WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite-based voice communications

  1. Digital, Satellite-Based Aeronautical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite system relays communication between aircraft and stations on ground. System offers better coverage with direct communication between air and ground, costs less and makes possible new communication services. Carries both voice and data. Because many data exchanged between aircraft and ground contain safety-related information, probability of bit errors essential.

  2. Trellis-coded CPM for satellite-based mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamkar, Farrokh; Biglieri, Ezio

    1988-01-01

    Digital transmission for satellite-based land mobile communications is discussed. To satisfy the power and bandwidth limitations imposed on such systems, a combination of trellis coding and continuous-phase modulated signals are considered. Some schemes based on this idea are presented, and their performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The results obtained show that a scheme based on directional detection and Viterbi decoding appears promising for practical applications.

  3. Voice - How humans communicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us-members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners.

  4. Network design consideration of a satellite-based mobile communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Technical considerations for the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X), the ground segment testbed for the low-cost spectral efficient satellite-based mobile communications technologies being developed for the 1990's, are discussed. The Network Management Center contains a flexible resource sharing algorithm, the Demand Assigned Multiple Access scheme, which partitions the satellite transponder bandwidth among voice, data, and request channels. Satellite use of multiple UHF beams permits frequency reuse. The backhaul communications and the Telemetry, Tracking and Control traffic are provided through a single full-coverage SHF beam. Mobile Terminals communicate with the satellite using UHF. All communications including SHF-SHF between Base Stations and/or Gateways, are routed through the satellite. Because MSAT-X is an experimental network, higher level network protocols (which are service-specific) will be developed only to test the operation of the lowest three levels, the physical, data link, and network layers.

  5. Air traffic management system design using satellite based geo-positioning and communications assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkin, Phil

    1995-01-01

    The current FAA and ICAO FANS vision of Air Traffic Management will transition the functions of Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance to satellite based assets in the 21st century. Fundamental to widespread acceptance of this vision is a geo-positioning system that can provide worldwide access with best case differential GPS performance, but without the associated problems. A robust communications capability linking-up aircraft and towers to meet the voice and data requirements is also essential. The current GPS constellation does not provide continuous global coverage with a sufficient number of satellites to meet the precision landing requirements as set by the world community. Periodic loss of the minimum number of satellites in view creates an integrity problem, which prevents GPS from becoming the primary system for navigation. Furthermore, there is reluctance on the part of many countries to depend on assets like GPS and GLONASS which are controlled by military communities. This paper addresses these concerns and provides a system solving the key issues associated with navigation, automatic dependent surveillance, and flexible communications. It contains an independent GPS-like navigation system with 27 satellites providing global coverage with a minimum of six in view at all times. Robust communications is provided by a network of TDMA/FDMA communications payloads contained on these satellites. This network can support simultaneous communications for up to 30,000 links, nearly enough to simultaneously support three times the current global fleet of jumbo air passenger aircraft. All of the required hardware is directly traceable to existing designs.

  6. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  7. Trellis coding with Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) for satellite-based land-mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the final report summarizes the results of our studies on the satellite-based mobile communications project. It includes: a detailed analysis, design, and simulations of trellis coded, full/partial response CPM signals with/without interleaving over various Rician fading channels; analysis and simulation of computational cutoff rates for coherent, noncoherent, and differential detection of CPM signals; optimization of the complete transmission system; analysis and simulation of power spectrum of the CPM signals; design and development of a class of Doppler frequency shift estimators; design and development of a symbol timing recovery circuit; and breadboard implementation of the transmission system. Studies prove the suitability of the CPM system for mobile communications.

  8. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  9. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P Callaway Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack

  10. Integration between terrestrial-based and satellite-based land mobile communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiancono, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given of several approaches to improving the performance and marketability of mobile satellite systems (MSS). The provision of voice/data services in the future regional European Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), network integration between the Digital Cellular Mobile System (GSM) and LMSS, the identification of critical areas for the implementation of integrated GSM/LMSS areas, space segment scenarios, LMSS for digital trunked private mobile radio (PMR) services, and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques for a terrestrial/satellite system are covered.

  11. Tactical Voice Communications Over Shipboard Local Area Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urie, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The United States Navy's next generation ship(s) scheduled for commissioning in the year 2004 and beyond will integrate tactical shipboard voice communications system into the local area network (LAN...

  12. Terminal Radar Approach Control: Measures of Voice Communications System Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prinzo, O. V; McClellan, Mark

    2005-01-01

    .... As the NAS migrates from its current ground infrastructure and voice communications system to one that encompasses both ground and airborne systems, digital data transmission may become the principal...

  13. Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigbauer, Martin; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Leeb, Walter R.; Baister, Guy; Dreischer, Thomas; Jennewein, Thomas; Neckamm, Gregor; Perdigues, Josep M.; Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    2005-09-01

    Feature Issue on Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) We investigate the design and the accommodation of a quantum communication transceiver in an existing classical optical communication terminal on board a satellite. Operation from a low earth orbit (LEO) platform (e.g., the International Space Station) would allow transmission of single photons and pairs of entangled photons to ground stations and hence permit quantum communication applications such as quantum cryptography on a global scale. Integration of a source generating entangled photon pairs and single-photon detection into existing optical terminal designs is feasible. Even more, major subunits of the classical terminals such as those for pointing, acquisition, and tracking as well as those providing the required electronic, thermal, and structural backbone can be adapted so as to meet the quantum communication terminal needs.

  14. ATC/pilot voice communications: A survey of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzo, O. Veronika; Britton, Thomas W.

    1993-11-01

    The first radio-equipped control tower in the United States opened at the Cleveland Municipal Airport in 1930. From that time to the present, voice radio communications have played a primary role in air safety. Verbal communications in air traffic control (ATC) operations have been frequently cited as causal factors in operational errors and pilot deviations in the FAA Operational Error and Deviation System, the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and reports derived from government sponsored research projects. Collectively, the data provided by these programs indicate that communications constitute a significant problem for pilots and controllers. Although the communications problem was well known the research literature was fragmented, making it difficult to appreciate the various types of verbal communications problems that existed and their unique influence on the quality of ATC/pilot communications. This is a survey of the voice radio communications literature. The 43 reports in the review represent survey data, field studies, laboratory studies, narrative reports, and reviews. The survey topics pertain to communications taxonomies, acoustical correlates and cognitive/psycholinguistic perspectives. Communications taxonomies were used to identify the frequency and types of information that constitute routine communications, as well as those communications involved in operational errors, pilot deviations, and other safety-related events. Acoustical correlate methodologies identified some qualities of a speaker's voice, such as loudness, pitch, and speech rate, which might be used potentially to monitor stress, mental workload, and other forms of psychological or physiological factors that affect performance. Cognitive/psycho-linguistic research offered an information processing perspective for understanding how pilots' and controllers' memory and language comprehension processes affect their ability to communicate effectively with one another. This

  15. Randomized controlled trial of supplemental augmentative and alternative communication versus voice rest alone after phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Gutmann, Michelle L; Mau, Theodore; Francis, David O; Johnson, Jeffrey P; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Vinson, Kimberly N; Garrett, C Gaelyn

    2015-03-01

    This randomized trial investigated voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication versus voice rest alone on visual analog scale measures of communication effectiveness and magnitude of voice use. Randomized clinical trial. Multicenter outpatient voice clinics. Thirty-seven patients undergoing phonomicrosurgery. Patients undergoing phonomicrosurgery were randomized to voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication or voice rest alone. The primary outcome measure was the impact of voice rest on ability to communicate effectively over a 7-day period. Pre- and postoperative magnitude of voice use was also measured as an observational outcome. Patients randomized to voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication reported higher median communication effectiveness on each postoperative day compared to those randomized to voice rest alone, with significantly higher median communication effectiveness on postoperative days 3 (P=.03) and 5 (P=.01). Magnitude of voice use did not differ on any preoperative (P>.05) or postoperative day (P>.05), nor did patients significantly decrease voice use as the surgery date approached (P>.05). However, there was a significant reduction in median voice use pre- to postoperatively across patients (Pcommunication increased patient-perceived communication effectiveness on postoperative days 3 and 5 over voice rest alone. With the prevalence of smartphones and the widespread use of text messaging, supplemental text-to-speech communication may provide an accessible and cost-effective communication option for patients on vocal restrictions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  17. Speaking in Character: Voice Communication in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.

    This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.

  18. Influences on Intercultural Classroom Communication: Student Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    The case study is an attempt to understand how students experience intercultural classroom communication and what kind of competence they need to cope in intercultural classroom communication. The context is a supplementary course in English for university enrolment in Denmark. It is a multinational student body and all the students have finished…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Supplemental Augmentative and Alternative Communication versus Voice Rest Alone after Phonomicrosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Gutmann, Michelle L.; Mau, I-fan Theodore; Francis, David O.; Johnson, Jeffrey P.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Vinson, Kimberly N.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial investigated voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication versus voice rest alone on visual analog scale measures of communication effectiveness and magnitude of voice use. Study Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting Multicenter outpatient voice clinics. Subjects Thirty-seven patients undergoing phonomicrosurgery. Methods Patients undergoing phonomicrosurgery were randomized to voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication or voice rest alone. The primary outcome measure was the impact of voice rest on ability to communicate effectively over a seven-day period. Pre- and post-operative magnitude of voice use was also measured as an observational outcome. Results Patients randomized to voice rest and supplemental text-to-speech communication reported higher median communication effectiveness on each post-operative day compared to those randomized to voice rest alone, with significantly higher median communication effectiveness on post-operative day 3 (p = 0.03) and 5 (p = 0.01). Magnitude of voice use did not differ on any pre-operative (p > 0.05) or post-operative day (p > 0.05), nor did patients significantly decrease voice use as the surgery date approached (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant reduction in median voice use pre- to post-operatively across patients (p communication increased patient perceived communication effectiveness on post-operative days 3 and 5 over voice rest alone. With the prevalence of smartphones and the widespread use of text messaging, supplemental text-to-speech communication may provide an accessible and cost-effective communication option for patients on vocal restrictions. PMID:25605690

  20. Mobile Communication Devices, Ambient Noise, and Acoustic Voice Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Ysenbaert, Femke; Zarowski, Andrzej; Vanspauwen, Robby

    2017-03-01

    The ability to move with mobile communication devices (MCDs; ie, smartphones and tablet computers) may induce differences in microphone-to-mouth positioning and use in noise-packed environments, and thus influence reliability of acoustic voice measurements. This study investigated differences in various acoustic voice measures between six recording equipments in backgrounds with low and increasing noise levels. One chain of continuous speech and sustained vowel from 50 subjects with voice disorders (all separated by silence intervals) was radiated and re-recorded in an anechoic chamber with five MCDs and one high-quality recording system. These recordings were acquired in one condition without ambient noise and in four conditions with increased ambient noise. A total of 10 acoustic voice markers were obtained in the program Praat. Differences between MCDs and noise condition were assessed with Friedman repeated-measures test and posthoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, both for related samples, after Bonferroni correction. (1) Except median fundamental frequency and seven nonsignificant differences, MCD samples have significantly higher acoustic markers than clinical reference samples in minimal environmental noise. (2) Except median fundamental frequency, jitter local, and jitter rap, all acoustic measures on samples recorded with the reference system experienced significant influence from room noise levels. Fundamental frequency is resistant to recording system, environmental noise, and their combination. All other measures, however, were impacted by both recording system and noise condition, and especially by their combination, often already in the reference/baseline condition without added ambient noise. Caution is therefore warranted regarding implementation of MCDs as clinical recording tools, particularly when applied for treatment outcomes assessments. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The structure of voice communications in a system for notification about accidents in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyayev, N F; Khaynovskiy, A V

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary of voice communications about routes and the time for outlet of people is analyzed. A classification of voice reports is given in order to isolate the constant and variable parts. Two methods for realizing a device for voice outlet of information for the ''Trudovskaya'' mine of the ''Donetskugol''' production union are examined.

  2. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  3. Self-contained miniature electronics transceiver provides voice communication in hazardous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Two-way wireless voice communications system is automatic, provides freedom of movement, allows for complete awareness of the environment, and does not present any additional hazards such as activation of electromagnetic sensitive devices.

  4. Detection of Convective Initiation Using Meteorological Imager Onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Based on Machine Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As convective clouds in Northeast Asia are accompanied by various hazards related with heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, it is very important to detect convective initiation (CI in the region in order to mitigate damage by such hazards. In this study, a novel approach for CI detection using images from Meteorological Imager (MI, a payload of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, was developed by improving the criteria of the interest fields of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Areas (RDCA derivation algorithm, an official CI detection algorithm for Multi-functional Transport SATellite-2 (MTSAT-2, based on three machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT, random forest (RF, and support vector machines (SVM. CI was defined as clouds within a 16 × 16 km window with the first detection of lightning occurrence at the center. A total of nine interest fields derived from visible, water vapor, and two thermal infrared images of MI obtained 15–75 min before the lightning occurrence were used as input variables for CI detection. RF produced slightly higher performance (probability of detection (POD of 75.5% and false alarm rate (FAR of 46.2% than DT (POD of 70.7% and FAR of 46.6% for detection of CI caused by migrating frontal cyclones and unstable atmosphere. SVM resulted in relatively poor performance with very high FAR ~83.3%. The averaged lead times of CI detection based on the DT and RF models were 36.8 and 37.7 min, respectively. This implies that CI over Northeast Asia can be forecasted ~30–45 min in advance using COMS MI data.

  5. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  6. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-06

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  7. Students' Voices about Information and Communication Technology in Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anders D.; Lindberg, Ola J.; Fransson, Göran

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore upper secondary school students' voices on how information and communication technology (ICT) could structure and support their everyday activities and time at school. Design/methodology/approach: In all, 11 group interviews were conducted with a total of 46 students from three upper secondary…

  8. Individual versus Interactive Task-Based Performance through Voice-Based Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granena, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Interaction is a necessary condition for second language (L2) learning (Long, 1980, 1996). Research in computer-mediated communication has shown that interaction opportunities make learners pay attention to form in a variety of ways that promote L2 learning. This research has mostly investigated text-based rather than voice-based interaction. The…

  9. Using Your VOICE(S: Adding Telephonic Communication to Pharmacy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorin B Grieve

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists utilize a myriad of communication methods to deliver patient care. One of the most prevalent communication methods is the telephone. The University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy created a novel instructional and assessment technique to enhance student pharmacist training experiences in telephonic communication within the PharmD curriculum. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Note

  10. Making the "Minority" Voice Heard: Critical Communication Pedagogy and Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Brandi

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication, Argumentation and Advocacy, Communication and Education. Objectives: This activity is designed to help students to problem-pose and think critically about policies/laws that influence education. Students will be exposed to U.S. policy and will be able to articulate a critical dissent of such documents.

  11. V for Voice: Strategies for Bolstering Communication Skills in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Davit; Karst, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    With the ease and automation of data collection and plummeting storage costs, organizations are faced with massive amounts of data that present two pressing challenges: technical analysis of the data themselves and communication of the analytics process and its products. Although a plethora of academic and practitioner literature have focused on…

  12. The effectiveness of the installation of a mobile voice communication system in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Eisuke; Fujiki, Tadayoshi; Nakakuni, Hideaki; Sullivan, Corbet Vernon

    2006-04-01

    In large hospitals, collaborative clinical practice is currently emphasized, with members of various departments expected to work as a team. The importance of accurate communication among the team members is of utmost importance. To improve such communication, the introduction of mobile voice communication systems has received much attention in Japan. Shimane University Hospital also introduced a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) for doctors. In the traditional setting, much time was wasted searching for doctors through multiple calls on fixed-line telephones. In order to measure the effectiveness of our system, the change in the number of calls made on fixed-line telephones before and after PHS installation was compared. The total number of calls was reduced by more than 35%, and the number of calls to the wards on weekdays was reduced by half. Mobile telecommunication systems with small output power, such as PHS, are known to cause little interference with medical devices which makes it possible to use mobile voice communication safely in hospitals. The improvement in communication by this systems resulted in an improvement in labor efficiency.

  13. Effects of a Voice Output Communication Aid on Interactions between Support Personnel and an Individual with Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.

    1995-01-01

    A young adult with multiple disabilities (profound mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, and visual impairment) was provided with a voice output communication aid (VOCA) which allowed communication through synthesized speech. Both educational and residential staff members interacted with the individual more frequently when she had access to…

  14. The Stakeholder Model of voice research: Acknowledging barriers to human rights of all stakeholders in a communicative exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Catherine; Warhurst, Samantha; McCabe, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    The act of communication is a complex, transient and often abstract phenomenon that involves many stakeholders, each of whom has their own perspective: the speaker, the listener, the observer and the researcher. Current research practices in voice disorder are frequently framed through a single lens - that of the researcher/clinician or their participant/patient. This single lens approach risks overlooking significant barriers to the basic human right of freedom of expression for those with a voice disorder as it omits consideration of the impact of voice disorder on the listener, and consideration of the wider impact of the voice in the occupational context. Recent research in the area of voice has developed a multiple lens and subsequent Stakeholder Model that acknowledges the experience and reality of multiple stakeholders viewing the same phenomenon, the voice. This research paradigm is built on Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as it considers the realities of all stakeholders in forming a deeper understanding of the causality, impact and aspects of communication disorder. The Stakeholder Model will be presented as a suggestion for future investigations of communication disorders more widely.

  15. Communicating the past into the present. Young voices about communism and communists in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca PETRE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades have passed since the fall of communism; meanwhile, a new generation has come to age in the post-communist countries, with no direct experience of the past, yet still influenced by it. In the pages to follow I try to bring the voice of young Romanians to the fore, for it is a voice which has scarcely been heard. How do young people communicate about a past that they did not experience but which nevertheless influences them? How do they appropriate the past and what does it mean for them? The hypothesis emerging from empirical exploration is that “communist” is the term that the youth uses to mark their distinction and rebellion against the adult generation. It is not as much a political category but an everyday term that would silence the “other” of youth, the adults. “Communists” are described as authoritarian, dictatorial, limited, rigid, and indoctrinated. While “communist” is a term that seems easy to describe, there is no clear and coherent opinion when it comes to “communism”. More often than not, young people adopt the standardised version of history textbooks and combine it with the stories heard from their parents. It is to be pointed out that often the two versions collide, the textbooks presenting the recent past in dark colours as abusive, dictatorial, totalitarian, while many parents emphasise the safety of work and lodgings.

  16. Differing Roles of the Face and Voice in Early Human Communication: Roots of Language in Multimodal Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Jhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking roots of language, we probed infant facial expressions and vocalizations. Both have roles in language, but the voice plays an especially flexible role, expressing a variety of functions and affect conditions with the same vocal categories—a word can be produced with many different affective flavors. This requirement of language is seen in very early infant vocalizations. We examined the extent to which affect is transmitted by early vocal categories termed “protophones” (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls and by their co-occurring facial expressions, and similarly the extent to which vocal type is transmitted by the voice and co-occurring facial expressions. Our coder agreement data suggest infant affect during protophones was most reliably transmitted by the face (judged in video-only, while vocal type was transmitted most reliably by the voice (judged in audio-only. Voice alone transmitted negative affect more reliably than neutral or positive affect, suggesting infant protophones may be used especially to call for attention when the infant is in distress. By contrast, the face alone provided no significant information about protophone categories. Indeed coders in VID could scarcely recognize the difference between silence and voice when coding protophones in VID. The results suggest that partial decoupling of communicative roles for face and voice occurs even in the first months of life. Affect in infancy appears to be transmitted in a way that audio and video aspects are flexibly interwoven, as in mature language.

  17. Differing Roles of the Face and Voice in Early Human Communication: Roots of Language in Multimodal Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Yuna; Franklin, Beau; Ramsdell-Hudock, Heather L; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2017-01-01

    Seeking roots of language, we probed infant facial expressions and vocalizations. Both have roles in language, but the voice plays an especially flexible role, expressing a variety of functions and affect conditions with the same vocal categories-a word can be produced with many different affective flavors. This requirement of language is seen in very early infant vocalizations. We examined the extent to which affect is transmitted by early vocal categories termed "protophones" (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls) and by their co-occurring facial expressions, and similarly the extent to which vocal type is transmitted by the voice and co-occurring facial expressions. Our coder agreement data suggest infant affect during protophones was most reliably transmitted by the face (judged in video-only), while vocal type was transmitted most reliably by the voice (judged in audio-only). Voice alone transmitted negative affect more reliably than neutral or positive affect, suggesting infant protophones may be used especially to call for attention when the infant is in distress. By contrast, the face alone provided no significant information about protophone categories. Indeed coders in VID could scarcely recognize the difference between silence and voice when coding protophones in VID. The results suggest that partial decoupling of communicative roles for face and voice occurs even in the first months of life. Affect in infancy appears to be transmitted in a way that audio and video aspects are flexibly interwoven, as in mature language.

  18. Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Synchronous Voice-Based Computer-Mediated Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the benefits and drawbacks of synchronous voice-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) in a blended course of English for specific purposes. Quantitative and qualitative data from two groups following the same syllabus, except for the oral component, were compared. Oral tasks were carried out face-to-face with same L1…

  19. Failure of a wireless voice communication system to facilitate recording of physician-patient assignment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Peter J

    2008-11-06

    A pilot study was done to assess the feasibility of using a LAN-based voice communication system to convey physician-patient assignment in the emergency department (ED). Via their communicators, physicians were expected to notify registration staff in real-time upon care assumption of each new patient. Over a two month trial, compliance went from poor to dismal, and this method of notification was abandoned.

  20. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor is...

  1. Voices used by nurses when communicating with patients and relatives in a department of medicine for older people-An ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anette; Boman, Åse; Wagman, Petra; Pennbrant, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    To describe how nurses communicate with older patients and their relatives in a department of medicine for older people in western Sweden. Communication is an essential tool for nurses when working with older patients and their relatives, but often patients and relatives experience shortcomings in the communication exchanges. They may not receive information or are not treated in a professional way. Good communication can facilitate the development of a positive meeting and improve the patient's health outcome. An ethnographic design informed by the sociocultural perspective was applied. Forty participatory observations were conducted and analysed during the period October 2015-September 2016. The observations covered 135 hours of nurse-patient-relative interaction. Field notes were taken, and 40 informal field conversations with nurses and 40 with patients and relatives were carried out. Semistructured follow-up interviews were conducted with five nurses. In the result, it was found that nurses communicate with four different voices: a medical voice described as being incomplete, task-oriented and with a disease perspective; a nursing voice described as being confirmatory, process-oriented and with a holistic perspective; a pedagogical voice described as being contextualised, comprehension-oriented and with a learning perspective; and a power voice described as being distancing and excluding. The voices can be seen as context-dependent communication approaches. When nurses switch between the voices, this indicates a shift in the orientation or situation. The results indicate that if nurses successfully combine the voices, while limiting the use of the power voice, the communication exchanges can become a more positive experience for all parties involved and a good nurse-patient-relative communication exchange can be achieved. Working for improved communication between nurses, patients and relatives is crucial for establishing a positive nurse

  2. The Voice of the Child in Social Work Assessments: Age-Appropriate Communication with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Lisa; Dolan, Pat

    2016-07-01

    This article describes a child-centred method for engaging with children involved in the child protection and welfare system. One of the primary arguments underpinning this research is that social workers need to be skilled communicators to engage with children about deeply personal and painful issues. There is a wide range of research that maintains play is the language of children and the most effective way to learn about children is through their play. Considering this, the overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of play skills in supporting communication between children and social workers during child protection and welfare assessments . The data collection was designed to establish the thoughts and/or experiences of participants in relation to a Play Skills Training (PST) programme designed by the authors. The key findings of the study reveal that the majority of social work participants rate the use of play skills in social work assessments as a key factor to effective engagement with children. Of particular importance, these messages address how social work services can ensure in a child-centred manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options.

  3. Communication in a noisy environment: Perception of one's own voice and speech enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Cecile

    Workers in noisy industrial environments are often confronted to communication problems. Lost of workers complain about not being able to communicate easily with their coworkers when they wear hearing protectors. In consequence, they tend to remove their protectors, which expose them to the risk of hearing loss. In fact this communication problem is a double one: first the hearing protectors modify one's own voice perception; second they interfere with understanding speech from others. This double problem is examined in this thesis. When wearing hearing protectors, the modification of one's own voice perception is partly due to the occlusion effect which is produced when an earplug is inserted in the car canal. This occlusion effect has two main consequences: first the physiological noises in low frequencies are better perceived, second the perception of one's own voice is modified. In order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the literature results are analyzed systematically, and a new method to quantify the occlusion effect is developed. Instead of stimulating the skull with a bone vibrator or asking the subject to speak as is usually done in the literature, it has been decided to excite the buccal cavity with an acoustic wave. The experiment has been designed in such a way that the acoustic wave which excites the buccal cavity does not excite the external car or the rest of the body directly. The measurement of the hearing threshold in open and occluded car has been used to quantify the subjective occlusion effect for an acoustic wave in the buccal cavity. These experimental results as well as those reported in the literature have lead to a better understanding of the occlusion effect and an evaluation of the role of each internal path from the acoustic source to the internal car. The speech intelligibility from others is altered by both the high sound levels of noisy industrial environments and the speech signal attenuation due to hearing

  4. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project''s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies

  5. PatientVOICE: Development of a Preparatory, Pre-Chemotherapy Online Communication Tool for Older Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Driesenaar, Jeanine A; van Weert, Julia Cm; van Osch, Mara; Noordman, Janneke

    2017-05-10

    Good communication around cancer treatment is essential in helping patients cope with their disease and related care, especially when this information is tailored to one's needs. Despite its importance, communication is often complex, in particular in older patients (aged 65 years or older). In addition to the age-related deterioration in information and memory processing older patients experience, communication is also complicated by their required yet often unmet role of being an active, participatory patient. Older patients rarely express their informational needs and their contributions to consultations are often limited. Therefore, older patients with cancer need to be prepared to participate more actively in their care and treatment. The objective of this paper was to report the development of PatientVOICE, an online, preparatory tool with audio facility aimed to enhance the participation of older patients during educational nursing encounters preceding chemotherapy and to improve their information recall. PatientVOICE was developed by applying the following 6 steps of the intervention mapping framework that involved both patients and nurses: (1) needs assessment, (2) specifying determinants and change objectives, (3) reviewing and selecting theoretical methods and practical strategies, (4) developing intervention components, (5) designing adoption and implementation, and (6) making an evaluation plan. A careful execution of these consecutive steps resulted in the ready-to-use preparatory website. PatientVOICE provides pre-visit information about chemotherapy (ie, medical information, side effects, and recommendations of dealing with side effects), information about the educational nursing visit preceding chemotherapy (ie, aim, structure, and recommendations for preparation), techniques to improve patients' communication skills using a question prompt sheet (QPS) and video-modeling examples showing "best practices", and the opportunity to upload and listen

  6. Transgender Voice and Communication Treatment: A Retrospective Chart Review of 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B.; Garabedian, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People transitioning from male to female (MTF) gender seek speech-language pathology services when they feel their voice is betraying their genuine self or perhaps is the last obstacle to representing their authentic gender. Speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and resonance are most often targets in treatment because the combination…

  7. Improving Scientific Voice in the Science Communication Center at UT Knoxville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Many science students believe that scientific writing is most impressive (and most professionally acceptable) when impersonal, dense, complex, and packed with jargon. In particular, they have the idea that legitimate scientific writing must suppress the subjectivity of the human voice. But science students can mature into excellent writers whose…

  8. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  9. The Lwazi Community Communication Service: design and piloting of a voice-based information service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma Grover, A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the design, development and pilot process of the Lwazi Community Communication Service (LCCS), a multilingual automated telephone-based information service. The service acts as a communication and dissemination tool that enables...

