vegetation, i.e., forests are located in the western Buda side. The effects of the past changing of these green areas are analyzed using surface temperature data calculated from satellite measurements in the infrared channels, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived from visible and near-infrared satellite measurements. For this purpose, data available from sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) of NASA satellites (i.e., Terra and Aqua) are used. First, the climatological effects of forests on the urban heat island intensity are evaluated. Then, we also aim to evaluate the relationship of surface temperature and NDVI in this urban environment with special focus on vegetation-related sections of the city where the vegetation cover either increased or decreased remarkably.

  12. Research Advances of Impacts of Climate Changes on Crop Climatic Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture received most direct influences from climate changes. Because of climate changes, agricultural climate resources changed and thus influenced climate adaptability of agricultural products. The growth and output of crops were finally affected. The calculation method and application of agricultural products in recent years were summarized. Several questions about the response of agricultural crops to climate elements were proposed for attention.

  13. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  14. Assessment of Satellite-Derived Essential Climate Variables in the Terrestrial Domain: Overview and Status of the CEOS LPV Subgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The validation of satellite-derived terrestrial observations has perennially faced the challenge of finding a consistent set of in-situ measurements that can both cover a wide range of surface conditions and provide timely and traceable product accuracy and uncertainty information. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), the space arm of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), plays a key role in coordinating the land product validation process. The Land Product Validation (LPV) sub-group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) aims to address the challenges associated with the validation of global land products. This paper will provide a status of LPV subgroup focus area activities, which cover seven Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs): (1) Snow Cover, (2) Surface Albedo, (3) Land Cover, (4) Leaf Area Index, (5) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), (6) Active Fires, and (7) Soil Moisture; as well as two additional variables (Land Surface Phenology and Land Surface Temperature), which are deemed of high priority of the LPV community. A primary focus of LPV is the implementation of a global validation framework for product intercomparison and validation (fig. 1). This framework is based on a citable protocol, fiducial reference data, and automated subsetting. Ideally, each of these parts will be integrated into an online platform where quantitative tests are run, and standardized intercomparison and validation results reported for all products used in the validation exercise. The establishment of consensus guidelines for in situ measurements as well as inter-comparison of trends derived from independently-obtained reference data and derived products will enhance coordination of the scientific needs of the Earth system communities with global LPV activities (http://lpvs.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

  15. Carbon, Climate and Cameras: Showcasing Arctic research through multimedia storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachihara, B. L.; Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In July 2011, Tachihara spent three weeks in the Siberian Arctic documenting The Polaris Project, an NSF-funded effort that brings together an international group of undergraduate students and research scientists to study Arctic systems. Using a combination of photography, video and interviews gathered during the field course, we produced a six-minute film focusing on the researchers' quest to track carbon as it moves from terrestrial upland areas into lakes, streams, rivers and eventually into the Arctic Ocean. The overall goal was to communicate the significance of Arctic science in the face of changing climate. Using a selection of clips from the 2011 video, we will discuss the advantages and challenges specific to using multimedia presentations to represent Arctic research, as well as science in general. The full video can be viewed on the Polaris website: http://www.thepolarisproject.org.

  16. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 2011. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  17. A new scenario framework for climate change research: the concept of shared climate policy assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, E.; Edmonds, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Ebi, K.L.; Kram, T.; Riahi, K.; Winkler, J.; van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2014-01-01

    The new scenario framework facilitates the coupling of multiple socioeconomic reference pathways with climate model products using the representative concentration pathways. This will allow for improved assessment of climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Assumptions about climate policy play a

  18. Research on the flywheel components' disturbance mechanism of a high resolution optical satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Dong, Wang; Sitong, Zhou; Tan, Luyang

    2016-10-01

    According to the picture of a sub-meter resolution optical satellite acquired on the orbit, there is a phenomenon of jitter in the process of taking pictures. The flywheel as the main attitude control component of the satellite, the disturbance that it caused has great influence on the high resolution optical satellite in its normal action. This paper has respectively researched the flywheel components' disturbance mechanism from three parts, including uneven rotator, rotator friction, bearing disturbance, builds the mathematics model of disturbance to analysis the characteristic of disturbance. we get that the vibration system is not a fully linear system, the system is linear before the occurrence of rubbing. It also can be seen that the system has a number of different cross rigidity, it will often appear unstable motion that resulting in damage, or becomes the ultimate destruction due to the role of nonlinear damping. When the rolling roll in the surface, it will produce an alternative excitation force if there exist defects or damage in the rolling surface. This research would offer guidance for system optimization design and vibrating isolation compensation of the later type of improved satellite.

  19. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  20. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The "European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites" (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operations capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, kriging, has been developed and applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE to both reanalysis is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated in JMA and all

  1. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour path (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean–Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operation capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, namely kriging, has been applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA–JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute value of the bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE for both reanalyses is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated into JMA and all ECMWF analyses and

  2. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    relevant satellite and “ground-truth” data, building the Round-Robin Data Package for testing the algorithms, and finally selection of the most promising algorithm(s) for processing of a new sea ice drift climate dataset. Specific efforts are dedicated to the definition of per-grid-cell uncertainties...

  3. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    relevant satellite and “ground-truth” data, building the Round-Robin Data Package for testing the algorithms, and finally selection of the most promising algorithm(s) for processing of a new sea ice drift climate dataset. Specific efforts are dedicated to the definition of per-grid-cell uncertainties...

  4. The use of climate research in the management of climatic changes; Bruk av klimaforskning i haandteringen av klimaendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Knut H.

    2008-07-01

    The presentation aims at clarifying what is needed for increasing the influence of the climate research on development of policies and practical decisions. Various communication models are discussed with focus on relevance of the knowledge to be communicated and possible relationships between policies and knowledge, and aids such as regulations and standards. Some implications of the research are discussed and more emphasis on relevancy and political and managerial translations of the climatic research (tk)

  5. Participatory Climate Research in a Dynamic Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), one of ten NOAA-RISA's, supports resilience efforts in the urban corridor stretching from Philadelphia to Boston. Challenges and opportunities include the diverse set of needs in broad urban contexts, as well as the integration of interdisciplinary perspectives. CCRUN is addressing these challenges through 1) stakeholder surveys, 2) webinar series that enable scientists to engage with stakeholders, 3) leveraging extreme events as focusing opportunities, and 4) the development of an integrated project framework. Moving forward, increasing extreme events can lead to unexpected detours, and further effort is needed around facilitating place-based research in an interdisciplinary context.

  6. Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-10

    conditioning systems.”20 A recent rise in one measure of poverty in the United States is argued by some to suggest that there may be more poor ...conclusions are common to several studies on possible health effects of climate change: the infirm, the elderly, and the poor may be disproportionately...Global Change Research Program, op. cit. 20 Ibid. 21 Madrick, Jeff. A Rise in Child Poverty Rates Is At Risk In U.S., the New York Times on the Web, June

  7. Tracking Middle Grades Climate Data to Inform School Change. REL West Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…

  8. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  9. A Research on Errors in Two-way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. J.

    2013-07-01

    The two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is one of the most accurate means for remote clock comparison with an uncertainty in time of less than 1 ns and with a relative uncertainty in frequency of about 10^{-14} d^{-1}. The transmission paths of signals between two stations are almost symmetrical in the TWSTFT. In principal, most of all kinds of path delays are canceled out, which guarantees the high accuracy of TWSTFT. With the development of TWSTFT and the increase in the frequence of observations, it is showed that the diurnal variation of systematic errors is about 1˜3 ns in the TWSTFT. This problem has become a hot topic of research around the world. By using the data of Transfer Satellite Orbit Determination Net (TSODN) and international TWSTFT links, the systematic errors are studied in detail as follows: (1) The atmospheric effect. This includes ionospheric and tropospheric effects. The tropospheric effect is very small, and it can be ignored. The ionospheric error can be corrected by using the IGS ionosphere product. The variations of ionospheric effect are about 0˜0.05 ns and 0˜0.7 ns at KU band and C band, respectively, and have the diurnal variation characteristics. (2) The equipment time delay. The equipment delay is closely related with temperature, presenting a linear relation at the normal temperature. Its outdoor part indicates the characteristics of the diurnal variation with the environment temperature. The various kinds of effects related with the modem are studied. Some resolutions are proposed. (3) The satellite transponder effect. This effect is studied by using the data of international TWSTFT links. It is analyzed that different satellite transponders can highly increase the amplitude of the diurnal variation in one TWSTFT link. This is the major reason of the diurnal variation in the TWSTFT. The function fitting method is used to basically solve this problem. (4) The satellite motion effect. The geostationary

  10. Climate research, citizen science and art in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Naznin, Zakia; Blanchard, Anne; Bremer, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Our research project focuses on climate information for adaptation in the northeast region of Bangladesh. In this project, we work closely with local rural communities. Since these local people are carrying out citizen science together, then a sense of community and good team spirit are essential for success. We collaborated with a Bangladeshi artist to achieve some important goals. Not only did we want to create new and exciting outreach materials, we -more importantly- wanted to see how the artistic process could nurture a sense of community for the local participants. Despite being limited by time, we saw some promising outcomes from the collaboration. The artist successfully interacted with the project researchers and the local participants. The final artwork was a real collaboration between the artist and the participants whom felt pride and ownership in the results.

  11. Building Climate Resilience at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, L. T.; Mueller, C.; Podolske, J. R.; Milesi, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Ames Research Center, located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary, has identified three primary vulnerabilities to changes in climate. The Ames Climate Adaptation Science Investigator (CASI) workgroup has studied each of these challenges to operations and the potential exposure of infrastructure and employees to an increased frequency of hazards. Sea level rise inundation scenarios for the SFB Area generally refer to projected scenarios in mean sea level rather than changes in extreme tides that could occur during future storm conditions. In the summer of 2014, high resolution 3-D mapping of the low-lying portion of Ames was performed. Those data are integrated with improved sea level inundation scenarios to identify the buildings, basements and drainage systems potentially affected. We will also identify the impacts of sea level and storm surge effects on transportation to and from the Center. This information will help Center management develop future master plans. Climate change will also lead to changes in temperature, storm frequency and intensity. These changes have potential impacts on localized floods and ecosystems, as well as on electricity and water availability. Over the coming decades, these changes will be imposed on top of ongoing land use and land cover changes, especially those deriving from continued urbanization and increase in impervious surface areas. These coupled changes have the potential to create a series of cascading impacts on ecosystems, including changes in primary productivity and disturbance of hydrological properties and increased flood risk. The majority of the electricity used at Ames is supplied by hydroelectric dams, which will be influenced by reductions in precipitation or changes in the timing or phase of precipitation which reduces snow pack. Coupled with increased demand for summertime air conditioning and other cooling needs, NASA Ames is at risk for electricity shortfalls. To assess the

  12. OVERVIEW OF MODERN RESEARCH OF LANDSLIDES ACCORDING TO AERIAL AND SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Lyapishev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of researches of landslides using remote sensing methods such as aerial photography, satellite images, radar interferometry, and their combination with the use of GIS technology. Modern methods of investigation of landslides are very diverse. The authors propose different approaches to the identification, classification and monitoring of landslides. Data analysis techniques can help in creating more sophisticated approach to the analysis of landslides.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  14. Climate change and health: Research challenges for health in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandve Harshal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues ever to confront humanity. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change, and health hazards are a major concern. Research pertaining to the effects of climate change on human health is the need of the hour. This paper discusses the broad challenges in health research in developing countries with specific reference to climate change.

  15. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carmody

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

  16. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van; Riahi, K.; Moss, R.; Edmonds, J.; Thomson, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Kram, T.; Berkhout, F.; Swart, R.; Janetos, A.; Rose, S.K.; Arnell, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario " thread" through the different climate research communities (climate change - vulnerability, impact, and adaptation - and mitigation) in order to support assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and climate impac

  17. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van D.P.; Riahi, K.; Moss, R.; Edmonds, J.; Thomson, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Kram, T.; Berkhout, F.; Swart, R.J.; Janetos, A.; Rose, S.K.; Arnell, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario "thread" through the different climate research communities (climate change - vulnerability, impact, and adaptation - and mitigation) in order to support assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and climate impact

  18. Elevated Heat Pump hypothesis validation by using satellite data and CMIP5 climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, R.; Cagnazzo, C.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution assumes an important role for the health of the south Asian countries population due to the increasing emission of atmospheric pollutants connected to the population growth and industrial development. At the same time the monsoon rainfall trends and patterns have been changed causing serious economic and societal impacts. In this study we have analyzed the link between the aerosols and the monsoon system focusing the attention on a specific mechanism: the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) hypothesis. According to the EHP the load of dust, organic carbon and black carbon in the pre-monsoon season over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and the foothills of the Himalayas induces enhanced warming in the middle and upper troposphere and changes the convection patterns. As a consequence the rainfall over northern India in late spring and early summer increases and the rainfall in all India in late summer decreases. However, there are still debated conclusions and large uncertainties in this proposed mechanism with ambiguity and uncertainties coming from the lack of real observations and to the consistency of the measurements. By using Historical Natural runs of 3 different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models with interactive aerosol loading, we have analysed the variation of precipitation and atmospheric temperature in correspondence to high and low aerosol load years in a time range of 160 years. For deepening the study and validating the model results, we have also included in our analyses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Deep Convective Tracking Database and the GPS Radio Occultation (RO) measurements. Our preliminary results with models and the two satellite measurements do not show significant evidence of EHP in terms of convection patterns, while the middle and upper troposphere thermal structure is consistent with previous findings.

  19. Temporal and spatial evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates across the complex topographical and climatic gradients of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Verbist, Koen; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Accurate representation of the real spatio-temporal variability of catchment rainfall inputs is currently severely limited. Moreover, spatially interpolated catchment precipitation is subject to large uncertainties, particularly in developing countries and regions which are difficult to access. Recently, satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for a wide range of hydrological applications, from water resources modelling to monitoring of extreme events such as droughts and floods.This study attempts to exhaustively evaluate - for the first time - the suitability of seven state-of-the-art SRE products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-Adj, MSWEPv1.1, and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. Different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual) are used in a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations (from sea level to 4600 m a.s.l. in the Andean Plateau) and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE (rescaled to a 0.25° grid if necessary). The modified Kling-Gupta efficiency was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE. In addition, five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities.Results revealed that most SRE products performed better for the humid South (36.4-43.7° S) and Central Chile (32.18-36.4° S), in particular at low- and mid-elevation zones (0-1000 m a.s.l.) compared to the arid northern regions and the Far South. Seasonally, all products performed best during the wet seasons (autumn and winter; MAM-JJA) compared to summer (DJF) and spring (SON). In addition, all SREs were able to correctly identify the occurrence of no-rain events, but they presented a low skill in classifying precipitation intensities during rainy days. Overall, PGFv3 exhibited the best performance everywhere

  20. Voluntary Field Data Collection for Landscape Phenology and Surface Water Essential Climate Variable Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. W.; Hudson-Dunn, A.; Aquino, K.; Pasa, M.; Paez, F.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing techniques to monitor vegetation and surface water condition for improved resource management. Educational materials and data forms that allow volunteer Citizen Scientists to collect information on vegetation and surface water extent to enhance satellite and web camera data analyses (http://egsc.usgs.gov/shenandoah.html) have been developed, tested, and refined. Collection is focused on supplementing landscape phenology and surface water extent (SWE) essential climate variable (ECV) research. Low cost instrumentation, subject education, and measurement calibration techniques all have utility for multiple remote sensing and biophysical studies. Trials have been conducted with subjects ranging from elementary school-aged summer camp children to science major undergraduate and graduate students. Experiments were replicated in several project study areas in Virginia that are also phenology and SWE-ECV research sites. Analysis of volunteer responses and their narrative feedback have improved the ability to request and assess data from volunteers. Children ages 12 and over were able to provide reliable supplemental information for phenology and aquatic research. Finally, trial observation and subject feedback both confirmed that participation furthered volunteer interest in science.

  1. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Maiken; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Hochachka, Wesley M; Koehncke, Arnulf; Meiri, Shai; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species-study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians.

  2. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species–study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians. PMID:27703684

  3. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  4. Survey of organizational research climates in three research intensive, doctoral granting universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates.

  5. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level.

  6. Improving the Transition of Earth Satellite Observations from Research to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    There are significant gaps between the observations, models, and decision support tools that make use of new data. These challenges include: 1) Decreasing the time to incorporate new satellite data into operational forecast assimilation systems, 2) Blending in-situ and satellite observing systems to produce the most accurate and comprehensive data products and assessments, 3) Accelerating the transition from research to applications through national test beds, field campaigns, and pilot demonstrations, and 4) Developing the partnerships and organizational structures to effectively transition new technology into operations. At the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a NASA-NOAA-University collaboration has been developed to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth science observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. The SPoRT Center research focus is to improve forecasts through new observation capability and the regional prediction objectives of the US Weather Research Program dealing with 0-1 day forecast issues such as convective initiation and 24-hr quantitative precipitation forecasting. The near real-time availability of high-resolution experimental products of the atmosphere, land, and ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Infrared Spectroradiometer (AIRS), and lightning mapping systems provide an opportunity for science and algorithm risk reduction, and for application assessment prior to planned observations from the next generation of operational low Earth orbiting and geostationary Earth orbiting satellites. This paper describes the process for the transition of experimental products into forecast operations, current products undergoing assessment by forecasters, and plans for the future. The SPoRT Web page is at (http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/sport).

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  8. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  9. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.; Chu, E.; Anguelovski, I.; Aylett, A.; Debats, J.; Goh, K.; Schenk, T.; Seto, K.C.; Dodman, D.; Roberts, D.; Roberts, J.T.; VanDeveer, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers o

  10. School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…

  11. Solar Climate Engineering and Intellectual Property : Toward a Research Commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Jesse; Contreras, Jorge L; Sarnoff, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges confronting society today. Solar climate engineering (SCE) has the potential to reduce climate risks substantially. This controversial technology would make the earth more reflective in order to counteract global warming. The science of SCE is still i

  12. Climate Change and Rural Sociology: Broadening the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is the preeminent environmental problem of this time, and Joseph Molnar's call for greater attention to it by rural sociologists is both welcome and timely. The agenda he lays out for rural sociology's engagement with climate change, however, seems rather narrow and restrictive. Examining the potential impacts of climate change,…

  13. Progress in Research on Climatic Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuedu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Global climatic change caused by human factors has become a major issue of increasing international concern. Climatic change may lead to irreversible change to the climatic system on the global scale, and thus result in immeasurable change to the living environment of mankind.

  14. Seasonal Climate Variation and Caribou Availability: Modeling Sequential Movement Using Satellite-Relocation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Nicolson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Livelihood systems that depend on mobile resources must constantly adapt to change. For people living in permanent settlements, environmental changes that affect the distribution of a migratory species may reduce the availability of a primary food source, with the potential to destabilize the regional social-ecological system. Food security for Arctic indigenous peoples harvesting barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti depends on movement patterns of migratory herds. Quantitative assessments of physical, ecological, and social effects on caribou distribution have proven difficult because of the significant interannual variability in seasonal caribou movement patterns. We developed and evaluated a modeling approach for simulating the distribution of a migratory herd throughout its annual cycle over a multiyear period. Beginning with spatial and temporal scales developed in previous studies of the Porcupine Caribou Herd of Canada and Alaska, we used satellite collar locations to compute and analyze season-by-season probabilities of movement of animals between habitat zones under two alternative weather conditions for each season. We then built a set of transition matrices from these movement probabilities, and simulated the sequence of movements across the landscape as a Markov process driven by externally imposed seasonal weather states. Statistical tests showed that the predicted distributions of caribou were consistent with observed distributions, and significantly correlated with subsistence harvest levels for three user communities. Our approach could be applied to other caribou herds and could be adapted for simulating the distribution of other ungulates and species with similarly large interannual variability in the use of their range.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging research in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and satellite-based networking implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourette, Matthew T; Siebert, James E; Barto, Robert J; Marable, Kenneth L; Muyepa, Anthony; Hammond, Colleen A; Potchen, Michael J; Kampondeni, Samuel D; Taylor, Terrie E

    2011-08-01

    As part of an NIH-funded study of malaria pathogenesis, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging research facility was established in Blantyre, Malaŵi to enhance the clinical characterization of pediatric patients with cerebral malaria through application of neurological MR methods. The research program requires daily transmission of MR studies to Michigan State University (MSU) for clinical research interpretation and quantitative post-processing. An intercontinental satellite-based network was implemented for transmission of MR image data in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, research data collection, project communications, and remote systems administration. Satellite Internet service costs limited the bandwidth to symmetrical 384 kbit/s. DICOM routers deployed at both the Malaŵi MRI facility and MSU manage the end-to-end encrypted compressed data transmission. Network performance between DICOM routers was measured while transmitting both mixed clinical MR studies and synthetic studies. Effective network latency averaged 715 ms. Within a mix of clinical MR studies, the average transmission time for a 256 × 256 image was ~2.25 and ~6.25 s for a 512 × 512 image. Using synthetic studies of 1,000 duplicate images, the interquartile range for 256 × 256 images was [2.30, 2.36] s and [5.94, 6.05] s for 512 × 512 images. Transmission of clinical MRI studies between the DICOM routers averaged 9.35 images per minute, representing an effective channel utilization of ~137% of the 384-kbit/s satellite service as computed using uncompressed image file sizes (including the effects of image compression, protocol overhead, channel latency, etc.). Power unreliability was the primary cause of interrupted operations in the first year, including an outage exceeding 10 days.

  16. Designing an Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration platform on climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tostensen, Arne; Monteverde Haakonsen, Jan; Hughes, Mike;

    Climate change is arguably the most significant of a set of interconnected global challenges threatening water resources and food security. In particular, the relationship between water resources, food systems and climate change is tightly coupled, and improved food security under climate change...... and ongoing successful research and innovation initiatives. Diverse actors from all over the world—from corporations to governments and citizens—are increasingly recognising the urgent need to address climate change in their respective spheres of influence. This report is intended to contribute to making...... this process more effective by developing a proposition for a platform to strengthen Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration on climate change....

  17. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  18. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  19. Long Range River Discharge Forecasting Using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite to Predict Conditions for Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of conditions of an impending disease outbreak remains a challenge but is achievable if the associated and appropriate large scale hydroclimatic process can be estimated in advance. Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases such as cholera, are related to episodic seasonal variability in river discharge in the regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate and insufficient. However, forecasting river discharge, few months in advance, remains elusive where cholera outbreaks are frequent, probably due to non-availability of geophysical data as well as transboundary water stresses. Here, we show that satellite derived water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Forecasting (GRACE) sensors can provide reliable estimates on river discharge atleast two months in advance over regional scales. Bayesian regression models predicted flooding and drought conditions, a prerequisite for cholera outbreaks, in Bengal Delta with an overall accuracy of 70% for upto 60 days in advance without using any other ancillary ground based data. Forecasting of river discharge will have significant impacts on planning and designing intervention strategies for potential cholera outbreaks in the coastal regions where the disease remain endemic and often fatal.

  20. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Zhu

    Full Text Available Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands, using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  1. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  2. Projected Applications of a "Climate in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to "Climate in a Box" systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the "Climate in a Box" system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the "Climate in a Box" system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed within the NASA SPo

  3. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  4. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  5. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, RA; Kehoe, KE; Sonntag, KL; Bahrmann, CP; Richardson, SJ; Christensen, SW; McCord, RA; Doty, DJ; Wagener, Richard [BNL; Eagan, RC; Lijegren, JC; Orr, BW; Sisterson, DL; Halter, TD; Keck, NN; Long, CN; Macduff, MC; Mather, JH; Perez, RC; Voyles, JW; Ivey, MD; Moore, ST; Nitschke, DL; Perkins, BD; Turner, DD

    2008-03-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and haracterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented.

  6. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  7. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing

  8. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) science data processing center implementation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ellen L.; Taylor, K. David

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Goddard is responsible for the development of a ground system for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observatory, whose launch is scheduled for 1991. This ground system encompasses a dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF); attention is presently given to the management of software systems design and implementation phases for CDHF by the UARS organization. Also noted are integration and testing activities performed following software deliveries to the CDHF. The UARS project has an obvious requirement for a powerful and flexible data base management system; an off-the-shelf commercial system has been incorporated.

  9. Variable conductance heat pipe technology. [research project resulting in heat pipe experiment on OAO-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.

  10. Inventory of Research on the Impacts of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats for the global environment today. Global mean temperature has risen by about 0.6 degrees C during the 20th century, greater than during any other century in the last 1000 years. Subsequently, climate change is likely to have detrimental effects on all global natural and anthropogenic systems. Climate change will have consequences for the structure and function of ecosystems and all the major global biomes. Also agricultural production and producti...

  11. MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, is a mid-infrared emission spectrometer which is part of the core payload of ENVISAT. It is a limb sounder, i.e. it scans across the horizon detecting atmospheric spectral radiances which are inverted to vertical temperature, trace species and cloud distributions. These data can be used for scientific investigations in various research fields including dynamics and chemistry in the altitude region between upper troposphere and lower thermosphere.

    The instrument is a well calibrated and characterized Fourier transform spectrometer which is able to detect many trace constituents simultaneously. The different concepts of retrieval methods are described including multi-target and two-dimensional retrievals. Operationally generated data sets consist of temperature, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3, and NO2 profiles. Measurement errors are investigated in detail and random and systematic errors are specified. The results are validated by independent instrumentation which has been operated at ground stations or aboard balloon gondolas and aircraft. Intercomparisons of MIPAS measurements with other satellite data have been carried out, too. As a result, it has been proven that the MIPAS data are of good quality.

    MIPAS can be operated in different measurement modes in order to optimize the scientific output. Due to the wealth of information in the MIPAS spectra, many scientific results have already been published. They include intercomparisons of temperature distributions with ECMWF data, the derivation of the whole NOy family, the study of atmospheric processes during the Antarctic vortex split in September 2002, the determination of properties of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, the downward transport of NOx in the middle atmosphere, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the influence of solar variability on the

  12. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  13. "Departmental Climate and Student Experiences in Geography Graduate Programs": Research for Enhancing Departments and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Michael N.; Lee, Jenny; Schlemper, M. Beth

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the authors' research which combined quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze a rather intangible phenomenon of interest to higher education researchers and administrators, that being "departmental climate" (often referred to as "academic climate"). This investigation required the authors to develop a method by which…

  14. Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldern, Matthias V.

    Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

  15. National programme for weather, climate and atmosphere research. Annual report 1984/85

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, CW

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews the activities of the National Programme for Weather, Climate and Atmosphere Research (NPWCAR) for 1984/85, highlights the findings and also discusses future developments and general needs regarding research within the framework...

  16. Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William R.; Capotondi, Antonietta; Holland, Marika M.

    1995-07-01

    An adequate understanding of climate variability and the eventual prediction of climate change are among the most urgent and far-reaching efforts of the scientific community. The climate system is in an ever-changing state with vast impact on mankind in all his activities. Both short and long-term aspects of climate variability are of concern, and the unravelling of "natural" variability from "man-induced" climate change is required to prepare for and ameliorate, if possible, the potentially devastating aspects of such change. In terms of scientific effort, the climate community can be thought of as the union of the disciplinary sciences of meteorology, oceanography, sea ice and glaciology, and land surface processes. Since models are based upon mathematical and numerical constructs, mathematics and computer sciences are also directly involved. In addition, some of the problems of man-induced climate change (release of greenhouse gases, the ozone-hole problem, etc.) are basically chemical in nature, and the expertise of the atmospheric and oceanic chemist is also required. In addition, some part of the response to climate perturbations will arise in the biological world, due to upsetting the balance in the great food web that binds communities together on both the land and the sea. Thus, the problems to be solved are extraordinarily complex and require the efforts of many kinds of scientist.

  17. US Agriculture and Climate Change: Perspectives from Recent Research

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Across several projections of climate change in the coming century, total food production in the United States is not found to be at risk. Some regions, however, could experience declining production and profitability due to unfavorable climate, water availability, ecological pressures, or extreme weather events.

  18. Satellite-measured interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile: Spatial patterns and the influence of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Largier, John L.; Mendes, Renato; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Vargas, Cristian A.; Sobarzo, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    Ocean color imagery from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard the Aqua platform is used to characterize the interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile. Emphasis is placed on the influence of climate fluctuations, namely El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Additional satellite data on wind, boat-based hydrographic profiles, and regional climate indices are used to identify the influence of climate variability on the generation of anomalous turbid river plumes. The evolution of salinity at a coastal station on the 90 m isobath between the Itata and Biobío Rivers shows a freshwater surface layer with salinity importance of long-term and high-resolution ocean color observations for studying the temporal evolution of river plumes.

  19. Mapping daily and seasonal evapotranspiration from irrigated crops using global climate grids and satellite imagery: Automation and methods comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Trent W.; Marshall, Michael; Messina, Alex

    2016-09-01

    The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) estimates land surface evapotranspiration (ET) from radiometric surface temperature (TR), but requires manual selection of calibration pixels, which can be impractical for mapping seasonal ET. Here pixel selection is automated and SEBAL implemented using global climate grids and satellite imagery. SEBAL is compared with the MOD16 algorithm, which uses remotely sensed data on vegetation condition to constrain reference ET from the Penman-Monteith equation. The difference between the evaporative fraction (Λ, range 0-1) from SEBAL and six eddy flux correlation towers was less than 0.10 for three of six towers, and less than 0.24 for all towers. SEBAL ET was moderately sensitive to surface roughness length and implementation over regions smaller than ˜10,000 km2 provided lower error than larger regions. Pixel selection based on TR had similar errors as those based on a vegetation index. For maize, MOD16 had lower error in mean seasonal evaporative fraction (-0.02) compared to SEBAL Λ (0.23), but MOD16 significantly underestimated the evaporative fraction from rice (-0.52) and cotton fields (-0.67) compared with SEBAL (-0.09 rice, -0.09 cotton). MOD16 had the largest error over short crops in the early growing season when vegetation cover was low but land surface was wet. Temperature-based methods like SEBAL can be automated and likely outperform vegetation-based methods in irrigated areas, especially under conditions of low vegetation cover and high soil evaporation.

  20. Climatic variability of transport in the upper layer of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from hydrological and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, Ju. V.; Fedirko, A. V.; Skripaleva, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the satellite altimetry dataset of sea level anomalies, the climatic hydrological database World Ocean Atlas-2009, ocean reanalysis ECMWF ORA-S3, and wind velocity components from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the interannual variability of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport in the ocean upper layer is investigated for the period 1959-2008, and estimations of correlative connections between ACC transport and wind velocity components are performed. It has been revealed that the maximum (by absolute value) linear trends of ACC transport over the last 50 years are observed in the date-line region, in the Western and Eastern Atlantic and the western part of the Indian Ocean. The greatest increase in wind velocity for this period for the zonal component is observed in Drake Passage, at Greenwich meridian, in the Indian Ocean near 90° E, and in the date-line region; for the meridional component, it is in the Western and Eastern Pacific, in Drake Passage, and to the south of Africa. It has been shown that the basic energy-carrying frequencies of interannual variability of ACC transport and wind velocity components, as well as their correlative connections, correspond to the periods of basic large-scale modes of atmospheric circulation: multidecadal and interdecadal oscillations, Antarctic Circumpolar Wave, Southern Annual Mode, and Southern Oscillation. A significant influence of the wind field on the interannual variability of ACC transport is observed in the Western Pacific (140° E-160° W) and Eastern Pacific; Drake Passage and Western Atlantic (90°-30° W); in the Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean (10°-70° E). It has been shown in the Pacific Ocean that the ACC transport responds to changes of the meridional wind more promptly than to changes of the zonal wind.

  1. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a workshop titled Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

  2. Climate exposed: tools and methods in climate research; Le climat a decouvert: Outils et methodes en recherche climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, C.; Mosseri, R.

    2011-07-01

    This collective book benefited from the experience of more than a hundred of contributors who present a wide survey of the methods and tools implemented to study our climate and its future. They show that, in order to tackle the extraordinary complex climate question, a pluri-disciplinary approach is more necessary than ever, at the crossroad of experiment, observation, simulation and theory. What is the greenhouse effect? Is the role of man detectable and how? How can we measure the meltdown of ice caps and glaciers or the rise of sea level? What data allow to describe and model the past climates? How can we proceed to foresee the evolution of climate? These are some of the many questions addressed in this book. (J.S.)

  3. Research on Satellite Fault Diagnosis and Prediction Using Multi-modal Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangTianshe; SunYanhong; CaoYuping

    2004-01-01

    Diagnosis and prediction of satellite fault are more difficult than that of other equipment due to the complex structure of satellites and the presence of muhi-excite sources of satellite faults. Generally, one kind of reasoning model can only diagnose and predict one kind of satellite faults. In this paper the author introduces an application of a new method using multi-modal reasoning to diagnose and predict satellite faults. The method has been used in the development of knowledge-based satellite fault diagnosis and recovery system (KSFDRS) successfully. It is shown that the method is effective.

  4. Statistical Modeling of Sea Ice Concentration Using Satellite Imagery and Climate Reanalysis Data in the Barents and Kara Seas, 1979–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive sea ice over Arctic regions is largely involved in heat, moisture, and momentum exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean. Some previous studies have been conducted to develop statistical models for the status of Arctic sea ice and showed considerable possibilities to explain the impacts of climate changes on the sea ice extent. However, the statistical models require improvements to achieve better predictions by incorporating techniques that can deal with temporal variation of the relationships between sea ice concentration and climate factors. In this paper, we describe the statistical approaches by ordinary least squares (OLS regression and a time-series method for modeling sea ice concentration using satellite imagery and climate reanalysis data for the Barents and Kara Seas during 1979–2012. The OLS regression model could summarize the overall climatological characteristics in the relationships between sea ice concentration and climate variables. We also introduced autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models because the sea ice concentration is such a long-range dataset that the relationships may not be explained by a single equation of the OLS regression. Temporally varying relationships between sea ice concentration and the climate factors such as skin temperature, sea surface temperature, total column liquid water, total column water vapor, instantaneous moisture flux, and low cloud cover were modeled by the ARIMA method, which considerably improved the prediction accuracies. Our method may also be worth consideration when forecasting future sea ice concentration by using the climate data provided by general circulation models (GCM.