  10. Dialing long distance : communications to northern operations like the MGP require sophisticated satellite networks for voice, data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2006-04-15

    Telecommunications will play a major role in the construction of the Mackenzie Gas Project due to the remoteness of its location and the volume of communication data required to support the number of people involved and the amount of construction activity. While suppliers for communications tools have not yet been identified, initial telecommunications plans call for the installation of communication equipment at all camps, major facility sites and construction locations. Equipment will be housed in self-contained, climate-controlled buildings called telecommunication service modules (TSMs), which will be connected to each other as well as to existing public communications networks. The infrastructure will support telephone and fax systems; Internet and electronic mail services; multiple channel very high frequency radios; air-to-ground communication at airstrips and helipads; ship-to-shore at barge landings; closed circuit television; satellite community antenna television; CBC radio broadcast; public address systems; security systems; and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. An Internet Protocol (IP) network with a voice telephone system will be implemented along with a geostationary orbit satellite network. Satellite servers and real-time data services will be used. Car kits that allow call and battery-operated self-contained telemetry devices designed to communicate via a satellite system have been commissioned for the project that are capable of providing cost-efficient and reliable asset tracking and fleet management in remote regions and assisting in deployment requirements. It was concluded that many of today's mega-projects are the driving factors behind new telecommunications solutions in remote areas. 1 fig.

  11. The Voice as Computer Interface: A Look at Tomorrow's Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holley R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…

  12. Voice Response Systems Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Jeanette

    1984-01-01

    Examines two methods of generating synthetic speech in voice response systems, which allow computers to communicate in human terms (speech), using human interface devices (ears): phoneme and reconstructed voice systems. Considerations prior to implementation, current and potential applications, glossary, directory, and introduction to Input Output…

  13. The VOICE study - A before and after study of a dementia communication skills training course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Rebecca; Goldberg, Sarah E; Pilnick, Alison; Beeke, Suzanne; Schneider, Justine; Sartain, Kate; Thomson, Louise; Murray, Megan; Baxendale, Bryn; Harwood, Rowan H

    2018-01-01

    A quarter of acute hospital beds are occupied by persons living with dementia, many of whom have communication problems. Healthcare professionals lack confidence in dementia communication skills, but there are no evidence-based communication skills training approaches appropriate for professionals working in this context. We aimed to develop and pilot a dementia communication skills training course that was acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals, hospital patients and their relatives. The course was developed using conversation analytic findings from video recordings of healthcare professionals talking to patients living with dementia in the acute hospital, together with systematic review evidence of dementia communication skills training and taking account of expert and service-user opinion. The two-day course was based on experiential learning theory, and included simulation and video workshops, reflective diaries and didactic teaching. Actors were trained to portray patients living with dementia for the simulation exercises. Six courses were run between January and May 2017. 44/45 healthcare professionals attended both days of the course. Evaluation entailed: questionnaires on confidence in dementia communication; a dementia communication knowledge test; and participants' satisfaction. Video-recorded, simulated assessments were used to measure changes in communication behaviour. Healthcare professionals increased their knowledge of dementia communication (mean improvement 1.5/10; 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.0; pskills learned in clinical practice. Blind-ratings of simulated patient encounters demonstrated behaviour change in taught communication behaviours to close an encounter, consistent with the training, but not in requesting behaviours. We have developed an innovative, evidence-based dementia communication skills training course which healthcare professionals found useful and after which they demonstrated improved dementia communication

  14. Leo satellite-based telecommunication network concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, John G.; Swan, Peter A.; Leopold, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Design considerations are discussed for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite based telecommunications networks. The satellites are assumed to be connected to each other via intersatellite links. They are connected to the end user either directly or through gateways to other networks. Frequency reuse, circuit switching, packet switching, call handoff, and routing for these systems are discussed by analogy with terrestrial cellular (mobile radio) telecommunication systems.

  15. THE EU’S VOICE BEYOND ITS BORDERS: THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita SOPRONI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s developing global role demands a new approach to communications outside the Union. Besides communicating its policies to its citizens in order to enhance their trust in the idea of the United Europe, it is also extremely important to provide information regarding its policies and actions beyond its borders, to non-member countries and also to various international entities and organizations. This approach is necessary because the strength of an organization’ (in our case the European Union’s external reputation depends not only on the core values embedded in its domestic culture, but also on the way how it communicates them to various target publics.The paper analyses the external communication of the European Union (lines of action, actors involved, and communication realized through different policies and how it affects the external image of the region, demonstrating the need for a coherent communication strategy that combines the interests of Member States with those of the European institutions and the needs of internal public with those of external public.

  16. Broadening the voice of science: Promoting scientific communication in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A; Emberts, Zachary; Joseph, Paul N; Allen, Pablo E; Lopatto, David; Miller, Christine W

    2017-12-01

    Effective and accurate communication of scientific findings is essential. Unfortunately, scientists are not always well trained in how to best communicate their results with other scientists nor do all appreciate the importance of speaking with the public. Here, we provide an example of how the development of oral communication skills can be integrated with research experiences at the undergraduate level. We describe our experiences developing, running, and evaluating a course for undergraduates that complemented their existing undergraduate research experiences with instruction on the nature of science and intensive training on the development of science communication skills. Students delivered science talks, research monologues, and poster presentations about the ecological and evolutionary research in which they were involved. We evaluated the effectiveness of our approach using the CURE survey and a focus group. As expected, undergraduates reported strong benefits to communication skills and confidence. We provide guidance for college researchers, instructors, and administrators interested in motivating and equipping the next generation of scientists to be excellent science communicators.

  17. Compairing Picture Exchange and Voice Output Communication Aids in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that one in 88 births result in a diagnosis of autism (CDC, 2012). Of those individuals diagnosed with autism approximately 25-61% fail to develop vocal output capabilities (Weitxz, Dexter, & Moore, 1997). The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems, such as Picture Exchange (PE)…

  18. Connecting Classrooms and Community: Engaged Scholarship, Nonacademic Voices, and Organizational Communication Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Johny T.; Barnes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Organizations have changed dramatically over the last decade as globalization, new technology, and generational shifts shape almost every aspect of twenty-first century American society. Ideally, communication education would prepare students for experiences in the workplaces they will join after they graduate, but some have suggested that…

  19. Army Communicator. Voice of the Signal Regiment. Volume 32, Number 4, Fall 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    moment addressed to me ordering me back to Finchhaven. By coded reply I requested to be picked up by a PT (Patrol Tor- pedo ) boat which I knew were making... link them together with copper cable until you meet the resistance requirement. Generators that are on a trailer or vehicle must be grounded to the...warfighters have the best communication links possible. We will not fail them. I truly thank the 86th for their profes- sionalism leading up to the transfer

  20. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  1. Action research, simulation, team communication, and bringing the tacit into voice society for simulation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In healthcare, professionals usually function in a time-constrained paradigm because of the nature of care delivery functions and the acute patient populations usually in need of emergent and urgent care. This leaves little, if no time for team reflection, or team processing as a collaborative action. Simulation can be used to create a safe space as a structure for recognition and innovation to continue to develop a culture of safety for healthcare delivery and patient care. To create and develop a safe space, three qualitative modified action research institutional review board-approved studies were developed using simulation to explore team communication as an unfolding in the acute care environment of the operating room. An action heuristic was used for data collection by capturing the participants' narratives in the form of collaborative recall and reflection to standardize task, process, and language. During the qualitative simulations, the team participants identified and changed multiple tasks, process, and language items. The simulations contributed to positive changes for task and efficiencies, team interactions, and overall functionality of the team. The studies demonstrated that simulation can be used in healthcare to define safe spaces to practice, reflect, and develop collaborative relationships, which contribute to the realization of a culture of safety.

  2. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  3. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2.3.Satellite-Based Communication. Satellite-based communication is another alternative for communication in the event of disaster. Japan, United States of America and Russia are the countries that have utilised the system to disseminate emergency messages during previous disasters. Satellite-based.

  4. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  5. LEOcom: communication system for low earth orbit satellites for voice, data and facsimile; LEOcom - sistema de comunicacao por satelites de orbita terrestre baixa para voz, dados e facsimile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacaglia, G.E.O.; Lamas, W.Q. [Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: giorgio@unitau.br; Ceballos, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, J.J. [Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a basic description of a Communication System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites that can provide voice, data and facsimile to hundreds of countries located in equatorial land between + and - 20 deg latitude, reaching higher latitudes, depending on the location of the onshore terminal. As a point high, it emphasizes its opportunity to support the control of networks transmission of electricity, in any area, and plants generation, located in remote areas, and support any type of operation in these regions. It is the aim of this work to reactivate a good project for Brazil and the tropical world.

  6. The Voice/Data Communications system in the Health, Education, Telecommunications Experiments. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0417.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, James M.; And Others

    The diligent use of two-way voice links via satellites substantially improves the quality and the availability of health care and educational services in remote areas. This improvement was demonstrated in several experiments that were sponsored by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the National Aeronautics and Space…

  7. Satellite Based Cropland Carbon Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, V.; Jones, C. D.; Sedano, F.; Sahajpal, R.; Jin, H.; Skakun, S.; Pnvr, K.; Kommareddy, A.; Reddy, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural croplands act as both sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); absorbing CO2 through photosynthesis, releasing CO2 through autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, and sequestering CO2 in vegetation and soils. Part of the carbon captured in vegetation can be transported and utilized elsewhere through the activities of food, fiber, and energy production. As well, a portion of carbon in soils can be exported somewhere else by wind, water, and tillage erosion. Thus, it is important to quantify how land use and land management practices affect the net carbon balance of croplands. To monitor the impacts of various agricultural activities on carbon balance and to develop management strategies to make croplands to behave as net carbon sinks, it is of paramount importance to develop consistent and high resolution cropland carbon flux estimates. Croplands are typically characterized by fine scale heterogeneity; therefore, for accurate carbon flux estimates, it is necessary to account for the contribution of each crop type and their spatial distribution. As part of NASA CMS funded project, a satellite based Cropland Carbon Monitoring System (CCMS) was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses remote sensing version of Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model and satellite derived crop parameters (e.g. leaf area index (LAI)) to determine vertical and lateral carbon fluxes. The crop type LAI product was developed based on the inversion of PRO-SAIL radiative transfer model and downscaled MODIS reflectance. The crop emergence and harvesting dates were estimated based on MODIS NDVI and crop growing degree days. To evaluate the performance of CCMS framework, it was implemented over croplands of Nebraska, and estimated carbon fluxes for major crops (i.e. corn, soybean, winter wheat, grain sorghum, alfalfa) grown in 2015. Key findings of the CCMS framework will be presented

  8. I like my voice better: self-enhancement bias in perceptions of voice attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.

  9. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted

  10. Mechanics of human voice production and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-10-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed.

  11. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  12. PatientVOICE: development of a preparatory, pre-chemotherapy online communication tool for older patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Driesenaar, J.A.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Osch, M. van; Noordman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Good communication around cancer treatment is essential in helping patients cope with their disease and related care, especially when this information is tailored to one’s needs. Despite its importance, communication is often complex, in particular in older patients (aged 65 years or

  13. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed

  14. Validation of an Innovative Satellite-Based UV Dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Marco; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio; Khazova, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We present an innovative satellite-based UV (ultraviolet) radiation dosimeter with a mobile app interface that has been validated by exploiting both ground-based measurements and an in-vivo assessment of the erythemal effects on some volunteers having a controlled exposure to solar radiation.Both validations showed that the satellite-based UV dosimeter has a good accuracy and reliability needed for health-related applications.The app with this satellite-based UV dosimeter also includes other related functionalities such as the provision of safe sun exposure time updated in real-time and end exposure visual/sound alert. This app will be launched on the global market by siHealth Ltd in May 2016 under the name of "HappySun" and available both for Android and for iOS devices (more info on http://www.happysun.co.uk).Extensive R&D activities are on-going for further improvement of the satellite-based UV dosimeter's accuracy.

  15. Delivering risk information in a dynamic information environment: Framing and authoritative voice in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and primetime broadcast news media communications during the 2014 Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kott, Anne; Limaye, Rupali J

    2016-11-01

    During a disease outbreak, media serve as primary transmitters of information from public health agencies to the public, and have been shown to influence both behavior and perception of risk. Differences in news frequency, framing and information source can impact the public's interpretation of risk messages and subsequent attitudes and behaviors about a particular threat. The media's framing of an outbreak is important, as it may affect both perception of risk and the ability to process important health information. To understand how risk communication by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the 2014 Ebola outbreak was framed and delivered and to what extent primetime broadcast news media mirrored CDC's framing and authoritative voice, 209 CDC communications and primetime broadcast transcripts issued between July 24 and December 29, 2014 were analyzed and coded by thematic frame and authoritative voice. Dominant frame and voice were determined for each month and for overall period of analysis. Medical frame was dominant in CDC (60%), Anderson Cooper 360 (49%), The Rachel Maddow Show (47%) and All In with Chris Hayes (47%). The human interest frame was dominant in The Kelly File (45%), while The O'Reilly Factor coverage was equally split between sociopolitical and medical frames (28%, respectively). Primetime news media also changed dominant frames over time. Dominant authoritative voice in CDC communications was that of CDC officials, while primetime news dominantly featured local and federal (non-CDC) government officials and academic/medical experts. Differences in framing and delivery could have led the public to interpret risk in a different way than intended by CDC. Overall, public health agencies should consider adapting risk communication strategies to account for a dynamic news environment and the media's agenda. Options include adapting communications to short-form styles and embracing the concept of storytelling. Copyright © 2016

  16. "The child can remember your voice": parent-child communication about sexuality in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanculos, Esmeralda; Nduna, Mzikazi

    2017-03-01

    There is a wealth of research on parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and its influence on young people's sexual behaviours. However, most of it is from the global North. The aim of this study was to explore parent-child communication in three South African provinces: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga. Nine, peer, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with young and adult black African men and women in their spoken languages. Data were analysed thematically. Findings revealed that cultural and religious constructions of taboo silenced direct communication and restricted the discussed topics. Parents' older age, low educational level, lack of knowledge, and discomfort in talking about sexuality matters were reported to restrict conversations with children about sex and sexuality. The influence of these factors differed for parents residing in an urban setting who were more liberal than their counterparts residing in more rural areas. The child's age and gender were also reported to be a consideration in approaching these conversations. There is a need for interventions to assist parents on how to communicate with their children about SRHR topics beyond pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. These interventions should take into account and address factors that seem to influence parent-child communication.

  17. Control of automated system with voice commands

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In smart houses contemporary achievements in the fields of automation, communications, security and artificial intelligence, increase comfort and improve the quality of user's lifes. For the purpose of this thesis we developed a system for managing a smart house with voice commands via smart phone. We focused at voice commands most. We want move from communication with fingers - touches, to a more natural, human relationship - speech. We developed the entire chain of communication, by which t...

  18. Human voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-02-22

    We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in Access to Information and Communication Technologies: Voices of British Muslim Teenage Girls at Islamic Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah; Qazi, Atika; Iqbal, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Most research on information and communication technologies (ICT) differences has been related to gender and ethnicity, and to a lesser extent religious affiliation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this field of research by situating the discussion in the context of British Muslims and extending current research into ICT…

  20. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  1. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  2. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  3. Control, Communication, and the Voice of the Leader. A ControlCharacter Analysis of the 2016 US Presidential Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Demeter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we showed the strongest parts and the clouds of the speeches of the 2016 presidential candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. A communication control analysis of this type could reveal the role control-characters play in assessing the performance of the actors of political communication. We also concluded that people want to be controlled in an easy but still total way. To make people think that there is a man who is able to do this: it was Donald Trump’s greatest asset. He was able to utter up to 37% more assertions than his opponent, clearly stressed the boundaries between ‘Us’ and ‘They’, and showed greater integrative complexity and objective control. As the result of our peculiar and detailed linguistic analyses, control direction and thematic role tests show that Trump was a man of ‘know’, ‘say’ and ‘take’, while Clinton was full of ‘think’ and ‘want.’

  4. Upholding the human right of children in New Zealand experiencing communication difficulties to voice their needs and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Elizabeth; Clendon, Sally

    2018-02-01

    New Zealand Ministry of Education's proposal for an updated service to support children experiencing communication difficulties provides an opportunity to consider the essential criteria required for children to express their opinion, information and ideas as outlined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This commentary begins with a summary of key policies that provide strategic direction for enhancing children's rights to be actively involved in the development of services designed to support them and to communicate and participate in inclusive environments. The authors use a human rights lens to inform the development of speech-language pathology services that facilitate individuals' contribution and engagement and are responsive to their needs. A review of international literature describing the lived experience of children and young people identifies key factors related to accessible information, service coordination, holistic practice, and partnerships that facilitate co-constructed understanding and decision-making. The commentary concludes with suggested recommendations for structuring services, establishing partnership models, and capability building.

  5. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Wei Yang; Dongsheng Han; Young-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP) technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching co...

  6. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; de Jong, F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.

  7. Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aphasia Follow us Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia Speech impairment changed his life One unremarkable September ... 10 Tips for Communicating with Someone who has Aphasia Talk to them in a quiet, calm, relaxed ...

  8. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  9. Assessment of satellite-based precipitation estimates over Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreggioni Weiberlen, Fiorella; Báez Benítez, Julián

    2018-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates represent a potential alternative source of input data in a plethora of meteorological and hydrological applications, especially in regions characterized by a low density of rain gauge stations. Paraguay provides a good example of a case where the use of satellite-based precipitation could be advantageous. This study aims to evaluate the version 7 of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA V7; 3B42 V7) and the version 1.0 of the purely satellite-based product of the Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH RAW) through their comparison with daily in situ precipitation measurements from 1998 to 2012 over Paraguay. The statistical assessment is conducted with several commonly used indexes. Specifically, to evaluate the accuracy of daily precipitation amounts, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), BIAS, and coefficient of determination (R 2) are used, and to analyze the capability to correctly detect different precipitation intensities, false alarm ratio (FAR), frequency bias index (FBI), and probability of detection (POD) are applied to various rainfall rates (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mm/day). Results indicate that TMPA V7 has a better performance than CMORPH RAW over Paraguay. TMPA V7 has higher accuracy in the estimation of daily rainfall volumes and greater precision in the detection of wet days (> 0 mm/day). However, both satellite products show a lower ability to appropriately detect high intensity precipitation events.

  10. [Surveying a zoological facility through satellite-based geodesy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, M; Thien, W; Tölke, D

    2000-06-01

    In the course of a thesis submitted for a diploma degree within the Fachhochschule Oldenburg the Serengeti Safaripark was surveyed in autumn and winter 1996/97 laying in the planning foundations for the application for licences from the controlling authorities. Taking into consideration the special way of keeping animals in the Serengeti Safaripark (game ranching, spacious walk-through-facilities) the intention was to employ the outstanding satellite based geodesy. This technology relies on special aerials receiving signals from 24 satellites which circle around the globe. These data are being gathered and examined. This examination produces the exact position of this aerial in a system of coordinates which allows depicting this point on a map. This procedure was used stationary (from a strictly defined point) as well as in the movement (in a moving car). Additionally conventional procedures were used when the satellite based geodesy came to its limits. Finally a detailed map of the Serengeti Safaripark was created which shows the position and size of stables and enclosures as well as wood and water areas and the sectors of the leisure park. Furthermore the established areas of the enclosures together with an already existing animal databank have flown into an information system with the help of which the stock of animals can be managed enclosure-orientated.

  11. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  12. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manka, David L

    2007-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology with the potential to assist the United States Marine Corps in solving communication challenges stemming from modern operational concepts...

  13. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  14. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb

    2015-01-01

    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  15. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  16. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  17. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  18. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  19. Associations between the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF ) and self-report of voice femininity and acoustic voice measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta

    2017-11-01

    The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice

  20. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper speculates on how researchers share research without diluting our credibility and how to make strategies for the future. It also calls for consideration of new traditions and practices for communicating knowledge to a wider audience across multiple media platforms. How might we researc...... and ethical challenges of addressivity on the part of researchers as well as answerability in terms of audience reception.......This paper speculates on how researchers share research without diluting our credibility and how to make strategies for the future. It also calls for consideration of new traditions and practices for communicating knowledge to a wider audience across multiple media platforms. How might we...

  1. Fine-tuning satellite-based rainfall estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsa, Hastuadi; Buono, Agus; Hidayat, Rahmat; Achyar, Jaumil; Noviati, Sri; Kurniawan, Roni; Praja, Alfan S.

    2018-05-01

    Rainfall datasets are available from various sources, including satellite estimates and ground observation. The locations of ground observation scatter sparsely. Therefore, the use of satellite estimates is advantageous, because satellite estimates can provide data on places where the ground observations do not present. However, in general, the satellite estimates data contain bias, since they are product of algorithms that transform the sensors response into rainfall values. Another cause may come from the number of ground observations used by the algorithms as the reference in determining the rainfall values. This paper describe the application of bias correction method to modify the satellite-based dataset by adding a number of ground observation locations that have not been used before by the algorithm. The bias correction was performed by utilizing Quantile Mapping procedure between ground observation data and satellite estimates data. Since Quantile Mapping required mean and standard deviation of both the reference and the being-corrected data, thus the Inverse Distance Weighting scheme was applied beforehand to the mean and standard deviation of the observation data in order to provide a spatial composition of them, which were originally scattered. Therefore, it was possible to provide a reference data point at the same location with that of the satellite estimates. The results show that the new dataset have statistically better representation of the rainfall values recorded by the ground observation than the previous dataset.

  2. Satellite-based Drought Reporting on the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Ly, V.; Green, R.; McClellan, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Navajo Nation (NN) is the largest reservation in the US, and faces challenges related to water management during long-term and widespread drought episodes. The Navajo Nation is a federally recognized tribe, which has boundaries within Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. The Navajo Nation has a land area of over 70,000 square kilometers. The Navajo Nation Department of Water Resources (NNDWR) reports on drought and climatic conditions through the use of regional Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values and a network of in-situ rainfall, streamflow, and climate data. However, these data sources lack the spatial detail and consistent measurements needed to provide a coherent understanding of the drought regime within the Nation's regional boundaries. This project, as part of NASA's Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), improves upon the recently developed Drought Severity Assessment Tool (DSAT) to ingest satellite-based precipitation data to generate SPI values for specific administrative boundaries within the reservation. The tool aims to: (1) generate SPI values and summary statistics for regions of interest on various timescales, (2) to visualize SPI values within a web-map application, and (3) produce maps and comparative statistical outputs in the format required for annual drought reporting. The co-development of the DSAT with NN partners is integral to increasing the sustained use of Earth Observations for water management applications. This tool will provide data to support the NN in allocation of drought contingency dollars to the regions most adversely impacted by declines in water availability.

  3. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  4. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.

  5. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  6. Interactive Augmentation of Voice Quality and Reduction of Breath Airflow in the Soprano Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Martin; Schutte, Harm K

    2016-11-01

    In 1985, at a conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Martin Rothenberg first described a form of nonlinear source-tract acoustic interaction mechanism by which some sopranos, singing in their high range, can use to reduce the total airflow, to allow holding the note longer, and simultaneously enrich the quality of the voice, without straining the voice. (M. Rothenberg, "Source-Tract Acoustic Interaction in the Soprano Voice and Implications for Vocal Efficiency," Fourth International Conference on Vocal Fold Physiology, New Haven, Connecticut, June 3-6, 1985.) In this paper, we describe additional evidence for this type of nonlinear source-tract interaction in some soprano singing and describe an analogous interaction phenomenon in communication engineering. We also present some implications for voice research and pedagogy. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Satellite -Based Networks for U-Health & U-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graschew, G.; Roelofs, T. A.; Rakowsky, S.; Schlag, P. M.

    2008-08-01

    The use of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as enabling tools for healthcare services (eHealth) introduces new ways of creating ubiquitous access to high-level medical care for all, anytime and anywhere (uHealth). Satellite communication constitutes one of the most flexible methods of broadband communication offering high reliability and cost-effectiveness of connections meeting telemedicine communication requirements. Global networks and the use of computers for educational purposes stimulate and support the development of virtual universities for e-learning. Especially real-time interactive applications can play an important role in tailored and personalised services.

  8. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  9. Marshall’s Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halper Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most judicial opinions, for a variety of reasons, do not speak with the voice of identifiable judges, but an analysis of several of John Marshall’s best known opinions reveals a distinctive voice, with its characteristic language and style of argumentation. The power of this voice helps to account for the influence of his views.