  5. Ethical aspects of the mitigation obstruction argument against climate engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, David R

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators fear that climate engineering research might lead policy-makers to reduce mitigation efforts. Most of the literature on this so-called 'moral hazard' problem focuses on the prediction that climate engineering research would reduce mitigation efforts. This paper focuses on a related ethical question: Why would it be a bad thing if climate engineering research obstructed mitigation? If climate engineering promises to be effective enough, it might justify some reduction in mitigation. Climate policy portfolios involving sufficiently large or poorly planned reductions in mitigation, however, could lead to an outcome that would be worse than the portfolio that would be chosen in the absence of further climate engineering research. This paper applies three ethical perspectives to describe the kinds of portfolios that would be worse than that 'baseline portfolio'. The literature on climate engineering identifies various mechanisms that might cause policy-makers to choose these inferior portfolios, but it is difficult to know in advance whether the existence of these mechanisms means that climate engineering research really would lead to a worse outcome. In the light of that uncertainty, a precautionary approach suggests that researchers should take measures to reduce the risk of mitigation obstruction. Several such measures are suggested.

  6. Research on Climate Change and Climate Change Communication%论气候变化与气候传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑保卫; 李玉洁

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the origin of the climate change, makes discussion about the rising and importance of climate change communication research, introduces the current research of climate change communication both at home and abroad, and clarifies the basic notion and way in the research. It defines the climate change communication as such a commutative activity which promotes the climate change information and related scientific knowledge to be understood and mastered by the public then to seek the solving of climate change problems as the target via changing the public's attitude and behavior regarding the climate change. While the paper also points out the meaning of this research lies in: to make theory summary and systematic explanation of the climate change communication phenomena, to do the mass dissemination and popularization work of such kind of knowledge, and to provide academic supports for those stakeholders including the government ,media ,business and NGO of climate change.%本文论述了气候变化问题的由来及发展,以及气候传播研究的兴起及意义,介绍了国外和国内气候传播研究的现状,同时厘清了气候传播研究中的一些基本概念与思路。论文认为气候传播是将气候变化信息及其相关科学知识为社会与公众所理解和掌握,并通过公众态度和行为的改变,以寻求气候变化问题解决为目标的社会传播活动;指出气候传播研究的目的及意义在于:对气候传播现象进行理论概括和系统阐释;对气候传播知识进行社会传播与推广;为政府、媒体、企业和NGO等社会组织提供有关气候传播的学术支持等。

  7. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  8. MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, is a mid-infrared emission spectrometer which is part of the core payload of ENVISAT. It is a limb sounder, i.e. it scans across the horizon detecting atmospheric spectral radiances which are inverted to vertical temperature, trace species and cloud distributions. These data can be used for scientific investigations in various research fields including dynamics and chemistry in the altitude region between upper troposphere and lower thermosphere.

    The instrument is a well calibrated and characterized Fourier transform spectrometer which is able to detect many trace constituents simultaneously. The different concepts of retrieval methods are described including multi-target and two-dimensional retrievals. Operationally generated data sets consist of temperature, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3, and NO2 profiles. Measurement errors are investigated in detail and random and systematic errors are specified. The results are validated by independent instrumentation which has been operated at ground stations or aboard balloon gondolas and aircraft. Intercomparisons of MIPAS measurements with other satellite data have been carried out, too. As a result, it has been proven that the MIPAS data are of good quality.

    MIPAS can be operated in different measurement modes in order to optimize the scientific output. Due to the wealth of information in the MIPAS spectra, many scientific results have already been published. They include intercomparisons of temperature distributions with ECMWF data, the derivation of the whole NOy family, the study of atmospheric processes during the Antarctic vortex split in September~2002, the determination of properties of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, the downward transport of NOx in the middle atmosphere, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the influence of

  9. The french researches on the climatic change; Les recherches francaises sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Scientists were the first to prevent decision makers on the risk of the climatic change bond to the greenhouse gases emissions. The results of the third GIEC report confirmed that the main part of the global warming of the last 50 years is due to the human activities. This document presents the major results of the french researches during the last five years: the planet observation, the climate evolution study, the simulation of the future climate, the climatic change in France, the impacts of the climatic change on the marine and earth biosphere, the climatic risks and the public policies, the health impacts, the 2003 heat and the research infrastructures. (A.L.B.)

  10. A Web Service Tool (SOAR) for the Dynamic Generation of L1 Grids of Coincident AIRS, AMSU and MODIS Satellite Sounding Radiance Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Tilmes, C.; Chapman, D.; Goldberg, M.; Zhou, L.

    2007-05-01

    Three decades of Earth remote sensing from NASA, NOAA and DOD operational and research satellites carrying successive generations of improved atmospheric sounder instruments have resulted in petabytes of radiance data with varying spatial and spectral resolutions being stored at different data archives in various data formats by the respective agencies. This evolution of sounders and the diversities of these archived data sets have led to data processing obstacles limiting the science community from readily accessing and analyzing such long-term climate data records. We address this problem by the development of a web based Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance (SOAR) system built on the SOA paradigm that makes it practical for the science community to dynamically access, manipulate and generate long term records of L1 pre-gridded sounding radiances of coincident multi-sensor data for regions specified according to user chosen criteria. SOAR employs a modification of the standard Client Server interactions that allows users to represent themselves directly to the Process Server through their own web browsers. The browser uses AJAX to request Javascript libraries and DHTML interfaces that define the possible client interactions and communicates the SOAP messages to the Process server allowing for dynamic web dialogs with the user to take place on the fly. The Process Server is also connected to an underlying high performance compute cluster and storage system which provides much of the data processing capabilities required to service the client requests. The compute cluster employs optical communications to NOAA and NASA for accessing the data and under the governance of the Process Server invokes algorithms for on-demand spatial, temporal, and spectral gridding. Scientists can choose from a variety of statistical averaging techniques for compositing satellite observed sounder radiances from the AIRS, AMSU or MODIS instruments to form spatial-temporal grids for

  11. The Ørsted Satellite in the International Decade of Geopotential Field Research (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis-Christensen, E.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the Danish satellite Ørsted on 23 February, 1999 marked the beginning of the "Decade of Geopotential Field Research", an international effort to promote and coordinate a continuous monitoring of the geopotential (magnetic and gravity) field variability in the near-Earth environment. Already the first years of Ørsted magnetic field observations showed that dramatic changes had taken place, in particular in the South Atlantic / South African continent during the 20 years that had elapsed without satellite data after the NASA MAGSAT satellite mapping of the Earth's magnetic field. Although only designed with a life time of 14 months, the Ørsted satellite has still been providing valuable data, 10 years after launch, and has during this time been accompanied by two other geomagnetic satellite missions, the German CHAMP and the Argentinean SAC-C, both with similar instrumentation as the Ørsted satellite. This long period of continuous satellite observations of the magnetic field brought a number of scientific results including the detection of rapidly changing flows at the top of the core and crucial contribution to the derivation of the first World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Furthermore, the high quality of the observations made it possible to identify completely new satellite magnetic signatures related to oceanic tides, ionospheric pressure gradient currents, and magnetic signatures of plasma bubbles. As often in science, new observations trigger new questions, which need to be answered with even more sophisticated measurements. This challenge was taken up by ESA by its selection of Swarm as the 5th mission in the Earth Explorer Programme. The three satellite constellation mission Swarm will be launched in 2010-11 with the objective to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution in order to improve our understanding of the Earth's interior and the Geospace environment including the Sun-Earth connection

  12. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  13. Perceptions of climate change in China:The research and policy connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHua Zhou; J Scott Hauger; Ning Liu; HuiLing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has evolved from a scientific problem into an economic and political problem of worldwide inter-est. National perspectives play a crucial role in addressing climate change. Mutual understanding of perspectives is nec-essary to result in rational policies and a consensus among stakeholders with divergent interests. Conceptual frameworks for understanding the problem of climate change in China, the largest developing country and the largest greenhouse gas emitter, are of great significance to national and international efforts to address the problems of climate change. Chinese perceptions of climate change as a sustainable development problem have recently been in tension with an emerging Western perspective that frames climate change as a security issue. This paper explores Chinese perceptions of climate change as expressed in recent governmental policy statements, public opinion surveys, and academic scholarship with a focus on publications in Chinese-language journals, often unfamiliar in the West. It looks at the relationship between Chinese research and policy and finds that the Chinese policy frame of climate change as a sustainable development problem draws from the body of domestic research and is reflective of the perspectives and multidisciplinary approach of Chinese researchers in areas of climate change.

  14. The Design of Compass/BeiDou Navigation Satellite Terminal for Migrant Bird Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A terminal of Compass Navigation Satellite System (CNSS, which can not only support BeiDou-1 and BeiDou-2 but also support Global Positioning System (GPS, is designed to research the activities of the migrant birds, with our novel design of a multiband antenna. By a high-density integration, this terminal is designed with a compact size and light weight. When the terminal is assembled to a whooper swan, its flying trace is recorded by the CNSS, which is in agreement with that of GPS. The flying route map based on the CNSS is useful to check the situation and habit of the migrant bird, which is important for animal protection and bird flu outbreak prediction.

  15. Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.

  16. Research for assessment, not deployment, of Climate Engineering: The German Research Foundation's Priority Program SPP 1689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Klepper, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    The historical developments are reviewed that have led from a bottom-up responsibility initiative of concerned scientists to the emergence of a nationwide interdisciplinary Priority Program on the assessment of Climate Engineering (CE) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Given the perceived lack of comprehensive and comparative appraisals of different CE methods, the Priority Program was designed to encompass both solar radiation management (SRM) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) ideas and to cover the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic realm. First, key findings obtained by the ongoing Priority Program are summarized and reveal that, compared to earlier assessments such as the 2009 Royal Society report, more detailed investigations tend to indicate less efficiency, lower effectiveness, and often lower safety. Emerging research trends are discussed in the context of the recent Paris agreement to limit global warming to less than two degrees and the associated increasing reliance on negative emission technologies. Our results show then when deployed at scales large enough to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2, even CDR methods such as afforestation—often perceived as "benign"—can have substantial side effects and may raise severe ethical, legal, and governance issues. We suppose that before being deployed at climatically relevant scales, any negative emission or CE method will require careful analysis of efficiency, effectiveness, and undesired side effects.

  17. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    was suggested. On the basis of analyzing the information quantity of bands, correlation between different bands, spectral absorption characteristics of objects and object separability in bands, a fundamental method of optimum band selection and feature extraction from remote sensing data was discussed. Spectral signatures of different terrain features have been used to extract structural patterns aiming to separate surface units and to classify the general categories. The synergetic analysis and interpretation of the different satellite images (LANDSAT: TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) acquired over a period of more than 20 years reveals significant aspects regarding impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes on urban/periurban environment. It was delimited residential zones of industrial zones which are very often a source of pollution. An important role has urban green cover assessment. Have been emphasized the particularities of the functional zones from different points of view: architectural, streets and urban surface traffic, some components of urban infrastructure as well as habitat quality. The growth of Bucharest urban area in Romania has been a result of a rapid process of industrialization, and also of the increase of urban population. Information on the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of land cover and land use of urban areas is critical to address a wide range of practical problems relating to urban regeneration, urban sustainability and rational planning policy.

  18. Climate Research by K-12 Students: Can They Do It? Will Anybody Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Starting from the premise that engaging students in authentic science research is an activity that benefits science education in general, it is first necessary to consider whether students, in collaboration with teachers and climate scientists, can do climate-related research that actually has scientific value. A workshop held in November 2010, co-sponsored by NSF and NOAA, addressed this question. It took as its starting point this "scientific interest" test: "If students conduct a climate-related research project according to protocols designed in collaboration with climate scientists, when they get done, will any of those scientists care whether they did it or not?" If the answer to this question is "yes," then the project may constitute authentic research, but if the answer is "no," then the project may have educational value, but it is not research. This test is important because only when climate scientists (and other stakeholders interested in climate and climate change) are invested in the outcomes of student research will meaningful student research programs with sustainable support be forthcoming. The absence of climate-related projects in high-level student science fair competitions indicates that, currently, the investment and infrastructure required to support student climate research is lacking. As a result, climate science is losing the battle for the "hearts and minds" of today's best students. The critical task for student climate research is to define projects that are theoretically and practically accessible. This excludes the "big questions" of climate science, such as "Is Earth getting warmer?", but includes many observationally based projects that can help to refine our understanding of climate and climate change. The characteristics of collaborative climate research with students include: 1. carefully drawn distinctions between inquiry-based "learning about" activities and actual research; 2. an identified audience of potential stakeholders

  19. Bringing New Ph.D.s Together for Interdisciplinary Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Liam; Jones, Holly; Marlon, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is complex and thus requires interdisciplinary research, and new scholars are rising to that challenge. The Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS (pronounced "discourse"); see http://www.disccrs.org) brings together select groups of recent PhD graduates to encourage interdisciplinary work on climate change. The DISCCRS Symposium VII held just outside of Colorado Springs, Colo., brought together 33 graduates from fields as diverse as climatology, ecology, anthropology, and political science for an intensive week of cross-disciplinary engagement in activities like facilitation and leadership training, collaborative research development, peer networking, communication training, and analysis of working group processes.

  20. New frontiers: Exploring climate and health research opportunities for the geoscience community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. R.; Lipschultz, F.; Deangelo, B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States Global Change Research Program's report, "The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health: A Scientific Assessment" captures the state of the science on impacts, and provides insights into future research opportunities. In particular, the report highlighted a compelling need to improve integrated climate modeling for health impacts, which is often impeded by the complex relationship between climate variability and adverse health outcomes. Closing these gaps is critical to responding to current and future health threats. This presentation will conclude the session by highlighting ways in which the geoscience community can increase its engagement with health sciences to overcome data limitations and further research.

  1. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Serengil; A. Augustaitis; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Nancy Grulke; A.R. Kozovitz; R. Matyssek; G. Müller-Starck; M. Schaub; G. Wieser; A.A. Coskun; E. Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings...

  2. Climate change and infectious diseases in Australia: future prospects, adaptation options, and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, David; Bi, Peng; Hall, Gillian; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Tong, Shilu; Williams, Craig

    2011-03-01

    Climate change will have significant and diverse impacts on human health. These impacts will include changes in infectious disease incidence. In this article, the authors review the current situation and potential future climate change impacts for respiratory, diarrheal, and vector-borne diseases in Australia. Based on this review, the authors suggest adaptive strategies within the health sector and also recommend future research priorities.

  3. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  4. The last decade in ecological climate change impact research: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Anja; Bittner, Torsten; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly affecting organisms and ecosystems. The amount of research and the number of articles in this field is overwhelming. However, single studies necessarily consider limited aspects. Hence, there is an increasing need for structuring the research approaches and findings in climate change research in order to direct future action in an efficient way towards research gaps and areas of uncertainty. Here, we review the current state of knowledge accumulated over the last 10 years (2003-2012) about impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems. Almost 1,200 articles of the scientific literature listed in the ISI Web of Science are analysed. We explore the geographical distribution of knowledge gain, the studied taxonomic groups, ecosystems and environmental parameters as well as the applied methods. Several knowledge gaps arise. Most of the first authors of the analysed articles are residents of North America, Australia or Europe. A similar pattern is found for the study areas. Vascular plants and therewith forests are the most studied taxonomic group and ecosystem. The use of models to estimate potential impacts of climate change is well established in climate change impact research and is continuously developing. However, there is a lack of empirical data derived from experimental climate change simulations. In a rapidly evolving research landscape, this review aims at providing an overview of the current patterns of knowledge distribution and research demands arising from knowledge gaps and biases. Our results should help to identify future research needs and priorities.

  5. Engagement Between Decision Makers and the Research Community in Califonria'a Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.; Franco, G.; Wilhelm, S.; DeLaRosa, J.

    2016-12-01

    The State of California has been supporting the development of regional climate change science for more than two decades. The engagement between the scientific community in California and State agencies has been strong, and supported by multiple formalized relationships. For example, research results have informed state climate policy formulation such as the passage of AB32, a law that requires the State to bring GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and three Bills on climate adaptation that became law late in 2015. Scientific research has also been used for long-term planning of state resources such as the Forestry Plan, the Water Plan, and the Integrated Energy Policy Report. The Climate Action Team Research Working Group meets monthly to coordinate climate-related research activities supported by more than 20 state agencies and is the steering committee for the next California Climate Assessment that will be released in 2018. The State is co-producing the research commissioned for the 2018 Assessment in various ways, including the identification of research projects, the integration of more than 50 research studies, and active participation during execution of the research. The presentation will discuss the State's successes in linking decision-makers and the scientific community as well as challenges and potential ways to enhance these linkages.