  10. Values and options in cancer care (VOICE): study design and rationale for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for physicians, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication about prognosis and treatment choices is essential for informed decision making in advanced cancer. This article describes an investigation designed to facilitate communication and decision making among oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers. Methods/design The Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored randomized controlled trial conducted in the Rochester/Buffalo, NY and Sacramento, CA regions. A total of 40 oncologists, approximately 400 patients with advanced cancer, and their family/friend caregivers (one per patient, when available) are expected to enroll in the study. Drawing upon ecological theory, the intervention uses a two-pronged approach: oncologists complete a multifaceted tailored educational intervention involving standardized patient instructors (SPIs), and patients and caregivers complete a coaching intervention to facilitate prioritizing and discussing questions and concerns. Follow-up data will be collected approximately quarterly for up to three years. Discussion The intervention is hypothesized to enhance patient-centered communication, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Analyses will examine the effects of the intervention on key elements of physician-patient-caregiver communication (primary outcomes), the physician-patient relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, patient well-being, and health service utilization (secondary outcomes). Trial registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT01485627 PMID:23570278

  11. Dissemination of satellite-based river discharge and flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.; van Praag, E.; de Groeve, T.; Slayback, D. A.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) daily measures and distributes: 1) river discharges, and 2) near real-time flood extents with a global coverage. Satellite-based passive microwave sensors and hydrological modeling are utilized to establish 'remote-sensing based discharge stations', and observed time series cover 1998 to the present. The advantages over in-situ gauged discharges are: a) easy access to remote or due to political reasons isolated locations, b) relatively low maintenance costs to maintain a continuous observational record, and c) the capability to obtain measurements during floods, hazardous conditions that often impair or destroy in-situ stations. Two MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provide global flood extent coverage at a spatial resolution of 250m. Cloud cover hampers flood extent detection; therefore we ingest 6 images (the Terra and Aqua images of each day, for three days), in combination with a cloud shadow filter, to provide daily global flood extent updates. The Flood Observatory has always made it a high priority to visualize and share its data and products through its website. Recent collaborative efforts with e.g. GeoSUR have enhanced accessibility of DFO data. A web map service has been implemented to automatically disseminate geo-referenced flood extent products into client-side GIS software. For example, for Latin America and the Caribbean region, the GeoSUR portal now displays current flood extent maps, which can be integrated and visualized with other relevant geographical data. Furthermore, the flood state of satellite-observed river discharge sites are displayed through the portal as well. Additional efforts include implementing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to incorporate Water Markup Language (WaterML) data exchange mechanisms to further facilitate the distribution of the satellite

  12. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  13. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  14. The Teacher's Voice: Vocal Training in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2008-01-01

    The voice is a basic tool in human communication and an important factor in a positive self-understanding and identity, both for the teacher's sense of profession and for the pupils' ability to express themselves orally; two perspectives of great importance in the Norwegian National Curriculum. Voice disorders are common among teachers world-wide…

  15. Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

  16. Can You Hear Me Now? The Impact of Voice in an Online Gaming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dmitri; Caplan, Scott; Xiong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a controlled field experiment in which voice communication was introduced into an existing online community (online gaming guilds within the popular game "World of Warcraft"), comparing a mix of voice and text with text only. Quantitative results suggest increases in liking and trust due to the addition of voice,…

  17. Facilitating Behavioral Change in Voice Therapy: The Relevance of Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an exploration of some of the issues surrounding adherence to vocal behavioral change in voice therapy within the context of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and to explore MI's potential for integration into voice therapy (MI-adapted voice therapy). MI is a style of interpersonal communication in…

  18. Voice Range Profiles of Middle School and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…

  19. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  20. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  1. [Diagnostics and therapy in professional voice-users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Echternach, M

    2010-04-01

    Voice is one of the most important instruments for expression and communication in humans. Dysphonia remains very frequent. Generally people in voice-intensive professions, such as teachers, call center employees, singers and actors suffer from these complaints. In recent years methods have been developed which facilitate appropriate diagnosis and therapy, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine, in voice patients appropriate to their degree of disease. The basic protocol of the European Laryngological Society offers a standardized evaluation of multidimensional voice parameters. In our own patient collective there were statistically significant improvements in voice quality, according to a pre/post mean value comparison, in both phonomicrosurgical (n=45) and voice therapy (n=30) patients in relation to RBH, DSI and VHI.

  2. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Crossmodal binding of fear in voice and face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, R.J.; Morris, J.S.; de Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In social environments, multiple sensory channels are simultaneously engaged in the service of communication. In this experiment, we were concerned with defining the neuronal mechanisms for a perceptual bias in processing simultaneously presented emotional voices and faces. Specifically, we were

  4. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  5. The role of emotions in the development of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Disanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors refer to the voice as expressive sphere of communication between two people. The voice expresses a symbolic meaning whose function is to represent our feelings, and thus our emotional life.The emission of sounds weaves an unconscious communication of affection, expresses the archaic nature of the links between body and language, the presence of a strong sensorial auditory, olfactory, tactile and visual.

  6. Highlights of satellite-based forest change recognition and tracking using the ForWarn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven P. Norman; William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; William M. Christie; Sean W. Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    For a higher resolution version of this file, please use the following link: www.geobabble.orgSatellite-based remote sensing can assist forest managers with their need to recognize disturbances and track recovery. Despite the long...

  7. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  8. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  9. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  10. Voice disorders in Nigerian primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, R; Lam, K B H; Ayres, J G; Sadhra, S

    2014-07-01

    The prolonged use or abuse of voice may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. School teachers routinely use their voices intensively at work and are therefore at a higher risk of dysphonia. To determine the prevalence of voice disorders among primary school teachers in Lagos, Nigeria, and to explore associated risk factors. Teaching and non-teaching staff from 19 public and private primary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on personal lifestyles, work experience and environment, and voice disorder symptoms. Dysphonia was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: hoarseness, repetitive throat clearing, tired voice or straining to speak. A total of 341 teaching and 155 non-teaching staff participated. The prevalence of dysphonia in teachers was 42% compared with 18% in non-teaching staff. A significantly higher proportion of the teachers reported that voice symptoms had affected their ability to communicate effectively. School type (public/private) did not predict the presence of dysphonia. Statistically significant associations were found for regular caffeinated drink intake (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-6.62), frequent upper respiratory tract infection (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.39-9.33) and raised voice while teaching (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.07-20.2). Nigerian primary school teachers were at risk for dysphonia. Important environment and personal factors were upper respiratory infection, the need to frequently raise the voice when teaching and regular intake of caffeinated drinks. Dysphonia was not associated with age or years of teaching. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...

  12. Voice and Video Telephony Services in Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia telephony is a delay-sensitive application. Packet losses, relatively less critical than delay, are allowed up to a certain threshold. They represent the QoS constraints that have to be respected to guarantee the operation of the telephony service and user satisfaction. In this work we introduce a new smartphone architecture characterized by two process levels called application processor (AP and mobile termination (MT, respectively. Here, they communicate through a serial channel. Moreover, we focus our attention on two very important UMTS services: voice and video telephony. Through a simulation study the impact of voice and video telephony is evaluated on the structure considered using the protocols known at this moment to realize voice and video telephony

  13. The Role of the Electronic Portfolio in Enhancing Information and Communication Technology and English Language Skills: The Voices of Six Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Siew Ming; Lee, Yit Sim; Zulkifli, Nurul Farhana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the construction and development of electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) on a small user population at a public university in Malaysia. The study was based on a three-month Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and language learning course offered to the undergraduates of the university. One of the…

  14. Dialogue on dialogues Multi-voiced dialogues (dialogism) as means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The article elaborates on a theoretical understanding of dialogue as a means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices through ongoing research collaboration that involves leaders, researchers and master students at Aalborg University. Dialogue is viewed from...

  15. Look who’s talking: Responsible Innovation, the paradox of dialogue and the voice of the other in communication and negotiation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we develop a concept of stakeholder dialogue in responsible innovation (RI) processes. The problem with most concepts of communication is that they rely on ideals of openness, alignment and harmony, even while these ideals are rarely realized in practice. Based on the work of Burke,

  16. Future of wireless communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, M

    1996-12-31

    This document reproduces slides from a conference presentation giving an overview of current and upcoming wireless communication methods of interest to Canadian electric utilities. Both voice and data communication methods are considered, including cellular telephone, satellite communications, personal communication services, regulated licensed arrowband data systems, and integrated services.

  17. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  18. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-09-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  19. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  20. Voice following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoicheff, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease

  1. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  2. A Methodology For Measuring Resilience in a Satellite-Based Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Accessed 15 March 2013) Eremenko, P. & C. Roberts & O. Brown. “Cost Benefit Analysis of a Notional Fractionated SATCOM Architecture.” AIAA...http://www.dhs.gov/blog/2010/12/22/enhancing-critical-infrastructure- resilience (Accessed 15 March 2013) Keohane , Jonathan & Gail Rohrbach. “Ask an...rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2008/RM2778.pdf. (Accessed 5 August 2013) Miller, Robert D. “Computing the Area of a Spherical Polygon.” Graphic

  3. A proposed architecture for a satellite-based mobile communications network - The lowest three layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T. Y.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    Architecture for a commercial mobile satellite network is proposed. The mobile satellite system (MSS) is composed of a network management center, mobile terminals, base stations, and gateways; the functions of each component are described. The satellite is a 'bent pipe' that performs frequency translations, and it has multiple UHF beams. The development of the MSS design based on the seven-layer open system interconnection model is examined. Consideration is given to the functions of the physical, data link, and network layers and the integrated adaptive mobile access protocol.

  4. 47 CFR 90.212 - Provisions relating to the use of scrambling devices and digital voice modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices and digital voice modulation. 90.212 Section 90.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Standards § 90.212 Provisions relating to the use of scrambling devices and digital voice modulation. (a... techniques or digital voice modulation requires the specific authorization of F1E or G1E emission, and these...

  5. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  6. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  7. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Show with the Voice: An [Au]/-[o]-tophonographic Parody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D.J. Sander Scheidt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available According to my claim that voice as a phenomenon cannot be materialised or located, neither in the (voice organ of the self nor in the (ear of the other, I coined the term [au]/[o]-tophonography for my examination of the possibilities of performing subjectivity in writing and in sound productions. Drawing on the theory of performativity in its deconstructive senses (see BUTLER, 1993, 1997, 1999/1990; DERRIDA, 1988/1972, 1997/1967, 2002/1981; SMITH, 1995 my performative epistemology reaches beyond the theoretical, including the practical and the aesthetical, aiming at questioning notions of "self", "audience", "voice", "writing" and "communication". "The show with the voice" (http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-08/08-2-27_audio.mp3 is an example of this practice. It parodies the medico-scientific approach to the human voice by presenting some of its possible appearances (the "normal", the "disordered", the "homosexual" and the "transsexual" voice in an audio collage that takes the shape of a mock tutorial. Through re-contextualising and re-compiling voice samples from different sources that are usually kept apart (e.g. the lecturer's voice, the researcher's voice, the artist's voice, the autobiographer's voice I open a space for a multidisciplinary and creative perspective to the examination of voice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802279

  9. Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttemeyer, D.; Schillings, Ch.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the

  10. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X; Sassenrath, G F; Hubbard, K G; Mahmood, R

    2014-01-01

    To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS from 37° to 49°N latitude by satellite- and climate-based methods were in reasonable agreement, especially for areas where croplands were masked out and an additional frost date threshold was adopted. The statistically significant trends of satellite-based SOS show a later spring arrival ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 days decade −1 over nine Level III ecoregions. We found the croplands generally exhibited larger trends (later arrival) than the non-croplands. The area-averaged satellite-based SOS for non-croplands (i.e. mostly grasslands) showed no significant trends. We examined the trends of temperatures, precipitation, and standardized precipitation index (SPI), as well as the strength of correlation between the satellite-based SOS and these climatic drivers. Our results indicate that satellite-based SOS trends are spatially and primarily related to annual maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, mostly in summertime) and/or annual minimum NDVI (mostly in wintertime) and these trends showed the best correlation with six-month SPI over the period 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. (letter)

  11. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  12. A simulation study of the effects of communication delay on air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impacts of voice communications delays : characteristic of Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) and satellite : communications systems on air traffic system performance, controller stress : and workload, a...

  13. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  14. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  15. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  16. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hearing Voices and Seeing Things No. 102; Updated October ... delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing things that are not there ...

  17. Handbook of Technical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  18. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  19. Aerodynamic and sound intensity measurements in tracheoesophageal voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, Wilko; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Tan, Frédérique M. L.; Tange, Rinze A.; Schouwenburg, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In laryngectomized patients, tracheoesophageal voice generally provides a better voice quality than esophageal voice. Understanding the aerodynamics of voice production in patients with a voice prosthesis is important for optimizing prosthetic designs and successful voice rehabilitation.

  20. [Voice disorders in female teachers assessed by Voice Handicap Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the application of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders in female teachers. The subjective assessment of voice by VHI was performed in fifty subjects with dysphonia diagnosed in laryngovideostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 30 women whose jobs did not involve vocal effort. The results of the total VHI score and each of its subscales: functional, emotional and physical was significantly worse in the study group than in controls (p teachers estimated their own voice problems as a moderate disability, while 12% of them reported severe voice disability. However, all non-teachers assessed their voice problems as slight, their results ranged at the lowest level of VHI score. This study confirmed that VHI as a tool for self-assessment of voice can be a significant contribution to the diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.

  1. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  2. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and her...

  3. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  4. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  5. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  6. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  7. Blindness and Selective Mutism: One Student's Response to Voice-Output Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Mary; Johnson, Ashli; Herzberg, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This case study was designed to measure the response of one student with blindness and selective mutism to the intervention of voice-output devices across two years and two different teachers in two instructional settings. Before the introduction of the voice output devices, the student did not choose to communicate using spoken language or…

  8. Impact of Teachers' Perceptions of Organizational Support, Management Openness and Personality Traits on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the impact of perceived organizational support and management openness and teacher personality traits on teacher voice. Voice is defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions or concerns about work-related issues with the intent to improve organizational functioning. Sample of the study…

  9. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  10. Communication network for decentralized remote tele-science during the Spacelab mission IML-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Uwe; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Incollingo, Marco

    1994-01-01

    The ESA communication network for decentralized remote telescience during the Spacelab mission IML-2, called Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS), provided data, voice conferencing, video distribution/conferencing and high rate data services to 5 remote user centers in Europe. The combination of services allowed the experimenters to interact with their experiments as they would normally do from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at MSFC. In addition, to enhance their science results, they were able to make use of reference facilities and computing resources in their home laboratory, which typically are not available in the POCC. Characteristics of the IML-2 communications implementation were the adaptation to the different user needs based on modular service capabilities of IGS and the cost optimization for the connectivity. This was achieved by using a combination of traditional leased lines, satellite based VSAT connectivity and N-ISDN according to the simulation and mission schedule for each remote site. The central management system of IGS allows minimization of staffing and the involvement of communications personnel at the remote sites. The successful operation of IGS for IML-2 as a precursor network for the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) has proven the concept for communications to support the operation of the COF decentralized scenario.

  11. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  12. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  13. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    . Collaboration with GCOM-W is not only limited to its participation to GPM constellation but also coordination in areas of algorithm development and validation in Japan. Generation of high-temporal and high-accurate global rainfall map is one of targets of the GPM mission. As a proto-type for GPM era, JAXA has developed and operates the Global Precipitation Map algorithm in near-real-time since October 2008, and hourly and 0.1-degree resolution binary data and images available at http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/ four hours after observation. The algorithms are based on outcomes from the Global Satellite Mapping for Precipitation (GSMaP) project, which was sponsored by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) under the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) framework between 2002 and 2007 (Okamoto et al., 2005; Aonashi et al., 2009; Ushio et al., 2009). Target of GSMaP project is to produce global rainfall maps that are highly accurate and in high temporal and spatial resolution through the development of rain rate retrieval algorithms based on reliable precipitation physical models by using several microwave radiometer data, and comprehensive use of precipitation radar and geostationary infrared imager data. Near-real-time GSMaP data is distributed via internet and utilized by end users. Purpose of data utilization by each user covers broad areas and in world wide; Science researches (model validation, data assimilation, typhoon study, etc.), weather forecast/service, flood warning and rain analysis over river basin, oceanographic condition forecast, agriculture, and education. Toward the GPM era, operational application should be further emphasized as well as science application. JAXA continues collaboration with hydrological communities to utilize satellite-based precipitation data as inputs to future flood prediction and warning system, as well as with meteorological agencies to proceed further data utilization in numerical weather prediction

  14. A Novel Fast and Secure Approach for Voice Encryption Based on DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaei Kate, Hamidreza; Razmara, Jafar; Isazadeh, Ayaz

    2018-06-01

    Today, in the world of information communication, voice information has a particular importance. One way to preserve voice data from attacks is voice encryption. The encryption algorithms use various techniques such as hashing, chaotic, mixing, and many others. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for voice encryption based on three different schemes to increase flexibility and strength of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses an innovative encoding scheme, the DNA encryption technique and a permutation function to provide a secure and fast solution for voice encryption. The algorithm is evaluated based on various measures including signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, correlation coefficient, signal similarity and signal frequency content. The results demonstrate applicability of the proposed method in secure and fast encryption of voice files

  15. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  16. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  17. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  18. Voice search for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of speech technology development, similar approaches are likely to be applicable in both circumstances. However, within these broad approaches there are details which are specific to certain languages (or lan- guage families) that may require solutions... to the modeling of pitch were therefore required. Similarly, it is possible that novel solutions will be required to deal with the click sounds that occur in some Southern Bantu languages, or the voicing Copyright  2010 ISCA 26-30 September 2010, Makuhari...

  19. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  20. Using satellite-based measurements to explore spatiotemporal scales and variability of drivers of new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently ...

  1. Shielding voices: The modulation of binding processes between voice features and response features by task representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.

  2. Improving satellite-based post-fire evapotranspiration estimates in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, P.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic factors contribute to the increased frequency, duration, and size of wildfires, which can alter ecosystem and hydrological processes. The loss of vegetation canopy and ground cover reduces interception and alters evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in riparian areas, which can impact rainfall-runoff partitioning. Previous research evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of ET based on burn severity and observed an annual decrease of 120 mm on average for three years after fire. Building upon these results, this research focuses on the Coyote Fire in San Diego, California (USA), which burned a total of 76 km2 in 2003 to calibrate and improve satellite-based ET estimates in semi-arid regions affected by wildfire. The current work utilizes satellite-based products and techniques such as the Google Earth Engine Application programming interface (API). Various ET models (ie. Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model (SSEBop)) are compared to the latent heat flux from two AmeriFlux eddy covariance towers, Sky Oaks Young (US-SO3), and Old Stand (US-SO2), from 2000 - 2015. The Old Stand tower has a low burn severity and the Young Stand tower has a moderate to high burn severity. Both towers are used to validate spatial ET estimates. Furthermore, variables and indices, such as Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) are utilized to evaluate satellite-based ET through a multivariate statistical analysis at both sites. This point-scale study will able to improve ET estimates in spatially diverse regions. Results from this research will contribute to the development of a post-wildfire ET model for semi-arid regions. Accurate estimates of post-fire ET will provide a better representation of vegetation and hydrologic recovery, which can be used to improve hydrologic models and predictions.

  3. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  4. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  5. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, George

    2002-01-01

    .... The ultimate goal of voice biometrics is to enable the use of voice as a password. Voice biometrics are "man-in-the-loop" systems in which system performance is significantly dependent on human performance...

  6. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  7. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  8. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  9. Objective voice parameters in Colombian school workers with healthy voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Cantor Cutiva (Lady Catherine); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional

  10. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  11. A near real-time satellite-based global drought climate data record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Reliable drought monitoring requires long-term and continuous precipitation data. High resolution satellite measurements provide valuable precipitation information on a quasi-global scale. However, their short lengths of records limit their applications in drought monitoring. In addition to this limitation, long-term low resolution satellite-based gauge-adjusted data sets such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one are not available in near real-time form for timely drought monitoring. This study bridges the gap between low resolution long-term satellite gauge-adjusted data and the emerging high resolution satellite precipitation data sets to create a long-term climate data record of droughts. To accomplish this, a Bayesian correction algorithm is used to combine GPCP data with real-time satellite precipitation data sets for drought monitoring and analysis. The results showed that the combined data sets after the Bayesian correction were a significant improvement compared to the uncorrected data. Furthermore, several recent major droughts such as the 2011 Texas, 2010 Amazon and 2010 Horn of Africa droughts were detected in the combined real-time and long-term satellite observations. This highlights the potential application of satellite precipitation data for regional to global drought monitoring. The final product is a real-time data-driven satellite-based standardized precipitation index that can be used for drought monitoring especially over remote and/or ungauged regions. (letter)

  12. From extended integrity monitoring to the safety evaluation of satellite-based localisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Cyril; Beugin, Julie; Marais, Juliette; Conrard, Blaise; El-Koursi, El-Miloudi; Berbineau, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, already used in aeronautics for safety-related applications, can play a major role in railway safety by allowing a train to locate itself safely. However, in order to implement this positioning solution in any embedded system, its performances must be evaluated according to railway standards. The evaluation of GNSS performances is not based on the same attributes class than RAMS evaluation. Face to these diffculties, we propose to express the integrity attribute, performance of satellite-based localisation. This attribute comes from aeronautical standards and for a hybridised GNSS with inertial system. To achieve this objective, the integrity attribute must be extended to this kind of system and algorithms initially devoted to GNSS integrity monitoring only must be adapted. Thereafter, the formalisation of this integrity attribute permits us to analyse the safety quantitatively through the probabilities of integrity risk and wrong-side failure. In this paper, after an introductory discussion about the use of localisation systems in railway safety context together with integrity issues, a particular integrity monitoring is proposed and described. The detection events of this algorithm permit us to conclude about safety level of satellite-based localisation system.

  13. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  14. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  15. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Mazzoleni; Pietro Vitiello

    2013-01-01

    A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon), made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others v...

  16. Acoustic cues for the recognition of self-voice and other-voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdi eXu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0 and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR. However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues are utilized for SVR as opposed to OVR. To address this question, we independently manipulated the F0 and formant information of recorded voices and investigated their contributions to SVR and OVR. Japanese participants were presented with recorded vocal stimuli and were asked to identify the speaker—either themselves or one of their peers. Six groups of 5 peers of the same sex participated in the study. Under conditions where the formant information was fully preserved and where only the frequencies lower than the third formant (F3 were retained, accuracies of SVR deteriorated significantly with the modulation of the F0, and the results were comparable for OVR. By contrast, under a condition where only the frequencies higher than F3 were retained, the accuracy of SVR was significantly higher than that of OVR throughout the range of F0 modulations, and the F0 scarcely affected the accuracies of SVR and OVR. Our results indicate that while both F0 and formant information are involved in SVR, as well as in OVR, the advantage of SVR is manifested only when major formant information for speech intelligibility is absent. These findings imply the robustness of self-voice representation, possibly by virtue of auditory familiarity and other factors such as its association with motor/articulatory representation.

  17. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  18. The Voices of the Documentarist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utterback, Ann S.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses T. S. Elliot's essay, "The Three Voices of Poetry" which conceptualizes the position taken by the poet or creator. Suggests that an examination of documentary film, within the three voices concept, expands the critical framework of the film genre. (MH)

  19. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andréll, Paulin; Finizia, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors

  20. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.tuomi@vgregion.se [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Andréll, Paulin [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Finizia, Caterina [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  1. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  2. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  3. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. This work may be of use dealing with nuclear materials

  4. Ordinateur et communication (Computer and Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Because use of computers in second-language classrooms may tend to decrease interpersonal interaction, and therefore communication, ways to promote interaction are offered. These include small group computer projects, and suggestions are made for use with various computer functions and features: tutorials, word processing, voice recording,…

  5. Ground-and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A.

    2015-01-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness...... over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass...... remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass...

  6. Engineering satellite-based navigation and timing global navigation satellite systems, signals, and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, J

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the design and performance analysis of satnav systems, signals, and receivers. It also provides succinct descriptions and comparisons of all the world’s satnav systems. Its comprehensive and logical structure addresses all satnav signals and systems in operation and being developed. Engineering Satellite-Based Navigation and Timing: Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Signals, and Receivers provides the technical foundation for designing and analyzing satnav signals, systems, and receivers. Its contents and structure address all satnav systems and signals: legacy, modernized, and new. It combines qualitative information with detailed techniques and analyses, providing a comprehensive set of insights and engineering tools for this complex multidisciplinary field. Part I describes system and signal engineering including orbital mechanics and constellation design, signal design principles and underlying considerations, link budgets, qua tifying receiver performance in interference, and e...

  7. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  8. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  9. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  10. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  11. Comparison of four machine learning algorithms for their applicability in satellite-based optical rainfall retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hanna; Kühnlein, Meike; Appelhans, Tim; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) algorithms have successfully been demonstrated to be valuable tools in satellite-based rainfall retrievals which show the practicability of using ML algorithms when faced with high dimensional and complex data. Moreover, recent developments in parallel computing with ML present new possibilities for training and prediction speed and therefore make their usage in real-time systems feasible. This study compares four ML algorithms - random forests (RF), neural networks (NNET), averaged neural networks (AVNNET) and support vector machines (SVM) - for rainfall area detection and rainfall rate assignment using MSG SEVIRI data over Germany. Satellite-based proxies for cloud top height, cloud top temperature, cloud phase and cloud water path serve as predictor variables. The results indicate an overestimation of rainfall area delineation regardless of the ML algorithm (averaged bias = 1.8) but a high probability of detection ranging from 81% (SVM) to 85% (NNET). On a 24-hour basis, the performance of the rainfall rate assignment yielded R2 values between 0.39 (SVM) and 0.44 (AVNNET). Though the differences in the algorithms' performance were rather small, NNET and AVNNET were identified as the most suitable algorithms. On average, they demonstrated the best performance in rainfall area delineation as well as in rainfall rate assignment. NNET's computational speed is an additional advantage in work with large datasets such as in remote sensing based rainfall retrievals. However, since no single algorithm performed considerably better than the others we conclude that further research in providing suitable predictors for rainfall is of greater necessity than an optimization through the choice of the ML algorithm.