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparison and quality assessment of near-surface-sensitive satellite-derived CO2 and CH4 global data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. Two satellite instruments deliver the main input data for GHG-CCI: SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT. The first order priority goal of GHG-CCI is the further development of retrieval algorithms for near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, to meet the demanding user requirements. GHG-CCI focusses on four core data products: XCO2 from SCIAMACHY and TANSO and XCH4 from the same two sensors. For each of the four core data products at least two candidate retrieval algorithms have been independently further developed and the corresponding data products have been quality assessed and inter-compared. This activity is referred to as "Round Robin" (RR) activity within the CCI. The main goal of the RR was to identify for each of the four core products which algorithm to be used to generate the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which will essentially be the first version of the ECV GHG. This manuscript gives an overview about the GHG-CCI RR and related activities. This comprises the establishment of the user requirements, the improvement of the candidate retrieval algorithms and comparisons with ground-based observations and models. The manuscript summarizes the final RR algorithm selection decision and its justification. Comparison with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) data indicates that the "breakthrough" single measurement precision requirement has been met for

  7. Research and Development initiative of Satellite Technology Application for Environmental Issues in Asia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and human activities are directly or indirectly influence the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, drought and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these hazards and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of space technology in practical usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of space technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of space technology. The main activity of SAFE is SAFE prototyping. SAFE prototyping is a demonstration for end users and decision makers to apply space technology applications for solving environmental issues in Asia-Pacific region. By utilizing space technology and getting technical support by experts, prototype executers can develop the application system, which could support decision making activities. SAFE holds a workshop once a year. In the workshop, new prototypes are approved and the progress of on-going prototypes are confirmed. Every prototype is limited for two years period and all activities are operated by volunteer manner. As of 2016, 20 prototypes are completed and 6 prototypes are on-going. Some of the completed prototypes, for example drought monitoring in Indonesia were applied to operational use by a local official organization.

  8. Evaluation of three different data fusion approaches that uses satellite soil moisture from different passive microwave sensors to construct one consistent climate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schalie, Robin; de Jeu, Richard; Kerr, Yann; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Rodríguez-Fernández, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Dolman, Han

    2016-04-01

    Datasets that are derived from satellite observations are becoming increasingly important for measuring key parameters of the Earth's climate and are therefore crucial in research on climate change, giving the opportunity to researchers to detect anomalies and long-term trends globally. One of these key parameters is soil moisture (SM), which has a large impact on water, energy and biogeochemical cycles worldwide. A long-term SM data record from active and passive microwave satellite observations was developed as part of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI-SM, http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/). Currently the dataset covers a period from 1978 to 2014 and is updated regularly, observations from a several microwave satellites including: ERS-1, ERS-2, METOP-A, Nimbus 7 SMMR, DMSP SSM/I, TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSRE, Coriolis WindSat, and GCOM-W1 AMSR2. In 2009, ESA launched the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, Kerr et al., 2010) mission, carrying onboard a unique L-band radiometer, but its SM retrievals are not yet part of this dataset. Due to the different radiometric characteristics of SMOS, integrating SMOS into the ESA-CCI-SM dataset is not straight forward. Therefore several approaches have been tested to fuse soil moisture retrievals from SMOS and AMSRE, which currently forms the basis of the passive microwave part within ESA-CCI-SM project. These approaches are: 1. A Neural Network Fusion approach (Rodríguez-Fernández et al., 2015), 2. A regression approach (Wigneron et al., 2004; Al-Yaari et al., 2015) and 3. A radiative transfer based approach, using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (Van der Schalie et al., 2016). This study evaluates the three different approaches and tests their skills against multiple datasets, including MERRA-Land, ERA-Interim/Land, the current ESA-CCI-SM v2.2 and in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network and present a recommendation for the potential integration of SMOS soil moisture into the ESA

  9. Integrating solar energy and climate research into science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alan K.; Hamilton, James; Ligon, Sam; Mahar, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes multi-year records of solar flux and climate data from two solar power sites in Vermont. We show the inter-annual differences of temperature, wind, panel solar flux, electrical power production, and cloud cover. Power production has a linear relation to a dimensionless measure of the transmission of sunlight through the cloud field. The difference between panel and air temperatures reaches 24°C with high solar flux and low wind speed. High panel temperatures that occur in summer with low wind speeds and clear skies can reduce power production by as much as 13%. The intercomparison of two sites 63 km apart shows that while temperature is highly correlated on daily (R2=0.98) and hourly (R2=0.94) timescales, the correlation of panel solar flux drops markedly from daily (R2=0.86) to hourly (R2=0.63) timescales. Minimum temperatures change little with cloud cover, but the diurnal temperature range shows a nearly linear increase with falling cloud cover to 16°C under nearly clear skies, similar to results from the Canadian Prairies. The availability of these new solar and climate datasets allows local student groups, a Rutland High School team here, to explore the coupled relationships between climate, clouds, and renewable power production. As our society makes major changes in our energy infrastructure in response to climate change, it is important that we accelerate the technical education of high school students using real-world data.

  10. Soil moisture and root water uptake in climate models. Research Programme Climate Changes Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.; Wipfler, E.L.; Feddes, R.A.; Meijgaard, van E.; Hurk, van den B.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate simulation of the energy and water balance near the Earth surface is important to improve the performance of regional climate models. We used a detailed ecohydrological model to rank the importance of vegetation and soil factors with respect to evapotranspiration modeling. The results

  11. Soil moisture and root water uptake in climate models. Research Programme Climate Changes Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.; Wipfler, E.L.; Feddes, R.A.; Meijgaard, van E.; Hurk, van den B.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate simulation of the energy and water balance near the Earth surface is important to improve the performance of regional climate models. We used a detailed ecohydrological model to rank the importance of vegetation and soil factors with respect to evapotranspiration modeling. The results

  12. Gordon Research Conference on Radiation & Climate in 2009, July 5 -10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiang Fu

    2009-07-10

    The 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on the outstanding issues in global climate change with focus on the radiative forcing and sensitivity of the climate system and associated physical processes. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, including grand challenges in radiation and climate, radiative forcing, climate feedbacks, cloud processes in climate system, hydrological cycle in changing climate, absorbing aerosols and Asian monsoon, recent climate changes, and geo-engineering. The invited speakers will present the recent most important advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists especially junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the Environmental Sciences Division of OHER, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program continues DOE`s long-term commitment to understanding the local, regional, and global effects of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and analytical studies in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, photochemically produced oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The atmospheric studies in Complex Terrain Program applies basic research on atmospheric boundary layer structure and evolution over inhomogeneous terrain to DOE`s site-specific and generic mission needs in site safety, air quality, and climate change. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements, the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics, and Quantitative Links program to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized in two broad research areas: atmospheric research; and climate research. This report describes the progress in fiscal year 1993 in each of these areas. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  14. Supporting a Diverse Community of Undergraduate Researchers in Satellite and Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. remains in grave danger of losing its global competitive edge in STEM. To find solutions to this problem, the Obama Administration proposed two new national initiatives: the Educate to Innovate Initiative and the $100 million government/private industry initiative to train 100,000 STEM teachers and graduate 1 million additional STEM students over the next decade. To assist in ameliorating the national STEM plight, the New York City College of Technology has designed its NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program in satellite and ground-based remote sensing to target underrepresented minority students. Since the inception of the program in 2008, a total of 45 undergraduate students of which 38 (84%) are considered underrepresented minorities in STEM have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. The program is comprised of the three primary components. The first component, Structured Learning Environments: Preparation and Mentorship, provides the REU Scholars with the skill sets necessary for proficiency in satellite and ground-based remote sensing research. The students are offered mini-courses in Geographic Information Systems, MATLAB, and Remote Sensing. They also participate in workshops on the Ethics of Research. Each REU student is a member of a team that consists of faculty mentors, post doctorate/graduate students, and high school students. The second component, Student Support and Safety Nets, provides undergraduates a learning environment that supports them in becoming successful researchers. Special networking and Brown Bag sessions, and an annual picnic with research scientists are organized so that REU Scholars are provided with opportunities to expand their professional community. Graduate school support is provided by offering free Graduate Record Examination preparation courses and workshops on the graduate school application process. Additionally, students are supported by college

  15. A research feasibility study proposal for conducting experimental research in curriculum sharing via Communications Technology Satellite among institutions having large minority enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The applicability of the tele-conference method of curriculum sharing as well as the sharing of scientific research results between universities and industrial organizations was evaluated in relation to other techniques and methods. Ten universities cooperated with NC A&T State University in an effort to increase the number of minority scientists and engineers in the USA via the utilization of the communication features of satellites. Research activities, experiments and studies in curriculum sharing are described as well as the techniques, interconnections and equipment utilized. Suggested methods and recommendations for a continuation of innovative applications of satellite technology in higher education at NC A&T State University are included.

  16. Climate Discovery: Integrating Research With Exhibit, Public Tours, K-12, and Web-based EPO Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Carbone, L.; Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Russell, R.; Advisory Committee, S.; Ammann, C.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate Discovery Exhibit at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab provides an exciting conceptual outline for the integration of several EPO activities with other well-established NCAR educational resources and programs. The exhibit is organized into four topic areas intended to build understanding among NCAR's 80,000 annual visitors, including 10,000 school children, about Earth system processes and scientific methods contributing to a growing body of knowledge about climate and global change. These topics include: 'Sun-Earth Connections,' 'Climate Now,' 'Climate Past,' and 'Climate Future.' Exhibit text, graphics, film and electronic media, and interactives are developed and updated through collaborations between NCAR's climate research scientists and staff in the Office of Education and Outreach (EO) at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). With funding from NCAR, paleoclimatologists have contributed data and ideas for a new exhibit Teachers' Guide unit about 'Climate Past.' This collection of middle-school level, standards-aligned lessons are intended to help students gain understanding about how scientists use proxy data and direct observations to describe past climates. Two NASA EPO's have funded the development of 'Sun-Earth Connection' lessons, visual media, and tips for scientists and teachers. Integrated with related content and activities from the NASA-funded Windows to the Universe web site, these products have been adapted to form a second unit in the Climate Discovery Teachers' Guide about the Sun's influence on Earth's climate. Other lesson plans, previously developed by on-going efforts of EO staff and NSF's previously-funded Project Learn program are providing content for a third Teachers' Guide unit on 'Climate Now' - the dynamic atmospheric and geological processes that regulate Earth's climate. EO has plans to collaborate with NCAR climatologists and computer modelers in the next year to develop

  17. Northwest U.S. Agriculture in a Changing Climate: Collaboratively Defined Research and Extension Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgine G. Yorgey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for agricultural systems to successfully mitigate and adapt to climate change there is a need to coordinate and prioritize next steps for research and extension. This includes focusing on “win-win” management practices that simultaneously provide short-term benefits to farmers and improve the sustainability and resiliency of agricultural systems with respect to climate change. In the Northwest U.S., a collaborative process has been used to engage individuals spanning the research-practice continuum. This collaborative approach was utilized at a 2016 workshop titled “Agriculture in a Changing Climate,” that included a broad range of participants including university faculty and students, crop and livestock producers, and individuals representing state, tribal and federal government agencies, industry, nonprofit organizations, and conservation districts. The Northwest U.S. encompasses a range of agro-ecological systems and diverse geographic and climatic contexts. Regional research and science communication efforts for climate change and agriculture have a strong history of engaging diverse stakeholders. These features of the Northwest U.S. provide a foundation for the collaborative research and extension prioritization presented here. We focus on identifying research and extension actions that can be taken over the next 5 years in four areas identified as important areas by conference organizers and participants: (1 cropping systems, (2 livestock systems, (3 decision support systems to support consideration of climate change in agricultural management decisions; and (4 partnerships among researchers and stakeholders. We couple insights from the workshop and a review of current literature to articulate current scientific understanding, and priorities recommended by workshop participants that target existing knowledge gaps, challenges, and opportunities. Priorities defined at the Agriculture in a Changing Climate workshop highlight

  18. A quantitative analysis of the causes of the global climate change research distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Strange, Niels

    2013-01-01

    investigates whether the need for knowledge on climate changes in the most vulnerable regions of the world is met by the supply of knowledge measured by scientific research publications from the last decade. A quantitative analysis of more than 15,000 scientific publications from 197 countries investigates...... the distribution of climate change research and the potential causes of this distribution. More than 13 explanatory variables representing vulnerability, geographical, demographical, economical and institutional indicators are included in the analysis. The results show that the supply of climate change knowledge...... is biased toward richer countries, which are more stable and less corrupt, have higher school enrolment and expenditures on research and development, emit more carbon and are less vulnerable to climate change. Similarly, the production of knowledge, analyzed by author affiliations, is skewed away from...

  19. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  20. SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingJinsheng

    2003-01-01

    This is a summarized paper.Two topics are discussed:Firstly,the comcept,development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced;Secondly,some problems of theory and method,which must be considered in the study lf the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data,are expounded.

  1. Validation of Two MODIS Aerosols Algorithms with SKYNET and Prospects for Future Climate Satellites Such as the GCOM-C/SGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules R. Dim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential improvements of aerosols algorithms for future climate-oriented satellites such as the coming Global Change Observation Mission Climate/Second generation Global Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI are discussed based on a validation study of three years’ (2008–2010 daily aerosols properties, that is, the aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the Ångström exponent (AE retrieved from two MODIS algorithms. The ground-truth data used for this validation study are aerosols measurements from 3 SKYNET ground sites. The results obtained show a good agreement between the ground-truth data AOT and that of one of the satellites’ algorithms, then a systematic overestimation (around 0.2 by the other satellites’ algorithm. The examination of the AE shows a clear underestimation (by around 0.2–0.3 by both satellites’ algorithms. The uncertainties explaining these ground-satellites’ algorithms discrepancies are examined: the cloud contamination affects differently the aerosols properties (AOT and AE of both satellites’ algorithms due to the retrieval scale differences between these algorithms. The deviation of the real part of the refractive index values assumed by the satellites’ algorithms from that of the ground tends to decrease the accuracy of the AOT of both satellites’ algorithms. The asymmetry factor (AF of the ground tends to increase the AE ground-satellites discrepancies as well.

  2. Comparative analysis of land, marine, and satellite observations of methane in the lower Atmosphere in the Russian Arctic under conditions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land, marine, and satellite observations have been used to study changes in methane concentrations in the lower atmosphere during the warm months of the year (July through October) in Arctic regions having different potentials for methane production. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data for 2002-2013 are used to explore the interplay between local methane sources in the terrestrial region of the Eurasian Arctic and on the Arctic shelf over the warm period of the year. Linear trends in atmospheric methane concentrations over different Arctic regions are calculated, and a hypothesis of the relation of concentration variations to climatic parameters is tested. The combination of land, marine, and satellite observation is used to develop a conceptual model of the atmospheric methane field in the terrestrial part of the Russian Arctic and on the Arctic shelf. It is shown that the modern methane growth rate in the Arctic does not exceed the Northern Hemisphere mean. It is concluded that the methane emission in the Arctic has little effect on global climate compared to other factors.

  3. Research on HJ-1A/B satellite data automatic geometric precision correction design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Wencheng; Shen Wenming; Wang Qiao; Shi Yuanli; Xiao Rulin; Fu Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Developed independently by China,HJ-1A/B satellites have operated well on-orbit for five years and acquired a large number of high-quality observation data. The realization of the observation data geometric precision correction is of great significance for macro and dynamic ecological environment monitoring. The pa-per analyzed the parameter characteristics of HJ-1 satellite and geometric features of HJ-1 satellite level 2 data (systematic geo-corrected data). Based on this,the overall HJ-1 multi-sensor geometric correction flow and charge-coupled device (CCD) automatic geometric precision correction method were designed. Actual operating data showed that the method could achieve good result for automatic geometric precision correction of HJ-1 sat-ellite data,automatic HJ-1 CCD image geometric precision correction accuracy could be achieved within two pixels and automatic matching accuracy between the images of same satellite could be obtained less than one pixel.