  12. Current trends in satellite based emergency mapping - the need for harmonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    During the past years, the availability and use of satellite image data to support disaster management and humanitarian relief organisations has largely increased. The automation and data processing techniques are greatly improving as well as the capacity in accessing and processing satellite imagery in getting better globally. More and more global activities via the internet and through global organisations like the United Nations or the International Charter Space and Major Disaster engage in the topic, while at the same time, more and more national or local centres engage rapid mapping operations and activities. In order to make even more effective use of this very positive increase of capacity, for the sake of operational provision of analysis results, for fast validation of satellite derived damage assessments, for better cooperation in the joint inter agency generation of rapid mapping products and for general scientific use, rapid mapping results in general need to be better harmonized, if not even standardized. In this presentation, experiences from various years of rapid mapping gained by the DLR Center for satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI) within the context of the national activities, the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, GMES/Copernicus etc. are reported. Furthermore, an overview on how automation, quality assurance and optimization can be achieved through standard operation procedures within a rapid mapping workflow is given. Building on this long term rapid mapping experience, and building on the DLR initiative to set in pace an "International Working Group on Satellite Based Emergency Mapping" current trends in rapid mapping are discussed and thoughts on how the sharing of rapid mapping information can be optimized by harmonizing analysis results and data structures are presented. Such an harmonization of analysis procedures, nomenclatures and representations of data as well as meta data are the basis to better cooperate within

  13. Improved Lower Mekong River Basin Hydrological Decision Making Using NASA Satellite-based Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Mohammed, I. N.; Srinivasan, R.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Better understanding of the hydrological cycle of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) and addressing the value-added information of using remote sensing data on the spatial variability of soil moisture over the Mekong Basin is the objective of this work. In this work, we present the development and assessment of the LMRB (drainage area of 495,000 km2) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The coupled model framework presented is part of SERVIR, a joint capacity building venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, providing state-of-the-art, satellite-based earth monitoring, imaging and mapping data, geospatial information, predictive models, and science applications to improve environmental decision-making among multiple developing nations. The developed LMRB SWAT model enables the integration of satellite-based daily gridded precipitation, air temperature, digital elevation model, soil texture, and land cover and land use data to drive SWAT model simulations over the Lower Mekong River Basin. The LMRB SWAT model driven by remote sensing climate data was calibrated and verified with observed runoff data at the watershed outlet as well as at multiple sites along the main river course. Another LMRB SWAT model set driven by in-situ climate observations was also calibrated and verified to streamflow data. Simulated soil moisture estimates from the two models were then examined and compared to a downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive Sensor (SMAP) 36 km radiometer products. Results from this work present a framework for improving SWAT performance by utilizing a downscaled SMAP soil moisture products used for model calibration and validation. Index Terms: 1622: Earth system modeling; 1631: Land/atmosphere interactions; 1800: Hydrology; 1836 Hydrological cycles and budgets; 1840 Hydrometeorology; 1855: Remote sensing; 1866: Soil moisture; 6334: Regional Planning

  14. Voice synthesis application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, P. C.; Davidson, W. M.

    1982-04-01

    The military detection assessment laboratory houses an experimental field system which assesses different alarm indicators such as fence disturbance sensors, MILES cables, and microwave Racons. A speech synthesis board which could be interfaced, by means of a computer, to an alarm logger making verbal acknowledgement of alarms possible was purchased. Different products and different types of voice synthesis were analyzed before a linear predictive code device produced by Telesensory Speech Systems of Palo Alto, California was chosen. This device is called the Speech 1000 Board and has a dedicated 8085 processor. A multiplexer card was designed and the Sp 1000 interfaced through the card into a TMS 990/100M Texas Instrument microcomputer. It was also necessary to design the software with the capability of recognizing and flagging an alarm on any 1 of 32 possible lines. The experimental field system was then packaged with a dc power supply, LED indicators, speakers, and switches, and deployed in the field performing reliably.

  15. How to help teachers' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatweber, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  17. Satellite Based Education and Training in Remote Sensing and Geo-Information AN E-Learning Approach to Meet the Growing Demands in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity

  18. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term analysis of aerosol optical depth over Northeast Asia using a satellite-based measurement: MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jongmin; Chung, Chu-Yong; Chung, Sung-Rae

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the Korean geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite, the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was launched including the Meteorological Imager (MI). The MI measures atmospheric condition over Northeast Asia (NEA) using a single visible channel centered at 0.675 μm and four IR channels at 3.75, 6.75, 10.8, 12.0 μm. The visible measurement can also be utilized for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties (AOPs). Since the GEO satellite measurement has an advantage for continuous monitoring of AOPs, we can analyze the spatiotemporal variation of the aerosol using the MI observations over NEA. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the visible observation of MI, and named as MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER). In this study, we investigated the accuracy of MI YAER AOD by comparing the values with the long-term products of AERONET sun-photometer. The result showed that the MI AODs were significantly overestimated than the AERONET values over bright surface in low AOD case. Because the MI visible channel centered at red color range, contribution of aerosol signal to the measured reflectance is relatively lower than the surface contribution. Therefore, the AOD error in low AOD case over bright surface can be a fundamental limitation of the algorithm. Meanwhile, an assumption of background aerosol optical depth (BAOD) could result in the retrieval uncertainty, also. To estimate the surface reflectance by considering polluted air condition over the NEA, we estimated the BAOD from the MODIS dark target (DT) aerosol products by pixel. The satellite-based AOD retrieval, however, largely depends on the accuracy of the surface reflectance estimation especially in low AOD case, and thus, the BAOD could include the uncertainty in surface reflectance estimation of the satellite-based retrieval. Therefore, we re-estimated the BAOD using the ground-based sun-photometer measurement, and

  20. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  1. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  2. Taking Care of Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative effect on voice. Exercise regularly. Exercise increases stamina and muscle tone. This helps provide good posture ... testing man-made and biological materials and stem cell technologies that may eventually be used to engineer ...

  3. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  4. Compliance and quality of life in patients on prescribed voice rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Cohen, Seth M; Zeller, Amy S; Scearce, Leda; Tritter, Andrew G; Garrett, C Gaelyn

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient compliance with voice rest and the impact of voice rest on quality of life (QOL). Prospective. University hospital. Demographics, self-reported compliance, QOL impact on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), and communication methods were collected from 84 participants from 2 academic voice centers. Of 84 participants, 36.9% were men, 63.1% were women, and 64.3% were singers. The mean age of participants was 47.2 years. The mean duration of voice rest was 8.8 days (range, 3-28), and the median was 7 days. Overall compliance was 34.5%. Postoperative voice rest patients were more compliant than non-postoperative patients (42.4% vs 16.0%, P = .04, χ(2)). Voice rest had an impact on QOL (mean ± SD, 68.5 ± 27.7). Voice rest also had a greater impact on singers than nonsingers (mean VAS 77.2 vs 63.6, P = .03, t test) and on those age <60 years than those age ≥ 60 years (mean VAS 74.4 vs 46.7, P < .001, t test). More talkative patients and those with longer periods of voice rest had worse QOL scores (Spearman correlation = 0.35, P = .001 and Spearman correlation = 0.24, P = .03, respectively). Restrictions in personal and social life were noted in 36.9% of patients, 46.4% were unable to work, 44.0% felt frustrated, and 38.1% reported feeling handicapped while on voice rest. Given poor patient compliance and the significant impact of voice rest on QOL, further studies are warranted to examine the efficacy of voice rest and factors that may contribute to patient noncompliance with treatment.

  5. Voice amplification as a means of reducing vocal load for elementary music teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P

    2011-07-01

    Music teachers are over four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice disorders and greater than eight times more likely to have voice-related problems than the general public. Research has shown that individual voice-use parameters of phonation time, fundamental frequency and vocal intensity, as well as vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose are significantly higher for music teachers than their classroom teacher counterparts. Finding effective and inexpensive prophylactic measures to decrease vocal load for music teachers is an important aspect for voice preservation for this group of professional voice users. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voice amplification on vocal intensity and vocal load in the workplace as measured using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Seven music teachers were monitored for 1 workweek using an APM to determine average vocal intensity (dB sound pressure level [SPL]) and vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose. Participants were monitored a second week while using a voice amplification unit (Asyst ChatterVox; Asyst Communications Company, Inc., Indian Creek, IL). Significant decreases in mean vocal intensity of 7.00-dB SPL (Pmusic teachers in the classroom. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The pattern of educator voice in clinical counseling in an educational hospital in Shiraz, Iran: a conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Doctor-patient interaction (DPI) includes different voices, of which the educator voice is of considerable importance. Physicians employ this voice to educate patients and their caregivers by providing them with information in order to change the patients' behavior and improve their health status. The subject has not yet been fully understood, and therefore the present study was conducted to explore the pattern of educator voice. For this purpose, conversation analysis (CA) of 33 recorded clinical consultations was performed in outpatient educational clinics in Shiraz, Iran between April 2014 and September 2014. In this qualitative study, all utterances, repetitions, lexical forms, chuckles and speech particles were considered and interpreted as social actions. Interpretations were based on inductive data-driven analysis with the aim to find recurring patterns of educator voice. The results showed educator voice to have two general features: descriptive and prescriptive. However, the pattern of educator voice comprised characteristics such as superficiality, marginalization of patients, one-dimensional approach, ignoring a healthy lifestyle, and robotic nature. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated a deficiency in the educator voice and inadequacy in patient-centered dialogue. In this setting, the educator voice was related to a distortion of DPI through the physicians' dominance, leading them to ignore their professional obligation to educate patients. Therefore, policies in this regard should take more account of enriching the educator voice through training medical students and faculty members in communication skills.

  7. Whose voice matters? LEARNERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    the education quality and more specifically learners' mathematical skills are .... worth). Students with a high self-esteem displayed acceptance of feedback .... Thus feedback is portrayed as means of communication of the teacher's view.

  8. Modeling and analysis of voice and data in cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawardena, Subodha

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief investigates the voice and elastic/interactive data service support over cognitive radio networks (CRNs), in terms of their delay requirements. The increased demand for wireless communication conflicts with the scarcity of the radio spectrum, but CRNS allow for more efficient use of the networks. The authors review packet level delay requirements of the voice service and session level delay requirements of the elastic/interactive data services, particularly constant-rate and on-o? voice tra?c capacities in CRNs with centralized and distributed network coordination. Some gen

  9. Resource Planning for Voice over Wireless Both-Way Transmission Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tsankov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The medium in IEEE 802.11- and IEEE 802.16-based networks for voice communications can be considered "both-way" - for transmission and reception. Therefore, the packet arrivals for voice dialogue services in such networks are not strictly independent. In this paper, we discuss the traffic capacity in the call (network layer and suggest accounting for the impact of the correlated nature of two-way voice conversations on performance estimation. We present analytical results and numerical examples.

  10. Efficient all solid-state UV source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2003-07-01

    A satellite-based UV-DIAL measurement system would allow continuous global monitoring of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. However such systems remain difficult to implement because aerosol-scattering return signals for satellite-based lidars are very weak. A suitable system must produce high-energy UV pulses at multiple wavelengths with very high efficiency. For example, a nanosecond system operating at 10 Hz must generate approximately 1 J per pulse at 308-320 nm. An efficient space-qualified wavelength-agile system based on a single UV source that can meet this requirement is probably not available using current laser technology. As an alternative, we're pursuing a multi-source approach employing all-solid-state modules that individually generate 300-320 nm light with pulse energies in the range of 50-200 mJ, with transform-limited bandwidths and good beam quality. Pulses from the individual sources can be incoherently summed to obtain the required single-pulse energy. These sources use sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm second harmonic of an Nd:YAG pump laser with 731-803 nm light derived from a recently-developed, state-of-the-art, nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. Two source configurations are under development, one using extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing, and the other intra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. In either configuration, we hope to obtain sum-frequency mixing efficiency approaching 60% by carefully matching the spatial and temporal properties of the laser and OPO pulses. This ideal balance of green and near-IR photons requires an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pump-laser with very high beam quality, and an OPO exhibiting unusually high conversion efficiency and exceptional signal beam quality. The OPO employs a singly-resonant high-Fresnel-number image-rotating self-injection-seeded nonplanar-ring cavity that achieves pump depletion > 65% and produces signal beams with M{sup 2} {approx} 3 at pulse energies exceeding 50 mJ. Pump beam

  11. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  12. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  13. Impacts of Satellite-Based Snow Albedo Assimilation on Offline and Coupled Land Surface Model Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is the largest component of the terrestrial cryosphere and plays a major role in the climate system through strong positive feedbacks related to albedo. The snow-albedo feedback is invoked as an important cause for the polar amplification of ongoing and projected climate change, and its parameterization across models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Here, instead of developing a physical snow albedo scheme, we use a direct insertion approach to assimilate satellite-based surface albedo during the snow season (hereafter as snow albedo assimilation into the land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms and assess the influences of such assimilation on offline and coupled simulations. Our results have shown that snow albedo assimilation in both ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE-LMDZ (a general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique improve the simulation accuracy of mean seasonal (October throughout May snow water equivalent over the region north of 40 degrees. The sensitivity of snow water equivalent to snow albedo assimilation is more pronounced in the coupled simulation than the offline simulation since the feedback of albedo on air temperature is allowed in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ. We have also shown that simulations of air temperature at 2 meters in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ due to snow albedo assimilation are significantly improved during the spring in particular over the eastern Siberia region. This is a result of the fact that high amounts of shortwave radiation during the spring can maximize its snow albedo feedback, which is also supported by the finding that the spatial sensitivity of temperature change to albedo change is much larger during the spring than during the autumn and winter. In addition, the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by snow albedo assimilation during the spring is estimated to be -2.50 W m-2, the

  14. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  15. A Satellite-Based Model for Simulating Ecosystem Respiration in the Tibetan and Inner Mongolian Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to accurately evaluate ecosystem respiration (RE in the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, as it serves as a sensitivity indicator of regional and global carbon cycles. Here, we combined flux measurements taken between 2003 and 2013 from 16 grassland sites across northern China and the corresponding MODIS land surface temperature (LST, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land surface water index (LSWI to build a satellite-based model to estimate RE at a regional scale. First, the dependencies of both spatial and temporal variations of RE on these biotic and climatic factors were examined explicitly. We found that plant productivity and moisture, but not temperature, can best explain the spatial pattern of RE in northern China’s grasslands; while temperature plays a major role in regulating the temporal variability of RE in the alpine grasslands, and moisture is equally as important as temperature in the temperate grasslands. However, the moisture effect on RE and the explicit representation of spatial variation process are often lacking in most of the existing satellite-based RE models. On this basis, we developed a model by comprehensively considering moisture, temperature, and productivity effects on both temporal and spatial processes of RE, and then, we evaluated the model performance. Our results showed that the model well explained the observed RE in both the alpine (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 0.77 g C m−2 day−1 and temperate grasslands (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 0.60 g C m−2 day−1. The inclusion of the LSWI as the water-limiting factor substantially improved the model performance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and the spatialized basal respiration rate as an indicator for spatial variation largely determined the regional pattern of RE. Finally, the model accurately reproduced the seasonal and inter-annual variations and spatial variability of RE, and it avoided

  16. Benefits of the Fiber Optic versus the Electret Microphone in Voice Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Kyriaki; Fisher, Helene R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice disorders that result in reduced loudness may cause difficulty in communicating, socializing and participating in occupational activities. Amplification is often recommended in order to facilitate functional communication, reduce vocal load and avoid developing maladaptive compensatory behaviours. The most common microphone used…

  17. Satellite based radar interferometry to estimate large-scale soil water depletion from clay shrinkage: possibilities and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Hanssen, R.F.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based radar interferometry is a technique capable of measuring small surface elevation changes at large scales and with a high resolution. In vadose zone hydrology, it has been recognized for a long time that surface elevation changes due to swell and shrinkage of clayey soils can serve as

  18. Providing satellite-based early warnings of fires to reduce fire flashovers on South Africa’s transmission lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real time operational satellite-based fire monitoring system of its kind in Africa. The main aim of AFIS is to provide information regarding the prediction, detection and assessment...

  19. Specific features of modern voice protection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Ustinov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, speech technologies are among the most vibrant sectors of the world’s economy. Of high importance is the problem of ensuring the security of speech information (SI. Here we discuss SI protection systems within a modern communication model. The model is multimodal, multithreaded, and implies a large number of subscribers interacting via several communication lines. With this in mind, we perform a detailed analysis of threats to the confidentiality, integrity and accessibility of SI. Existing methods of counteraction against these threats are discussed, and shown to be insufficient to ensure the safety of voice messages (VM in full. Mean while, there are new threats to the integrity and accessibility of SI, the solutions for which are either do not exist, or only being developed. We propose our original approach to counter these threats. Steganography methods are the most promising for ensuring the integrity of the VM.  In particular, using audiomarkers allows one to reliably trace speaker’sidentity throughout the entire communication session. In order to counter the threats to SI availability due to the capacity of the communication channel and the limited volumes of VM data storage, it is necessary to improve existing adaptive speech compression algorithms, along with developing new ones. Furthermore, such algorithms must keep the specified level of speech intelligibility.

  20. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  1. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2017-05-01

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Experiences of an internal 'anorexic voice' are common in anorexia nervosa. Clinicians should consider the role of the voice when formulating eating pathology in anorexia nervosa, including how individuals perceive and relate to that voice. Addressing the voice may be beneficial, particularly in more severe and enduring forms of anorexia nervosa. When working with the voice, clinicians should aim to address both the content of the voice and how

  2. Anti-voice adaptation suggests prototype-based coding of voice identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLatinus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A. In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype.

  3. Developing Information Services and Tools to Access and Evaluate Data Quality in Global Satellite-based Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.; Meyer, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Global satellite-based precipitation products have been widely used in research and applications around the world. Compared to ground-based observations, satellite-based measurements provide precipitation data on a global scale, especially in remote continents and over oceans. Over the years, satellite-based precipitation products have evolved from single sensor and single algorithm to multi-sensors and multi-algorithms. As a result, many satellite-based precipitation products have been enhanced such as spatial and temporal coverages. With inclusion of ground-based measurements, biases of satellite-based precipitation products have been significantly reduced. However, data quality issues still exist and can be caused by many factors such as observations, satellite platform anomaly, algorithms, production, calibration, validation, data services, etc. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) is home to NASA global precipitation product archives including the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), as well as other global and regional precipitation products. Precipitation is one of the top downloaded and accessed parameters in the GES DISC data archive. Meanwhile, users want to easily locate and obtain data quality information at regional and global scales to better understand how precipitation products perform and how reliable they are. As data service providers, it is necessary to provide an easy access to data quality information, however, such information normally is not available, and when it is available, it is not in one place and difficult to locate. In this presentation, we will present challenges and activities at the GES DISC to address precipitation data quality issues.

  4. Optical voice encryption based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-11-15

    We propose an optical voice encryption scheme based on digital holography (DH). An off-axis DH is employed to acquire voice information by obtaining phase retardation occurring in the object wave due to sound wave propagation. The acquired hologram, including voice information, is encrypted using optical image encryption. The DH reconstruction and decryption with all the correct parameters can retrieve an original voice. The scheme has the capability to record the human voice in holograms and encrypt it directly. These aspects make the scheme suitable for other security applications and help to use the voice as a potential security tool. We present experimental and some part of simulation results.

  5. The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Thomas, E.; Keltner, D.; Sauter, D.; Sinicropi-Yao, L.; Abramson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more ...

  6. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts, we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability, and understanding of climate system feedbacks.

  7. Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Noureldin, Aboelmagd; Georgy, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration is an introduction to the field of Integrated Navigation Systems. It serves as an excellent reference for working engineers as well as textbook for beginners and students new to the area. The book is easy to read and understand with minimum background knowledge. The authors explain the derivations in great detail. The intermediate steps are thoroughly explained so that a beginner can easily follow the material. The book shows a step-by-step implementation of navigation algorithms and provides all the necessary details. It provides detailed illustrations for an easy comprehension. The book also demonstrates real field experiments and in-vehicle road test results with professional discussions and analysis. This work is unique in discussing the different INS/GPS integration schemes in an easy to understand and straightforward way. Those schemes include loosely vs tightly coupled, open loop vs closed loop, and many more.

  8. A Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration Climate Data Record for Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kothe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides 2 m - temperature and precipitation, sunshine duration is one of the most important and commonly used parameter in climatology, with measured time series of partly more than 100 years in length. EUMETSAT’s Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF presents a climate data record for daily and monthly sunshine duration (SDU for Europe and Africa. Basis for the advanced retrieval is a highly resolved satellite product of the direct solar radiation from measurements by Meteosat satellites 2 to 10. The data record covers the time period 1983 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.05° × 0.05°. The comparison against ground-based data shows high agreement but also some regional differences. Sunshine duration is overestimated by the satellite-based data in many regions, compared to surface data. In West and Central Africa, low clouds seem to be the reason for a stronger overestimation of sunshine duration in this region (up to 20% for monthly sums. For most stations, the overestimation is low, with a bias below 7.5 h for monthly sums and below 0.4 h for daily sums. A high correlation of 0.91 for daily SDU and 0.96 for monthly SDU also proved the high agreement with station data. As SDU is based on a stable and homogeneous climate data record of more than 30 years length, it is highly suitable for climate applications, such as trend estimates.

  9. Satellite-based emission constraint for nitrogen oxides: Capability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; McElroy, M. B.; Boersma, F.; Nielsen, C.; Zhao, Y.; Lei, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Mao, J.; Zhuang, G.; Roozendael, M.; Martin, R.; Wang, P.; Spurr, R. J.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieved from satellite remote sensing have been employed widely to constrain emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A major strength of satellite-based emission constraint is analysis of emission trends and variability, while a crucial limitation is errors both in satellite NO2 data and in model simulations relating NOx emissions to NO2 columns. Through a series of studies, we have explored these aspects over China. We separate anthropogenic from natural sources of NOx by exploiting their different seasonality. We infer trends of NOx emissions in recent years and effects of a variety of socioeconomic events at different spatiotemporal scales including the general economic growth, global financial crisis, Chinese New Year, and Beijing Olympics. We further investigate the impact of growing NOx emissions on particulate matter (PM) pollution in China. As part of recent developments, we identify and correct errors in both satellite NO2 retrieval and model simulation that ultimately affect NOx emission constraint. We improve the treatments of aerosol optical effects, clouds and surface reflectance in the NO2 retrieval process, using as reference ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements to evaluate the improved retrieval results. We analyze the sensitivity of simulated NO2 to errors in the model representation of major meteorological and chemical processes with a subsequent correction of model bias. Future studies will implement these improvements to re-constrain NOx emissions.

  10. New perspectives for satellite-based archaeological research in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasaponara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of satellite QuickBird images to find traces of past human activity in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey. This is one of the most important archaeological sites in Turkey, and in 1988 it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Although over the years the archaeological site of Hierapolis has been excavated, restored and well documented, up to now the territory around the ancient urban area is still largely unknown. The current research project, still in progress, aims to search the area neighbouring Hierapolis believed to have been under the control of the city for a long time and, therefore, expected to be very rich in archaeological evidence. In order to investigate a large area around the ancient Hierapolis and discover potential archaeological remains, QuickBird images were adopted.

    Results from satellite-based analysis allowed us to find several unknown rural settlements dating back to early Imperial Roman and the Byzantine age. Two significant test sites were focused on in this paper in order to characterize the different spectral responses observed for different types of archaeological features (shadow and soil marks. Principal Component Analysis and spectral indices were computed to enhance archaeological marks and make identification easier. The capability of the QuickBird data set (panchromatic, multispectral channel, PCA and spectral indices in searching for archaeological marks was assessed in a quantitative way by using a specific indicator.

  11. Does Urban Form Affect Urban NO2? Satellite-Based Evidence for More than 1200 Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Matthew J; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-11-07

    Modifying urban form may be a strategy to mitigate urban air pollution. For example, evidence suggests that urban form can affect motor vehicle usage, a major contributor to urban air pollution. We use satellite-based measurements of urban form and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) to explore relationships between urban form and air pollution for a global data  set of 1274 cities. Three of the urban form metrics studied (contiguity, circularity, and vegetation) have a statistically significant relationship with urban NO 2 ; their combined effect could be substantial. As illustration, if findings presented here are causal, that would suggest that if Christchurch, New Zealand (a city at the 75th percentile for all three urban-form metrics, and with a network of buses, trams, and bicycle facilities) was transformed to match the urban form of Indio - Cathedral City, California, United States (a city at the 25th percentile for those same metrics, and exhibiting sprawl-like suburban development), our models suggest that Christchurch's NO 2 concentrations would be ∼60% higher than its current level. We also find that the combined effect of urban form on NO 2 is larger for small cities (β × IQR = -0.46 for cities urban population and are where much of the future urban growth is expected to occur. This work highlights the need for future study of how changes in urban form and related land use and transportation policies impact urban air pollution, especially for small cities.

  12. An Exploitation of Satellite-based Observation for Health Information: The UFOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangin, A.; Morel, M.; Fanton d' Andon, O

    2000-07-01

    Short, medium and long-term trends of UV intensity levels are of crucial importance for either assessing effective biological impacts on human population, or implementing adequate preventive behaviours. Better information on a large spatial scale and increased public awareness of the short-term variations in UV values will help to support health agencies' goals of educating the public on UV risks. The Ultraviolet Forecast Operational Service Project (UFAS), financed in part by the European Commission/DG Information Society (TEN-TELECOM programme), aims to exploit satellite-based observations and to supply a set of UV products directly useful to health care. The short-term objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility and benefits that could be brought by such a system. UFOS is carried out by ACRI, with the support of an Advisory Group chaired by WHO and involving representation from the sectors of Health (WHO, INTERSUN collaborating centres, ZAMBON), Environment (WMO, IASB), and Telecommunications (EURECOM, IMET). (author)

  13. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  14. The attitude inversion method of geostationary satellites based on unscented particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Wang, Yang; Hu, Heng; Gou, Ruixin; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The attitude information of geostationary satellites is difficult to be obtained since they are presented in non-resolved images on the ground observation equipment in space object surveillance. In this paper, an attitude inversion method for geostationary satellite based on Unscented Particle Filter (UPF) and ground photometric data is presented. The inversion algorithm based on UPF is proposed aiming at the strong non-linear feature in the photometric data inversion for satellite attitude, which combines the advantage of Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and Particle Filter (PF). This update method improves the particle selection based on the idea of UKF to redesign the importance density function. Moreover, it uses the RMS-UKF to partially correct the prediction covariance matrix, which improves the applicability of the attitude inversion method in view of UKF and the particle degradation and dilution of the attitude inversion method based on PF. This paper describes the main principles and steps of algorithm in detail, correctness, accuracy, stability and applicability of the method are verified by simulation experiment and scaling experiment in the end. The results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problem of particle degradation and depletion in the attitude inversion method on account of PF, and the problem that UKF is not suitable for the strong non-linear attitude inversion. However, the inversion accuracy is obviously superior to UKF and PF, in addition, in the case of the inversion with large attitude error that can inverse the attitude with small particles and high precision.

  15. Satellite Based Downward Long Wave Radiation by Various Models in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyang Sur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based downward long wave radiation measurement under clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia was conducted using five well-known physical models (Brunt 1932, Idso and Jackson 1969, Brutsaert 1975, Satterlund 1979, Prata 1996 with a newly proposed global Rld model (Abramowitz et al. 2012. Data from two flux towers in South Korea were used to validate downward long wave radiation. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS atmospheric profile products were used to develop the Rld models. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of MODIS Rld with respect to two ecosystem-type flux towers was determined to be ≈ 20 W m-2. Based on the statistical analyses, MODIS Rld estimates with Brutsaert (1975 and Abramowitz et al. (2012 models were the most applicable for evaluating Rld for clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia. The Abramowitz Rld maps with MODIS Ta and ea showed reasonable seasonal patterns, which were well-aligned with other biophysical variables reported by previous studies. The MODIS Rld map developed in this study will be very useful for identifying spatial patterns that are not detectable from ground-based Rld measurement sites.