  4. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukarenko Natalia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. Objective: To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. Methods: A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Results: Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Conclusion: Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both

  5. Polar cloud observatory at Ny-Ålesund in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi; Takano, Toshiaki; Shiobara, Masataka; Okamoto, Hajime; Koike, Makoto; Ukita, Jinro

    2016-04-01

    Cloud is one of the main processes in the climate system and especially a large feed back agent for Arctic warming amplification (Yoshimori et al., 2014). From this reason, observation of polar cloud has been emphasized and 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in 2013 as one of the basic infrastructure in the GRENE (Green Network of Excellence Program) Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The radar, "FALCON-A", is a FM-CW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar, developed for Arctic use by Chiba University (PI: T. Takano) in 2012, following its prototype, "FALCON-1" which was developed in 2006 (Takano et al., 2010). The specifications of the radar are, central frequency: 94.84 GHz; antenna power: 1 W; observation height: up to 15 km; range resolution: 48 m; beam width: 0.2 degree (15 m at 5 km); Doppler width: 3.2 m/s; time interval: 10 sec, and capable of archiving high sensitivity and high spatial and time resolution. An FM-CW type radar realizes similar sensitivity with much smaller parabolic antennas separated 1.4 m from each other used for transmitting and receiving the wave. Polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (PMPL, Sigma Space MPL-4B-IDS), which is capable to measure the backscatter and depolarization ratio, has also been deployed to Ny-Ålesund in March 2012, and now operated to perform collocated measurements with FALCON-A. Simultaneous measurement data from collocated PMPL and FALCON-A are available for synergetic analyses of cloud microphysics. Cloud mycrophysics, such as effective radius of ice particles and ice water content, are obtained from the analysis based on algorithm, which is modified for ground-based measurements from Okamoto's retrieval algorithm for satellite based cloud profiling radar and lidar (CloudSat and CALIPSO; Okamoto et al., 2010). Results of two years will be shown in the presentation. Calibration is a point to derive radar reflectivity (dBZ) from original intensity data

  6. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-11-03

    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  7. The WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset: A new era in climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehl, G.A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Covey, C.; Taylor, K.E. [Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Livermore, CA (United States); Delworth, T.; Stouffer, R.J. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); Latif, M. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); McAvaney, B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne (Australia); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    A coordinated set of global coupled climate model [atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM)] experiments for twentieth- and twenty-first-century climate, as well as several climate change commitment and other experiments, was run by 16 modeling groups from 11 countries with 23 models for assessment in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Since the assessment was completed, output from another model has been added to the dataset, so the participation is now 17 groups from 12 countries with 24 models. This effort, as well as the subsequent analysis phase, was organized by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Working Group on Coupled Models (WGCM) Climate Simulation Panel, and constitutes the third phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). The dataset is called the WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset, and represents the largest and most comprehensive international global coupled climate model experiment and multimodel analysis effort ever attempted. As of March 2007, the Program for Climate Model Diagnostics and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has collected, archived, and served roughly 32 TB of model data. With oversight from the panel, the multimodel data were made openly available from PCMDI for analysis and academic applications. Over 171 TB of data had been downloaded among the more than 1000 registered users to date. Over 200 journal articles, based in part on the dataset, have been published so far. Though initially aimed at the IPCC AR4, this unique and valuable resource will continue to be maintained for at least the next several years. Never before has such an extensive set of climate model simulations been made available to the international climate science community for study. The ready access to the multimodel dataset opens up these types of model analyses to researchers, including students, who previously could not obtain state

  8. Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John Allen

    2003-01-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the last quarter century in all of these needed areas, covering the two essential halves of the Sun-Climate question: in what we know of solar variations and, equally important, in what we know of the climate system and of climatic changes. These research achievements allow us to examine all aspects of the question more directly and quantitatively than was ever possible before, and in the brighter light and more objective context of other known or suspected climate change mechanisms, including human-induced global greenhouse warming. Brief summaries of present status and current understanding are given below for nine facets of Sun-Climate science in which major progress has been made in recent years. At the same time it will be seen that in every instance, significant elements of uncertainty still remain, Some of the most important of these unanswered questions are considered later, in Section IV.

  9. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: From Coffee Table Art to Quantitative Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has provided an unprecedented set of observations of constituents of the stratosphere. When used in combination with data from other sources and appropriate modeling tools, these observations are useful for quantitative evaluation of stratospheric photochemical processes. This is illustrated by comparing ozone observations from airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM), from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and from the Halogen occultation Experiment (HALOE) with ozone fields generated with a three dimensional model. For 1995-96, at polar latitudes, observations from DIAL flights on December 9 and January 30, and POAM and MLS between late December and late January are compared with ozone fields from the GSFC 3D chemistry and transport model. Data from the three platforms consistently show that the observed ozone has a negative trend relative to the modeled ozone, and that the trend is uniform in time between early and mid winter, with no obvious dependence on proximity to the vortex edge. The importance of chlorine catalyzed photochemistry to this ozone loss is explored by comparing observations from MLS and HALOE with simulations for other northern winters, particularly 1997-98.

  10. Integrated web system of geospatial data services for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets are currently actively used for modeling, interpretation and forecasting of climatic and ecosystem changes on different spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their huge size (up to tens terabytes for a single dataset) a special software supporting studies in the climate and environmental change areas is required. An approach for integrated analysis of georefernced climatological data sets based on combination of web and GIS technologies in the framework of spatial data infrastructure paradigm is presented. According to this approach a dedicated data-processing web system for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced climatological and meteorological data is being developed. It is based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and involves many modern solutions such as object-oriented programming model, modular composition, and JavaScript libraries based on GeoExt library, ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Agreement #14.613.21.0037.

  11. Climate Research Roadmap Workshop: Summary Report, May 13-14, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    In recognition of the ongoing advances and challenges of climate change research, DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) organized a workshop asking the scientific community to identify the current state of climate science. The goal of the workshop was to determine the research challenges important for developing a predictive understanding of global climate. Participants were asked to focus on interdisciplinary research that capitalized on BER's scientific strengths in Atmospheric System Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science, and Climate and Earth System Modeling. Approximately 50 scientists representing these three areas were asked to identify desired outcomes for the next 10 years. Goals were identified for the near (1--3 years), mid (4--7 years), and long term (8--10 years). Discussions were focused by discipline (atmospheric, terrestrial, and modeling) and by latitude (high, temperate, and tropical). In addition, opportunities and needs for integration across disciplines and latitudes were identified with a specific focus on crosscutting challenges and outcomes. BER will use this workshop output to update its strategic plan for climate research.

  12. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  13. Climate change and human health: what are the research trends? A scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Bar-Hen, Avner; Verner, Glenn; Fischer, Helen; Sauerborn, Rainer; Depoux, Anneliese; Flahault, Antoine; Schütte, Stefanie

    2016-12-23

    For 28 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been assessing the potential risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Although interest in climate change and health is growing, the implications arising from their interaction remain understudied. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be key step in inciting some of the changes necessary to decelerate global warming. A long-term and broad overview of the existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed. In this paper we outline our methods to conduct a scoping review of the published peer-reviewed literature on climate change and health between 1990 and 2015. A detailed search strategy will be used to search the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria will be applied in order to capture the most relevant literature in the time frame chosen. Data will be extracted, categorised and coded to allow for statistical analysis of the results. No ethical approval was required for this study. A searchable database of climate change and health publications will be developed and a manuscript will be complied for publication and dissemination of the findings. We anticipate that this study will allow us to map the trends observed in publications over the 25-year time period in climate change and health research. It will also identify the research areas with the highest volume of publications as well as highlight the research trends in climate change and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  15. Quest for learning: A study of teachers' perceptions of the Satellite Education and Environmental Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of teachers who participated in the Satellite Education and Environmental Research (SEER) Program Water Project, a curriculum design course developed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The distance education course was a complex intervention which used the Nebraska Mathematics and Science Initiative's Model Program criteria for inquiry-based curriculum. Teachers formed communities of inquiry, experienced scientific inquiry processes, integrated different disciplines to create new thematic science curricula, and were encouraged to employ innovative pedagogical practices. National Science Education Standards and Nebraska Mathematics and Science Frameworks were consulted to develop important science process skills and concepts. Multicultural science education was addressed through investigation of local water issues. Teachers were encouraged to form community partnerships, supported with testing materials for conducting scientific research, and expected to use computer technology. Grounded theory was used to examine interviews of 26 participants for their perceptions of the effects of the intervention on their teaching strategies. The self-reports were triangulated through the external evaluation report, classroom artifacts, and a limited number of observations of classroom and field activities. Open coding was used to categorize the interview responses and to propose relationships among them. The central phenomenon that emerged from the axial and select coding was the changed focus: teaching science more thematically. Three theoretical propositions were posed to guide further inquiry: (1) teachers need opportunities and resources to experience science as an authentic, tenable, and realistic process if they are to develop curriculum and focus classroom activities on scientific inquiry; (2) autonomous learning communities must be fostered at downlink sites if distance learning experiences are to affect

  16. Climate change and children's health--a call for research on what works to protect children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Hu, Wenbiao; Su, Hong; Yu, Weiwei; Qi, Xin; Tong, Shilu

    2012-09-10

    Climate change is affecting and will increasingly influence human health and wellbeing. Children are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. An extensive literature review regarding the impact of climate change on children's health was conducted in April 2012 by searching electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, as well as relevant websites, such as IPCC and WHO. Climate change affects children's health through increased air pollution, more weather-related disasters, more frequent and intense heat waves, decreased water quality and quantity, food shortage and greater exposure to toxicants. As a result, children experience greater risk of mental disorders, malnutrition, infectious diseases, allergic diseases and respiratory diseases. Mitigation measures like reducing carbon pollution emissions, and adaptation measures such as early warning systems and post-disaster counseling are strongly needed. Future health research directions should focus on: (1) identifying whether climate change impacts on children will be modified by gender, age and socioeconomic status; (2) refining outcome measures of children's vulnerability to climate change; (3) projecting children's disease burden under climate change scenarios; (4) exploring children's disease burden related to climate change in low-income countries; and (5) identifying the most cost-effective mitigation and adaptation actions from a children's health perspective.

  17. Global climate change and health: developing a research agenda for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua P; Jessup, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving worldwide attention because of its anticipated impacts on the Earth's physical and biological systems. Through its effects on natural and human environments, climate change will likely impact economic viability and human health and well-being. The impact of climate change on human health is likely to be complex and significant, including effects on cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases, heat-related illness, mental and social well-being, nutrition, trauma, and vulnerable demographic sectors. Most assessments predict that these effects will disproportionately affect the poor, the elderly and the young, especially those living in Africa and Southeast Asia, where environmental conditions are poor, health infrastructure is weak and the burden of disease is great. Enormous efforts are underway to plan and finance climate change adaptation programs within national governments (including multiple U.S. agencies), United Nations organizations and private philanthropies. However, these endeavors are proceeding with a relatively poor understanding of the nature and magnitude of probable effects of climate change on health. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) already funds a portfolio of projects that are indirectly related to the concerns posed by global climate change. At the NIH, we have recently established an agency-wide planning group to assess the research questions in health and medicine that climate change presents, to link this agenda to parallel activities across other agencies of the U.S. Government (USG), and to advance a NIH research agenda in this area.

  18. From climate to global change: Following the footprint of Prof. Duzheng YE's research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congbin

    2017-10-01

    To commemorate 100 years since the birth of Professor Duzheng YE, this paper reviews the contribution of Ye and his research team to the development from climate to global change science in the past 30 or so years, including: (1) the role of climate change in global change; (2) the critical time scales and predictability of global change; (3) the sensitive regions of global change—transitional zones of climate and ecosystems; and (4) orderly human activities and adaptation to global change, with a focus on the development of a proactive strategy for adaptation to such change.

  19. Representativeness errors in comparing chemistry transport and chemistry climate models with satellite UV-Vis tropospheric column retrievals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Eskes, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) satellite retrievals of trace gas columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) are useful to test and improve models of atmospheric composition, for data assimilation, air quality hindcasting and forecasting, a

  20. Trends in research on global climate change: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2011-05-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the global scientific output of climate change research over the past 18 years and to assess the characteristics of the research patterns, tendencies, and methods in the papers. Data were based on the online version of Science Citation Index Expanded from 1992 to 2009. Articles referring to climate change were assessed by distribution of source countries, source institutes, paper titles, author keywords, KeyWords Plus, abstracts, and the most cited articles in these years. By synthetic analysis of the four kinds of keywords, it was concluded that the items "temperature", "environment", "precipitation", "greenhouse gas", "risk", and "biodiversity" will be the foci of climate change research in the 21st century, while "model", "monitoring", and "remote sensing" will continue to be the leading research methods. A novel method, "phylogeography", may have a strong application potential in the near future.

  1. Climate change: Opportunities for collaborative research in the Magellan and Antarctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaña, Ricardo; Ríos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the main points and ideas arising during the fourth session "Climate Change: Op-portunities for scientific cooperation in the Region of Magallanes and Antarctica" of the International Colloquium "Climate Change in Magellan and Antarctic regions: Evidence and Challenges for the Future" are presented. These explored the availability and data needs, gaps and lack of knowledge, suggestions for topics and objectives in the planning of new research associated to understanding of clim...

  2. SOLAR2000 irradiances for climate change research, aeronomy and space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Improvements to spectral and temporal solar irradiances are often based upon increasingly accurate and precise measurements as well as upon better understood physics. This paper reports on one example in an emerging trend for solar irradiance models that can be characterized as hybrid irradiance modeling. Empirical and physics-based modeling of irradiances are combined and take advantage of strengths within both methods to provide a variety of solar irradiance products to science and engineering users. The SOLAR2000 (S2K) version 1.24 model (v1.24) described in this paper has gone through 17 upgrades since it was originally released in 1999 as v0.10 and now incorporates three theoretical continua, 13 rocket spectra, and time series data from five satellites using 17 instruments. S2K currently produces six integrated irradiance proxies for science and engineering applications in addition to spectrally resolved irradiances in three common wavelength formats. Integrated irradiance proxies include the E10.7 integrated EUV energy flux, QEUV total thermospheric EUV heating rate, PEUV hemispheric EUV power, T∞ exospheric temperature, RSN derived sunspot number, and S integrated spectrum. Besides three spectral wavelength and six integrated irradiance formats there are three time frames of historical, nowcast, and forecast irradiance products produced by four model grades. The Research Grade (RG) model is developed for aeronomical and climate change research, the Professional Grade (PG) model is developed for space system engineering applications, the Operational Grade (OP) model is developed for institutional and agency real-time operational space weather applications, and the System Grade (SY) model is developed for commercial operational and production applications. This report describes these model characteristics as well as the current state of operational irradiances which are now in the second release of a first generation forecast methodology. Forecast Generation

  3. Making connections to translate climate research into effective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. J.; Niepold, F., III; Pierce, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is strongly apparent at many scales and facets of the Earth system including glacier retreat, increased ocean acidity, altered meteorological patterns, and changing ecosystems. There is general recognition that a more strategic and coordinated response is needed to ameliorate these impacts on communities and to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5°C imposed by the 2015 Paris agreement. However, concrete plans to achieve these goals require actionable and specific guidance from the scientific community that is targeted for specific stakeholder groups within government agencies, industry, and individuals, while also supporting decision-makers plans and policies. This guidance depends on scientific advances that establish quantified predictions and minimize the levels of uncertainty. Although, these advances are ongoing; the decision maker, civil society organizations, and business and investor communities are not waiting for perfection. The urgency of taking action now has brought new approaches to the fore that try to bring the best available science into the business and decision making process. Combining a breadth of expertise, we highlight the specific transmission pathways of information needed for stakeholders, and it spans initial data collection and climate model construction, experimentation, analysis, synthesis of results, education, to government, communities, and business planning to reduce impacts and minimize additional human-caused contributions. We propose a multi-pathway relay along these paths. In one direction we encourage scientists to provide accessible and useable summary results with uncertainties to educators and stakeholders, who in turn need to collate results in a manner that enables interested parties to identify their specific mitigation action. In the other direction, stakeholders and shareholders are already requesting more comprehensive verification, validation, and active linkages to the way in which

  4. Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, van A.; Knieling, J.; Gottschick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collabora

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Instrument Report Fourth Quarter: October 1–December 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air...

  8. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  9. Development of Distributed Research Center for analysis of regional climatic and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E.; Shiklomanov, A.; Okladnikov, I.; Prusevich, A.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach and first results of a collaborative project being carried out by a joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center UNH, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software platform prototype of a Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes in the Northern extratropical areas. The DRC should provide the specialists working in climate related sciences and decision-makers with accurate and detailed climatic characteristics for the selected area and reliable and affordable tools for their in-depth statistical analysis and studies of the effects of climate change. Within the framework of the project, new approaches to cloud processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) inherent to climate change studies are developed and deployed on technical platforms of both institutions. We discuss here the state of the art in this domain, describe web based information-computational systems developed by the partners, justify the methods chosen to reach the project goal, and briefly list the results obtained so far.

  10. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Research to Facilitate Climate Communication Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Johnson, B. B.; Nackerman, C. J.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change represents the worst of wicked environmental problems, requiring collaborations among individuals and groups that cross public, private and voluntary sectors on a global scale to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for impacts. The Climate Communication Consortium of Maryland represents such a collaboration on a state level for the purpose of supporting governments, non-profits, businesses and universities in communicating with the public about climate and energy within the context of multiple frames, such as public health, extreme weather, and coastal resilience. The collaboration was developed using communication research as an organizational framework - providing data from yearly public opinion surveys on Marylanders' attitudes, behaviors and policy support, and a variety of other qualitative and quantitative studies. In this presentation, we will highlight four dimensions of the use of research within collaborative organizational climate communication that can lead to success, or impediments: 1) individual organizational ability and resources for using audience data; 2) the linking of research questions to programmatic development goals and processes; 3) the weighing of audience- versus communicator-oriented values and priorities; and 4) identification of overarching communication objectives that span individual organizational interests. We will illustrate these dimensions using findings from surveys of our member organizations describing the types of barriers organizations face in communicating about climate change effectively, including their use of formative and evaluative research, and will discuss some of the findings from our public opinion and experimental research, illustrating the ways in which these findings influenced programmatic development and were used by Consortium member organizations.