  16. Satellite based hydroclimatic understanding of evolution of Dengue and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Africa, South America, and Asia. Vector eradication is perhaps not possible since pathogens adapt to local environment. In absence of appropriate vaccinations for Dengue and Zika virus, burden of these two infections continue to increase in several geographical locations. Aedes spp. is one of the major vectors for Dengue and Zika viruses. Etiologies on Dengue and Zika viruses are evolving, however the key question remains as to how one species of mosquito can transmit two different infections? We argue that a set of conducive environmental condition, modulated by regional climatic and weather processes, may lead to abundance of a specific virus. Using satellite based rainfall (TRMM/GPM), land surface temperature (MODIS) and dew point temperature (AIRS/MERRA), we have identified appropriate thresholds that can provide estimate on risk of abundance of Dengue or Zika viruses at least few weeks in advance. We will discuss a framework coupling satellite derived hydroclimatic and societal processes to predict environmental niches of favorability of conditions of Dengue or Zika risk in human population on a global scale.

  17. An Exploitation of Satellite-based Observation for Health Information: The UFOS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.; Morel, M.; Fanton d'Andon, O.

    2000-01-01

    Short, medium and long-term trends of UV intensity levels are of crucial importance for either assessing effective biological impacts on human population, or implementing adequate preventive behaviours. Better information on a large spatial scale and increased public awareness of the short-term variations in UV values will help to support health agencies' goals of educating the public on UV risks. The Ultraviolet Forecast Operational Service Project (UFAS), financed in part by the European Commission/DG Information Society (TEN-TELECOM programme), aims to exploit satellite-based observations and to supply a set of UV products directly useful to health care. The short-term objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility and benefits that could be brought by such a system. UFOS is carried out by ACRI, with the support of an Advisory Group chaired by WHO and involving representation from the sectors of Health (WHO, INTERSUN collaborating centres, ZAMBON), Environment (WMO, IASB), and Telecommunications (EURECOM, IMET). (author)

  18. Satellite-based ET estimation using Landsat 8 images and SEBAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bonemberger da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimation of evapotranspiration is a key factor to achieve sustainable water management in irrigated agriculture because it represents water use of crops. Satellite-based estimations provide advantages compared to direct methods as lysimeters especially when the objective is to calculate evapotranspiration at a regional scale. The present study aimed to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET at a regional scale, using Landsat 8 - OLI/TIRS images and complementary data collected from a weather station. SEBAL model was used in South-West Paraná, region composed of irrigated and dry agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas. Five Landsat 8 images, row 223 and path 78, DOY 336/2013, 19/2014, 35/2014, 131/2014 and 195/2014 were used, from which ET at daily scale was estimated as a residual of the surface energy balance to produce ET maps. The steps for obtain ET using SEBAL include radiometric calibration, calculation of the reflectance, surface albedo, vegetation indexes (NDVI, SAVI and LAI and emissivity. These parameters were obtained based on the reflective bands of the orbital sensor with temperature surface estimated from thermal band. The estimated ET values in agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas using SEBAL algorithm were compatible with those shown in the literature and ET errors between the ET estimates from SEBAL model and Penman Monteith FAO 56 equation were less than or equal to 1.00 mm day-1.

  19. Improved Satellite-based Crop Yield Mapping by Spatially Explicit Parameterization of Crop Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field-scale mapping of crop yields with satellite data often relies on the use of crop simulation models. However, these approaches can be hampered by inaccuracies in the simulation of crop phenology. Here we present and test an approach to use dense time series of Landsat 7 and 8 acquisitions data to calibrate various parameters related to crop phenology simulation, such as leaf number and leaf appearance rates. These parameters are then mapped across the Midwestern United States for maize and soybean, and for two different simulation models. We then implement our recently developed Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper (SCYM) with simulations reflecting the improved phenology parameterizations, and compare to prior estimates based on default phenology routines. Our preliminary results show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the underestimation of early-season LAI by the default Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), and that spatially explicit parameterization for the phenology model substantially improves the SCYM performance in capturing the spatiotemporal variation in maize and soybean yield. The scheme presented in our study thus preserves the scalability of SCYM, while significantly reducing its uncertainty.

  20. Satellite-based detection of global urban heat-island temperature influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K.P.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Owen, T.W.; Elvidge, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes a satellite-based methodology to assess the urban heat-island influence during warm season months for over 4400 stations included in the Global Historical Climatology Network of climate stations. The methodology includes local and regional satellite retrievals of an indicator of the presence green photosynthetically active vegetation at and around the stations. The difference in local and regional samples of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate differences in mean air temperature. Stations classified as urban averaged 0.90??C (N. Hemisphere) and 0.92??C (S. Hemisphere) warmer than the surrounding environment on the basis of the NDVI-derived temperature estimates. Additionally, stations classified as rural averaged 0.19??C (N. Hemisphere) and 0.16??C (S. Hemisphere) warmer than the surrounding environment. The NDVI-derived temperature estimates were found to be in reasonable agreement with temperature differences observed between climate stations. The results suggest that satellite-derived data sets can be used to estimate the urban heat-island temperature influence on a global basis and that a more detailed analysis of rural stations and their surrounding environment may be necessary to assure that temperature trends derived from assumed rural environments are not influenced by changes in land use/land cover. Copyright 2002 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  2. Satellite-Based Assessment of Rainfall-Triggered Landslide Hazard for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Determining the time, location, and severity of natural disaster impacts is fundamental to formulating mitigation strategies, appropriate and timely responses, and robust recovery plans. A Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness (LHASA) model was developed to indicate potential landslide activity in near real-time. LHASA combines satellite-based precipitation estimates with a landslide susceptibility map derived from information on slope, geology, road networks, fault zones, and forest loss. Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission are used to identify rainfall conditions from the past 7 days. When rainfall is considered to be extreme and susceptibility values are moderate to very high, a "nowcast" is issued to indicate the times and places where landslides are more probable. When LHASA nowcasts were evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog, the probability of detection (POD) ranged from 8% to 60%, depending on the evaluation period, precipitation product used, and the size of the spatial and temporal window considered around each landslide point. Applications of the LHASA system are also discussed, including how LHASA is used to estimate long-term trends in potential landslide activity at a nearly global scale and how it can be used as a tool to support disaster risk assessment. LHASA is intended to provide situational awareness of landslide hazards in near real-time, providing a flexible, open-source framework that can be adapted to other spatial and temporal scales based on data availability.

  3. Using satellite-based rainfall estimates for streamflow modelling: Bagmati Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M.S.; Artan, Guleid A.; Bajracharya, S.R.; Sharma, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have described a hydrologic modelling system that uses satellite-based rainfall estimates and weather forecast data for the Bagmati River Basin of Nepal. The hydrologic model described is the US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM). The GeoSFM is a spatially semidistributed, physically based hydrologic model. We have used the GeoSFM to estimate the streamflow of the Bagmati Basin at Pandhera Dovan hydrometric station. To determine the hydrologic connectivity, we have used the USGS Hydro1k DEM dataset. The model was forced by daily estimates of rainfall and evapotranspiration derived from weather model data. The rainfall estimates used for the modelling are those produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Centre and observed at ground rain gauge stations. The model parameters were estimated from globally available soil and land cover datasets – the Digital Soil Map of the World by FAO and the USGS Global Land Cover dataset. The model predicted the daily streamflow at Pandhera Dovan gauging station. The comparison of the simulated and observed flows at Pandhera Dovan showed that the GeoSFM model performed well in simulating the flows of the Bagmati Basin.

  4. Satellite-based trends of solar radiation and cloud parameters in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifroth, Uwe; Bojanowski, Jedrzej S.; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Manara, Veronica; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Trentmann, Jörg; Walawender, Jakub P.; Hollmann, Rainer

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation is the main driver of the Earth's climate. Measuring solar radiation and analysing its interaction with clouds are essential for the understanding of the climate system. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) generates satellite-based, high-quality climate data records, with a focus on the energy balance and water cycle. Here, multiple of these data records are analyzed in a common framework to assess the consistency in trends and spatio-temporal variability of surface solar radiation, top-of-atmosphere reflected solar radiation and cloud fraction. This multi-parameter analysis focuses on Europe and covers the time period from 1992 to 2015. A high correlation between these three variables has been found over Europe. An overall consistency of the climate data records reveals an increase of surface solar radiation and a decrease in top-of-atmosphere reflected radiation. In addition, those trends are confirmed by negative trends in cloud cover. This consistency documents the high quality and stability of the CM SAF climate data records, which are mostly derived independently from each other. The results of this study indicate that one of the main reasons for the positive trend in surface solar radiation since the 1990's is a decrease in cloud coverage even if an aerosol contribution cannot be completely ruled out.

  5. The Challenges in Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Challenges in Communication. The conflict between connection oriented and connectionless. The seamless integration needs of broadcast, unicast and multicast in the midst growing security concerns. Like Indian roads – need to carry voice, internet traffic, video ...

  6. MIMO Based Multimedia Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Kandar, D.; Dhar, Sourav; Bera, Rabindranath; Sarkar, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    High data rate is required for multimedia communication. But the communication at high data rate is always challenging. In this work we have successfully performed data chatting, Voice chatting and high quality video transmission between two distant units using MIMO adapter, Direct sequence spread spectrum system and MATLAB/SIMULINK platform.

  7. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality VoIP...... communications are difficult to achieve in a time-varying environment due to channel errors and traffic congestion and across different systems. The provision of VoIP in wireless heterogeneous networks requires a set of time-efficient control mechanisms to support a VoIP session with acceptable quality....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  8. Auditory and visual modulation of temporal lobe neurons in voice-sensitive and association cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2014-02-12

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies.

  9. Auditory and Visual Modulation of Temporal Lobe Neurons in Voice-Sensitive and Association Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2014-01-01

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies. PMID:24523543

  10. Two-way digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E.; Daly, Ed

    1996-03-01

    The communications industry has been rapidly converting from analog to digital communications for audio, video, and data. The initial applications have been concentrating on point-to-multipoint transmission. Currently, a new revolution is occurring in which two-way point-to-point transmission is a rapidly growing market. The system designs for video compression developed for point-to-multipoint transmission are unsuitable for this new market as well as for satellite based video encoding. A new system developed by the Space Communications Technology Center has been designed to address both of these newer applications. An update on the system performance and design will be given.

  11. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  12. Design Considerations for Multi-Channel Picture Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Paul O.

    1983-01-01

    Design of networks intended for communication of digitally-encoded pictures involves considerations different from those used in the design of text or voice communication networks. This paper provides an overview of the elements useful in the design of picture communication networks by relation and contrast with other communication networks. Particular emphasis is given to picture communication systems useful in medical applications.

  13. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  14. English Voicing in Dimensional Theory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Gregory K.; Ahn, Sang-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a framework of privative features, this paper interprets two apparently disparate phenomena in English phonology as structurally related: the lexically specific voicing of fricatives in plural nouns like wives or thieves and the prosodically governed “flapping” of medial /t/ (and /d/) in North American varieties, which we claim is itself not a rule per se, but rather a consequence of the laryngeal weakening of fortis /t/ in interaction with speech-rate determined segmental abbreviation. Taking as our point of departure the Dimensional Theory of laryngeal representation developed by Avery & Idsardi (2001), along with their assumption that English marks voiceless obstruents but not voiced ones (Iverson & Salmons 1995), we find that an unexpected connection between fricative voicing and coronal flapping emerges from the interplay of familiar phonemic and phonetic factors in the phonological system. PMID:18496590

  15. Audiovisual speech facilitates voice learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffert, Sonya M; Olson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    In this research, we investigated the effects of voice and face information on the perceptual learning of talkers and on long-term memory for spoken words. In the first phase, listeners were trained over several days to identify voices from words presented auditorily or audiovisually. The training data showed that visual information about speakers enhanced voice learning, revealing cross-modal connections in talker processing akin to those observed in speech processing. In the second phase, the listeners completed an auditory or audiovisual word recognition memory test in which equal numbers of words were spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers. The data showed that words presented by familiar talkers were more likely to be retrieved from episodic memory, regardless of modality. Together, these findings provide new information about the representational code underlying familiar talker recognition and the role of stimulus familiarity in episodic word recognition.

  16. Voices Falling Through the Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Elliman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Where am I? Or as the young boy in Jules Verne’s Journey to the Centre of the Earth calls back to his distant-voiced companions: ‘Lost… in the most intense darkness.’ ‘Then I understood it,’ says the boy, Axel, ‘To make them hear me, all I had to do was to speak with my mouth close to the wall, which would serve to conduct my voice, as the wire conducts the electric fluid’ (Verne 1864. By timing their calls, the group of explorers work out that Axel is separated from them by a distance of four miles, held in a cavernous vertical gallery of smooth rock. Feeling his way down towards the others, the boy ends up falling, along with his voice, through the space. Losing consciousness he seems to give himself up to the space...

  17. Giving voice to the voiceless through deliberative democratic school governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mabovula

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I focus on the role of learners in the governance of secondary schools. I seek to promote a voice for learner expression as guaranteed in the national Department of Education's guidelines for Representative Council of Learners as part of promoting democratic governance. The potential, limitations, constraints, conse­quen­ces, and challenges facing learners in the school governance structure need to be revealed and debated. The views of school principals were solicited by means of unstructured open-ended questionnaires. Six problem areas emerged from the data. The irony is that although the democratisation of school governance has given all stakeholders a powerful voice in school affairs, learners' voices are, seemingly, being silenced. In attempting to resolve the problem, a new model of democratic school governance to be known as 'deliberative democratic school governance' (DDSG is suggested. There are several DDSG approaches that can be employed in creating elements for stakeholder empowerment and in driving deliberative democratic school governance forward. These include inclusion, motivational communication, consensus, deliberation/ dialogue, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Some school governance stake­holders and schools may use only one or a few of these strategies to create spaces for learner voices in their respective schools.

  18. Effects of flow gradients on directional radiation of human voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki, Ville; Lähivaara, Timo; Huhtakallio, Ilkka

    2018-02-01

    In voice communication in windy outdoor conditions, complex velocity gradients appear in the flow field around the source, the receiver, and also in the atmosphere. It is commonly known that voice emanates stronger towards the downstream direction when compared with the upstream direction. In literature, the atmospheric effects are used to explain the stronger emanation in the downstream direction. This work shows that the wind also has an effect to the directivity of voice also favouring the downstream direction. The effect is addressed by measurements and simulations. Laboratory measurements are conducted by using a large pendulum with a loudspeaker mimicking the human head, whereas practical measurements utilizing the human voice are realized by placing a subject through the roof window of a moving car. The measurements and a simulation indicate congruent results in the speech frequency range: When the source faces the downstream direction, stronger radiation coinciding with the wind direction is observed, and when it faces the upstream direction, radiation is not affected notably. The simulated flow gradients show a wake region in the downstream direction, and the simulated acoustic field in the flow show that the region causes a wave-guide effect focusing the sound in the direction.

  19. Listening to Schneiderian Voices: A Novel Phenomenological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Cherise; Chase, Kayla A; Jones, Nev; Grossman, Linda S; Gin, Hannah; Sharma, Rajiv P

    This paper reports on analyses designed to elucidate phenomenological characteristics, content and experience specifically targeting participants with Schneiderian voices conversing/commenting (VC) while exploring differences in clinical presentation and quality of life compared to those with voices not conversing (VNC). This mixed-method investigation of Schneiderian voices included standardized clinical metrics and exploratory phenomenological interviews designed to elicit in-depth information about the characteristics, content, meaning, and personification of auditory verbal hallucinations. The subjective experience shows a striking pattern of VC, as they are experienced as internal at initial onset and during the longer-term course of illness when compared to VNC. Participants in the VC group were more likely to attribute the origin of their voices to an external source such as God, telepathic communication, or mediumistic sources. VC and VNC were described as characterological entities that were distinct from self (I/we vs. you). We also found an association between VC and the positive, cognitive, and depression symptom profile. However, we did not find a significant group difference in overall quality of life. The clinical portrait of VC is complex, multisensory, and distinct, and suggests a need for further research into the biopsychosocial interface between subjective experience, socioenvironmental constraints, individual psychology, and the biological architecture of intersecting symptoms. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. DolphinAtack: Inaudible Voice Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...

  1. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  2. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  3. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Verhoef, Wouter

    2016-06-15

    With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite rainfall product (CMORPH) in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003-2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW) sizes and for sequential windows (SW's) of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW) schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r) and standard deviation (SD). Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach.

  4. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Akram Bhatti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Climate Prediction Centre (CPC morphing technique (CMORPH satellite rainfall product (CMORPH in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003–2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW sizes and for sequential windows (SW’s of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r and standard deviation (SD. Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach.

  5. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  6. Ground- and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A; Verger, Aleixandre; Samimi, Cyrus; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-04-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass of woody species, herb biomass, and woody species abundance in different ecosystems located in the Sahel zone of Senegal. We found that the positive trend observed in satellite vegetation time series (+36%) is caused by an increment of in situ measured biomass (+34%), which is highly controlled by precipitation (+40%). Whereas herb biomass shows large inter-annual fluctuations rather than a clear trend, leaf biomass of woody species has doubled within 27 years (+103%). This increase in woody biomass did not reflect on biodiversity with 11 of 16 woody species declining in abundance over the period. We conclude that the observed greening in the Senegalese Sahel is primarily related to an increasing tree cover that caused satellite-driven vegetation indices to increase with rainfall reversal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Verhoef, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite rainfall product (CMORPH) in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003–2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW) sizes and for sequential windows (SW’s) of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW) schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r) and standard deviation (SD). Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach. PMID:27314363

  8. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  9. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  10. Long-term change analysis of satellite-based evapotranspiration over Indian vegetated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Krishna, Akhouri P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, trend of satellite based annual evapotranspiration (ET) and natural forcing factors responsible for this were analyzed. Thirty years (1981-2010) of ET data at 0.08° grid resolution, generated over Indian region from opticalthermal observations from NOAA PAL and MODIS AQUA satellites, were used. Long-term data on gridded (0.5° x 0.5°) annual rainfall (RF), annual mean surface soil moisture (SSM) ERS scatterometer at 25 km resolution and annual mean incoming shortwave radiation from MERRA-2D reanalysis were also analyzed. Mann-Kendall tests were performed with time series data for trend analysis. Mean annual ET loss from Indian ago-ecosystem was found to be almost double (1100 Cubic Km) than Indian forest ecosystem (550 Cubic Km). Rainfed vegetation systems such as forest, rainfed cropland, grassland showed declining ET trend @ - 4.8, -0.6 &-0.4 Cubic Kmyr-1, respectively during 30 years. Irrigated cropland initially showed ET decline upto 1995 @ -0.8 cubic Kmyr-1 which could possibly be due to solar dimming followed by increasing ET @ 0.9 cubic Kmyr-1 after 1995. A cross-over point was detected between forest ET decline and ET increase in irrigated cropland during 2008. During 2001-2010, the four agriculturally important Indian states eastern, central, western and southern showed significantly increasing ET trend with S-score of 15-25 and Z-score of 1.09-2.9. Increasing ET in western and southern states was found to be coupled with increase in annual rainfall and SSM. But in eastern and central states no significant trend in rainfall was observed though significant increase in ET was noticed. The study recommended to investigate the influence of anthropogenic factors such as increase in area under irrigation, increased use of water for irrigation through ground water pumping, change in cropping pattern and cultivars on increasing ET.

  11. Satellite-based emergency mapping using optical imagery: experience and reflections from the 2015 Nepal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack G.; Rosser, Nick J.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Oven, Katie J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Milledge, David G.; Robinson, Tom R.; Jordan, Colm A.; Dijkstra, Tom A.

    2018-01-01

    Landslides triggered by large earthquakes in mountainous regions contribute significantly to overall earthquake losses and pose a major secondary hazard that can persist for months or years. While scientific investigations of coseismic landsliding are increasingly common, there is no protocol for rapid (hours-to-days) humanitarian-facing landslide assessment and no published recognition of what is possible and what is useful to compile immediately after the event. Drawing on the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, we consider how quickly a landslide assessment based upon manual satellite-based emergency mapping (SEM) can be realistically achieved and review the decisions taken by analysts to ascertain the timeliness and type of useful information that can be generated. We find that, at present, many forms of landslide assessment are too slow to generate relative to the speed of a humanitarian response, despite increasingly rapid access to high-quality imagery. Importantly, the value of information on landslides evolves rapidly as a disaster response develops, so identifying the purpose, timescales, and end users of a post-earthquake landslide assessment is essential to inform the approach taken. It is clear that discussions are needed on the form and timing of landslide assessments, and how best to present and share this information, before rather than after an earthquake strikes. In this paper, we share the lessons learned from the Gorkha earthquake, with the aim of informing the approach taken by scientists to understand the evolving landslide hazard in future events and the expectations of the humanitarian community involved in disaster response.

  12. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method o...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  13. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  14. Development of a voice disorder work productivity inventory utilizing cognitive interviewing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberto, John Paul; Zhu, Qiubei; Meyer, Tanya K

    2016-12-01

    Voice disorders have been shown to impair workplace productivity primarily by reduced efficiency while at work (presenteeism) versus increased days missed (absenteeism). Work productivity measures such as the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) Questionnaire or the World Health Organization Health - Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) can be customized to a specific disease but do not fully capture impaired work productivity associated with voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel questionnaire to evaluate work productivity in patients with voice disorders. Descriptive. At a tertiary medical center, patients with gainful employment and with chronic voice disorders were given the WPAI, HPQ, and 20 voice-related statements (VRS-20). Cognitive interviews were conducted and recorded with all patients. Ten patients (7 females, 3 males) completed the questionnaires and subsequent cognitive interviews. One patient had spasmodic dysphonia, 6 had benign vocal fold lesions, and 3 had vocal fold motion disorders. The median VHI-10 was 18 (9-40). Themes that emerged during interviews include: avoiding oral communication/telephone, use of voice associated with strain/fatigue, frustration and stress at work, and workplace integrity. Conclusions : In cognitive interviews, participants felt the VRS-20 captured the impact of their voice disorder at work better than the WPAI and HPQ. Participants also felt some statements were more important than others. 5.

  15. Interventions for preventing voice disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, J H; Sellman, J; Lehto, L; Jauhiainen, M; Verbeek, J H

    2007-10-17

    Poor voice quality due to a voice disorder can lead to a reduced quality of life. In occupations where voice use is substantial it can lead to periods of absence from work. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent voice disorders in adults. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed, 1950 to 2006), EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), CINAHL (1983 to 2006), PsychINFO (1967 to 2006), Science Citation Index (1986 to 2006) and the Occupational Health databases OSH-ROM (to 2006). The date of the last search was 05/04/06. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of interventions evaluating the effectiveness of treatments to prevent voice disorders in adults. For work-directed interventions interrupted time series and prospective cohort studies were also eligible. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. We identified two randomised controlled trials including a total of 53 participants in intervention groups and 43 controls. One study was conducted with teachers and the other with student teachers. Both trials were poor quality. Interventions were grouped into 1) direct voice training, 2) indirect voice training and 3) direct and indirect voice training combined.1) Direct voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct voice training compared to no intervention.2) Indirect voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for indirect voice training when compared to no intervention.3) Direct and indirect voice training combined: One study did not find a decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no intervention. The same study did however find an improvement in maximum phonation time (Mean Difference -3.18 sec; 95 % CI -4.43 to -1.93) for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no

  16. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  17. Gender and the Telephone: Voice and Emotions Shaping and Gendering Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Livholts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of communication studies, the topic of telephony and the gendering of space via voice and emotions has received limited attention. The focus of this article is how telephone conversations are mediated by voice and emotions, which in turn shape and gender social space. The methodology is a collaborative autoethnographic design based on diary notes and memory work. Two central themes emerge from the findings that explain how space becomes gendered when using the telephone: (a the voice and relations of power, and (b the interstices between work, caring, and the telephone. Our findings reveal the central role of work and caring and how these spaces constantly are being traversed and transformed as the mobile phone becomes an important appendage for sensory perceptions of hearing/listening/voice. We argue that these themes point toward the crucial impact of emotions in the construction of multiple and gendered spatialities of telephony.

  18. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  19. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between child...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  20. SATELLITE BASED EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN REMOTE SENSING AND GEO-INFORMATION: AN E-LEARNING APPROACH TO MEET THE GROWING DEMANDS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE using NASA’s Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6 with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS, mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and

  1. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  2. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.

    2017-04-01

    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  3. Utility and Value of Satellite-Based Frost Forecasting for Kenya's Tea Farming Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Frost damage regularly inflicts millions of dollars of crop losses in the tea-growing highlands of western Kenya, a problem that the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR) program is working to mitigate through a frost monitoring and forecasting product that uses satellite-based temperature and soil moisture data to generate up to three days of advanced warning before frost events. This paper presents the findings of a value of information (VOI) study assessing the value of this product based on Kenyan tea farmers' experiences with frost and frost-damage mitigation. Value was calculated based on historic trends of frost frequency, severity, and extent; likelihood of warning receipt and response; and subsequent frost-related crop-loss aversion. Quantification of these factors was derived through inferential analysis of survey data from 400 tea-farming households across the tea-growing regions of Kericho and Nandi, supplemented with key informant interviews with decision-makers at large estate tea plantations, historical frost incident and crop-loss data from estate tea plantations and agricultural insurance companies, and publicly available demographic and economic data. At this time, the product provides a forecasting window of up to three days, and no other frost-prediction methods are used by the large or small-scale farmers of Kenya's tea sector. This represents a significant opportunity for preemptive loss-reduction via Earth observation data. However, the tea-growing community has only two realistic options for frost-damage mitigation: preemptive harvest of available tea leaves to minimize losses, or skiving (light pruning) to facilitate fast recovery from frost damage. Both options are labor-intensive and require a minimum of three days of warning to be viable. As a result, the frost forecasting system has a very narrow margin of usefulness, making its value highly dependent on rapid access to the warning messages and flexible access

  4. Towards a Near Real-Time Satellite-Based Flux Monitoring System for the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershadi, A.; Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing has the potential to offer spatially and temporally distributed information on land surface characteristics, which may be used as inputs and constraints for estimating land surface fluxes of carbon, water and energy. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems for aiding local water resource assessments and agricultural management activities are particularly needed for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The MENA region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. To address these issues, an integrated modeling approach for near real-time monitoring of land surface states and fluxes at fine spatio-temporal scales over the MENA region is presented. This approach is based on synergistic application of multiple sensors and wavebands in the visible to shortwave infrared and thermal infrared (TIR) domain. The multi-scale flux mapping and monitoring system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and multi-sensor remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (e.g. Landsat and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate time-continuous (i.e. daily) estimates of field-scale water, energy and carbon fluxes. Within this modeling system, TIR satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and a detailed soil surface characterization (i.e. for prognostic modeling of soil transport processes). The STARFM fusion methodology blends aspects of high frequency (spatially coarse) and spatially fine resolution sensors and is applied directly to flux output

  5. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  6. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  7. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  8. [Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the oesophageal voice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez de la Iglesia, F; Fernández González, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the physiology and pathophisiology of esophageal voice according to objective aerodynamic and acoustic parameters (quantitative and qualitative parameters). Our subjects were comprised of 33 laryngectomized patients (all male) that underwent aerodynamic, acoustic and perceptual protocol. There is a statistical association between acoustic and aerodynamic qualitative parameters (phonation flow chart type, sound spectrum, perceptual analysis) among quantitative parameters (neoglotic pressure, phonation flow, phonation time, fundamental frequency, maximum intensity sound level, speech rate). Nevertheles, not always such observations bring practical resources to clinical practice. We consider that the facts studied may enable us to add, pragmatically, new resources to the more effective vocal rehabilitation to these patients. The physiology of esophageal voice is well understood by the method we have applied, also seeking for rehabilitation, improving oral communication skills in the laryngectomee population.