  11. The research of Polar sea ice and its role in climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an important part of global climate system, the Polar sea ice is effecting on global climate changes through ocean surface radiation balance, mass balance, energy balance as well as the circulating of sea water temperature and salinity. Sea ice research has a centuries-old history. The many correlative sea ice projects were established through the extensive international cooperation during the period from the primary research of intensity and the bearing capacity of sea ice to the development of sea/ice/air coupled model. Based on these researches, the sea ice variety was combined with the global climate change. All research about sea ice includes: the physical properties and processes of sea ice and its snow cover, the ecosystem of sea ice regions, sea ice and upper snow albedo, mass balance of sea ice regions, sea ice and climate coupled model. The simulation suggests that the both of the area and volume of polar sea ice would be reduced in next century. With the developing of the sea ice research, more scientific issues are mentioned. Such as the interaction between sea ice and the other factors of global climate system, the seasonal and regional distribution of polar sea ice thickness, polar sea ice boundary and area variety trends, the growth and melt as well as their influencing factors, the role of the polynya and the sea/air interactions. We should give the best solutions to all of the issues in future sea ice studying.

  12. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  13. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    Climate changes adaptation needs innovative technological revolution on demand for transdisciplinary studies in various temporal and spatial scales. In our proposed program, a systematic and scientific framework will be developed to promote innovative adaptation technologies with respect to providing decision making information for government sectors, enhancing applicability of scientific research output, strengthening national research capabilities, and integrating both academic and non-academic resources. The objectives of this program are to identify key issues, required technologies, and scientific knowledge for climate change adaptations, and to build a transdisciplinary platform bridging science-supported technologies required by government sectors and demand-oriented scientific research conducted by academic communities. The approach proposed herein will be practiced in vulnerable regions, such as urban, rural, mountain, river basin, and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive to climate change. The first phase of 3-year (2011~2013) work is to deploy framework and strategies of climate change impact assessment and adaptation measures between related government sectors and researchers from academic communities. The proposed framework involves three principle research groups, namely Environmental System, Vulnerability Assessment, and Risk Management and Adaptation Technology. The goal of the first group, Environmental System, is to combine climate change projections with enhanced scientific and environmental monitoring technologies for better adaptations to future scenarios in different social, economic, and environmental sectors to support adaptation measures planning and to reduce uncertainties on assessing vulnerability. The goal of the second group, Vulnerability Assessment, is to identify interfaces and information structures of climate change vulnerably issues and to develop protocol, models, and indices for vulnerability assessment. The goal of

  14. Dynamic Response of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Growth to Climate Change in the Three North Shelter Forest Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, the Chinese government has initiated ecological restoration programs in the Three North Shelter Forest System Project (TNSFSP area. Whether accelerated climate change will help or hinder these efforts is still poorly understood. Using the updated and extended AVHRR NDVI3g dataset from 1982 to 2011 and corresponding climatic data, we investigated vegetation variations in response to climate change. The results showed that the overall state of vegetation in the study region has improved over the past three decades. Vegetation cover significantly decreased in 23.1% and significantly increased in 21.8% of the study area. An increase in all three main vegetation types (forest, grassland, and cropland was observed, but the trend was only statistically significant in cropland. In addition, bare and sparsely vegetated areas, mainly located in the western part of the study area, have significantly expanded since the early 2000s. A moisture condition analysis indicated that the study area experienced significant climate variations, with warm-wet conditions in the western region and warm-dry conditions in the eastern region. Correlation analysis showed that variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature. Ultimately, climate change influenced vegetation growth by controlling the availability of soil moisture. Further investigation suggested that the positive impacts of precipitation on NDVI have weakened in the study region, whereas the negative impacts from temperature have been enhanced in the eastern study area. However, over recent years, the negative temperature impacts have been converted to positive impacts in the western region. Considering the variations in the relationship between NDVI and climatic variables, the warm–dry climate in the eastern region is likely harmful to vegetation growth, whereas the warm

  15. Sensitivity of the weather research and forecasting model to parameterization schemes for regional climate of Nile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Tebikachew Betru; Gan, Thian Yew

    2017-08-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) have been used to simulate rainfall at relatively high spatial and temporal resolutions useful for sustainable water resources planning, design and management. In this study, the sensitivity of the RCM, weather research and forecasting (WRF), in modeling the regional climate of the Nile River Basin (NRB) was investigated using 31 combinations of different physical parameterization schemes which include cumulus (Cu), microphysics (MP), planetary boundary layer (PBL), land-surface model (LSM) and radiation (Ra) schemes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis data as initial and lateral boundary conditions, WRF was configured to model the climate of NRB at a resolution of 36 km with 30 vertical levels. The 1999-2001 simulations using WRF were compared with satellite data combined with ground observation and the NCEP reanalysis data for 2 m surface air temperature (T2), rainfall, short- and longwave downward radiation at the surface (SWRAD, LWRAD). Overall, WRF simulated more accurate T2 and LWRAD (with correlation coefficients >0.8 and low root-mean-square error) than SWRAD and rainfall for the NRB. Further, the simulation of rainfall is more sensitive to PBL, Cu and MP schemes than other schemes of WRF. For example, WRF simulated less biased rainfall with Kain-Fritsch combined with MYJ than with YSU as the PBL scheme. The simulation of T2 is more sensitive to LSM and Ra than to Cu, PBL and MP schemes selected, SWRAD is more sensitive to MP and Ra than to Cu, LSM and PBL schemes, and LWRAD is more sensitive to LSM, Ra and PBL than Cu, and MP schemes. In summary, the following combination of schemes simulated the most representative regional climate of NRB: WSM3 microphysics, KF cumulus, MYJ PBL, RRTM longwave radiation and Dudhia shortwave radiation schemes, and Noah LSM. The above configuration of WRF coupled to the Noah LSM has also been shown to simulate representative regional

  16. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Pinsky, L.; Li, L.; Jackson, D. R.; Chen, J.; Reed, H.; Moldwin, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, J.; Heine, T.; Case, A. W.; Stevens, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  17. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impacts of the Merowe High Dam in its vicinity and downstream, Atlantropa, a new ice age, and the increase in days with sunshine after the introduction of the high-chimney policy in the Rhein-Ruhr area, just to mention a few.

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  19. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...... changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research...

  20. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.;

    2016-01-01

    representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social...... across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine...

  2. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce A. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  3. ARCADE - Atmospheric Research for Climate and Astroparticle DEtection

    CERN Document Server

    Buscemi, M; Cilmo, M; Coco, M; Ferrarese, S; Guarino, F; Tonachini, A S; Valore, L; Wiencke, L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the optical properties of the atmosphere in the near UV, in particular the tropospheric aerosol stratification, clouds optical depth and spatial distribution are common in the field of atmospheric physics, due to aerosol effect on climate, and also in cosmic rays physics, for a correct reconstruction of energy and longitudinal development of showers. The goal of the ARCADE project is the comparison of the aerosol attenuation measurements obtained with the typical techniques used in cosmic ray experiments (side-scattering measurement, elastic LIDAR and Raman LIDAR) in order to assess the systematic errors affecting each method providing simultaneous observations of the same air mass with different techniques. For this purpose we projected a LIDAR that is now under construction: it will use a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser and will collect the elastic and the N2 Raman back-scattered light. For the side-scattering measurement we will use the Atmospheric Monitoring Telescope, a facility owned by the ...

  4. Global mesospheric tidal winds observed by the high resolution Doppler imager on board the upper atmosphere research satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Y.T.; Lieberman, R.S.; Hays, P.B.; Ortland, D.A.; Marshall, A.R.; Wu, D.; Skinner, W.R.; Burrage, M.D.; Gell, D.A.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents results of mesospheric and lower thermospheric wind tides. The observations come from the high resolution doppler imager (HRDI) on board the upper atmosphere research satellite. From these observations, the authors report the observation of tidal effects on top of the meridonal winds observed in this region. Previous measurements have been mainly limited to radar measurements from fixed ground stations, which do not give consistent results, and do not provide a global picture of the wave structure.

  5. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  6. Assessing simulated ecosystem processes for climate variability research at Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.D.; Running, S.W.; Thornton, P.E.; Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Fagre, D.B.; Key, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Glacier National Park served as a test site for ecosystem analyses than involved a suite of integrated models embedded within a geographic information system. The goal of the exercise was to provide managers with maps that could illustrate probable shifts in vegetation, net primary production (NPP), and hydrologic responses associated with two selected climatic scenarios. The climatic scenarios were (a) a recent 12-yr record of weather data, and (b) a reconstituted set that sequentially introduced in repeated 3-yr intervals wetter-cooler, drier-warmer, and typical conditions. To extrapolate the implications of changes in ecosystem processes and resulting growth and distribution of vegetation and snowpack, the model incorporated geographic data. With underlying digital elevation maps, soil depth and texture, extrapolated climate, and current information on vegetation types and satellite-derived estimates of a leaf area indices, simulations were extended to envision how the park might look after 120 yr. The predictions of change included underlying processes affecting the availability of water and nitrogen. Considerable field data were acquired to compare with model predictions under current climatic conditions. In general, the integrated landscape models of ecosystem processes had good agreement with measured NPP, snowpack, and streamflow, but the exercise revealed the difficulty and necessity of averaging point measurements across landscapes to achieve comparable results with modeled values. Under the extremely variable climate scenario significant changes in vegetation composition and growth as well as hydrologic responses were predicted across the park. In particular, a general rise in both the upper and lower limits of treeline was predicted. These shifts would probably occur along with a variety of disturbances (fire, insect, and disease outbreaks) as predictions of physiological stress (water, nutrients, light) altered competitive relations and hydrologic

  7. Research on GPS Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Algorithm In the Occurrence of Two-satellite Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Er Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is an essential factor for GPS navigation system. Therefore, an integrity monitoring is considered as one of the most important parts for a navigation system. GPS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM technique can detect and isolate fault satellite. Based on particle filter, a novel RAIM method was proposed to detect two-satellite faults of the GPS signal by using hierarchical particle filter. It can deal with any system nonlinear and any noise distributions. Because GNSS measurement noise does not follow the Gaussian distribution perfectly, the particle filter can estimate the posterior distribution more accurately. In order to detect fault, the consistency test statistics is established through cumulative log-likelihood ratio (LLR between the main and auxiliary particle filters (PFs.Specifically, an approach combining PF with the hierarchical filter is used in the process of two-satellite faults. Through GPS real measurement, the performance of the proposed GPS two-satellite faults detection algorithm was illustrated. Some simulation results are given to evaluate integrity monitoring performance of the algorithm. Validated by the real measurement data, the results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully detect and isolate the faulty satellite in the case of non-Gaussian measurement noise.

  8. Enhancing and expanding intersectional research for climate change adaptation in agrarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hall, Mary; Carr, Edward R; Pascual, Unai

    2016-12-01

    Most current approaches focused on vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation to climate change frame gender and its influence in a manner out-of-step with contemporary academic and international development research. The tendency to rely on analyses of the sex-disaggregated gender categories of 'men' and 'women' as sole or principal divisions explaining the abilities of different people within a group to adapt to climate change, illustrates this problem. This framing of gender persists in spite of established bodies of knowledge that show how roles and responsibilities that influence a person´s ability to deal with climate-induced and other stressors emerge at the intersection of diverse identity categories, including but not limited to gender, age, seniority, ethnicity, marital status, and livelihoods. Here, we provide a review of relevant literature on this topic and argue that approaching vulnerability to climate change through intersectional understandings of identity can help improve adaptation programming, project design, implementation, and outcomes.

  9. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Sikka; P Sanjeeva Rao

    2000-06-01

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional observational systems to collect information about the coupled ocean-atmosphere system over the warm waters of the Bay of Bengal. The paper gives the background of the ICRP and the organisation and implementation of the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) in its field phase.

  10. Intersections of downscaling, the ethics of climate services, and regional research grand challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, B.; Jack, C. D.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Possibly the leading complication for users of climate information for policy and adaptation is the confusing mix of contrasting data sets that offer widely differing (and often times fundamentally contradictory) indications of the magnitude and direction of past and future regional climate change. In this light, the most pressing scientific-societal challenge is the need to find new ways to understand the sources of conflicting messages from multi-model, multi-method and multi-scale disparities, to develop and implement new analytical methodologies to address this difficulty and so to advance the interpretation and communication of robust climate information to decision makers. Compounding this challenge is the growth of climate services which, in view of the confusing mix of climate change messages, raises serious concerns as to the ethics of communication and dissemination of regional climate change data.The Working Group on Regional Climate (WGRC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) oversees the CORDEX downscaling program which offers a systematic approach to compare the CMIP5 GCMs alongside RCMs and Empirical-statistical (ESD) downscaling within a common experimental design, and which facilitates the evaluation and assessment of the relative information content and sources of error. Using results from the CORDEX RCM and ESD evaluation experiment, and set against the regional messages from the CMIP5 GCMs, we examine the differing messages that arise from each data source. These are then considered in terms of the implications of consequence if each data source were to be independently adopted in a real world use-case scenario. This is then cast in the context of the emerging developments on the distillation dilemma - where the pressing need is for multi-method integration - and how this relates to the WCRP regional research grand challenges.

  11. The health effects of climate change: a survey of recent quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Margherita; Manera, Matteo; Chiabai, Aline; Markandya, Anil

    2012-05-01

    In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases.

  12. Research on the new type of multi-functional satellite system for space debris detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Linghua; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Huilin; Xu, Xihe

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of space exploration and utilization, orbital debris increases dramatically, leading to great threat to human space activities and spacecraft security. In this paper, a new type of multi-functional space debris satellite system (MSDS) was put forward, which shared main optical system, and possessed functions of multidimensional information detection, polarized remote sensing and high rate transmission. The MSDS system can meet the requirements of detection and identification for the small orbital debris which is 1000km faraway, as well as the requirements of the data transmission by 50 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps@200-1000 km. At the same time, by the method of satellite orbital maneuver and attitude adjusting, the orbital debris information that is real-time, complex and refined, allweather can be acquired and transmitted by the new system. Such new type of multifunctional satellite system can provide important and effective technology for international orbital debris detection.

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  14. Contribution of Satellite Altimetry Data in Geological Structure Research in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tran, Tuan; Ho, Thi Huong Mai

    2016-06-01

    The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  15. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  16. Research of Multi-Agent System based satellite fault diagnosis technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范显峰; 姜兴渭; 黄文虎; 谷吉海

    2002-01-01

    Following the theory of Multi-Agent System (MAS) and using series-wound structure and shunt-wound structure of Agents, the performance of Agent was improved to satisfy the need of satellite fault diagno-sis, and a tridimensional MAS model of satellite fault diagnosis was thus established for the MAS based planardiagnosis system, which decentralizes the whole diagnosing task into subtasks to be performed by different func-tional Agents to make the complicated fault diagnosis very simple and the diagnosis system more intelligent.This method improved the reliability and accuracy of diagnosis and made the maintenance and upgrading of thesatellite fault diagnosis system very easy as well.

  17. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  18. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change, decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change, its comprehensive impact, and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation. Among the factors contributing to these important issues, the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties. On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, specifically, in the role of air pollution in climate change, scenarios establishment, and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact, adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate. In the future, there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate. Furthermore, this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals, to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics, and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments. All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  19. Climate Change Science Teaching through Integration of Technology in Instruction and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Ozbay, G.; Robinson, L.; Klimkowski, V.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation demonstrates the importance of collaborations between the institutions with common focus on offering the academic program on climate change science. Virginia State University (VSU) developed and established the course on climate change and adaptation, AGRI 350 for undergraduates, in cooperation with two HBCUs, Delaware State University (DSU) and Morgan State University (MSU). This program was developed to enhance the science curriculum with funding from the USDA NIFA. The hands-on research opportunities for students were supported by the NSF HBCU UP Supplement Grant at VSU. The technical guidance and lesson plans were available through the courtesy of the AMS and faculty/student team training at the NCAR. In the initial stages, the faculty members participated in faculty development workshops hosted by the AMS and NCAR. This contributed to trained faculty members developing the courses on Climate Change at VSU, DSU, and MSU. To create awareness of global climate change and exposure of students to international programs, seven students from VSU, MSU, and DSU participated in the Climate Change course (ENS 320) at the University of Sunshine Coast (USC), Australia. This international experience included faculty members in using SimCLIM for climate change data into decision-making with regard to potential changes to cropping systems and tree growth. The Climate Change program at VSU, DSU, and MSU is emerging into comprehensive academic program which includes use of case studies and exchange of students' reflections with their peers through discussion board and videoconferencing, hands-on research on water quality monitoring and mapping the study sites, and integration of geospatial technologies and i-Tree. In addition, the students' engagement in intensive research was conducted through hands-on experience with Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Marine Science Department, University of Hawaii at Hilo in summer 2015.

  20. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiao-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change,decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change,its comprehensive impact,and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation.Among the factors contributing to these important issues,the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties.On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report,specifically,in the role of air pollution in climate change,scenarios establishment,and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways(SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways(RCPs).Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact,adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate.In the future,there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate.Furthermore,this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals,to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics,and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments.All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  1. Evaluating a 5 year climate change research teacher professional development program in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, P.; Rudd, L.; McAlister, J.; Bonde, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of a 5 yr NSF funded project, part of Nevada ';s Climate Change Research Education and Outreach EPSCoR award. Goals of the K-12 portion of the project included: a replicable professional development model of K-12 climate change science education for Nevada and other institutions; strengthened relationships between secondary school teachers and NSHE climate change researchers; and greater teacher pedagogical content knowledge in climate change science and greater confidence in ability to teach effectively. Two overarching research questions formed the foundation of our teacher professional development program: 1) How will climate change affect Nevada's baseline water resources (groundwater and surface water) and linked ecosystem services? 2) How will climate change affect natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, and insect outbreaks)? All teachers participated in at least one (2-week long) summer institute and academic year follow up focused on one of two overarching research questions forming the basis of the award assisted by a disciplinary graduate student . An on-line class (ENV 794) was a 3 credit graduate credit bearing class from UNLV based on the fundamentals of climate change science was available free to participating teachers. A supplemental program in the final award year was added following advisory board recommendations to develop a cohort or "learning community" approach at an interested high school. The 'About Climate Change' Integrated Curriculum spans several subject areas and cuts across national standards for STEM English and Social Studies; a 2-week unit developed by Clark HS teachers for their classes. Our teachers increased their content knowledge about climate change science. This is indicated in student evaluations of the on-line course ENV 794, and in the summer institute post test of content knowledge which included about 25 questions. There was improvement for our one focus

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  4. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  5. Research on handover algorithm to reduce the blocking probability in LEO satellite network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bingcai; Zhang Naitong; Nie Boxun; Zhou Tingxian

    2006-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of guaranteed handover (GH) algorithm, the finite capacity in one system makes the blocking probability (PB) of GH algorithm increase rapidly in the case of high traffic load. So, when large amounts of multimedia services are transmitted via a single low earth orbit (LEO) satellite system, the PB of it is much higher. In order to solve the problem, a novel handover scheme defined by multi-tier optiral layer selection is proposed. The scheme sufficienfly takes into ac count the characteristics of double-tier satellite network, which is constituted by LEO satellites combined with medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, and the multimedia transmitted by such network, so it can augment this systematic capacity and effectively reduces the traffic load in the LEO which performs GH algorithm. The detailed processes are also presented. The simulation and numerical results show that the approach integrated with GH algorithm achieves a significant improvement in the PB and practicability, as compared to the single LEO layer network.

  6. Report of survey research of ways of using second generation practical broadcasting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The state of development of satellite broadcasting in Japan, was determined was determined and recommendations were made regarding what organizations would use it and what kind of results could be forthcoming. The primary use at this stage is for television broadcasting, and the secondary use is for testing new broadcasting methods and for use by Japan's new Broadcasting University.

  7. Communication and perception of uncertainty via graphics in disciplinary and interdisciplinary climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Bettina C.; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Besides written and spoken language, graphical displays play an important role in communicating scientific findings or explaining scientific methods, both within one and between various disciplines. Uncertainties and probabilities are generally difficult to communicate, especially via graphics. Graphics including uncertainty sometimes need detailed written or oral descriptions to be understood. "Good" graphics should ease scientific communication, especially amongst different disciplines. One key objective of the Doctoral Programme "Climate Change: Uncertainties, Thresholds and Coping Strategies" (http://dk-climate-change.uni-graz.at/en/), located at the University of Graz, is to reach a better understanding of climate change uncertainties by bridging research in multiple disciplines, including physical climate sciences, geosciences, systems and sustainability sciences, environmental economics, and climate ethics. This asks for efforts into the formulation of a "common language", not only as to words, but also as to graphics. The focus of this work is on two topics: (1) What different kinds of uncertainties (e.g., data uncertainty, model uncertainty) are included in the graphics of the recent IPCC reports of all three working groups (WGs) and in what ways do uncertainties get illustrated? (2) How are these graphically displayed uncertainties perceived by researchers of a similar research discipline and from researchers of different disciplines than the authors of the graphics? To answer the first question, the IPCC graphics including uncertainties are grouped and analyzed with respect to different kinds of uncertainties to filter out most of the commonly used types of displays. The graphics will also be analyzed with respect to their WG origin, as we assume that graphics from researchers rooted in, e.g., physical climate sciences and geosciences (mainly IPCC WG 1) differ from those of researchers rooted in, e.g., economics or system sciences (mainly WG 3). In a

  8. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, Courtney [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Walter, Katey [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  9. An evaluation of uncertainty in the aerosol optical properties as represented by satellites and an ensemble of chemistry-climate coupled models over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baró, Rocío; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    different wavelengths. Regarding the uncertainty in satellite representation of AOD, MODIS appears to have the best agreement with AERONET observations when compared to other satellite AOD observations. Focusing on the comparison between model output and MODIS and AERONET, results indicate a general slight improvement of AOD in the case of including the aerosol radiative effects in the model and a slight worsening for the Angström exponent for some stations and regions. Regarding the correlation coefficient, both episodes show similar values of this metric, which are higher for AOD. Generally, for the Angström exponent, models tend to underestimate the variability of this variable. Despite this , the improvement in the representation by on-line coupled chemistry-climate models of AOD reflected here may be of essential importance for a better description of aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in regional climate models. On the other hand, the differences found between remote sensing sensors (which is of the same order of magnitude as the differences between the different members of the model ensemble) point out the uncertainty in the measurements and observations that have to be taken into account when the models are evaluated. Acknowledgments: the funding from REPAIR-CGL2014-59677-R projects (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Innovation, funded by the FEDER programme of the European Union). Special thanks to the EuMetChem COST ACTION ES1004.

  10. The significance of cloud-radiative forcing to the general circulation on climate time scales - A satellite interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of cloud- and surface-atmosphere forcing on the net radiation balance and their potential impact on the general circulation at climate time scales. The globally averaged cloud-forcing estimates and cloud sensitivity values taken from various recent studies are summarized. It is shown that the net radiative heating over the tropics is principally due to high clouds, while the net cooling in mid- and high latitudes is dominated by low and middle clouds.

  11. Climate Engineering: avoiding Pandora's box through research and governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honegger, Matthias; Michaelowa, Axel; Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja

    2011-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise, and emission reduction efforts are increasingly seen as inadequate to stay below the 2 degrees C threshold agreed internationally, but countries shy away from shouldering the burden of emissions abatement. Therefore, in the next decades an increase in meteorological extreme events is increasingly likely to trigger public pressure to find quick solutions to halt climate change. Climate engineering (CE), especially Solar Radiation Management (SRM) proposals, will be attractive in this context. But SRM could turn into a Pandora's Box if not managed carefully. A sudden political demand for implementing CE could end in disaster if pressure leads to premature deployment. It is vital to establish a solid understanding of CE with all its indirect effects as well as significant acceptance and thus legitimacy. Since for many CE options, the risks seem negatively correlated to costs, a global research coordination effort is needed that is fully transparent and avoids biases introduced by interest groups. The IPCC would be the right forum to harness this research. Research should go hand in hand with the development of new norms and international approaches in monitoring, similar to the case of nuclear weapons or terrorism. It is time for climate engineering to enter the discourse on climate change mitigation - in a research-led, transparent and conscientiously governed manner.(Author)

  12. Northwest U.S. agriculture in a changing climate: collaboratively defined research and extension priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgine G. Yorgey; Sonia A. Hall; Elizabeth R. Allen; Elizabeth M. Whitefield; Nichole M. Embertson; Vincent P. Jones; Brooke R. Saari; Kirti Rajagopalan; Gabrielle E. Roesch-McNally; Beatrice Van Horne; John T. Abatzoglou; Harold P. Collins; Laurie L. Houston; Timothy W. Ewing; Chad E. Kruger

    2017-01-01

    In order for agricultural systems to successfully mitigate and adapt to climate change there is a need to coordinate and prioritize next steps for research and extension. This includes focusing on “win-win” management practices that simultaneously provide short-term benefits to farmers and improve the sustainability and resiliency of agricultural systems with respect...

  13. Rancho Santiago College Climate Survey Report. Research, Planning and Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; And Others

    In February 1990, a study was conducted by the Rancho Santiago College (RSC) Research Committee and Planning Council to assess institutional effectiveness, using college climate as one correlate of RSC's success. A staff morale survey instrument, distributed to all full- and part-time faculty and staff, yielded an overall response rate of 36%, and…

  14. Enhancing the relevance of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B.J.; Levy, M.; Agrawal, A.; Biermann, F.; Birkmann, J.; Carter, T.R.; Ebi, K.L.; Garschagen, M.; Jones, B.; Jones, R.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Kok, M.; Kok, K.; Lemos, M.C.; Lucas, P.L.; Orlove, B.; Pachauri, S.; Parris, T.; Patwardhan, A.; Petersen, A.; Preston, B.L.; Ribot, J.; Rothman, D.S.; Schweizer, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role and relevance of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and the new scenarios that combine SSPs with representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability (IAV) research. It first provides an overview of uses of social–

  15. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered from anticipated climate change. How well do we understand these changes today, and what are implications for water resources management and for policy?

    With these questions in mind, a dozen researchers – most of them with experience in collaborating with water managers – from around the world assembled for a workshop in Göschenen, Switzerland on 16–19 September 2009 by invitation of the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI. Their goal was to develop an up-to-date overview of mountain water resources and climate change and to identify pressing issues with relevance for science and society.

    This special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences assembles contributions providing insight into climate change and water resources for selected case-study mountain regions from around the world. The present introductory article is based on analysis of these regions and on the workshop discussions. We will give a brief overview of the subject (Sect. 1, introduce the case-study regions (Sect. 2 and examine the state of knowledge regarding the importance of water supply from mountain areas for water resources in the adjacent lowlands and anticipated climate change impacts (Sect. 3. From there, we will identify research and monitoring needs (Sect. 4, make recommendations for research, water resources management and policy (Sect. 5 and finally draw conclusions (Sect. 6.

  16. SOME ADVANCES IN CLIMATE WARMING IMPACT RESEARCH IN CHINA SINCE 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馥棠

    2001-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, which could lead to global climate warming and more other changes. China is a largely agricultural country with a large size of population and the relative shortages of farming lands and water resources, thus increasing the importance of climate warming for national economy development. Therefore. Chinese government and scientists have paid great attention to the impact-assessment of climate warming on national economy in China, especially during the past 10 years. This presentation will briefly describe some major issues of climate warming impact research on national vegetation, agriculture, forest, water resources, energy use and regional sea level for China, etc.As a result, all climate change scenarios derived by GCMs suggest a substantial change in thecharacteristic natural vegetation types. It is also shown that comparing with the distributionsimulated under thenormal time period 1951-1980 as the present climate, by 2050 large changesin cropping systems would occur almost everywhere in China. Climate warming would lead toincrease cropping diversification and multiplication. Unfortunately, the possible net balancebetween precipitation and evapotranspiration would be negativeand it would lead to reduce thegrain production in China significantly due to enhanced moisture stress in soil. The most evidentinfluence of climate warming on water resources would happen in Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe Basin andthe water supply-demand deficit would be substantially enhanced in this area. And also, a warmerclimate for China will alter the energy requirement for domestic heating and cooling, that is,reduce energy use for heating in northern China and increase energy consumption for cooling insouthern China.

  17. Dust aerosol impact on North Africa climate: a GCM investigation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions using A-Train satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA. The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol first indirect effect based on ice cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth. When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing associated with aerosol semi-direct effect could exceed direct aerosol forcing. With the aerosol first indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced in the case for an ice water path (IWP larger than 20 g m−2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP.

    AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect results in less OLR and net solar flux at TOA over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the

  18. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect using satellite, tracer transport model, and aircraft data from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, L.; Garrett, T. J.; Stohl, A.

    2007-05-01

    The magnitudes of the "indirect effects" that anthropogenic aerosols have on clouds and climate remain uncertain. Past space-based characterizations have compared satellite retrievals of cloud properties with satellite- or model-derived aerosol quantities. The two fields have been taken from air masses displaced from each other either horizontally or vertically. Thus, almost by definition, the cloud retrievals have come from different meteorological regimes than the aerosol to which ostensibly they are related. Because cloud properties depend foremost on meteorology, the difference introduces undesired ambiguity in the comparisons. In this study, we compare Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud retrievals with high spatial and temporal resolution output from a tracer transport model (FLEXPART), enabling colocation of fields of pollution and clouds both vertically and horizontally. Anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a passive pollution tracer, because its concentrations are tied to mixing and pollutant source strength, and they are independent of atmospheric oxidation and removal processes on timescales of weeks to months. Cloud and pollution fields are compared along a downwind axis from the U.S. northeastern seaboard for the duration of the summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) mission. Where the transport model indicates air as being polluted, cloud re is smaller and cloud optical depth is in some cases higher, at least close to primary source regions. However, within 4 ± 1 days advection time from the northeastern seaboard, cloud perturbations become negligible, probably because of wet-scavenging of CCN. No conclusive evidence was found for any perturbation to cloud liquid water path by pollution.

  19. Assimilation of microwave, infrared, and radio occultation satellite observations with a weather research and forecasting model for heavy rainfall forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyuen, Pakornpop; Wu, Falin; Phunthirawuth, Parwapath; Zhao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In this research, satellite observation data were assimilated into Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) by using Three-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System (3DVAR) to analyze its impacts on heavy rainfall forecasts. The weather case for this research was during 13-18 September 2015. Tropical cyclone VAMCO, forming in South China Sea near with Vietnam, moved on west direction to the Northeast of Thailand. After passed through Vietnam, the tropical cyclone was become to depression and there was heavy rainfall throughout the area of Thailand. Observation data, used in this research, included microwave radiance observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), infrared radiance observations from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and GPS radio occultation (RO) from the COSMIC and CHAMP missions. The experiments were designed in five cases, namely, 1) without data assimilation (CTRL); 2) with only RO data (RO); 3) with only AMSU-A data (AMSUA); 4) with only IASI data (IASI); and 5) with all of RO, AMSU-A and IASI data assimilation (ALL). Then all experiment results would be compared with both NCEP FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis and the observation data from Thai Meteorological Department weather stations. The experiments result demonstrated that with microwave (AMSU-A), infrared (IASI) and GPS radio occultation (RO) data assimilation can produce the positive impact on analyses and forecast. All of satellite data assimilations have corresponding positive effects in term of temperature and humidity forecasting, and the GPS-RO assimilation produces the best of temperature and humidity forecast biases. The satellite data assimilation has a good impact on temperature and humidity in lower troposphere and vertical distribution that very helpful for heavy rainfall forecast improvement.

  20. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  1. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  2. Assessment of regional climatic changes in the Eastern Himalayan region: a study using multi-satellite remote sensing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anubha; Sharma, Anu Rani; Tayal, Shresth

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to capture the sensitivity of a mountainous region to elevation-dependent warming and the response of a glacier-laden surface to increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol concentration. Some of the changes Sikkim has undergone due to urban sprawl are as follows: an increase of ~0.7 ± 0.46 °C temperature in the past 40 years at an altitude of 5.5 km; a 2.21 km(2)/year rate of loss of glacierised area in the past 33 years; an increase in absorbed longwave radiation (6 ± 2.41 W/m(2)); an increase in heat fluxes (2 ± 0.97 W/m(2)); a decrease in albedo during the last 30 years; an increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide (4.42%), methane (0.61%), ozone (0.67%) and black carbon column optical depth (7.19%); a decrease in carbon monoxide (2.61%) and an increase in aerosol optical depth (19.16%) during the last decade; a decrease in precipitation, water yield, discharge and groundwater; and an increase in evapotranspiration during 1971-2005. Detection of three climate signals (1976, 1997 and 2005) in the entire analysis is the quantification of the fact that the climate of Sikkim is moving away from its inter-annual variability. An increase in temperature (0.23 °C/decade) at higher altitude (~5.5 km), suppression of precipitation, decreasing water availability and rapid loss of glacierised area are the evidences of the fact that air pollution is playing a significant role in bringing about regional climatic changes in Sikkim. In this study, change detection method has been used for the first time for the estimation of change in a glacierised area of the region.

  3. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  4. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  5. Do Regional Disparities in Research on Climate and Water Influence Adaptive Capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiparsky, M.; Brooks, C. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States); Gleick, P.H. [Pacific Institute, 654 13th Street, Oakland, CA, 94612 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    As part of a long-term effort to both improve access to information on climate change and freshwater resources, and to understand the state of the science, we compiled an electronic bibliography of scientific literature in that area. We analyzed the distribution of information on climatic impacts on freshwater resources, with an emphasis on differences between developed and developing regions as well as differences in the types and focus of research carried out among regions. There has been more research overall in developed countries than in the developing world. Proportionally more of the available research on natural and human systems pertains to developed regions, while most of the analysis done in developing countries is limited to higher-level climatology and hydrology. We argue that scientific information and understanding are important elements of the ability to adapt to potential climatic changes. The distribution of the scientific literature in our database suggests that the types of science most directly relevant to adaptive capacity are skewed towards developed countries, which may exacerbate existing disparities in adaptive capacity, and ultimately worsen the consequences of climatic impacts in developing countries.

  6. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Colagiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i convened a workshop of academics (n = 25 from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  7. Nonlinear compensation research and simulation of bandlimited QPSK digital satellite channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a phase compensation against the signal distortion mainly caused by TWTA to solve the problem of compensation and modelling of a nonlinear QPSK satellite channel assumed to be bandlimited and exhibit both ampli tude and phase nonlinearities, and to lower the bit error probability of nonlinear channel, and concludes with simula tion results that the compensation against phase distortion of TWTA can significantly improve the nonlinear performance of the channel.