  9. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  10. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 μm measurements [Winker et al., 2009

  11. Occupational voice demands and their impact on the call-centre industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy OM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the last decade there has been a growth in the call-centre industry in the UK, with a growing awareness of the voice as an important tool for successful communication. Occupational voice problems such as occupational dysphonia, in a business which relies on healthy, effective voice as the primary professional communication tool, may threaten working ability and occupational health and safety of workers. While previous studies of telephone call-agents have reported a range of voice symptoms and functional vocal health problems, there have been no studies investigating the use and impact of vocal performance in the communication industry within the UK. This study aims to address a significant gap in the evidence-base of occupational health and safety research. The objectives of the study are: 1. to investigate the work context and vocal communication demands for call-agents; 2. to evaluate call-agents' vocal health, awareness and performance; and 3. to identify key risks and training needs for employees and employers within call-centres. Methods and design This is an occupational epidemiological study, which plans to recruit call-centres throughout the UK and Ireland. Data collection will consist of three components: 1. interviews with managers from each participating call-centre to assess their communication and training needs; 2. an online biopsychosocial questionnaire will be administered to investigate the work environment and vocal demands of call-agents; and 3. voice acoustic measurements of a random sample of participants using the Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP. Qualitative content analysis from the interviews will identify underlying themes and issues. A multivariate analysis approach will be adopted using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM, to develop voice measurement models in determining the construct validity of potential factors contributing to occupational dysphonia. Quantitative data will be

  12. Analysis of aspects of quality of life in teachers' voice after discharged: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Josiane Mendes; Campos, Nathália Ferreira; Bassi, Iara Barreto; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of voice therapy on the life quality of teachers who were discharged or abandoned the voice therapy for dysphonia. This was a longitudinal study based on analysis of assessments with teachers of municipal schools in Belo Horizonte, who were referred to voice therapy and were discharged or abandoned the speech-language therapy for more than six months. A total of 33 teachers in the discharged group and 20 teachers in the abandoned group were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the study by answering the Voice activity and participation profile, which was forwarded to the researchers and sent via letter. At the moment of the pre speech therapy, the discharged and abandoned groups were homogeneous, except in relation to daily communication parameter. Comparing the discharged group in the pre and post speech-language therapy, it was showed improvements in social communication parameter as well as in the total score. The discharged group presented worsening in self-perception parameter when comparing the average values in the post therapy and current moments, and the group abandoned presented worsening in work, social communication and total score when comparing to the average values in the pre therapy and current moments. The discharged and abandoned groups differ in the present moment in all investigated parameters. Speech-language therapy for dysphonia have long term positive effects on life quality and voice of teachers who were soon discharged from the therapy and in a period of two years on average. Teachers who have abandoned treatment and did not obtain improvement in the voice showed negative impact in life quality and voice in a time of 2 years and 2 months on average.

  13. The Effects of 10 Communication Modes on the Behavior of Teams During Co-Operative Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsman, Richard B.; Chapanis, Alphonse

    1974-01-01

    Sixty teams of two college students each solved credible "real world" problems co-operatively. Conversations were carried on in one of 10 modes of communication: (1) typewriting only, (2) handwriting only, (3) handwriting and typewriting, (4) typewriting and video, (5) handwriting and video, (6) voice only, (7) voice and typewriting, (8) voice and…

  14. Hoarseness in School-Aged Children and Effectiveness of Voice Therapy in International Classification of Functioning Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın Şenkal, Özgül; Özer, Cem

    2015-09-01

    The hoarseness in school-aged children disrupts the educational process because it affects the social progress, communication skills, and self-esteem of children. Besides otorhinolaryngological examination, the first treatment option is voice therapy when hoarseness occurs. The aim of the study was to determine the factors increasing the hoarseness in school-aged children by parental interview and to know preferable voice therapy on school-aged children within the frame of International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Retrospective analysis of data gathered from patient files. A total of 75 children (56 boys and 19 girls) were examined retrospectively. The age range of school-aged children is 7-14 years and average is 10.86 ± 2.51. A detailed history was taken from parents of children involved in this study. Information about vocal habits of children was gathered within the frame of ICF and then the voice therapies of children were started by scheduling appointments by an experienced speech-language pathologist. The differences between before and after voice therapy according to applied voice therapy methods, statistically significant differences were determined between maximum phonation time values and s/z rate. The relationship between voice therapy sessions and s/z rate with middle degree significance was found with physiological voice therapy sessions. According to ICF labels, most of voice complaints are matching with "body functions" and "activity and limitations." The appropriate voice therapy methods for hoarseness in school-aged children must be chosen and applied by speech-language therapists. The detailed history, which is received from family during the examination, within the frame of ICF affects the processes of choosing the voice therapy method and application of them positively. Child's family is very important for a successful management. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Foetal response to music and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Noura H

    2005-10-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to music and voice alters foetal behaviour and whether foetal response to music differs from human voice. A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 normal term pregnant mothers. Ten foetuses were exposed to music and voice for 15 s at different sound pressure levels to find out the optimal setting for the auditory stimulation. Music, voice and sham were played to another 10 foetuses via a headphone on the maternal abdomen. The sound pressure level was 105 db and 94 db for music and voice, respectively. Computerised assessment of foetal heart rate and activity were recorded. 90 actocardiograms were obtained for the whole group. One way anova followed by posthoc (Student-Newman-Keuls method) analysis was used to find if there is significant difference in foetal response to music and voice versus sham. Foetuses responded with heart rate acceleration and motor response to both music and voice. This was statistically significant compared to sham. There was no significant difference between the foetal heart rate acceleration to music and voice. Prenatal exposure to music and voice alters the foetal behaviour. No difference was detected in foetal response to music and voice.

  16. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  17. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products using satellite-based gravity and rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Oliver; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew Francis

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this consistency-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2-3 months

  18. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  19. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  20. Ground test of satellite constellation based quantum communication

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Chang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lin, Jin; Dai, Hui; Zhao, Shuang-Qiang; Li, Bo; Guan, Jian-Yu; Chen, Wei; Gong, Yun-Hong; Li, Yang; Lin, Ze-Hong; Pan, Ge-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global...

  1. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  2. Communication as Relational Practice of Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational u...... understanding of communication and leading. The chapter ends with a discussion of how leadership communication can be understood as polyphony of voices.......This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational...

  3. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  4. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  5. [Assessment of voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with diagnosed occupational voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Laryngovideostroboscopy is the method most frequently used in the assessment of voice disorders. However, the employment of quantitative methods, such as voice acoustic analysis, is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic activities as well as for objective medical certification of larynx pathologies. The aim of this study was to examine voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with occupational voice diseases. Acoustic analysis (IRIS software) was performed in 66 female teachers, including 35 teachers with occupational voice diseases and 31 with functional dysphonia. The teachers with occupational voice diseases presented the lower average fundamental frequency (193 Hz) compared to the group with functional dysphonia (209 Hz) and to the normative value (236 Hz), whereas other acoustic parameters did not differ significantly in both groups. Voice acoustic analysis, when applied separately from vocal loading, cannot be used as a testing method to verify the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders.

  6. 47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space...

  7. Emotional voices in context: a neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  9. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  10. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-01-01

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women ...

  11. 77 FR 63757 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... telephone subscriptions in the United States were users of interconnected VoIP providers--an increase of 21... Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  12. Communication resources of managers and business professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Clarissa Araujo; Behlau, Mara

    2017-05-22

    To analyze the communication resources reported by managers in the business environment and compare the resources used to those reported by business professionals. 82 professionals volunteered to participate in the research, divided into 50 managers (MP) and 32 business professionals (BP) from industry section in Caxias do Sul and the surrounding region (Brazil). A questionnaire with 4 topics was used: personal data, self-assessment of communicative behavior, self-assessment of communicative resources, and selection of positive and negative resources influencing communication. Regarding communicative behavior, both groups reported normal voice but with significant differences regarding the use of softness in communication, 25% of MP and only 4% of BP. Both groups selected the following main positive resources: knowledge of subject, use of proper vocabulary, and objectivity. The negative resources were, similarly, the lack of subject domain, criticism or prejudgment, and improper vocabulary. Finally, analyzing the degree of influence of each communicative resource, the MP highlighted tone of voice as an important positive resource, while the BP pointed the subject domain. Still, the monotonous voice for MP and nervousness for BP were indicated as the main negative influences. Managers value more communicative resources connected to communicative attitude, such as tone of voice and expression, while business professionals worry about demonstrating security and technical understanding of the subject.

  13. Voice Onset Time in Azerbaijani Consonants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Voice onset time is known to be cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops and it can be used to describe or categorize a range of developmental, neuromotor and linguistic disorders. The aim of this study is determination of standard values of voice onset time for Azerbaijani language (Tabriz dialect. Materials & Methods: In this description-analytical study, 30 Azeris persons whom were selected conveniently by simple selection, uttered 46 monosyllabic words initiating with 6 Azerbaijani stops twice. Using Praat software, the voice onset time values were analyzed by waveform and wideband spectrogram in milliseconds. Vowel effect, sex differences and the effect of place of articulation on VOT, were evaluated and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: There was no significant difference in voice onset time between male and female Azeris speakers (P<0.05. Vowel and place of articulation had significant correlation with voice onset time (P<0.001. Voice onset time values for /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, and [c], [ɟ] allophones were 10.64, 86.88, 13.35, 87.09, 26.25, 100.62, 131.19, 63.18 mili second, respectively. Conclusion: Voice onset time values are the same for Azerbaijani men and women. However, like many other languages, back and high vowels and back place of articulation lengthen VOT. Also, voiceless stops are aspirated in this language and voiced stops have positive VOT values.

  14. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  15. Familiarity and Voice Representation: From Acoustic-Based Representation to Voice Averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Fontaine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1, and famous voices (Experiment 2 are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i] produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker.

  16. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...

  17. A FRAMEWORK FOR INTELLIGENT VOICE-ENABLED E-EDUCATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeta A. A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the Internet has received significant attention in recent years, voice is still the most convenient and natural way of communicating between human to human or human to computer. In voice applications, users may have different needs which will require the ability of the system to reason, make decisions, be flexible and adapt to requests during interaction. These needs have placed new requirements in voice application development such as use of advanced models, techniques and methodologies which take into account the needs of different users and environments. The ability of a system to behave close to human reasoning is often mentioned as one of the major requirements for the development of voice applications. In this paper, we present a framework for an intelligent voice-enabled e-Education application and an adaptation of the framework for the development of a prototype Course Registration and Examination (CourseRegExamOnline module. This study is a preliminary report of an ongoing e-Education project containing the following modules: enrollment, course registration and examination, enquiries/information, messaging/collaboration, e-Learning and library. The CourseRegExamOnline module was developed using VoiceXML for the voice user interface(VUI, PHP for the web user interface (WUI, Apache as the middle-ware and MySQL database as back-end. The system would offer dual access modes using the VUI and WUI. The framework would serve as a reference model for developing voice-based e-Education applications. The e-Education system when fully developed would meet the needs of students who are normal users and those with certain forms of disabilities such as visual impairment, repetitive strain injury (RSI, etc, that make reading and writing difficult.

  18. Collaborative learning using VoiceThread in an online graduate course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Ching

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning enables participants in a learning community to externalize and share knowledge, experiences, and practice. However, collaborative learning in an online environment can be challenging due to the lack of face-to face interaction. This current study examined twenty graduate students’ experiences of using VoiceThread for a collaborative activity in an entirely online course to explore students’ perceptions of using multi-modal communication for collaboration and knowledge sharing. The results of this study revealed that graduate students had very positive experiences toward using VoiceThread for collaborative learning. The participants found VoiceThread easy to learn and use, and reported that audio and video interaction on VoiceThread helped connect them with their peers. More than half of the participants interacted with peers using audio, followed by text and then by video. Half of the students felt they were more connected to peers; however, feeling more connected did not result in more participation as most of the students only participated at the level that met the course requirement. Participants identified benefits and drawbacks of using VoiceThread for collaboration as compared to using text-based discussion forums. The most frequently mentioned benefit of using VoiceThread for collaboration exemplifies its multi-modal affordance that enables learners to communicate emotion, personality, and other non-verbal cues conducive to better understanding and interpretation of meanings. About half of the participants indicated that they preferred VoiceThread to text-based discussion forums for collaborative learning activity. Challenges and implications for future research are also discussed.

  19. Possible cross-cultural differences in the perception of impact of voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M-L; Ho, Elaine M; Ma, Estella P-M; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine; Branski, Ryan; Richardson, Katherine; Li, Nicole Y-K

    2011-05-01

    Perception of the impact of voice disorders may differ across different cultural backgrounds. This study investigated the difference in the perception of the impact of voice disorders between the American (Pittsburgh) and Chinese (Hong Kong) cultures. Sixty dysphonic subjects from Hong Kong, China, and 60 dysphonic subjects from Pittsburgh, USA, were recruited to complete the Chinese and English versions of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), respectively. Data analyses using independent t tests were conducted on (1) the total profile scores; (b) total activity limitation score (ALS) and total participation restriction score (PRS); (c) section scores of job, daily communication, and social communication; and (d) section ALS and section PRS. Hong Kong subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Pittsburgh subjects in total profile and other subsections except in the job PRS. RESULTS support the possible influence of individualist and collectivist cultures on the perceived impact of voice disorders on the activity and participation. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using VoiceThread to Promote Collaborative Learning in On-Line Clinical Nurse Leader Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ola H

    The movement to advance the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards continues with CNL programs offered on-line at colleges and universities nationwide. Collaborative learning activities offer the opportunity for CNL students to gain experience in working together in small groups to negotiate and solve care process problems. The challenge for nurse educators is to provide collaborative learning activities in an asynchronous learning environment that can be considered isolating by default. This article reports on the experiences of 17 CNL students who used VoiceThread, a cloud-based tool that allowed them to communicate asynchronously with one another through voice comments for collaboration and sharing knowledge. Participants identified benefits and drawbacks to using VoiceThread for collaboration as compared to text-based discussion boards. Students reported that the ability to hear the voice of their peers and the instructor helped them feel like they were in a classroom communicating with "real" instructor and peers. Students indicated a preference for on-line classes that used VoiceThread discussions to on-line classes that used only text-based discussion boards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Strategies for satellite-based monitoring of CO2 from distributed area and point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Miller, Charles E.; Duren, Riley M.; Natraj, Vijay; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Crisp, David

    2014-05-01

    and sensor provides the full range of temporal sampling needed to characterize distributed area and point source emissions. For instance, point source emission patterns will vary with source strength, wind speed and direction. Because wind speed, direction and other environmental factors change rapidly, short term variabilities should be sampled. For detailed target selection and pointing verification, important lessons have already been learned and strategies devised during JAXA's GOSAT mission (Schwandner et al, 2013). The fact that competing spatial and temporal requirements drive satellite remote sensing sampling strategies dictates a systematic, multi-factor consideration of potential solutions. Factors to consider include vista, revisit frequency, integration times, spatial resolution, and spatial coverage. No single satellite-based remote sensing solution can address this problem for all scales. It is therefore of paramount importance for the international community to develop and maintain a constellation of atmospheric CO2 monitoring satellites that complement each other in their temporal and spatial observation capabilities: Polar sun-synchronous orbits (fixed local solar time, no diurnal information) with agile pointing allow global sampling of known distributed area and point sources like megacities, power plants and volcanoes with daily to weekly temporal revisits and moderate to high spatial resolution. Extensive targeting of distributed area and point sources comes at the expense of reduced mapping or spatial coverage, and the important contextual information that comes with large-scale contiguous spatial sampling. Polar sun-synchronous orbits with push-broom swath-mapping but limited pointing agility may allow mapping of individual source plumes and their spatial variability, but will depend on fortuitous environmental conditions during the observing period. These solutions typically have longer times between revisits, limiting their ability to resolve

  3. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  4. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  5. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  6. Improving satellite-based PM2.5 estimates in China using Gaussian processes modeling in a Bayesian hierarchical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Using satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements and statistical models to estimate ground-level PM 2.5 is a promising way to fill the areas that are not covered by ground PM 2.5 monitors. The statistical models used in previous studies are primarily Linear Mixed Effects (LME) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. In this study, we developed a new regression model between PM 2.5 and AOD using Gaussian processes in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Gaussian processes model the stochastic nature of the spatial random effects, where the mean surface and the covariance function is specified. The spatial stochastic process is incorporated under the Bayesian hierarchical framework to explain the variation of PM 2.5 concentrations together with other factors, such as AOD, spatial and non-spatial random effects. We evaluate the results of our model and compare them with those of other, conventional statistical models (GWR and LME) by within-sample model fitting and out-of-sample validation (cross validation, CV). The results show that our model possesses a CV result (R 2  = 0.81) that reflects higher accuracy than that of GWR and LME (0.74 and 0.48, respectively). Our results indicate that Gaussian process models have the potential to improve the accuracy of satellite-based PM 2.5 estimates.

  7. Precision and Disclosure in Text and Voice Interviews on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L.; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H. Yanna; Zhang, Chan

    2015-01-01

    As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data—fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information—than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey. PMID:26060991

  8. Precision and Disclosure in Text and Voice Interviews on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Conrad, Frederick G; Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H Yanna; Zhang, Chan

    2015-01-01

    As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.

  9. Precision and Disclosure in Text and Voice Interviews on Smartphones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Schober

    Full Text Available As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS, longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded, variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation, and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.

  10. Clinical voice analysis of Carnatic singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Ravikumar; Boominathan, Prakash; Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli

    2014-01-01

    Carnatic singing is a classical South Indian style of music that involves rigorous training to produce an "open throated" loud, predominantly low-pitched singing, embedded with vocal nuances in higher pitches. Voice problems in singers are not uncommon. The objective was to report the nature of voice problems and apply a routine protocol to assess the voice. Forty-five trained performing singers (females: 36 and males: 9) who reported to a tertiary care hospital with voice problems underwent voice assessment. The study analyzed their problems and the clinical findings. Voice change, difficulty in singing higher pitches, and voice fatigue were major complaints. Most of the singers suffered laryngopharyngeal reflux that coexisted with muscle tension dysphonia and chronic laryngitis. Speaking voices were rated predominantly as "moderate deviation" on GRBAS (Grade, Rough, Breathy, Asthenia, and Strain). Maximum phonation time ranged from 4 to 29 seconds (females: 10.2, standard deviation [SD]: 5.28 and males: 15.7, SD: 5.79). Singing frequency range was reduced (females: 21.3 Semitones and males: 23.99 Semitones). Dysphonia severity index (DSI) scores ranged from -3.5 to 4.91 (females: 0.075 and males: 0.64). Singing frequency range and DSI did not show significant difference between sex and across clinical diagnosis. Self-perception using voice disorder outcome profile revealed overall severity score of 5.1 (SD: 2.7). Findings are discussed from a clinical intervention perspective. Study highlighted the nature of voice problems (hyperfunctional) and required modifications in assessment protocol for Carnatic singers. Need for regular assessments and vocal hygiene education to maintain good vocal health are emphasized as outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  12. The Use of Visual Thinking Strategies and Art to Help Nurses Find Their Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Margaret

    2017-08-01

    Health care is increasingly complex, as nurses navigate working in teams and conveying critical information to others. Clear communication and accuracy are critical for nurses because they communicate to patients and other members of the health care team. Art, and more specifically, Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), are ways for nurses to practice communication and clear articulation of ideas. VTS also allows nurses to explore finding their voices and working with others to provide safe and effective communication among the team, including patients and their families.

  13. Sound induced activity in voice sensitive cortex predicts voice memory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVAs (Belin et al., 2000 of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of nonvocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perceptionbehaviour has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds whengeneral sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition.

  14. Voices from Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  15. Voice Disorders: Etiology and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; do Amaral, Henrique Abrantes; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Maira Garcia; Gonçalves, Tatiana Maria; Dias, Norimar Hernandes

    2016-11-01

    Voice disorders affect adults and children and have different causes in different age groups. The aim of the study is to present the etiology and diagnosis dysphonia in a large population of patients with this voice disorder.for dysphonia of a large population of dysphonic patients. We evaluated 2019 patients with dysphonia who attended the Voice Disease ambulatories of a university hospital. Parameters assessed were age, gender, profession, associated symptoms, smoking, and videolaryngoscopy diagnoses. Of the 2019 patients with dysphonia who were included in this study, 786 were male (38.93%) and 1233 were female (61.07). The age groups were as follows: 1-6 years (n = 100); 7-12 years (n = 187); 13-18 years (n = 92); 19-39 years (n = 494); 41-60 years (n = 811); and >60 years (n = 335). Symptoms associated with dysphonia were vocal overuse (n = 677), gastroesophageal symptoms (n = 535), and nasosinusal symptoms (n = 497). The predominant professions of the patients were domestic workers, students, and teachers. Smoking was reported by 13.6% patients. With regard to the etiology of dysphonia, in children (1-18 years old), nodules (n = 225; 59.3%), cysts (n = 39; 10.3%), and acute laryngitis (n = 26; 6.8%) prevailed. In adults (19-60 years old), functional dysphonia (n = 268; 20.5%), acid laryngitis (n = 164; 12.5%), and vocal polyps (n = 156; 12%) predominated. In patients older than 60 years, presbyphonia (n = 89; 26.5%), functional dysphonia (n = 59; 17.6%), and Reinke's edema (n = 48; 14%) predominated. In this population of 2019 patients with dysphonia, adults and women were predominant. Dysphonia had different etiologies in the age groups studied. Nodules and cysts were predominant in children, functional dysphonia and reflux in adults, and presbyphonia and Reinke's edema in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. From Out of Our Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Papanikolaou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Note from the interviewer: Diane Austin's new book “The Theory and Practice of Vocal Psychotherapy: Songs of the Self” (2008 which was published recently, has been an excellent opportunity to learn more about the use of voice in therapy, its clinical applications and its enormous possibilities that offers within a psychotherapeutic setting. This interview focuses on introducing some of these aspects based on Austin’s work, and on exploring her background, motivations and considerations towards this pioneer music-therapeutic approach. The interview has been edited by Diane Austin and Evangelia Papanikolaou and took place via a series of emails, dated from September to December 2009.

  17. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  18. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2018-05-01

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-04-23

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women who appeared relatively disinterested in the listener. These findings show that voice preferences are not determined solely by physical properties of voices and that men integrate information about voice pitch and the degree of social interest expressed by women when forming voice preferences. Women's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices were not modulated by cues of social interest, suggesting that the integration of cues of social interest and voice pitch when men judge the attractiveness of women's voices may reflect adaptations that promote efficient allocation of men's mating effort.

  20. The Speaker Behind The Voice: Therapeutic Practice from the Perspective of Pragmatic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eDeamer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts at understanding auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs have tried to explain why there is an auditory experience in the absence of an appropriate stimulus. We suggest that many instance of voice-hearing should be approached differently. More specifically, they could be viewed primarily as hallucinated acts of communication, rather than hallucinated sounds. We suggest that this change of perspective is reflected in, and helps to explain, the successes of two recent therapeutic techniques. These two techniques are: Relating Therapy for Voices and Avatar Therapy.

  1. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  2. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  3. Analog voicing detector responds to pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, R. S.; Watkins, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Modified electronic voice encoder /Vocoder/ includes an independent analog mode of operation in addition to the conventional digital mode. The Vocoder is a bandwidth compression equipment that permits voice transmission over channels, having only a fraction of the bandwidth required for conventional telephone-quality speech transmission.

  4. The Voice of the Technical Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, James S.

    The author's voice is implicit in all writing, even technical writing. It is the expression of the writer's attitude toward audience, subject matter, and self. Effective use of voice is made possible by recognizing the three roles of the technical writer: transmitter, translator, and author. As a transmitter, the writer must consciously apply an…

  5. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  6. Employee voice and engagement : Connections and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between employee voice and employee engagement. Employee perceptions of voice behaviour aimed at improving the functioning of the work group are found to have both a direct impact and an indirect impact on levels of employee engagement. Analysis of data from two

  7. Speaking with the voice of authority

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    GPB Consulting has developed a scientific approach to voice coaching. A digital recording of the voice is sent to a lab in Switzerland and analyzed by a computer programme designed by a doctor of psychology and linguistics and a scientist at CERN (1 page).

  8. Managing dysphonia in occupational voice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Madazio, Glaucya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances with regard to occupational voice disorders are highlighted with emphasis on issues warranting consideration when assessing, training, and treating professional voice users. Findings include the many particularities between the various categories of professional voice users, the concept that the environment plays a major role in occupational voice disorders, and that biopsychosocial influences should be analyzed on an individual basis. Assessment via self-evaluation protocols to quantify the impact of these disorders is mandatory as a component of an evaluation and to document treatment outcomes. Discomfort or odynophonia has evolved as a critical symptom in this population. Clinical trials are limited and the complexity of the environment may be a limitation in experiment design. This review reinforced the need for large population studies of professional voice users; new data highlighted important factors specific to each group of voice users. Interventions directed at student teachers are necessities to not only improving the quality of future professionals, but also to avoid the frustration and limitations associated with chronic voice problems. The causative relationship between the work environment and voice disorders has not yet been established. Randomized controlled trials are lacking and must be a focus to enhance treatment paradigms for this population.

  9. Does CPAP treatment affect the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylam, Güleser; Şahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayır, Ömer; Yüceege, Melike Bağnu; Çadallı Tatar, Emel; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in voice parameters among patients using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Patients with an indication for CPAP treatment without any voice problems and with normal laryngeal findings were included and voice parameters were evaluated before and 1 and 6 months after CPAP. Videolaryngostroboscopic findings, a self-rated scale (Voice Handicap Index-10, VHI-10), perceptual voice quality assessment (GRBAS: grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain), and acoustic parameters were compared. Data from 70 subjects (48 men and 22 women) with a mean age of 44.2 ± 6.0 years were evaluated. When compared with the pre-CPAP treatment period, there was a significant increase in the VHI-10 score after 1 month of treatment and in VHI- 10 and total GRBAS scores, jitter percent (P = 0.01), shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and voice turbulence index after 6 months of treatment. Vague negative effects on voice parameters after the first month of CPAP treatment became more evident after 6 months. We demonstrated nonsevere alterations in the voice quality of patients under CPAP treatment. Given that CPAP is a long-term treatment it is important to keep these alterations in mind.

  10. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  11. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  12. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  13. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  14. Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calio, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

  15. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  16. Voice disorders in teachers. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Hidalgo, Caio Bosque; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Voice disorders are very prevalent among teachers and consequences are serious. Although the literature is extensive, there are differences in the concepts and methodology related to voice problems; most studies are restricted to analyzing the responses of teachers to questionnaires and only a few studies include vocal assessments and videolaryngoscopic examinations to obtain a definitive diagnosis. To review demographic studies related to vocal disorders in teachers to analyze the diverse methodologies, the prevalence rates pointed out by the authors, the main risk factors, the most prevalent laryngeal lesions, and the repercussions of dysphonias on professional activities. The available literature (from 1997 to 2013) was narratively reviewed based on Medline, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, and Cochrane library databases. Excluded were articles that specifically analyzed treatment modalities and those that did not make their abstracts available in those databases. The keywords included were teacher, dysphonia, voice disorders, professional voice. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  18. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  19. Didactic satellite based on Android platform for space operation demonstration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Space technology plays a pivotal role in society development. It offers new methods for telemetry, monitoring and control. However, this sector requires training, research and skills development but the lack of instruments, materials and budgets affects the ambiguity to understand satellite technology. The objective of this paper is to describe a demonstration prototype of a smart phone device for space operations study. Therefore, the first task was carried out to give a demonstration for spatial imagery and attitude determination missions through a wireless communication. The smart phone's Bluetooth was used to achieve this goal inclusive of a new method to enable real time transmission. In addition, an algorithm around a quaternion based Kalman filter was included in order to detect the reliability of the prototype's orientation. The second task was carried out to provide a demonstration for the attitude control mission using the smart phone's orientation sensor, including a new method for an autonomous guided mode. As a result, the acquisition platform showed real time measurement with good accuracy for orientation detection and image transmission. In addition, the prototype kept the balance during the demonstration based on the attitude control method.

  20. Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan J

    2017-01-29

    Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health.

  1. Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan J.

    2017-01-01

    Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health. PMID:28146056

  2. Designing interaction, voice, and inclusion in AAC research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Treviranus, Jutta; Patel, Rupal; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    The ISAAC 2016 Research Symposium included a Design Stream that examined timely issues across augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), framed in terms of designing interaction, designing voice, and designing inclusion. Each is a complex term with multiple meanings; together they represent challenging yet important frontiers of AAC research. The Design Stream was conceived by the four authors, researchers who have been exploring AAC and disability-related design throughout their careers, brought together by a shared conviction that designing for communication implies more than ensuring access to words and utterances. Each of these presenters came to AAC from a different background: interaction design, inclusive design, speech science, and social science. The resulting discussion among 24 symposium participants included controversies about the role of technology, tensions about independence and interdependence, and a provocation about taste. The paper concludes by proposing new directions for AAC research: (a) new interdisciplinary research could combine scientific and design research methods, as distant yet complementary as microanalysis and interaction design, (b) new research tools could seed accessible and engaging contextual research into voice within a social model of disability, and (c) new open research networks could support inclusive, international and interdisciplinary research.

  3. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis.

  4. Your Cheatin' Voice Will Tell on You: Detection of Past Infidelity from Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures. We found that participants indeed rated the voices of those who had a history of cheating as more likely to cheat. Male speakers were given higher ratings for cheating, while female raters were more likely to ascribe the likelihood to cheat to speakers. Additionally, we manipulated the pitch of the voice samples, and for both sexes, the lower pitched versions were consistently rated to be from those who were more likely to have cheated. Regardless of the pitch manipulation, speakers were able to assess actual history of infidelity; the one exception was that men's accuracy decreased when judging women whose voices were lowered. These findings expand upon the idea that the human voice may be of value as a cheater detection tool and very thin slices of vocal information are all that is needed to make certain assessments about others.

  5. Perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice: the mediating role of coworker support for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sean; Chmiel, Nik; Turner, Nick; Hershcovis, M Sandy; Stride, Chris B

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we modeled 2 sources of safety support (perceived organizational support for safety and perceived coworker support for safety) as predictors of employee safety voice, that is, speaking out in an attempt to change unsafe working conditions. Drawing on social exchange and social impact theories, we hypothesized and tested a mediated model predicting employee safety voice using a cross-sectional survey of urban bus drivers (n = 213) in the United Kingdom. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perceived coworker support for safety fully mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice. This study adds to the employee voice literature by evaluating the important role that coworkers can play in encouraging others to speak out about safety issues. Implications for research and practice related to change-oriented safety communication are discussed.

  6. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadi

    Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  7. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  8. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis—Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455

  9. A novel cross-satellite based assessment of the spatio-temporal development of a cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Benjamin P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R.

    2018-04-01

    As the frequency of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) become more common in recreational lakes and water supply reservoirs, demand for rapid detection and temporal monitoring will be imminent for effective management. The goal of this study was to demonstrate a novel and potentially operational cross-satellite based protocol for synoptic monitoring of rapidly evolving and increasingly common CyanoHABs in inland waters. The analysis involved a novel way to cross-calibrate a chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) detection model for the Landsat-8 OLI sensor from the relationship between the normalized difference chlorophyll index and the floating algal index derived from Sentinel-2A on a coinciding overpass date during the summer CyanoHAB bloom in Utah Lake. This aided in the construction of a time-series phenology of the Utah Lake CyanoHAB event. Spatio-temporal cyanobacterial density maps from both Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 sensors revealed that the bloom started in the first week of July 2016 (July 3rd, mean cell count: 9163 cells/mL), reached peak in mid-July (July 15th, mean cell count: 108176 cells/mL), and reduced in August (August 24th, mean cell count: 9145 cells/mL). Analysis of physical and meteorological factors suggested a complex interaction between landscape processes (high surface runoff), climatic conditions (high temperature, high rainfall followed by negligible rainfall, stable wind), and water quality (low water level, high Chl-a) which created a supportive environment for triggering these blooms in Utah Lake. This cross satellite-based monitoring methods can be a great tool for regular monitoring and will reduce the budget cost for monitoring and predicting CyanoHABs in large lakes.

  10. Validation and Application of the Modified Satellite-Based Priestley-Taylor Algorithm for Mapping Terrestrial Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based vegetation indices (VIs and Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI derived from temperature change provide valuable information for estimating evapotranspiration (LE and detecting the onset and severity of drought. The modified satellite-based Priestley-Taylor (MS-PT algorithm that we developed earlier, coupling both VI and ATI, is validated based on observed data from 40 flux towers distributed across the world on all continents. The validation results illustrate that the daily LE can be estimated with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE varying from 10.7 W/m2 to 87.6 W/m2, and with the square of correlation coefficient (R2 from 0.41 to 0.89 (p < 0.01. Compared with the Priestley-Taylor-based LE (PT-JPL algorithm, the MS-PT algorithm improves the LE estimates at most flux tower sites. Importantly, the MS-PT algorithm is also satisfactory in reproducing the inter-annual variability at flux tower sites with at least five years of data. The R2 between measured and predicted annual LE anomalies is 0.42 (p = 0.02. The MS-PT algorithm is then applied to detect the variations of long-term terrestrial LE over Three-North Shelter Forest Region of China and to monitor global land surface drought. The MS-PT algorithm described here demonstrates the ability to map regional terrestrial LE and identify global soil moisture stress, without requiring precipitation information.

  11. Spatial and temporal interpolation of satellite-based aerosol optical depth measurements over North America using B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Nicolas; O'Neill, Norman T.; Aube, Martin; Nguyen, Minh-Nghia; Bechamp-Laganiere, Xavier; Besnier, Albert; Corriveau, Louis; Gasse, Geremie; Levert, Etienne; Plante, Danick

    2005-08-01

    Satellite-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land are obtained from an inversion procedure applied to dense dark vegetation pixels of remotely sensed images. The limited number of pixels over which the inversion procedure can be applied leaves many areas with little or no AOD data. Moreover, satellite coverage by sensors such as MODIS yields only daily images of a given region with four sequential overpasses required to straddle mid-latitude North America. Ground based AOD data from AERONET sun photometers are available on a more continuous basis but only at approximately fifty locations throughout North America. The object of this work is to produce a complete and coherent mapping of AOD over North America with a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree and a frequency of three hours by interpolating MODIS satellite-based data together with available AERONET ground based measurements. Before being interpolated, the MODIS AOD data extracted from different passes are synchronized to the mapping time using analyzed wind fields from the Global Multiscale Model (Meteorological Service of Canada). This approach amounts to a trajectory type of simplified atmospheric dynamics correction method. The spatial interpolation is performed using a weighted least squares method applied to bicubic B-spline functions defined on a rectangular grid. The least squares method enables one to weight the data accordingly to the measurement errors while the B-splines properties of local support and C2 continuity offer a good approximation of AOD behaviour viewed as a function of time and space.

  12. Mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and secure attachment in relation to the experience of hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, James; Eames, Catrin; Mulligan, John; Fisher, Naomi

    2018-03-01

    Developing compassion towards oneself has been linked to improvement in many areas of psychological well-being, including psychosis. Furthermore, developing a non-judgemental, accepting way of relating to voices is associated with lower levels of distress for people who hear voices. These factors have also been associated with secure attachment. This study explores associations between the constructs of mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and distress from hearing voices and how secure attachment style related to each of these variables. Cross-sectional online. One hundred and twenty-eight people (73% female; M age  = 37.5; 87.5% Caucasian) who currently hear voices completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Southampton Mindfulness of Voices Questionnaire, Relationships Questionnaire, and Hamilton Programme for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire. Results showed that mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and severity of voices, and self-compassion mediated the relationship between mindfulness of voices and severity of voices. Self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with distress and severity of voices. Mindful relation to voices and self-compassion are associated with reduced distress and severity of voices, which supports the proposed potential benefits of mindful relating to voices and self-compassion as therapeutic skills for people experiencing distress by voice hearing. Greater self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly associated with less distress from voices. These findings support theory underlining compassionate mind training. Mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and distress from voices, indicating a synergistic relationship between the constructs. Although the current findings do not give a direction of causation, consideration is given to the potential impact of mindful and

  13. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify

  14. VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research

  15. Satellite Based Live and Interactive Distance Learning Program in the Field of Geoinformatics - a Perspective of Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2011-09-01

    Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks

  16. Validation and in vivo assessment of an innovative satellite-based solar UV dosimeter for a mobile app dedicated to skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M; Masini, A; Simeone, E; Khazova, M

    2016-08-31

    We present an innovative satellite-based solar UV (ultraviolet) radiation dosimeter with a mobile app interface that has been validated by exploiting both ground-based measurements and an in vivo assessment of the erythemal effects on some volunteers having controlled exposure to solar radiation. The app with this satellite-based UV dosimeter also includes other related functionalities such as the provision of safe sun exposure time updated in real-time and end exposure visual/sound alert. Both validations showed that the system has a good accuracy and reliability needed for health-related applications. This app will be launched on the market by siHealth Ltd in May 2016 under the name of "HappySun" and is available for both Android and iOS devices (more info on ). Extensive R&D activities are on-going for the further improvement of the satellite-based UV dosimeter's accuracy.

  17. Psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals compared to non-voice professionals and in both genders. Cross-sectional analysis. Forty-eight 48 voice professionals and 52 non-voice professionals with dysphonia were included in this study. All participants underwent a complete ear, nose, and throat examination and an evaluation for pathologies that might affect vocal quality. Participants were asked to complete the Turkish versions of the Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). HADS scores were evaluated as HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Dysphonia status was evaluated by grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale perceptually. The results were compared statistically. Significant differences between the two groups were evident when the VHI-30 and PSS data were compared (P = .00001 and P = .00001, respectively). However, neither HADS score (HADS-A and HADS-D) differed between groups. An analysis of the scores in terms of sex revealed that females had significantly higher PSS scores (P = .006). The GRBAS scale revealed no difference between groups (P = .819, .931, .803, .655, and .803, respectively). No between-sex differences in the VHI-30 or HADS scores were evident We found that voice professionals and females experienced more stress and were more dissatisfied with their voices. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Reliability in perceptual analysis of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions.

  19. Muted 'voice': The writing of two groups of postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate and account for the weak emergence of 'voice' in the writing of students embarking upon their postgraduate studies in Geosciences. The two elements of 'voice' that are emphasised are 'voice' as style of expression and 'voice' as the ability to write distinctly, yet building upon ...

  20. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    and restrictions, Call for aesthetics an sensuality, Longings for home and parents, Longings for better social relations Making children's voice visible allows preschool teachers to reflect children's knowledge and life word in pedagogical practice. Keywords: empowerment and participation, action research...... children to raise and render visible their own critique and wishes related to their everyday life in daycare. Research on how and why to engage children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization and humanization that can be traced back...... to strategies for Nordic welfare developments and the Conventions on Children's Rights. The theoretical and methodological framework follow the lines of how to form and learn democracy of Lewin (1948) and Dewey (1916). The study is carried out as action research involving 50 children at age three to five...

  2. His Master’s Voice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörbom, Adrienne; Garsten, Christina

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. Many global business leaders today do much more than engage narrowly in their own corporation and its search for profit. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation...... as political. What is the role of business in the World Economic Forum, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? The results show that corporations find a strategically positioned amplifier for their non-market interests in the WEF. The WEF functions to enhance and gain...... leverage for their ideas and priorities in a highly selective and resourceful environment. In the long run, both the market priorities and the political interests of business may be served by engagement in the WEF. However, the WEF cannot only be conceived as the extended voice of corporations. The WEF...

  3. Giving the Customer a Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Hoven, Christopher; Michea, Adela; Varnes, Claus

    , for example there are studies that have strongly criticized focus groups, interviews and surveys (e.g. Ulwick, 2002; Goffin et al, 2010; Sandberg, 2002). In particular, a point is made that, “…traditional market research and development approaches proved to be particularly ill-suited to breakthrough products...... the voice of the customer (VoC) through market research is well documented (Davis, 1993; Mullins and Sutherland, 1998; Cooper et al., 2002; Flint, 2002; Davilla et al., 2006; Cooper and Edgett, 2008; Cooper and Dreher, 2010; Goffin and Mitchell, 2010). However, not all research methods are well received......” (Deszca et al, 2010, p613). Therefore, in situations where traditional techniques - interviews and focus groups - are ineffective, the question is which market research techniques are appropriate, particularly for developing breakthrough products? To investigate this, an attempt was made to access...

  4. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  6. Disability: a voice in Australian bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher

    2003-06-01

    The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.

  7. Unfamiliar voice identification: Effect of post-event information on accuracy and voice ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mary Jessica Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the effect of misleading post-event information (PEI on voice ratings, identification accuracy, and confidence, as well as the link between verbal recall and accuracy. Participants listened to a dialogue between male and female targets, then read misleading information about voice pitch. Participants engaged in verbal recall, rated voices on a feature checklist, and made a lineup decision. Accuracy rates were low, especially on target-absent lineups. Confidence and accuracy were unrelated, but the number of facts recalled about the voice predicted later lineup accuracy. There was a main effect of misinformation on ratings of target voice pitch, but there was no effect on identification accuracy or confidence ratings. As voice lineup evidence from earwitnesses is used in courts, the findings have potential applied relevance.

  8. Bringing voice in policy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Kane, Mary; Zocchi, Mark S; Gosa, Jessica; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of group concept mapping (GCM) as a tool for developing a conceptual model of an episode of acute, unscheduled care from illness or injury to outcomes such as recovery, death and chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach After generating a literature review drafting an initial conceptual model, GCM software (CS Global MAX TM ) is used to organize and identify strengths and directionality between concepts generated through feedback about the model from several stakeholder groups: acute care and non-acute care providers, patients, payers and policymakers. Through online and in-person population-specific focus groups, the GCM approach seeks feedback, assigned relationships and articulated priorities from participants to produce an output map that described overarching concepts and relationships within and across subsamples. Findings A clustered concept map made up of relational data points that produced a taxonomy of feedback was used to update the model for use in soliciting additional feedback from two technical expert panels (TEPs), and finally, a public comment exercise was performed. The results were a stakeholder-informed improved model for an acute care episode, identified factors that influence process and outcomes, and policy recommendations, which were delivered to the Department of Health and Human Services's (DHHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Practical implications This study provides an example of the value of cross-population multi-stakeholder input to increase voice in shared problem health stakeholder groups. Originality/value This paper provides GCM results and a visual analysis of the relational characteristics both within and across sub-populations involved in the study. It also provides an assessment of observational key factors supporting how different stakeholder voices can be integrated to inform model development and policy recommendations.

  9. Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication

  10. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors in classrooms and teachers' voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if voice ergonomic risk factors in classrooms correlated with acoustic parameters of teachers' voice production. The voice ergonomic risk factors in the fields of working culture, working postures and indoor air quality were assessed in 40 classrooms using the Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment - Handbook and Checklist. Teachers (32 females, 8 males) from the above-mentioned classrooms recorded text readings before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL) and the slope of the spectrum (alpha ratio) were analyzed. The higher the number of the risk factors in the classrooms, the higher SPL the teachers used and the more strained the males' voices (increased alpha ratio) were. The SPL was already higher before the working day in the teachers with higher risk than in those with lower risk. In the working environment with many voice ergonomic risk factors, speakers increase voice loudness and use more strained voice quality (males). A practical implication of the results is that voice ergonomic assessments are needed in schools. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Applicability of Voice Handicap Index to the evaluation of voice therapy effectiveness in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Błoch, Piotr; Domańska, Maja; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the evaluation of effectiveness of functional voice disorders treatment in teachers. The subjects were 45 female teachers with functional dysphonia who evaluated their voice problems according to the subjective VHI scale before and after phoniatric management. Group I (29 patients) were subjected to vocal training, whereas group II (16 patients) received only voice hygiene instructions. The results demonstrated that differences in the mean VHI score before and after phoniatric treatment were significantly higher in group 1 than in group II (p teacher's dysphonia.

  12. Influence of classroom acoustics on the voice levels of teachers with and without voice problems: a field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland

    2010-01-01

    of the classroom. The results thus suggest that teachers with voice problems are more aware of classroom acoustic conditions than their healthy colleagues and make use of the more supportive rooms to lower their voice levels. This behavior may result from an adaptation process of the teachers with voice problems...... of the voice problems was made with a questionnaire and a laryngological examination. During teaching, the sound pressure level at the teacher’s position was monitored. The teacher’s voice level and the activity noise level were separated using mixed Gaussians. In addition, objective acoustic parameters...... of Reverberation Time and Voice Support were measured in the 30 empty classrooms of the study. An empirical model shows that the measured voice levels depended on the activity noise levels and the voice support. Teachers with and without voice problems were differently affected by the voice support...

  13. Voice Based City Panic Button System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriansyah; Zainuddin, Zahir; Bachtiar Nappu, M.

    2018-03-01

    The development of voice activated panic button application aims to design faster early notification of hazardous condition in community to the nearest police by using speech as the detector where the current application still applies touch-combination on screen and use coordination of orders from control center then the early notification still takes longer time. The method used in this research was by using voice recognition as the user voice detection and haversine formula for the comparison of closest distance between the user and the police. This research was equipped with auto sms, which sent notification to the victim’s relatives, that was also integrated with Google Maps application (GMaps) as the map to the victim’s location. The results show that voice registration on the application reaches 100%, incident detection using speech recognition while the application is running is 94.67% in average, and the auto sms to the victim relatives reaches 100%.

  14. A model to explain human voice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Bôas, C. S. N.; Gobara, S. T.

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a device constructed with low-cost material to demonstrate and explain voice production. It also provides a contextualized, interdisciplinary approach to introduce the study of sound waves.

  15. Preferred communication methods of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Voicing Others’ Voices: Spotlighting the Researcher as Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O’SULLIVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  17. Voicing others’ voices: Spotlighting the researcher as narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O'Sullivan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  18. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  19. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  20. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Voice Quality in Mobile Telecommunication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Stankevičius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods measuring the quality of voice transmitted over the mobile network as well as related problem, algorithms and options. It presents the created voice quality measurement system and discusses its adequacy as well as efficiency. Besides, the author presents the results of system application under the optimal hardware configuration. Under almost ideal conditions, the system evaluates the voice quality with MOS 3.85 average estimate; while the standardized TEMS Investigation 9.0 has 4.05 average MOS estimate. Next, the article presents the discussion of voice quality predictor implementation and investigates the predictor using nonlinear and linear prediction methods of voice quality dependence on the mobile network settings. Nonlinear prediction using artificial neural network resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.62. While the linear prediction method using the least mean squares resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.57. The analytical expression of voice quality features from the three network parameters: BER, C / I, RSSI is given as well.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  3. Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jethva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI during 2005–2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV, it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September. Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols. The use of a new set of aerosol models assuming wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the near-UV region (Absorption Angstrom Exponent λ−2.5 to −3.0 improved the OMAERUV retrieval results by significantly reducing the AOD bias observed when gray aerosols were assumed. In addition, the new retrieval of single-scattering albedo is in better agreement with those of AERONET within the uncertainties (ΔSSA = ±0.03. The new colored carbonaceous aerosol model was also found to

  4. Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  6. Correcting satellite-based precipitation products through SMOS soil moisture data assimilation in two land-surface models of different complexity: API and SURFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time rainfall accumulation estimates at the global scale is useful for many applications. However, the real-time versions of satellite-based rainfall products are known to contain errors relative to real rainfall observed in situ. Recent studies have demonstrated how information about rainfall ...

  7. Voice, (inter-)subjectivity, and real time recurrent interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Received approaches to a unified phenomenon called "language" are firmly committed to a Cartesian view of distinct unobservable minds. Questioning this commitment leads us to recognize that the boundaries conventionally separating the linguistic from the non-linguistic can appear arbitrary, omitting much that is regularly present during vocal communication. The thesis is put forward that uttering, or voicing, is a much older phenomenon than the formal structures studied by the linguist, and that the voice has found elaborations and codifications in other domains too, such as in systems of ritual and rite. Voice, it is suggested, necessarily gives rise to a temporally bound subjectivity, whether it is in inner speech (Descartes' "cogito"), in conversation, or in the synchronized utterances of collective speech found in prayer, protest, and sports arenas world wide. The notion of a fleeting subjective pole tied to dynamically entwined participants who exert reciprocal influence upon each other in real time provides an insightful way to understand notions of common ground, or socially shared cognition. It suggests that the remarkable capacity to construct a shared world that is so characteristic of Homo sapiens may be grounded in this ability to become dynamically entangled as seen, e.g., in the centrality of joint attention in human interaction. Empirical evidence of dynamic entanglement in joint speaking is found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. A convergent theoretical vocabulary is now available in the concept of participatory sense-making, leading to the development of a rich scientific agenda liberated from a stifling metaphysics that obscures, rather than illuminates, the means by which we come to inhabit a shared world.

  8. Voice, (Inter-Subjectivity, and Real Time Recurrent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred eCummins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Received approaches to a unified phenomenon called language are firmly committed to a Cartesian view of distinct unobservable minds. Questioning this commitment leads us to recognize that the boundaries conventionally separating the linguistic from the non-linguistic can appear arbitrary, omitting much that is regularly present during vocal communication. The thesis is put forward that uttering, or voicing, is a much older phenomenon than the formal structures studied by the linguist, and that the voice has found elaborations and codifications in other domains too, such as in systems of ritual and rite. Voice, it is suggested, necessarily gives rise to a temporally bound subjectivity, whether it is in inner speech (Descartes' cogito, in conversation, or in the synchronized utterances of collective speech found in prayer, protest and sports arenas world wide. The notion of a fleeting subjective pole tied to dynamically entwined participants who exert reciprocal influence upon each other in real time provides an insightful way to understand notions of common ground, or socially shared cognition. It suggests that the remarkable capacity to construct a shared world that is so characteristic of Homo sapiens may be grounded in this ability to become dynamically entangled as seen, e.g., in the centrality of joint attention in human interaction. Empirical evidence of dynamic entanglement in joint speaking is found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. A convergent theoretical vocabulary is now available in the concept of participatory sense-making, leading to the development of a rich scientific agenda liberated from a stifling metaphysics that obscures, rather than illuminates, the means by which we come to inhabit a shared world.

  9. Improving Pilot/ATC Voice Communication in General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    ...) Basic General Aviation Research Simulator (BGARS). Prior to flying the simulator each pilot was provided with familiarization training, listened to and read back ATC messages spoken in either grouped or sequential format...

  10. A Noise Reduction Preprocessor for Mobile Voice Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Martin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a speech enhancement algorithm which leads to significant quality and intelligibility improvements when used as a preprocessor to a low bit rate speech coder. This algorithm was developed in conjunction with the mixed excitation linear prediction (MELP coder which, by itself, is highly susceptible to environmental noise. The paper presents novel as well as known speech and noise estimation techniques and combines them into a highly effective speech enhancement system. The algorithm is based on short-time spectral amplitude estimation, soft-decision gain modification, tracking of the a priori probability of speech absence, and minimum statistics noise power estimation. Special emphasis is placed on enhancing the performance of the preprocessor in nonstationary noise environments.

  11. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  12. Diagnostic value of voice acoustic analysis in assessment of occupational voice pathologies in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Kotylo, Piotr; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at risk of developing occupational dysphonia, which accounts for over 25% of all occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland. The most frequently used method of diagnosing voice diseases is videostroboscopy. However, to facilitate objective evaluation of voice efficiency as well as medical certification of occupational voice disorders, it is crucial to implement quantitative methods of voice assessment, particularly voice acoustic analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the results of acoustic analysis in 66 female teachers (aged 40-64 years), including 35 subjects with occupational voice pathologies (e.g., vocal nodules) and 31 subjects with functional dysphonia. The acoustic analysis was performed using the IRIS software, before and after a 30-minute vocal loading test. All participants were subjected also to laryngological and videostroboscopic examinations. After the vocal effort, the acoustic parameters displayed statistically significant abnormalities, mostly lowered fundamental frequency (Fo) and incorrect values of shimmer and noise to harmonic ratio. To conclude, quantitative voice acoustic analysis using the IRIS software seems to be an effective complement to voice examinations, which is particularly helpful in diagnosing occupational dysphonia.