  8. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) mapping - Validation, early results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Lee S.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe

    1992-01-01

    The results of limitation studies performed with the UARS MLS are presented. A consistent set of algorithms allows the extraction of the spectral coefficients in time and longitude from asynoptically sampled satellite data and the subsequent reconstruction of synoptic maps from that spectral information. In addition to providing synoptic maps, the asynoptic technique allows the use of standard spectral analysis tools such as autocorrelation and cross correlation.

  9. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales Using Multiple Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O"N-5O0S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  10. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guo-Jon

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O0N-50"S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, includmg: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  11. Application of MODIS satellite products to the air pollution research in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chengcai; MAO; Jietai; Alexis; K.; H.; Lau; YUAN; Zibin

    2005-01-01

    The direct correlation between NASA MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) products and the air pollution index (API) in Beijing was found relatively low based on the long-term comparison analysis. The correlation improved to some extent after taking account of the seasonal variation of scale height and the vertical distribution of aerosols. The correlation coefficient further improved significantly after considering the influencing factor of Relative Humidity (RH). This study concluded that satellite remote-sensing could serve as an efficient tool for monitoring the spatial distribution of particulate pollutants on the ground-level, as long as corrections have been made in the two aforementioned processes. Taking advantage of the MODIS information, we analyzed a pollution episode occurring in October 2004 in Beijing. It indicated that satellite remote-sensing could describe the formation process of the ground-level pollution episode in detail, and showed that regional transport and the topography were crucial factors to air quality in Beijing. The annual averaged distribution in the urban area of Beijing and its surroundings could be also obtained from the high-resolution retrieval results, implicating that high-resolution satellite remote-sensing might be potential in monitoring the source distribution of particulate pollutants.

  12. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Standardized research protocols enable transdisciplinary research of climate variation impacts in corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multi-faceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multi-state, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigat...

  14. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local

  15. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  16. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  18. A RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON PERCEPTION OF SUPPORT FOR INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÖNÜL KAYA ÖZBAĞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of organizational climate is fairly important in terms of improving innovation in organizations. For that reason, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of organizational climate dimensions (organizational encouragement, supervisory support, team support, otonomy, participation flexibility and communication on perception of support for innovation. Here the aim is trying to help administrators by determining the factors that increase or prevent innovation. Data obtained from 86 enterprises that are operating in Kocaeli is used in order to analyze the relationships among variables. After factor analysis, data is tested through correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings of research indicate that organizational climate dimensions affect perception of support for innovation.

  19. SEA Semester Undergraduates Research the Ocean's Role in Climate Systems in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A. W.; Becker, M. K.; Grabb, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea Education Association (SEA)'s fully accredited Oceans & Climate SEA Semester program provides upper-level science undergraduates a unique opportunity to explore the ocean's role in the global climate system as they conduct real-world oceanographic research and gain first-hand understanding of and appreciation for the collaborative nature of the scientific research process. Oceans & Climate is an interdisciplinary science and policy semester in which students also explore public policy perspectives to learn how scientific knowledge is used in making climate-related policy. Working first at SEA's shore campus, students collaborate with SEA faculty and other researchers in the local Woods Hole scientific community to design and develop an original research project to be completed at sea. Students then participate as full, working members of the scientific team and sailing crew aboard the 134-foot brigantine SSV Robert C. Seamans; they conduct extensive oceanographic sampling, manage shipboard operations, and complete and present the independent research project they designed onshore. Oceans & Climate SEA Semester Cruise S-250 sailed from San Diego to Tahiti on a 7-week, >4000nm voyage last fall (November-December 2013). This remote open-ocean cruise track traversed subtropical and equatorial regions of the Pacific particularly well suited for a diverse range of climate-focused studies. Furthermore, as SEA has regularly collected scientific data along similar Pacific cruise tracks for more than a decade, students often undertake projects that require time-series analyses. 18 undergraduates from 15 different colleges and universities participated in the S-250 program. Two examples of the many projects completed by S-250 students include a study of the possible relationship between tropical cyclone intensification, driven by warm sea surface temperatures, and the presence of barrier layers; and a study of nutrient cycling in the eastern Pacific, focusing on primary

  20. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  1. Review of research to inform California's climate scoping plan: Agriculture and working lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Byrnes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in California contributes 8% of the state's greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. To inform the state's policy and program strategy to meet climate targets, we review recent research on practices that can reduce emissions, sequester carbon and provide other co-benefits to producers and the environment across agriculture and rangeland systems. Importantly, the research reviewed here was conducted in California and addresses practices in our specific agricultural, socioeconomic and biophysical environment. Farmland conversion and the dairy and intensive livestock sector are the largest contributors to GHG emissions and offer the greatest opportunities for avoided emissions. We also identify a range of other opportunities including soil and nutrient management, integrated and diversified farming systems, rangeland management, and biomass-based energy generation. Additional research to replicate and quantify the emissions reduction or carbon sequestration potential of these practices will strengthen the evidence base for California climate policy.

  2. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Glenn; Schütte, Stefanie; Knop, Juliane; Sankoh, Osman; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively) until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively), which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014). However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), predominantly in Europe and North America. There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly. Raising the interest in this research area in young

  3. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Verner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design: We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results: The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively, which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014. However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions: There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly

  4. A Research Agenda for Bridging the Gap Between Climate Science, Media and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B.

    2012-12-01

    A large and widely noted gap exists between the urgent threats indicated by climate science, and the general lack of priority being assigned to climate change by the broader public, media and policy-makers in the United States. This gap has motivated many climate scientists to try to engage more with lay audiences. One pathway for doing so is to speak or write directly for these audiences—for example, via blogs. To succeed, however, this route generally demands development of entirely new and deceptively difficult skill sets, navigation of common important pitfalls, and a significant dedication of time outside of research. A second pathway instead builds on scientists' traditional strength in research: orienting and extending research to increase its interest and accessibility for wider audiences. A trivially simple but relevant example is using U.S. instead of metric units, even to the point of doing separate additional analyses based on round U.S. unit variable values. More fundamentally, scientists can (and increasingly do) resolve research results to the finest spatial and temporal scales possible, in order to deliver information that is of local and immediate interest. But for maximum effectiveness, research products must go beyond, for example, color scale maps—whatever their resolution—to summarizing and communicating findings for the units that people care about, such as individual states, counties or cities, whenever this is a legitimate and feasible exercise. In this talk, I will develop these and related themes, and draw heavily on my experience and lessons learned from Climate Central's Surging Seas project, a conceptually integrated research and communications program on sea level rise that has stimulated over 800 news stories, from small-town independent reporting to major national coverage, since its launch in March 2012.

  5. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  6. Cloud attenuation studies of the six major climatic zones of Africa for Ka and V satellite system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Victor Omotosho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Cloud cover statistics, cloud base and top height, cloud temperature, frequency of precipitation, freezing height, total cloud liquid water content (TCLWC and cloud attenuation data have been obtained for the six major climatic zones of Africa. The present results reveal a strong positive correlation between the monthly distribution of low cloud cover, cloud top height, cloud temperature, and frequency of precipitation in the six zones. The cumulative distribution of the TCLWC derived from radiosonde measurement in each climatic zone shows a departure from the TCLWC recommended by the ITU Study Group 3 data, with an exceedance percentage difference of 32% to 90% occurring 0.01% to 10% of the time. The underestimation of the TCLWC is greatest in the tropical rain forest. A comparison of the cloud attenuation cumulative distribution in the Ka and V bands reveals that the International Telecommunication Union – Region (ITU-R is an intergovernmental organization that develops rain model based on collected data around the world. This model underestimates the cloud attenuation in all of the six climatic zones by 2.0 dB and 4.7 dB for the arid Sahara desert, 1.3 dB and 3.0 dB in semi-arid North Africa, 1.3 dB and 1.5 dB in savannah North Africa, 2.0 dB and 3.6 dB in the tropical rain forest, 1.3 dB and 2.9 dB in savannah South Africa and 0.9 dB and 2.6 dB in semi-arid South Africa, respectively, at 30 and 50 GHz. Overall, the cloud attenuation in the tropical rain-forest zone is very high because of the high annual total cloud cover (98%, high annual frequency of precipitation (4.5, low annual clear sky amount (8%, high cloud depth (10,937 m, high 0°C isotherm height (4.7 km, high TCLWC (4.0 kg/m2 at 0.01% and low seasonal cloud base height (356 m.

  7. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)'s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9° by 2.5° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  10. Asilomar moments: formative framings in recombinant DNA and solar climate engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Stefan; Low, Sean

    2014-12-28

    We examine the claim that in governance for solar climate engineering research, and especially field tests, there is no need for external governance beyond existing mechanisms such as peer review and environmental impact assessments that aim to assess technically defined risks to the physical environment. By drawing on the historical debate on recombinant DNA research, we show that defining risks is not a technical question but a complex process of narrative formation. Governance emerges from within, and as a response to, narratives of what is at stake in a debate. In applying this finding to the case of climate engineering, we find that the emerging narrative differs starkly from the narrative that gave meaning to rDNA technology during its formative period, with important implications for governance. While the narrative of rDNA technology was closed down to narrowly focus on technical risks, that of climate engineering continues to open up and includes social, political and ethical issues. This suggests that, in order to be legitimate, governance must take into account this broad perception of what constitutes the relevant issues and risks of climate engineering, requiring governance that goes beyond existing mechanisms that focus on technical risks. Even small-scale field tests with negligible impacts on the physical environment warrant additional governance as they raise broader concerns that go beyond the immediate impacts of individual experiments.

  11. Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Simonnet, Eric

    2011-10-13

    The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both nite and in nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented first on a delay-diff erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.

  12. Solar geoengineering could substantially reduce climate risks—A research hypothesis for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Irvine, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We offer a hypothesis that if solar geoengineering (SG) were deployed to offset half of the increase in global-mean temperature from the date of deployment using a technology and deployment method chosen to approximate a reduction in the solar constant then, over the 21st century, it would (a) substantially reduce the global aggregate risks of climate change, (b) without making any country worse off, and (c) with the aggregate risks from side-effects being small in comparison to the reduction in climate risks. We do not set out to demonstrate this hypothesis; rather we propose it with the goal of stimulating a strategic engagement of the SG research community with policy-relevant questions. We elaborate seven sub-hypotheses on the effects of our scenario for key risks of climate change that could be assessed in future modeling work. As an example, we provide a defence of one of our sub-hypotheses, that our scenario of SG would reduce the risk of drought in dry regions, but also identify issues that may undermine this sub-hypothesis and how future work could resolve this question. SG cannot substitute for emissions mitigation but it may be a useful supplement. It is our hope that scientific and technical research over the next decade focuses more closely on well-articulated variants of the key policy-relevant question: could SG be designed and deployed in such a way that it could substantially and equitably reduce climate risks?

  13. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  14. CSUB CREST Research on Climate Change and the San Joaquin Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugh, W. C.; Negrini, R. M.; Baron, D.; Gillespie, J.; Horton, R. A.; Montoya, E.; Cruz-Boone, C.; Andrews, G. D.; Guo, J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the NSF-supported Centers for Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST), student and faculty researchers at California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB) have been investigating the regional impacts of climate change as well as evaluating the potential of local contributions to its abatement. Highlights of this research include; 1) the development of a high-resolution climate record from Tulare Lake sediments that spans the past 20,000 years, 2) the quantitative analysis and prediction of climate change impacts on Sierra Nevada snowpack, 3) the detailed subsurface characterization of San Joaquin Valley oilfields targeted for CO2 sequestration, and 4) the evaluation of proposed host rock suitability under simulated CO2 injection conditions. To date, CSUB CREST supported research has resulted in 26 contributions to peer-reviewed journals (currently published or in-review). A primary goal of CSUB CREST is to improve the recruitment, retention, and success of students from the local community, the majority of whom are from backgrounds under-represented in STEM disciplines. More than 28 students have been directly involved in the basic and applied research projects supported by this program. The majority of these students have received, or are on track to receive, an M.S. degree and have ultimately gained employment in a STEM field or been accepted into a Ph.D. program. This presentation, and others in this session, will focus on the accomplishments, challenges, and strategies for success gleaned from CSUB CREST Phase 1.

  15. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future; Forskningsprogram om klima- og ozonspoersmaal. Oppsummering av norsk klima- og ozonlagsforskning de siste ti aarene og viktige forskningsoppgaver i framtiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Elin [ed.

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research.

  16. The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Floberghagen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, is expected to be launched in late 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution......, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to derive advanced models of the geomagnetic field (and other higher-level data products) it is necessary to take explicit advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm...

  17. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  18. Quantifying loss and damage from anthropogenic climate change - Bridging the gap between two research communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The science of attribution of meteorological events to anthropogenic causes has for the first time been included in the latest assessment of the Physical Science Basis of the Climate, (WGI), of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report AR5 (Stocker et al., 2013). At the same time there is a very rapidly growing body of literature on climate change and its impact on economy, society and environment but apart from very few exemptions no link is made to the causes of these changes. Observed changes in hydrological variables, agriculture, biodiversity and the built environment have been attributed to a changing climate, whether these changes are the result of natural variability or external forcings (Cramer et al., 2014). While the research community represented in WGI assesses whether, and to what extent, recent extreme weather events can be attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, the research community of impact specialists asks how climatic changes lead to different impacts largely independent of the causes of such changes. This distinction becomes potentially very relevant with respect to the 2013 established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) to address loss and damage from the impacts of climate change in developing countries under the UNFCCC climate change negotiations. Currently there is no discussion what consists of loss and damage and the reasons for this inexistence of a definition are not primarily scientific but political however, the absence of a definition could potentially lead to absurd consequences if funds in the context of loss and damage would be redistributed, as e.g. suggested, for all low risk high impact events. Here we present the implications of discussed definitions of loss and damage (Huggel et al. 2015) and how scientific evidence could be included. Cramer et al. (2014) Detection and Attribution of Observed Impacts. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of WG 2 to AR5 of

  19. Developing research about extreme events and impacts to support international climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike; James, Rachel; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Jones, Richard; Allen, Myles; Mitchell, Daniel; Cornforth, Rosalind

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have some of its most significant impacts through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. There is a pressing need for policy to support adaptation to changing climate risks, and to deal with residual loss and damage from climate change. In 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism was established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to address loss and damage in developing countries. Strategies to help vulnerable regions cope with losses from extreme events will presumably require information about the influence of anthropogenic forcing on extreme weather. But what kind of scientific evidence will be most useful for the Warsaw Mechanism? And how can the scientific communities working on extreme events and impacts develop their research to support the advance of this important policy? As climate scientists conducting probabilistic event attribution studies, we have been working with social scientists to investigate these questions. Our own research seeks to examine the role of external drivers, including greenhouse gas emissions, on the risk of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding, and drought. We use large ensembles of climate models to compute the probability of occurrence of extreme events under current conditions and in a world which might have been without anthropogenic interference. In cases where the models are able to simulate extreme weather, the analysis allows for conclusions about the extent to which climate change may have increased, decreased, or made no change to the risk of the event occurring. These results could thus have relevance for the UNFCCC negotiations on loss and damage, and we have been communicating with policymakers and observers to the policy process to better understand how we can develop our research to support their work; by attending policy meetings, conducting interviews, and using a participatory game developed with the Red Cross

  20. Surface-Satellite Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART)and Chemical, Optical and Microphysical Measurements of In-Situ Troposphere (COMMIT) Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    The GSFC SMART consists of a suite of remote sensing instruments, including many commercially available radiometers, spectrometer, interferometer, and three in-house developed inskuments: micro-pulse lidar (MPL), scanning microwave radiometer (SMiR), and sun-sky-surface photometer (S(sup 3)). SMART cover the spectral range from UV to microwave, and passive to active remote sensing. This is to enrich the EOS-like research activities (i.e., EOS validation, innovative investigations, and long-term local environmental observations). During past years, SMART has been deployed in many NASA supported field campaigns to collocate with satellite nadir overpass for intercomparisons, and for initializing model simulations. Built on the successful experience of SMART, we are currently developing a new ground-based in-situ sampling package, COMMIT, including measurements of trace gases (CO, SO2, NOx, and O3,) concentrations, fine/coarse particle sizers and chemical composition, single- and three-wavelength nephelometers, and surface meteorological probes. COMMIT is built for seeking a relationship between surface in-situ measurements and boundary layer characteristics. This is to enrich EOS-like research on removing boundary layer signal from the entire column from space observation - to deduce the stable (less variability) free-troposphere observations. The COMMIT will try its best to link the chemical, microphysical, and optical properties of the boundary layer with radiation. The next major activities for SMART-COMMIT are scheduled for 2004-2006 in BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE. The expected close collaboration of BASE-ASIA with various research projects in Asia (i.e., ABC in South Asia, led by Ramanathan et al.; EAST-AIRE in East Asia, led by Li et al.; and APEX in Northeast Asia, led by Nakajima et al.) will definitely provide a better understanding of the impact of the biomass burning and air pollutants on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and