  13. Analysis of failure of voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torn, M.; van Gogh, C.D.L.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the cause of failing voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis (SPVP). METHODS: The functioning of a prototype SPVP is described in a female laryngectomee before and after its sound-producing mechanism was impeded by tracheal phlegm. This assessment included:

  14. Demonstrating the Value of Near Real-time Satellite-based Earth Observations in a Research and Education Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, L.; Hao, X.; Kinter, J. L.; Stearn, G.; Aliani, M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of GOES-16 series provides an opportunity to advance near real-time applications in natural hazard detection, monitoring and warning. This study demonstrates the capability and values of receiving real-time satellite-based Earth observations over a fast terrestrial networks and processing high-resolution remote sensing data in a university environment. The demonstration system includes 4 components: 1) Near real-time data receiving and processing; 2) data analysis and visualization; 3) event detection and monitoring; and 4) information dissemination. Various tools are developed and integrated to receive and process GRB data in near real-time, produce images and value-added data products, and detect and monitor extreme weather events such as hurricane, fire, flooding, fog, lightning, etc. A web-based application system is developed to disseminate near-real satellite images and data products. The images are generated with GIS-compatible format (GeoTIFF) to enable convenient use and integration in various GIS platforms. This study enhances the capacities for undergraduate and graduate education in Earth system and climate sciences, and related applications to understand the basic principles and technology in real-time applications with remote sensing measurements. It also provides an integrated platform for near real-time monitoring of extreme weather events, which are helpful for various user communities.

  15. A comparision between satellite based and drone based remote sensing technology to achieve sustainable development: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar Bansod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a way to manage the crop yield resources like water, fertilizers, soil, seeds in order to increase production, quality, gain and reduce squander products so that the existing system become eco-friendly. The main target of precision agriculture is to match resources and execution according to the crop and climate to ameliorate the effects of Praxis. Global Positioning System, Geographic Information System, Remote sensing technologies and various sensors are used in Precision farming for identifying the variability in field and using different methods to deal with them. Satellite based remote sensing is used to study the variability in crop and ground but suffer from various disadvantageous such as prohibited use, high price, less revisiting them, poor resolution due to great height, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is other alternative option for application in precision farming. UAV overcomes the drawback of the ground based system, i.e. inaccessibility to muddy and very dense regions. Hovering at a peak of 500 meter - 1000 meter is good enough to offer various advantageous in image acquisition such as high spatial and temporal resolution, full flexibility, low cost. Recent studies of application of UAV in precision farming indicate advanced designing of UAV, enhancement in georeferencing and the mosaicking of image, analysis and extraction of information required for supplying a true end product to farmers. This paper also discusses the various platforms of UAV used in farming applications, its technical constraints, seclusion rites, reliability and safety.

  16. The Effectiveness of Using Limited Gauge Measurements for Bias Adjustment of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimation over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Raied; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Braithwaite, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable for hydrological and climate studies. Rain gauges are capable of providing reliable precipitation measurements at point scale. However, the uncertainty of rain measurements increases when the rain gauge network is sparse. Satellite -based precipitation estimations appear to be an alternative source of precipitation measurements, but they are influenced by systematic bias. In this study, a method for removing the bias from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) over a region where the rain gauge is sparse is investigated. The method consists of monthly empirical quantile mapping, climate classification, and inverse-weighted distance method. Daily PERSIANN-CCS is selected to test the capability of the method for removing the bias over Saudi Arabia during the period of 2010 to 2016. The first six years (2010 - 2015) are calibrated years and 2016 is used for validation. The results show that the yearly correlation coefficient was enhanced by 12%, the yearly mean bias was reduced by 93% during validated year. Root mean square error was reduced by 73% during validated year. The correlation coefficient, the mean bias, and the root mean square error show that the proposed method removes the bias on PERSIANN-CCS effectively that the method can be applied to other regions where the rain gauge network is sparse.

  17. Strategic system development toward biofuel, desertification, and crop production monitoring in continental scales using satellite-based photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2013-10-01

    The author regards fundamental root functions as underpinning photosynthesis activities by vegetation and as affecting environmental issues, grain production, and desertification. This paper describes the present development of monitoring and near real-time forecasting of environmental projects and crop production by approaching established operational monitoring step-by-step. The author has been developing a thematic monitoring structure (named RSEM system) which stands on satellite-based photosynthesis models over several continents for operational supports in environmental fields mentioned above. Validation methods stand not on FLUXNET but on carbon partitioning validation (CPV). The models demand continuing parameterization. The entire frame system has been built using Reanalysis meteorological data, but model accuracy remains insufficient except for that of paddy rice. The author shall accomplish the system that incorporates global environmental forces. Regarding crop production applications, industrialization in developing countries achieved through direct investment by economically developed nations raises their income, resulting in increased food demand. Last year, China began to import rice as it had in the past with grains of maize, wheat, and soybeans. Important agro-potential countries make efforts to cultivate new crop lands in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Trends toward less food sustainability and stability are continuing, with exacerbation by rapid social and climate changes. Operational monitoring of carbon sequestration by herbaceous and bore plants converges with efforts at bio-energy, crop production monitoring, and socio-environmental projects such as CDM A/R, combating desertification, and bio-diversity.

  18. Shaping the Future of Learning Using the Student Voice: We're Listening but Are We Hearing Clearly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Chris; Soper, Kate; Cullen, Rod; Wasiuk, Catherine; McAllister-Gibson, Colin; Danby, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Student voice data is a key factor as Manchester Metropolitan University strives to continually improve institutional technology enhanced learning (TEL) infrastructure. A bi-annual Institutional Student Survey enables students to communicate their experience of learning, teaching and assessment on programmes and specific units studied. Each cycle…

  19. Making social media work: finding a library voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda Chatten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The social media team at the University of Liverpool Library runs a popular verified Twitter account with over 9,000 followers and is enthusiastically involved in a variety of social media platforms. Since starting a period of sustained improvement, our use of social media has progressed from being a passive channel used to broadcast news and service changes to being an active method of communication in a digital space our users already inhabit. Working collaboratively, the social media team has established a cohesive and clear library voice with a consistent style and tone. This article looks at the development of the library voice with a particular focus on the use of creative, interactive and fun methods to cultivate the library personality. It also covers some of the challenges associated with this type of relaxed and experimental approach to social media and gives examples of special events used to engage and interact with students. 'Based on a lightning talk and poster session presented at the 40th UKSG Annual Conference, Harrogate, April 2017 '

  20. The Voice of Anger: Oscillatory EEG Responses to Emotional Prosody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Del Giudice

    Full Text Available Emotionally relevant stimuli and in particular anger are, due to their evolutionary relevance, often processed automatically and able to modulate attention independent of conscious access. Here, we tested whether attention allocation is enhanced when auditory stimuli are uttered by an angry voice. We recorded EEG and presented healthy individuals with a passive condition where unfamiliar names as well as the subject's own name were spoken both with an angry and neutral prosody. The active condition instead, required participants to actively count one of the presented (angry names. Results revealed that in the passive condition the angry prosody only elicited slightly stronger delta synchronization as compared to a neutral voice. In the active condition the attended (angry target was related to enhanced delta/theta synchronization as well as alpha desynchronization suggesting enhanced allocation of attention and utilization of working memory resources. Altogether, the current results are in line with previous findings and highlight that attention orientation can be systematically related to specific oscillatory brain responses. Potential applications include assessment of non-communicative clinical groups such as post-comatose patients.

  1. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kriegstein

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  2. Group climate in the voice therapy of patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaféria, Giovana; Madazio, Glaucya; Pacheco, Claudia; Takaki, Patricia Barbarini; Behlau, Mara

    2017-09-04

    To verify the impact that group dynamics and coaching strategies have on the PD patients voice, speech and communication, as well as the group climate. 16 individuals with mild to moderate dysarthria due to the PD were divided into two groups: the CG (8 patients), submitted to traditional therapy with 12 regular therapy sessions plus 4 additional support sessions; and the EG (8 patients), submitted to traditional therapy with 12 regular therapy sessions plus 4 sessions with group dynamics and coaching strategies. The Living with Dysarthria questionnaire (LwD), the self-evaluation of voice, speech and communication, and the perceptual-auditory analysis of the vocal quality were assess in 3 moments: pre-traditional therapy (pre); post-traditional therapy (post 1); and post support sessions/coaching strategies (post 2); in post 1 and post 2 moments, the Group Climate Questionnaire (GCQ) was also applied. CG and EG showed an improvement in the LwD from pre to post 1 and post 2 moments. Voice self-evaluation was better for the EG - when pre was compared with post 2 and when post 1 was compared with post 2 - ranging from regular to very good; both groups presented improvement in the communication self-evaluation. The perceptual-auditory evaluation of the vocal quality was better for the EG in the post 1 moment. No difference was found for the GCQ; however, the EG presented lower avoidance scores in post 2. All patients showed improvement in the voice, speech and communication self-evaluation; EG showed lower avoidance scores, creating a more collaborative and propitious environment for speech therapy.

  3. Similar representations of emotions across faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Lisa Katharina; Wydell, Taeko; Lavan, Nadine; McGettigan, Carolyn; Garrido, Lúcia

    2017-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 17(6) of Emotion (see record 2017-18585-001). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is below. All versions of this article have been corrected. "This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s). Author(s) grant(s) the American Psychological Association the exclusive right to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher."] Emotions are a vital component of social communication, carried across a range of modalities and via different perceptual signals such as specific muscle contractions in the face and in the upper respiratory system. Previous studies have found that emotion recognition impairments after brain damage depend on the modality of presentation: recognition from faces may be impaired whereas recognition from voices remains preserved, and vice versa. On the other hand, there is also evidence for shared neural activation during emotion processing in both modalities. In a behavioral study, we investigated whether there are shared representations in the recognition of emotions from faces and voices. We used a within-subjects design in which participants rated the intensity of facial expressions and nonverbal vocalizations for each of the 6 basic emotion labels. For each participant and each modality, we then computed a representation matrix with the intensity ratings of each emotion. These matrices allowed us to examine the patterns of confusions between emotions and to characterize the representations

  4. Underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Lynch, Charles J; Cheng, Katherine M; Phillips, Jennifer; Supekar, Kaustubh; Ryali, Srikanth; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2013-07-16

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often show insensitivity to the human voice, a deficit that is thought to play a key role in communication deficits in this population. The social motivation theory of ASD predicts that impaired function of reward and emotional systems impedes children with ASD from actively engaging with speech. Here we explore this theory by investigating distributed brain systems underlying human voice perception in children with ASD. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 20 children with ASD and 19 age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of voice-selective bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Children with ASD showed a striking pattern of underconnectivity between left-hemisphere pSTS and distributed nodes of the dopaminergic reward pathway, including bilateral ventral tegmental areas and nucleus accumbens, left-hemisphere insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Children with ASD also showed underconnectivity between right-hemisphere pSTS, a region known for processing speech prosody, and the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, brain regions critical for emotion-related associative learning. The degree of underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward pathways predicted symptom severity for communication deficits in children with ASD. Our results suggest that weak connectivity of voice-selective cortex and brain structures involved in reward and emotion may impair the ability of children with ASD to experience speech as a pleasurable stimulus, thereby impacting language and social skill development in this population. Our study provides support for the social motivation theory of ASD.

  5. Contemporary management of voice and swallowing disorders in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Grainne C; Carding, Paul N; Bhosle, Jaishree; Roe, Justin W G

    2015-06-01

    Advanced lung cancer can cause changes to swallowing and communication function. Direct tumour invasion, dyspnoea and deconditioning can all impact on swallowing function and communication. Cancer treatment, if administered, may cause or compound symptoms. In this study, the nature of swallowing and communication difficulties in patients with advanced lung cancer will be discussed, and management options including medical management, speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention, and surgical interventions will be considered. Advanced lung cancer can result in voice and swallowing difficulties, which can increase symptom burden and significantly impact on quality of life (QOL). There is a growing evidence base to support the use of injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthetic to offer immediate improvement in voice, swallowing and overall QOL. There is limited literature on the nature and extent of voice and swallowing impairment in patients with lung cancer. Well designed studies with robust and sensitive multidimensional dysphagia and dysphonia assessments are required. Outcome studies examining interventions with clearly defined treatment goals are required. These studies should include both functional and patient-reported outcome measures to develop the evidence base and to ensure that interventions are both timely and appropriate.

  6. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  7. Probing echoic memory with different voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, D J; Bastian, J

    1977-05-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disruptive effect on memory which persists longer than that of other acoustical variables. The present experiment examined the effect of voice changes on response bias as well as on accuracy in a recognition memory task. The task involved judging recognition probes as being present in or absent from sets of dichotically presented digits. Recognition of probes spoken in the same voice as that of the dichotic items was more accurate than recognition of different-voice probes at each of three retention intervals of up to 4 sec. Different-voice probes increased the likelihood of "absent" responses, but only up to a 1.4-sec delay. These shifts in response bias may represent a property of echoic memory which should be investigated further.

  8. LMSS - From low data rate to voice services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogard, R.

    1992-03-01

    An overview of ESA's approach towards the introduction of Land Mobile Communications in Europe is presented. Emphasis is placed on a description of the payload called EMS to be launched on a host satellite, the Italsat-F2 spacecraft, and the definition of services which are most appropriate for a first-generation-operating Land Mobile Satellite System, namely, PRODAT, a message-handling system, and Europhone, an original approach to 'voice' systems. Attention is given to the EMS payload, characteristics, and capacity, the IF processor and channelization, and market considerations. It is shown that the optimization of the satellite characteristics and the mix of services to be provided are the key elements of a successful entry into the market.

  9. Speakers’ comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: Laboratory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    from 0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to 0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as 1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms......, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak...

  10. A voice in decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The chapter focuses on children's life in society, which explicit articulates the child's rights and first of all sees the child as an active and valid member of the society, a democratic, communicating and participating person. In short the child is seen as a competent person, who is able to take...

  11. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Approaches for Monthly Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Downscaling over Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangxiaoyue Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous satellite-based soil moisture (SM products can provide spatiotemporally continuous worldwide datasets, they can hardly be employed in characterizing fine-grained regional land surface processes, owing to their coarse spatial resolution. In this study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to enhance SM spatial accuracy and improve the availability of SM data. Four machine learning algorithms, including classification and regression trees (CART, K-nearest neighbors (KNN, Bayesian (BAYE, and random forests (RF, were implemented to downscale the monthly European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI SM product from 25-km to 1-km spatial resolution. During the regression, the land surface temperature (including daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and diurnal fluctuation temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, surface reflections (red band, blue band, NIR band and MIR band, and digital elevation model were taken as explanatory variables to produce fine spatial resolution SM. We chose Northeast China as the study area and acquired corresponding SM data from 2003 to 2012 in unfrozen seasons. The reconstructed SM datasets were validated against in-situ measurements. The results showed that the RF-downscaled results had superior matching performance to both ESA CCI SM and in-situ measurements, and can positively respond to precipitation variation. Additionally, the RF was less affected by parameters, which revealed its robustness. Both CART and KNN ranked second. Compared to KNN, CART had a relatively close correlation with the validation data, but KNN showed preferable precision. Moreover, BAYE ranked last with significantly abnormal regression values.

  12. A New Temperature-Vegetation Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE for Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of spatially-variable actual evapotranspiration (AET is a critical challenge to regional water resources management. We propose a new remote sensing method, the Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE, to generate daily AET estimates based on satellite-derived land surface temperature and the vegetation index NDVI. The TAVE captures heterogeneity in AET across elevation zones and permits variability in determining local values of wet and dry end-member classes (known as edges. Compared to traditional triangle methods, TAVE introduces three unique features: (i the discretization of the domain as overlapping elevation zones; (ii a variable wet edge that is a function of elevation zone; and (iii variable values of a combined-effect parameter (that accounts for aerodynamic and surface resistance, vapor pressure gradient, and soil moisture availability along both wet and dry edges. With these features, TAVE effectively addresses the combined influence of terrain and water stress on semi-arid environment AET estimates. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in one of the driest countries in the world—Jordan, and compare it to a traditional triangle method (TA and a global AET product (MOD16 over different land use types. In irrigated agricultural lands, TAVE matched the results of the single crop coefficient model (−3%, in contrast to substantial overestimation by TA (+234% and underestimation by MOD16 (−50%. In forested (non-irrigated, water consuming regions, TA and MOD16 produced AET average deviations 15.5 times and −3.5 times of those based on TAVE. As TAVE has a simple structure and low data requirements, it provides an efficient means to satisfy the increasing need for evapotranspiration estimation in data-scarce semi-arid regions. This study constitutes a much needed step towards the satellite-based quantification of agricultural water consumption in Jordan.

  13. Hydrological real-time modelling in the Zambezi river basin using satellite-based soil moisture and rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable real-time forecasts of the discharge can provide valuable information for the management of a river basin system. For the management of ecological releases even discharge forecasts with moderate accuracy can be beneficial. Sequential data assimilation using the Ensemble Kalman Filter provides a tool that is both efficient and robust for a real-time modelling framework. One key parameter in a hydrological system is the soil moisture, which recently can be characterized by satellite based measurements. A forecasting framework for the prediction of discharges is developed and applied to three different sub-basins of the Zambezi River Basin. The model is solely based on remote sensing data providing soil moisture and rainfall estimates. The soil moisture product used is based on the back-scattering intensity of a radar signal measured by a radar scatterometer. These soil moisture data correlate well with the measured discharge of the corresponding watershed if the data are shifted by a time lag which is dependent on the size and the dominant runoff process in the catchment. This time lag is the basis for the applicability of the soil moisture data for hydrological forecasts. The conceptual model developed is based on two storage compartments. The processes modeled include evaporation losses, infiltration and percolation. The application of this model in a real-time modelling framework yields good results in watersheds where soil storage is an important factor. The lead time of the forecast is dependent on the size and the retention capacity of the watershed. For the largest watershed a forecast over 40 days can be provided. However, the quality of the forecast increases significantly with decreasing prediction time. In a watershed with little soil storage and a quick response to rainfall events, the performance is relatively poor and the lead time is as short as 10 days only.

  14. Team Training through Communications Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    training * operational environment * team training research issues * training approach * team communications * models of operator beharior e...on the market soon, it certainly would be investigated carefully for its applicability to the team training problem. ce A text-to-speech voice...generation system. Votrax has recently marketed such a device, and others may soon follow suit. ’ d. A speech replay system designed to produce speech from

  15. Teachers’ voice use in teaching environment. Aspects on speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    use and prevalence of voice problems in teachers and to explore their ratings of vocally loading aspects of their working environment. Method: A questionnaire-survey in 467 teachers aiming to explore the prevalence of voice problems in teaching staff identified teachers with voice problems and vocally...... in the teaching environment and aspects of the classroom environment were also measured. Results: Teachers with voice problems were more affected by any loading factor in the work-environment and were more perceptive of the room acoustics. Differences between the groups were found during field......-measurements of the voice, while there were no differences in the findings from the clinical examinations of larynx and voice. Conclusion: Teachers suffering from voice problems react stronger to loading factors in the teaching environment. It is in the interplay between the individual and the work environment that voice...

  16. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  17. Voice-activated intelligent radiologic image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice

  18. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  19. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  20. A Voice Processing Technology for Rural Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen

    Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.

  1. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...

  2. Influence of Smartphones and Software on Acoustic Voice Measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth U. Grillo; Jenna N. Brosious; Staci L. Sorrell; Supraja Anand

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the within-subject variability of voice measures captured using different recording devices (i.e., smartphones and head mounted microphone) and software programs (i.e., Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV), Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), and Praat).  Correlations between the software programs that calculated the voice measures were also analyzed.  Results demonstrated no significant within-subject variability across devices and software and that some o...

  3. Communication through Performance: Hausa Performance Art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human voice is a natural instrument with a natural capability. Thus, speech with the aid of performance and music has been combined since earliest times to communicate valuable insights into human nature and universal themes of life. Such themes include life, death, good and evil. This paper examined performance ...

  4. Your Baby's Hearing and Communicative Development Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YES NO Has one or two words (“Hi,” “dog,” “Dada,” or “Mama”) by first birthday YES NO ... information, contact us at: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: ( ...

  5. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  6. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  7. The Influence of Sleep Disorders on Voice Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara

    2017-09-19

    To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Singers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R.; Ravi, Rohit; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Singers are vocal athletes having specific demands from their voice and require special consideration during voice evaluation. Presently, there is a lack of standards for acoustic evaluation in them. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on the acoustic analysis of voice in singers. Method: A…

  9. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  10. The Voice Pump: an Affectively Engaging Interface for Changing Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Jacobsen, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results from an ongoing interaction design experiment, the Voice Pump. The Voice Pump is an affectively engaging air-based interface for attuning to the differential qualities of voices in order to change attachments between native Danish speakers and non-native...

  11. Fancy Walkie Talkies, Star Trek Communicators or Roving Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the customer service and library staff benefits of using Vocera badges (www.vocera.com), a portable wireless technology (WiFi), to facilitate roving reference service. Use of portable voice communication devices allows help to be taken to the people and away from service desks. These communication technologies allow library…

  12. Revisiting Jürgen Habermas's notion of communicative action and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, I suggest that, through the Habermassian notion of communicative action, school governing body stakeholders will be f ree to exchange ideas, and that they will not only voice opinions, but also listen, because through the act of engaging and listening (communicative action) participants can be persuaded and their ...

  13. Effects of Peer Assisted Communication Application Training on the Communicative and Social Behaviors of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberger, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal children with autism are candidates for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). One type of AAC device is a voice output communication aid (VOCA). The primary drawbacks of past VOCAs were their expense and portability. Newer iPod-based VOCAs alleviate these concerns. This dissertation sought to extend the iPod-based VOCA…

  14. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  15. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  16. State Patrol Mobile Data Communications Network : phase 2, final report and local evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-12

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has implemented a statewide digital microwave backbone infrastructure that is used to transport communications voice and data information for 161 public safety agencies throughout the State of Wisco...

  17. State Patrol Mobile Data Communications Network : final report and local evaluation, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-07

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has implemented a statewide digital microwave backbone infrastructure that is used to transport communications voice and data information for 172 public safety agencies throughout the State of Wisco...

  18. State Patrol Mobile Data Communications Network : final report and local evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-14

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has implemented a statewide digital microwave backbone infrastructure that is used to transport communications voice and data information for 161 public safety agencies throughout the State of Wisco...

  19. State patrol mobile data communications network : final report and local evaluation, phase 3, report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-02

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has implemented a statewide digital microwave backbone infrastructure that is used to transport communications voice and data information for 161 public safety agencies throughout the State of Wisco...

  20. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  1. Epidemiology of Voice Disorders in Latvian School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinite, Baiba

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers. Two teachers groups were formed: the voice disorders group which included 235 teachers with actual voice problems or problems during the last 9 months; and the control group which included 174 teachers without voice disorders. Sixty-six percent of teachers gave a positive answer to the following question: Have you ever had problems with your voice? Voice problems are more often found in female than male teachers (68.2% vs 48.8%). Music teachers suffer from voice disorders more often than teachers of other subjects. Eighty-two percent of teachers first faced voice problems in their professional carrier. The odds of voice disorders increase if the following risk factors exist: extra vocal load, shouting, throat clearing, neglecting of personal health, background noise, chronic illnesses of the upper respiratory tract, allergy, job dissatisfaction, and regular stress in the working place. The study findings indicated a high risk of voice disorders among Latvian teachers. The study confirmed data concerning the multifactorial etiology of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE METAPHOR OF “VOICE” IN COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA GRĂDINARU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper stresses some significant ways in which the voice appears in the new media studies. Whether as a dominant metaphor in the early stages of computer-mediated communication, whether in opposition with silence or listening, whether as an important component of the participatory culture, the voice remains a key concept and a helpful lens trough which the communicative, social, and cultural parts of the digital era are illuminated. In these processes, the “digital” voice is conceived as a powerful tool that can be easily heard and disseminated, in spite of the obvious limitation of its strengths or of its access. Thus, the rethinking of voice in contemporary frame brings at surface the issues of politics of voice and also ethical challenges.

  3. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  4. Satellite-Based Evaluation of the Post-Fire Recovery Process from the Worst Forest Fire Case in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Ryu

    2018-06-01

    different, using only one satellite-based indicator will not be suitable to understand the post-fire recovery process. NBR, NDVI, and GPP can be combined. Further studies will require more approaches using various terms of indices.

  5. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  6. Engaging retailers: giving them voice or controlling their voice, a supplier's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Keith; Jackson, Jacqui; Hopkinson, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    This full paper from the Marketing and Retail track of BAM 2013 investigates the relationships between suppliers and retailers in the UK convenience store sector in terms of Hirschman's model whereby members of a group can influence it by either expressing their opinions (voice) or leaving it in protest (exit). Suppliers may create loyalty among retailers by raising exit costs and/or allowing them to express their voices. The investigation was carried out using the recorded turnover of the to...

  7. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  8. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  9. Student Voice Initiative: Exploring Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Blaine G.

    2017-01-01

    Student voice is the process of allowing students to work collaboratively with adults to produce a learning culture that is conducive for optimum growth in every student. In a traditional setting, the adults make the decisions and the students are passive observers in the learning process. Data has shown that this traditional culture is not…

  10. Developing Student Voices on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    1997-01-01

    Books and online discussion groups encourage youth to develop strong narrative voices. Includes an annotated bibliography of books and Internet sites dealing with discovering the self and others; exploring race, culture, archeology, technology, war, poverty, gender and urban problems; creating and critiquing stories; and publishing industry…

  11. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  12. Web life: Voices of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Voices of the Manhattan Project was launched in October 2012 with the aim of preserving the memories and experiences of scientists and other workers who participated in the US-led effort to build an atomic bomb during the Second World War.

  13. Ventriloquising the Voice: Writing in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…

  14. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran R.; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S.; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia. PMID:25349193

  15. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  16. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  17. Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own: a 'rubber voice' illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane Z Zheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  18. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Reproducibility of Automated Voice Range Profiles, a Systematic Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following......Objective: Reliable voice range profiles are of great importance when measuring effects and side effects from surgery affecting voice capacity. Automated recording systems are increasingly used, but the reproducibility of results is uncertain. Our objective was to identify and review the existing...... keywords were used: phonetogram, voice range profile, and acoustic voice analysis. Inclusion criteria were automated recording procedure, healthy voices, and no intervention between test and retest. Test-retest values concerning fundamental frequency and voice intensity were reviewed. Results: Of 483...